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1.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 20(1): 17, 2024 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38350958

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Hani people, who reside in Yuanyang County, Honghe Hani and Yi Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province, rely on rice terrace farming as their primary livelihood. They utilize plants in various traditional ritual practices. The Hani people have categorized the value of plants based on their natural attributes and have refined the ways of using different plants in specific rituals through practical observations and experiences derived from their agricultural culture. Although the plants used in these rituals hold significant cultural value, they have yet to be studied from the perspective of ethnobotany. This study aims to approach the ritual plants using ethnobotanical methods. METHODS: Ethnobotanical fieldwork was conducted in 10 villages in Yuanyang County between 2021 and 2023. Data were collected from the local Hani people through semi-structured interviews and participatory observations and 41 informants were interviewed during the field investigations. The frequency of citation (FC) and relative frequency of citation (RFC) were utilized to evaluate the relative importance of ritual plants among the local communities. RESULTS: A total of 36 plant species, belonging to 18 families and 34 genera, were recorded as being used in 11 ritual practices by the Hani people. Rosaceae, Poaceae, and Fabaceae were found to have the highest number of species. Most of the ritual plants used by the Hani people were collected from the wild. FC and RFC analysis showed that the preferred plants for Hani rituals were Rhus chinensis Mill, Oryza sativa L., Phyllostachys sulphurea (Carr.) A. et C. Riv. and Musa basjoo Siebold & Zucc. ex Iinuma. The 11 rituals are all centered around the performance of people, crops and livestock. The Hani people use plants in different rituals mainly based on their biological attributes. CONCLUSIONS: Many rituals of the Hani people are closely related to their production and livelihood, and the plants used in these rituals are deeply rooted in Hani's traditional ecological knowledge and beliefs. The Hani people's reverence for nature, respect for life, gratitude towards ancestors, and seeking blessings and disaster prevention for their families, crops, and livestock are all reflected in these rituals and their utilization of ritual plants. The Hani people showcase their agricultural culture in the Honghe Hani Rice Terraces through plant-based ritual performances. Studying ritual plants in the core area of the Hani Rice Terraces is of great significance for protecting the Hani Terrace farming culture. In the future, it is essential to pay more attention to the role of traditional knowledge in biodiversity conservation.


Assuntos
Etnobotânica , Oryza , População do Sudeste Asiático , Humanos , Etnobotânica/métodos , China , Comportamento Ritualístico , Biodiversidade , Produtos Agrícolas , Poaceae
2.
Environ Sci Technol ; 57(51): 21535-21539, 2023 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38086081

RESUMO

Phosphorus (P) inputs to the biosphere have quadrupled in less than a century due to intensification of rock phosphate mining and the use of P fertilizers for crop production. Accumulation of P in soils can increase P transfers across the soil-water continuum that impair aquatic ecosystem function and water resource quality for society. However, what this accumulated P is called, and subsequent connotations of magnitude versus mechanism at pedon versus watershed scale, varies in the literature. We argue that the two commonly used terms of "residual" and "legacy" P, though often used interchangeably, hold distinct meanings and connotations. Tracing the historical origins and trajectories of these terms reveals that "residual P" refers to the magnitude of fertilizer P that remains in the soil after crop harvest, whereas "legacy P" refers to the mechanism of P transfer across the watershed and its long-term impacts on water quality. The use of "legacy P" in many cases refers to the residuality of anthropogenic P inputs, and thus should be "residual P". We recommend that the term "residual P" be used when referring to the accumulation of P in soils under agricultural management from past inputs, and the term "legacy P" be used when referring to the transfer of P within watersheds. The intentional and thus consistent use of residual versus legacy P stands to provide important nuance in the environmental sciences and overlapping fields of agronomy and biogeochemistry.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Fósforo , Fósforo/análise , Agricultura , Solo , Qualidade da Água , Fertilizantes/análise
3.
Biosystems ; 233: 105040, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37769986

RESUMO

The concept of personal code is inspired by Peirce and Coseriu but is compatible with Code Biology. Persons can build their cultural code out of the codes available among their communities. Personal codes are social i.e., they are constructed by a population of interacting human code-makers, yet the interacting population is made of different states of the same human mind. The rules of personal codes are a set that can be partitioned into two subsets: the subset of rules that are shared with other human beings and the subset of rules that are followed by just one person. In a personal code, some of the meanings of a pre-existing cultural code are connected either with new cultural meanings or with meanings coming from a different pre-existing cultural code. The attachment of a new meaning to a previous one will be exemplified by analyzing Giacomo Leopardi's poem La Ginestra, while the personal connection between two different cultural codes will be shown in a text written by a young migrant. These two case studies employ Hjelmslev's connotative analysis of sign systems.

4.
Rev. psicol. deport ; 32(3): 254-264, Sept 3, 2023. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-227461

RESUMO

In light of contemporary developments, the convergence of sports and medicine has emerged as a novel proposition and healthcare concept in the modern era. The realization and execution of this concept necessitate active involvement from diverse sectors of society, with a particular emphasis on the indispensable role of physical education programs within colleges and universities. Against this backdrop, the present study was devised to assess the factors conducive to enhancing the integration of sports and medicine through talent development. Consequently, a cross-sectional research design was employed, and quantitative data were gathered from Chinese students via a simple random sampling technique. The collected data were subsequently subjected to examination using Partial Least Squares (PLS) analysis. The findings underscore the support for all stipulated hypotheses in the study. These results hold significant implications for the transformation and advancement of physical education curricula within higher education institutions.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Medicina Esportiva , Educação Física e Treinamento , Aptidão , Universidades , Psicologia do Esporte , Esportes , Estudos Transversais , China , Estudantes
5.
Med Educ Online ; 28(1): 2153396, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36447421

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand the current situation and progress of nursing students' professional self-concept, this review aimed to perform a general analysis of research related to the connotation of professional self-concept, measurement tools, influencing factors, effects, and intervention experiments. METHODS: Three databases (Web of Science, PubMed, and CNKI) were searched for relevant articles. Research articles that met specific criteria were included, with identified articles initially screened by title and keyword. Then the abstracts were screened for relevance, and the full text was read for validation before inclusion. Descriptive analysis was performed with relevant findings from data retrieved from various sources. RESULTS: Finally, 54 articles that met the criteria were included, which organised the connotation of self-concept of nursing speciality, and introduced six measurement scales, such as Professional Self-Concept of Nurses Instrument and Nurse's Self-Concept Questionnaire. A total of 16 investigations on influencing factors were described, and the results showed that there were internal individual and external environmental factors. The professional self-concept was formed by analysing both factors. This paper described 17 effect surveys and found that professional self-concept had an important impact on students' mental health, academic performance, and professional values, and so on. Eight intervention experiments including attribution training and hierarchical teaching were evaluated. CONCLUSIONS: Research articles on the professional self-concept included in this review were rich. These articles clarified the basic connotation of the concept, developed relatively mature measurement tools, found many influencing factors and effects, and proposed effective intervention strategies. They were of great value for understanding the professional self-concept and could provide a reference for scholars to conduct relevant research and practice. It also presents research prospects in this field, aiming to inspire future research.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Humanos , Autoimagem , Saúde Mental , Bases de Dados Factuais
6.
Chinese Medical Ethics ; (6): 815-818, 2023.
Artigo em Chinês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-1005672

RESUMO

The great anti-epidemic spirit is a magic weapon for the Chinese people to fight against the COVID-19. Taking the Dr. Zha’s Diary of Fighting the COVID-19 as an example to explore the practical basis and scientific connotation of the great anti-epidemic spirit is of great significance for telling Chinese stories and transmitting Chinese spirit. The anti-epidemic experience described in the book reflects the professional qualities of medical staff who are people-oriented and life first in the fight against the epidemic, the overall view of respecting science and precise prevention and control by various forces in society, and the overall pattern of national unity and shared destiny in China, vividly interprets the precious connotation of the new era medical and health professional spirit.

7.
Chinese Medical Ethics ; (6): 102-107, 2023.
Artigo em Chinês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-1005489

RESUMO

Spirit of Great Physician, puts forward relevant requirements on the moral standards and humanistic qualities that doctors should possess. By tracing the formation background of Spirit of Great Physician, analyzing its rich ideological connotation, reflecting on the needs of contemporary society for medical ethics on the basis of the medical ethics standard of Spirit of Great Physician, combining the background of social development and medical reform in the new era, as well as the moral dilemma in the medical environment, this paper proposed that contemporary society should take the combination of the internal requirements of "moral self-discipline" and the external constraints of "moral heteronomy" as the new path of medical ethics construction. The purpose of this study was to provide theoretical reference for improving the construction system of contemporary medical ethics, enhancing the moral character of medical staff and building a good medical environment.

8.
Artigo em Chinês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-996103

RESUMO

It is already an inevitable choice for the innovative development of the global healthcare system to grant nurse practitioners the prescription rights, in an effort to improve the access to primary care services and clinical outcome of patients. The contradiction between supply and demand of health service in China is becoming increasingly prominent, making it urgent for nurses with prescription rights to join the primary healthcare team. On the basis of clarifying the connotation and characteristics of nurses′ prescription rights, the authors demonstrated and analyzed the demands, realistic basis and challenges of nurses′ prescription right granting, and put forward their thoughts on the feasible paths from the aspects of national system construction and local pilot exploration, aiming to provide reference for promoting the reform of nurses′ prescription right granting in China.

9.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 48(23): 6519-6525, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38212009

RESUMO

Since the emergence of the term "materia medica", scholars have proposed different opinions on its concept. This term has been used to refer to traditional Chinese medicines, or medical books, or traditional pharmacology. Due to the differences in the concept of materia medica, scholars also have controversies about the concept of herbalism. Herbalism is usually understood as traditional Chinese pharmacology. After years of evolution, the term "herbalism" has now possessed the characteristics of an independent discipline, which can be defined as an applied basic discipline that comprehensively utilizes traditional and modern technological methods to study the formation, development, and changes of traditional pharmacology and reveal the basic theories and application laws of traditional medicine. At present, the research content of herbalism mainly includes three aspects: materia medica history, materia medica literature, and traditional pharmacology. This study explores the disciplinary concepts and main research content of herbalism based on a systematic review of the literature about the concepts of materia medica and herbalism, with the aim of attracting more attention to promote the establishment and development of the discipline of herbalism.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Materia Medica , China , Medicina Herbária , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Tecnologia
10.
Artigo em Chinês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-964964

RESUMO

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is one of the chronic refractory inflammatory bowel diseases characterized by abdominal pain, diarrhea, and mucus, pus and blood in the stool. In recent years, with changes in human life style and improvements of the diagnosis, the incidence and prevalence of UC have been increasing. The pathogenesis of UC is closely related to intestinal mucosal immune dysfunction, intestinal flora disturbance, and abnormal bile acid secretion. Patients with UC have abnormal bile acid secretion and intestinal flora imbalance. A large number of studies have found that abnormal bile acid secretion inhibits immune function, affects signal transduction, and destroys the intestinal mucosal barrier. Intestinal flora disturbance has an important impact on the occurrence and development of inflammation, immune homeostasis, and stress. Bile acids indirectly or directly affect the structure and function of intestinal flora, and at the same time, they produce secondary bile acids under the modification of intestinal flora, entering the liver through enterohepatic circulation. Therefore, the complex dialogue mechanism of bile acid-intestinal flora axis is closely related to the occurrence and development of UC. Based on the basic theory of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) and clinical research, it is found that emotion is an important factor that induces this disease, spleen and stomach weakness is the root of the disease, and liver depression and spleen deficiency are the key pathogenesis of UC. Combined with modern medicine and molecular biology research, it is believed that abnormal secretion of bile acids is a microscopic manifestation of liver depression in TCM, and intestinal flora disturbance is the biological basis of spleen deficiency. In the pathogenesis of UC, the imbalanced bile acid-intestinal flora axis is consistent with the pathogenesis of liver depression and spleen in TCM. The exploration of the biological connotation of the pathogenesis of UC with liver depression and spleen deficiency from the perspective of bile acid-intestinal flora axis can better explain the scientific nature of its pathogenesis, which provides new clinical solutions and reliable references for studying the pathogenesis of UC with liver depression and spleen deficiency and finding representative prescriptions to prevent and treat this disease.

11.
Heliyon ; 8(11): e11834, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36458302

RESUMO

With the continuous development of automation and information technology, large amounts of safety data are produced in the processes of coal production. Most enterprises simply focus on statistics and do not conduct systematic big data analyses. Therefore, it is necessary to study the theory of coal mine safety while using big data systematically. This paper expounds on the changes in coal mine safety that have been driven by big data from three aspects: the connotation, characteristics and research framework. First, the connotation of coal mine safety big data (CMSBD) is redefined by changing the safety entities and methods. Second, the advantages and disadvantages of the big data model are compared from the perspective of feature analysis. Finally, the research paradigm and technical framework of CMSBD are designed. The results show that the management connotation of CMSBD focuses on the role of big data in coal mine safety. Compared with coal mine safety small data (CMSSD), CMSBD has both advantages and disadvantages. Therefore, CMSBD must be combined with a small data method. The research paradigm emphasizes the intersection of the research, the relevance of safety thinking, the importance of safety data analysis, and the fusion of big data with traditional small data models.

12.
Cureus ; 14(11): e31918, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36447806

RESUMO

The growing prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) needs to be carefully managed to relieve the symptoms and prevent complications. Complications of GERD can include erosive esophagitis, Barrett's esophagus and gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are typically first-line treatment for GERD alongside lifestyle changes in view of their effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. However, there are concerns with adherence to dosing regimens and recommended lifestyle changes reducing their effectiveness. There are also concerns about potential complications from chronic high-dose PPIs. These include an increased risk of chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular events and infections. Recommendations to physicians include prescribing or dispensing the lowest dose of PPI for the shortest time, with ongoing patient monitoring. Activities among community pharmacists and others have resulted in increased dispensing of PPIs without a prescription, which can be a challenge. PPIs are among the most prescribed and dispensed medicines in view of their effectiveness in managing GERD. However, there are concerns with the doses prescribed and dispensed as well as adherence to lifestyle advice. These issues and challenges need to be addressed by health authorities to maximize the role and value of PPIs.

13.
Chin Herb Med ; 14(3): 356-361, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36118006

RESUMO

Traditional Mongolian medicine (TMM) is an important part of Chinese traditional culture, which plays an important role within the medical system of China. The processing of Mongolian medicinal materials is a pharmaceutical technology, which is the unique characteristics of Mongolian medicine. In this paper, the basic concepts related to the processing of Mongolian medicinal materials were introduced, and its scientific research points were put forward, in order to deeply excavate the connotation of Mongolian pharmacy and further study the processing mechanism of Mongolian medicinal materials, so as to provide important basis for the development of Chinese traditional medicine. The essence of Mongolian medicinal materials processing is to use drugs safely and dialectically to ensure the quality of Mongolian medicinal materials. The scientific research sites of Mongolian medicinal materials processing have two categories: reducing toxicity (increasing) effect and synergistic effect of excipients and processing factors. Because of the not perfect research platform of Mongolian medicinal materials and the weak processing power, the development of research of Mongolian medicinal materials is relatively slow. Therefore, there are many research breakthroughs in the interdisciplinary research on the processing of Mongolian medicinal materials, and it is expected to become a research hotspot.

14.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 47(18): 4854-4862, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36164895

RESUMO

The processing of Chinese medicine is a unique and dialectical treatment of traditional Chinese medicine in clinic.The processing theory of "leading vinegar-processing Chinese medicine into liver" is one of the traditional processing theories of Chinese medicine.The vinegar-processing Chinese medicine under the guidance of the processing theory typically reflects the characteristics of "reducing toxicity and enhancing efficacy" of the processing of Chinese medicine.This paper traced the origin and discussed the connotation of the traditional theory of "leading vinegar-processing Chinese medicine into liver".Combined with the research status of "lea-ding vinegar-processing Chinese medicine into liver", this paper explored the mechanism of "leading vinegar-processing Chinese medicine into liver" from the aspects of material basis, medicine effect, and traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) meridian, and analyzed the existing problems in the current research.This paper reviewed the modern study on reducing toxicity and enhancing efficacy of vinegar-processing Chinese medicine, and deeply explored the scientific connotation of the traditional processing theory of "leading vinegar-processing Chinese medicine into liver".At the same time, the research trend and idea of the effect mechanism of "leading vinegar-processing Chinese medicine into liver" based on the Quality markers(Q-Marker) of TCM, biological targets, and clinical prescriptions were put forward, providing references for the further study on "leading vinegar-processing Chinese medicine into liver".This paper also provided a scientific basis for the rational selection of processed products in TCM clinical practice.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Meridianos , Ácido Acético , Biomarcadores , Fígado , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa
15.
Front Psychol ; 13: 1065372, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36600720

RESUMO

Introduction: This study set out to quantitatively examine the relationship between personality and color, focusing on connotations and preference. Method: A total of 854 Koreans, aged from 20 to 60, participated in the study. They indicated which colors they associated with various personality words, completed the Ten Item Personality Inventory, and ranked their color preferences. We analyzed the data using frequency analysis, correlation analysis, t-tests, regression analysis, and cluster analysis. Results: The analyses revealed that all five personality types have characteristic color associations. Through regression analysis, we found that color preference can significantly predict personality. The comparison among personality groups produced by cluster analysis confirmed that people with strong specific personalities prefer the colors that symbolize their personalities. Discussion: This study's findings highlight the relationship between personality and color preference. The limitations and suggestions for future studies are also presented.

16.
Artigo em Chinês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-995962

RESUMO

In order to promote the connotation construction of the resident standardized training bases and improve the training quality, a tertiary hospital made key breakthroughs against the existing problems in the base under the guidance of national key training base standards in September 2020. Optimization and innovation were explored in terms of residential teaching supervision, performance appraisal system, regular teaching meeting, educational fund management, pilot project of full-time residential teaching secretaries, clinical skill center construction, cultivation of faculty development, and so on. These experiments have paved the way to high quality and sustainable development of residents standardized training. By the end of December 2021, the hospital had achieved significant progress in such aspects as residential teaching atmosphere, resident learning initiative, and training base branding. These achievements improved the quality of resident standardized training of the hospital in general, and provided a reference for promoting the high-quality development of residential training in China.

17.
Artigo em Chinês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-995949

RESUMO

Upholding the overall leadership of the Party is an important cornerstone for promoting development of public hospitals. Party building leadership for high-quality development of public hospitals must adhere to the value orientation of public welfare, establish a modern hospital management system, and promote the mutual promotion and integration of both Party building and medical service. The practice path of Party building in leading the high-quality development of public hospitals in a tertiary hospital won the support of patients, employees and medical students at large, gave full play to the leading role of the Party, and made breakthroughs in terms of medical service, discipline construction, talent training and internal management quality improvements. By strengthening top-level design and institutional system construction, the hospital has effectively transformed the political and organizational advantages led by Party building into an endogenous momentum for the reform and development of public hospitals. The practice solved such important questions as to the beneficiaries of the high-quality development of public hospitals, whom to depend on and how to govern, hence providing reference for further promoting the high-quality development of public hospitals in China and realizing the deep integration of Party building and medical service.

18.
Chinese Herbal Medicines ; (4): 356-361, 2022.
Artigo em Chinês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-953577

RESUMO

Traditional Mongolian medicine (TMM) is an important part of Chinese traditional culture, which plays an important role within the medical system of China. The processing of Mongolian medicinal materials is a pharmaceutical technology, which is the unique characteristics of Mongolian medicine. In this paper, the basic concepts related to the processing of Mongolian medicinal materials were introduced, and its scientific research points were put forward, in order to deeply excavate the connotation of Mongolian pharmacy and further study the processing mechanism of Mongolian medicinal materials, so as to provide important basis for the development of Chinese traditional medicine. The essence of Mongolian medicinal materials processing is to use drugs safely and dialectically to ensure the quality of Mongolian medicinal materials. The scientific research sites of Mongolian medicinal materials processing have two categories: reducing toxicity (increasing) effect and synergistic effect of excipients and processing factors. Because of the not perfect research platform of Mongolian medicinal materials and the weak processing power, the development of research of Mongolian medicinal materials is relatively slow. Therefore, there are many research breakthroughs in the interdisciplinary research on the processing of Mongolian medicinal materials, and it is expected to become a research hotspot.

19.
Artigo em Chinês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-940609

RESUMO

This study systematically combed and analyzed the use of such terms as "prohibition", "contraindication", and "use with caution" in ancient Chinese books on materia medica and prescriptions, Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China(《中华人民共和国药典》), and teaching materials and monographs of Chinese materia medica by means of hermeneutics, commentariology, textology, and data mining, and explored the historical evolution and conceptual connotations of "prohibition", "contraindication", and "use with caution" in Chinese materia medica, so as to provide reference for standardizing their understandings and clinical reasonable medication. The "prohibition", "contraindication", and "use with caution" of Chinese materia medica were first proposed in the period of pre-Qin and Han dynasties. "Prohibition" and "contraindication" were separately developed in the Sui, Tang, and Five dynasties and Song, Jin, and Yuan dynasties and have been widely used since the Ming and Qing dynasties. The "use with caution" becomes popular rapidly in modern times and is often present in clinical medication together with "prohibition" and "contraindication". "Prohibition" basically means strictly prohibited and "contraindication" means to avoid as much as possible. The terms "prohibition", "contraindication", and "use with caution" have experienced evolution from the pre-Qin period to modern times, and they are used to describe the degree of restriction on drug use("prohibition" > " contraindication" > "use with caution").

20.
Artigo em Chinês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-940281

RESUMO

Tong (dredging) method in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) emphasizes soothing the stagnated Qi, blood, and body fluid in zang-fu organs, meridians, and collaterals to remove pathogens, reinforce vital Qi, and balance Yin and Yang of the human body. Tong method can be adopted to disperse sweat pore, attack pathogenic Qi, harmonize Yin and Yang, as well as tonify deficiency, and resolve stagnation. It has been proved effective in treating coronary heart disease (CHD), which falls into the category of "chest impediment and heart pain" in TCM, with the key pathogenesis lying in blood vessel obstruction. Therefore, dredging blood vessels is the primary therapeutic principle for CHD. Specifically, there are four aspects. The first is dispersing and dredging the sweat pore of the heart. If the sweat pore is occluded by pathogenic cold, which makes Yang-qi undissipated, Cinnamomi Ramulus, Piperis Longi Fructus, Alpiniae Officinarum Rhizoma, and Asari Radix et Rhizoma can be prescribed for warming and dredging heart Yang. If the Yang-qi of the heart and chest stagnated in the body, which hinders Qi and blood to nourish the myocardium, resulting in chest pain, Poria and Alismatis Rhizoma can be prescribed. For CHD due to atherosclerosis and inflammation, heat-clearing, toxin-removing, and inflammation-resisting Chinese medicinal herbs such as Coptidis Rhizoma and Rhei Radix et Rhizoma are recommended. The second is attacking and dredging the collaterals of the heart. Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Chuanxiong Rhizoma, Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma, etc. can be prescribed for blood stasis, Trichosanthis Fructus, Allii Macrostemonis Bulbus, Pinelliae Rhizoma, etc. for phlegm, and Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum, Euodiae Fructus, etc. for pathogenic cold. Since the chronic disease can affect collaterals, Moschus and Santali Albi Lignum can be added to promote blood circulation and remove the obstruction of collaterals of the heart. The third is harmonizing and dredging the mind. Cinnamomi Ramulus, Coptidis Rhizoma, Cinnamomi Cortex, etc. are selected for restoring the coordination between the heart and the kidney. According to the specific syndrome, the methods of nourishing the mind and calming the nerves through tranquilizing the mind, calming down the mind, and inducing resuscitation can be selected using such Chinese medicines as Ziziphi Spinosae Semen, Polygalae Radix, and Draconis Ossa. The fourth is tonifying and dredging the Qi and blood of the heart. The deficiency syndrome of CHD is divided into Qi deficiency and kidney deficiency. Invigorating Qi and strengthening the heart are the first essentials for the treatment of CHD. In Qi invigoration, Qi and blood must be strengthened simultaneously to strengthen the heart and clear the pulse. Hence, Bazhentang modified by Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Carthami Flos can be chosen. In kidney Qi tonifying, kidney and heart must be strengthened simultaneously, and the methods of tonifying kidney and activating blood can be used. Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Astragali Radix are considered as the first choice for tonifying heart Qi, and Epimedii Folium and Morindae Officinalis Radix for tonifying kidney Qi, which are added with Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Rehmanniae Radix Praeparata to obtain the kidney-tonifying and blood-activating prescription. It is suitable for treating CHD due to kidney deficiency and blood stasis. Simultaneous treatment of heart and kidney is more suitable for middle-aged and elderly patients and chronically ill patients. Tong method can be used in various clinical diseases as well as CHD.

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