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1.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 14(11)2024 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38893621

RESUMO

Kounis Syndrome (KS) is a clinical entity triggered by allergic or hypersensitivity reactions capable of inducing acute coronary events. Several causes can induce KS, including drugs and insect stings. Here, a rare case of post mortem assessment of fatal KS related to fluorescein retinal angiography has been reported. An 80-year-old man in follow-up for a retinal vein thrombosis underwent a retinal fluoroangiography. Approximately 30 min later, the patient complained of sweating and dizziness, and suddenly lost consciousness due to a cardiac arrest. Despite the immediate cardiopulmonary resuscitation, he died. The autopsy revealed foamy yellowish edema in the respiratory tract and coronary atherosclerosis with eccentric plaques partially obstructing the lumen. The routine histology highlighted lung emphysema and myocyte break-up with foci of contraction band necrosis at the myocardial tissue. Biochemistry showed increased serum tryptase, troponin, and p-BNP. Activated and degranulated (tryptase) mast cells were detected, using immunohistochemistry, in the larynx, lungs, spleen, and heart. Acute myocardial ischemia due to allergic coronary vasospasm related to fluorescein hypersensitivity has been assessed as cause of death. KS-related deaths are considered rare events, and the post mortem assessment of KS quite difficult. The integration of several investigations (gross and microscopic examination, biochemistry, immunohistochemistry) can provide useful findings to support the diagnosis, helping to reduce the unrecognized cases as much as possible.

3.
EJHaem ; 5(3): 603-606, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38895058

RESUMO

Anaphylactic reactions at the time of chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cell infusion are adverse events that have not been reported in pivotal clinical trials or in real-world series. We report the case of patient with severe anaphylaxis with cardiac arrest after tisagenlecleucel injection for Diffuse Large B cell Lymphoma, who recovered after resuscitation and intensive care treatment; we also conducted a Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System database analysis and found several cases of severe anaphlyaxis after CAR-T cell injection. Although not reported in pivotal CAR-T cell studies, anaphylaxis can occur after CAR-T cell injection, highlighting the need to include anaphylaxis as a possible side effect in future studies.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38876271

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Food allergies, particularly peanut, represent the predominant cause of anaphylaxis. While early allergen introduction has emerged as a potential preventive strategy, the precise impact of recent guidelines on peanut-induced anaphylaxis rates in Canada remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of the 2017 Addendum Guidelines for the Prevention of Peanut Allergy on peanut-induced anaphylaxis rates in Canada. METHODS: Using a comprehensive longitudinal registry capturing pediatric anaphylaxis presentations to the Montreal's Children's Hospital, we compared children with and without known peanut allergy who presented with peanut-induced anaphylaxis between 2011 and 2019 inclusive, excluding data beyond 2019 due to the COVID-19 pandemic. We calculated rates of peanut-induced anaphylaxis presentations per 100,000 age-adjusted all-cause Emergency Department visits using 4-month intervals. Interrupted time series analysis was used to compare anaphylaxis rate trends before and after 2017 for children ages 0-2 and 3-17 years. RESULTS: We examined n = 2011 cases of pediatric anaphylaxis, including 429 (21%) triggered by peanuts. Compared to pre-guideline estimates, the yearly rate of change of peanut anaphylaxis rates decreased by 7.96 (95% CI -14.57 to -1.36, p = 0.018) after 2017 amongst patients with new onset anaphylaxis in children 2 years of age or younger (n = 109). No significant changes were identified for older patients ages 3-17, or in patients with known peanut allergy. CONCLUSION: Early introduction guidelines in Canada are associated with a reduced risk of new-onset peanut-induced anaphylaxis in young children within a single centre in Montreal. Further research is required to assess the impact on a wider population and other food allergens.

6.
Int Arch Allergy Immunol ; : 1-8, 2024 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38865980

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite the increasing prevalence of fruit and vegetable allergies in childhood over the past decades, the clinical course of reaction types and tolerance remain unclear. Our aim was to evaluate the clinical course, demographic characteristics, and tolerance rate of allergic reactions induced by fruits or vegetables. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, descriptive, cross-sectional study on patients who presented with suspected allergic reactions to fruit or vegetables. We used patient records to identify demographic data, skin prick test, prick-to-prick test, and oral food challenge test results and laboratory findings. RESULTS: The study included 78 children with a median age of 61.5 months. Class 1 and 2 allergies were found in 65 and 13 cases, respectively. The most common allergens were potato (21.8%), banana (15.4%), peach (14.1%), and tomato (12.8%). Clinical symptoms included urticaria (75.6%), oral allergy syndrome (15.4%), angioedema (7.7%), and anaphylaxis (1.3%). Thirteen children achieved tolerance, while 61.7% did not. The median time to tolerance was 13.5 months after diagnosis, with a minimum of 9 months. Significant differences in reaction type, clinical presentation, pan-allergy to aeroallergens, and serum total IgE levels were found between the tolerant and non-tolerant groups (p = 0.006, 0.009, 0.005, and 0.001, respectively). CONCLUSION: This is the first study to provide guidance on the tolerance rate and resolution time of fruit and vegetable allergies based on demographic and diagnostic parameters. Further research is needed to deepen our understanding of fruit and vegetable allergy.

7.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 2024 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38866583

RESUMO

In this review, we compare different refractory anaphylaxis (RA) management guidelines focusing on cardiovascular involvement and best practice recommendations, discuss postulated pathogenic mechanisms underlining RA and highlight knowledge gaps and research priorities. There is a paucity of data supporting existing management guidelines. Therapeutic recommendations include the need for the timely administration of appropriate doses of aggressive fluid resuscitation and intravenous (IV) adrenaline in RA. The preferred second-line vasopressor (noradrenaline, vasopressin, metaraminol and dopamine) is unknown. Most guidelines recommend IV glucagon for patients on beta-blockers, despite a lack of evidence. The use of methylene blue or extracorporeal life support (ECLS) is also suggested as rescue therapy. Despite recent advances in understanding the pathogenesis of anaphylaxis, the factors that lead to a lack of response to the initial adrenaline and thus RA are unclear. Genetic factors, such as deficiency in platelet activating factor-acetyl hydrolase or hereditary alpha-tryptasaemia, mastocytosis may modulate reaction severity or response to treatment. Further research into the underlying pathophysiology of RA may help define potential new therapeutic approaches and reduce the morbidity and mortality of anaphylaxis.

8.
Paediatr Anaesth ; 2024 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38864305

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Perioperative hypersensitivity and allergic reactions can result in significant morbidity and mortality. For routine anesthetic care, allergies are determined from a review of the electronic medical record supplemented by a detailed patient history. Although the electronic medical record is generally assumed to be accurate, it may be that allergies are erroneously listed or not based on sound medical practice. The purpose of the current study is to evaluate allergies listed in the electronic medical record of children presenting for surgery and determine their origin, authenticity, and impact on perioperative care. METHODS: Eligible patients included those presenting for a surgical procedure in the main operating room, who were ≤ 21 years of age, with a drug allergy listed on the EMR. Prior to intraoperative care, an electronic survey questionnaire containing questions related to medication allergies was provided to a guardian or parent. Two anesthesiology physicians reviewed the survey responses to determine the validity of any reported allergies. A second electronic survey was given postoperatively to the attending anesthesiologist to determine whether the documented allergy impacted anesthetic care. RESULTS: The study cohort included 250 patients, ranging in age from 5 to 14 years (median age 9 years). All of the patients had at least one allergy listed on the electronic medical record. Seventy of the 250 patients (28%) had more than one drug allergy listed for a total of 351 medication allergies. The majority of the listed allergies were related to antibiotics including 155 (44%) from the penicillin family, 26 (7%) cephalosporins, 16 (5%) sulfonamides, and 36 (10%) other antimicrobial agents. Other commonly listed allergies were 27 (8%) nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents and 15 (4%) opioids. The remaining 76 (22%) included a miscellaneous list of other medications. On further review of the allergies, the survey was completed for 301 medications. After physician review, 135 of 301 (45%) responses were considered consistent with IgE reactions "true allergy," 73 (24%) were deemed less relevant to IgE reactions "unlikely true allergy," and 93 (31%) were not related to IgE reactions "not an allergy." Care alterations during surgery were uncommon regardless of whether the issue was assessed as a true allergy (11%), unlikely to be a true allergy (3%), or not a true allergy (13%). CONCLUSION: A significant portion of the documented allergies in children are not true allergies, but rather recognized adverse effects (apnea from an opioid, renal failure from an NSAIDs) or other nonallergic concerns (gastrointestinal upset such as nausea). Erroneously listed allergies may lead to unnecessary alterations in patient care during perioperative care. A careful analysis of the allergy list on the EMR should be supplemented by a thorough patient history with specific questions related to the drug allergy. Once this is accomplished, the allergy listed should be updated to avoid its erroneous impact on perioperative care.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38864768

RESUMO

Background: Povidone, a synthetic polymer commonly used in various products such as antiseptics, cosmetics, and medications, has been associated with allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis. Despite its widespread use, cases of povidone-induced anaphylaxis, especially in children, are under-recognized. This case report aims to highlight the importance of considering povidone allergy in pediatric patients presenting with anaphylaxis. Case Presentation: We describe a 3-year-old boy who experienced anaphylaxis following the application of povidone-iodine antiseptic solution to a leg wound. He presented with generalized urticaria, angioedema, dyspnea, and cough. Prompt diagnosis and management were initiated in the emergency department. He experienced the second anaphylaxis with povidone-containing eye drops prescribed during an ophthalmology visit. Conclusions: Povidone allergy should be considered in pediatric patients presenting with anaphylaxis, especially those with idiopathic reactions or multiple drug allergies. Clinicians should emphasize patient education on label reading and the provision of adrenaline autoinjectors to prevent life-threatening reactions associated with povidone exposure.

10.
Arch Pediatr ; 2024 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38853084

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of the study was to assess the impact of a video training program (VTP) on primary school teachers' skills in using an adrenaline auto-injector (AAI), in correlation with knowledge regarding allergies, in cases of anaphylaxis. METHODS: A questionnaire on teachers' knowledge of allergies and on their level of confidence in using an AAI was distributed in primary schools in the French department of Manche (2173 teachers). A VTP followed this questionnaire. A second questionnaire was then distributed. Theoretical knowledge was assessed with a score out of 20. The confidence level was rated on a scale from 1 to 4. RESULTS: We collected 218 responses to the first questionnaire (10.0 % of the population included). The response rate to the second questionnaire was 4.7 % (103 participants), and from this group, 93 of the 103 participants viewed the video (90.3 %). Overall, 76 of the 218 (34.9 %) participants who completed the first questionnaire also completed the second questionnaire and watched the VTP. The number of participants who completed the whole survey was 76 (out of 2173, 3.5 %). The VTP significantly improved teachers' knowledge of the subject of allergies (the average score increased by 2.11 points, p < 0.001) as well as their confidence in recognizing the signs of a severe allergic reaction and in using an AAI: 85.4 % (n = 88) of self-confident teachers after the VTP versus 42.3 % (n = 92) before the VTP (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The VTP improved teachers' level of knowledge and confidence in using an AAI in cases of anaphylaxis. A similar VTP could be circulated more widely in schools to offer easy access to training tools about allergies.

11.
Med Leg J ; : 258172241241463, 2024 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38872238

RESUMO

Incidences of multiple bee stings have been increasing globally; the substantial amount of bee venom injected in such incidents can result in anaphylactic shock, rhabdomyolysis and renal failure, proving fatal in some cases. While anaphylactic reactions are more common and have established treatment protocols, inflammatory response induced by the venom demands a tailored approach. Here we report a case of a 70-year-old male in India who succumbed from approximately 500 bee stings. Based on our literature review, this case stands out as one of the first reported fatalities caused by 500 bee stings in our country. The unidentified species of bees in this case makes management of such bee venom-related toxic reactions more difficult. This report emphasises the importance of prompt and appropriate interventions.

12.
Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol ; 20(1): 35, 2024 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38822425

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anaphylaxis is the most severe form of acute systemic and potentially life-threatening reactions triggered by mast and basophilic cells. Recent studies show a worldwide incidence between 50 and 112 occurrences per 100,000 person-years. The most identified triggers are food, medications, and insect venoms. We aimed to analyze triggers and clinical symptoms of patients presenting to a Swiss university emergency department for adults. METHODS: Six-year retrospective analysis (01/2013 to 12/2018) of all patients (> 16 years of age) admitted with moderate or severe anaphylaxis (classification of Ring and Messmer ≥ 2) to the emergency department. Patient and clinical data were extracted from the electronic medical database of the emergency department. RESULTS: Of the 531 includes patients, 53.3% were female, the median age was 38 [IQR 26-51] years. The most common suspected triggers were medications (31.8%), food (25.6%), and insect stings (17.1%). Organ manifestations varied among the different suspected triggers: for medications, 90.5% of the patients had skin symptoms, followed by respiratory (62.7%), cardiovascular (44.4%) and gastrointestinal symptoms (33.7%); for food, gastrointestinal symptoms (39.7%) were more frequent than cardiovascular symptoms (36.8%) and for insect stings cardiovascular symptoms were apparent in 63.8% of the cases. CONCLUSIONS: Average annual incidence of moderate to severe anaphylaxis during the 6-year period in subjects > 16 years of age was 10.67 per 100,000 inhabitants. Medications (antibiotics, NSAID and radiocontrast agents) were the most frequently suspected triggers. Anaphylaxis due to insect stings was more frequently than in other studies. Regarding clinical symptoms, gastrointestinal symptoms need to be better considered, especially that initial treatment with epinephrine is not delayed.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38878862

RESUMO

Evaluation and management of insect sting allergy is often not straightforward when there is uncertainty about the history of reaction, the significance of test results, and the risk of severe reaction to future stings. Patients encounter misinformation about the chance of reaction, and may have strong beliefs about their need for treatment. Shared decision-making encourages the clinician to listen to the patient's concerns and beliefs, share relevant information and evidence, and partner with the patient to incorporate their values and preferences. This review discusses some of the major decision points in diagnosis and treatment of insect allergic patients, with attention to the potential burdens or harms that are important to the patient, and factors that relate to the patient's values and preferences concerning the choices they must make. This is especially true in patients with no history of moderate-to-severe sting anaphylaxis in whom the risk may be overestimated, but can also be important in patients who underestimate the risk associated with severe sting anaphylaxis. Clinicians should become more knowledgeable about patient-important beliefs and outcomes, and should engage in shared decision-making to help patients understand and be comfortable with the choices they must make.

14.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 24(1): 204, 2024 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38851690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Remimazolam is a recently developed, ultrashort-acting benzodiazepine that is used as a general anesthetic. Some cases of remimazolam anaphylaxis have been reported, but its characteristics are not fully understood. We present an interesting case report and review of the literature to better understand remimazolam anaphylaxis. CASE PRESENTATION: A 75-year-old man scheduled for robot-assisted gastrectomy was administered remimazolam for the induction of general anesthesia. After intubation, low end-expiratory CO2, high airway pressure and concurrent circulatory collapse were observed. Bronchoscopy revealed marked tracheal and bronchial edema, which we diagnosed as anaphylaxis. The patient suffered cardiac arrest after bronchoscopy but recovered immediately with intravenous adrenaline administration and chest compressions. We performed skin prick tests for the drugs used during induction except for remimazolam, considering the high risk of systemic adverse reactions to remimazolam. We diagnosed remimazolam anaphylaxis because the skin prick test results for the other drugs used during anesthesia were negative, and these drugs could have been used without allergic reactions during the subsequent surgery. Furthermore, this patient had experienced severe anaphylactic-like reactions when he underwent cardiac surgery a year earlier, in which midazolam had been used, but it was not thought to be the allergen at that time. Based on these findings, cross-reactivity to remimazolam and midazolam was suspected. However, the patient had previously received another benzodiazepine, brotizolam, to which he was not allergic, suggesting that cross-reactivity of remimazolam may vary among benzodiazepines. In this article, we reviewed the 11 cases of remimazolam anaphylaxis that have been described in the literature. CONCLUSIONS: Remimazolam is an ultrashort-acting sedative; however, it can cause life-threatening anaphylaxis. In addition, its cross-reactivity with other benzodiazepines is not fully understood. To increase the safety of this drug, further research and more experience in its use are needed.


Assuntos
Anafilaxia , Benzodiazepinas , Hipnóticos e Sedativos , Humanos , Masculino , Idoso , Anafilaxia/induzido quimicamente , Benzodiazepinas/efeitos adversos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/efeitos adversos , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/diagnóstico , Testes Cutâneos/métodos , Anestesia Geral/efeitos adversos
15.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Glob ; 3(3): 100280, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38881738

RESUMO

Alpha-gal IgE level can change rapidly. Reassessment of a patient's alpha-gal IgE level may be helpful in the patient's clinical follow-up. Pruritus related to the site of a previous tick bite strengthens the diagnosis of alpha-gal syndrome.

16.
Int J Circumpolar Health ; 83(1): 2367273, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38875453

RESUMO

It has previously been shown that EpiPen® autoinjectors are likely to activate normally following up to five excursions to -25°C but data about the post-freezing performance of other brands of adrenaline autoinjectors has not previously been published. Additionally, conditions experienced by polar medics may be substantially colder than this and the performance of adrenaline autoinjectors following more extreme freeze-thaw cycles remains uncharacterised. Investigators in Antarctica and the United Kingdom performed laboratory testing on two brands of adrenaline autoinjector, EpiPen® and Jext® (12 devices of each type). A single freeze-thaw cycle involved freezing the device to -80°C then allowing it to come to room temperature. Devices were exposed to 0, 1, 5 or 15 freeze-thaw cycles. The mass of liquid ejected from each device, when activated, was then measured. No significant differences in the mass of the liquid ejected was found between the test groups. Multiple freeze-thaw cycles to -80°C are unlikely to significantly impact the amount of adrenaline solution expelled from EpiPen® and EpiPen® autoinjectors. This preliminary finding encourages further work investigating the safety and effectiveness of adrenaline autoinjectors after exposure to very low temperatures. This information would be valuable for future polar medics planning and delivering medical provision in extreme environments.


Assuntos
Temperatura Baixa , Epinefrina , Congelamento , Epinefrina/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Injeções Intramusculares/instrumentação
17.
Arerugi ; 73(4): 347-352, 2024.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38880634

RESUMO

Gibberellin-regulated protein (GRP) is a newly discovered allergen in systemic fruit allergies. The kind of fruits which cause allergy is extensive as GRP is universally included in plants. Two children with GRP allergy were reported. Case 1: A 6-year-old boy experienced anaphylaxis while running after school lunch, which included canned peaches. A skin prick test (SPT) and blood examination suggested that he had peach GRP allergy. Six months and three years later, he experienced a similar episode after eating apple and citrus flesh, respectively. Case 2: An 11-year-old boy experienced anaphylaxis while running after consuming canned peaches during school lunch. A SPT implied that he had peach GRP allergy. However, a similar episode occurred after eating strawberry flesh 18 months later.Patients with GRP allergy often have one or more allergies to fruits other than peaches, as in these cases, and relevant fruits differ depending on the case. Particularly, clinicians should recognize that apple and citrus fruits are frequently included in school lunches as fruit flesh and as flavoring or seasoning in ready-made sauces or dressings. Therefore, an appropriate removal strategy should be considered in school lunches depending on each case of GRP allergy.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade Alimentar , Frutas , Criança , Masculino , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/imunologia , Frutas/imunologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Proteínas de Plantas/imunologia , Almoço , Alérgenos/imunologia , Testes Cutâneos
18.
Arerugi ; 73(4): 353-356, 2024.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38880635

RESUMO

The patient was a 3-year-old girl whose father was employed sorting and washing soybeans. She exhibited transient respiratory distress and loss of activity on the same day or the next day after her father came home wearing work clothes with soybean dust on them. One day, she developed anaphylaxis after being lifted into her father's arms while he was wearing his work clothes. Although a blood test was positive for soybean and Gly m 4-specific IgE antibodies, the girl was able to consume soy products (not including soy milk, which she had never consumed) without any issues. The father was instructed to change clothes before leaving work and bathe immediately upon returning home, and the girl has not had any further episodes of respiratory distress, loss of activity, or anaphylaxis. Though reports of anaphylaxis from soybean antigen inhalation are extremely rare, it is very likely that inhalation of soybean dust from the father's work clothes induced anaphylaxis in this case.


Assuntos
Anafilaxia , Poeira , Glycine max , Humanos , Anafilaxia/etiologia , Anafilaxia/imunologia , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Glycine max/efeitos adversos , Glycine max/imunologia , Poeira/imunologia
19.
Arerugi ; 73(4): 340-346, 2024.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38880633

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although paramedics can use adrenaline autoinjectors (AAIs) during their duties, the actual conditions of their use and the challenges faced remain unclear. We investigated the actual situation and issues pertaining to creating an environment in which paramedics can operate AAIs more effectively. METHODS: A web-based survey was conducted among paramedics who participated in a web-based training session related to their latest knowledge on food allergies and emergency responses in 2022. The survey items included practice and training environments, practices of AAI administration, and regarding AAI administration. RESULTS: Seventy paramedics responded to the survey. Twenty-eight respondents (40%) had experienced cases in which they wished they had an AAI in their work to date, but only one had actually administered one. Thirty-four (49%) indicated that it would be good to have an AAI in the ambulance at all times; 48 (69%) were not concerned about the use of AAI, and the level of concern about its use was significantly related to length of service. The study also revealed that paramedics do not have an adequate training environment regarding AAI. CONCLUSION: Few paramedics have experience in administering AAI, although they are aware of the need for it. For more effective use of AAI, it is necessary to establish a training environment to familiarize paramedics with anaphylaxis and an environment that enables them to use AAI promptly in the field.


Assuntos
Pessoal Técnico de Saúde , Anafilaxia , Epinefrina , Epinefrina/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Pessoal Técnico de Saúde/educação , Anafilaxia/tratamento farmacológico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Feminino , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paramédico
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