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1.
Artigo em Chinês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-1006266

RESUMO

ObjectiveTo sort out the historical evolution, prescription evolution and modern clinical application of Huagaisan. MethodHuagaisan and its synonym Huagaitang are used as keywords to search the databases of Traditional Chinese Medicine Think Tank, Chinese Medical Dictionary, Airusheng Chinese Medical Database and China National Knowledge Infrastructure(CNKI). According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, we obtained the information of ancient books and modern clinical research literature related to Huagaisan, and systematically reviewed and analyzed the historical origin, prescription composition, preparation method, dosage, efficacy, medicinal material origin, processing method and modern clinical application of Huagaisan. ResultA total of 198 pieces of ancient book information were included, involving 93 ancient Chinese medicine books. Huagaisan was composed of fried Perillae Fructus, red Poria, fried Mori Cortex, Citri Eoxcarpium Rubrum, stir-fried Armeniacae Semen Amarum, Ephedrae Herba and fried Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, which had the efficacy of promoting the lungs and relieving epidemiological symptoms, expelling phlegm and relieving cough, and treating cough with wind-cold bundled epidemiological symptoms and stagnation of phlegm and Qi. The preparation method was suggested as boiling powder, crushing the seven herbs into coarse particles, the dosage of each drug was fried Perillae Fructus of 1.27 g, red Poria of 1.27 g, fried Mori Cortex of 1.27 g, Citri Eoxcarpium Rubrum of 1.27 g, stir-fried Armeniacae Semen Amarum of 1.27 g, Ephedrae Herba of 1.27 g and fried Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma of 0.64 g, taking 8.26 g when decocting, adding 300 mL of water, decocting to 210 mL, removing the dregs, and taking it warmly after meals. Twenty-one clinical research papers were included to analyze the modern clinical application of Huagaisan, which was mainly used in the treatment of respiratory diseases such as pneumonia, asthma, bronchitis and so on. ConclusionThis paper has verified and summarized the key information of the famous classical formula Huagaisan, which can provide a detailed reference basis for the development and clinical application of its compound preparation.

2.
Artigo em Chinês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-1003790

RESUMO

By consulting ancient herbal books and modern literature, this paper systematically sorted out and researched the processing history, relevant processing norms in recent years, modern processing technology, chemical composition changes of processed products and their pharmacological mechanism of Scutellariae Radix, in order to provide a basis for the further development of Scutellariae Radix decoction pieces. According to the textual research of ancient books, there were many kinds of processing auxiliary materials of Scutellariae Radix, such as wine, vinegar, salt, honey, pig bile and so on, among which the wine processing was the most diverse and detailed, and the processed products such as raw products, stir-fried products, wine-processed products, fried charcoal products were still in use. The modern processing techniques of Scutellariae Radix mainly focus on the processing aspects of softening and slicing, wine processing and charcoal frying, and the research methods are relatively unified. At present, it is found that the changed chemical constituents of Scutellariae Radix after processing are flavonoids, polysaccharides, volatile oils and trace elements, etc. Pharmacological effects of processed products are hemostasis, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, analgesic and antipyretic, treatment of lung diseases, treatment of colitis, etc. However, in the studies of Scutellariae Radix processing, there is a lack of research on the structural changes of chemical components caused by processing and a comprehensive comparative study on the pharmacological effects of various processed products. Based on this, it is suggested to carry out systematic research on the processing technology to processing mechanism, further explore the relationship between the change rule of material basis and pharmacological action before and after processing of Scutellariae Radix, and deepen the exploration of molecular mechanism and clinical application of processed products of Scutellariae Radix, in order to clarify the scientific connotation of the processing mechanism of Scutellariae Radix, and lay a foundation for the subsequent expansion of the application of Scutellariae Radix decoction pieces and the formulation of processing standards.

3.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 48(12): 3269-3280, 2023 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37382011

RESUMO

Bombyx Batryticatus is a precious traditional Chinese animal drug commonly used in clinical practice in China, which has the effects of extinguishing wind, stopping convulsions, dispelling wind, relieving pain, resolving phlegm, and dissipating mass. The processing of Bombyx Batryticatus has a long history. As early as in the Liu Song period of the Southern and Northern Dynasties, there was a record of the processing of Bombyx Batryticatus with rice swill. In addition to the processing with bran, honey bran, and ginger juice, which are still used today, there are also processing methods such as rendering, flour processing, wine processing, salt processing, oil processing, charcoal, and red dates processing in ancient times. After processing, the fishy smell of Bombyx Batryticatus can be removed, and avoid nausea and vomiting caused by the direct taking. Furthermore, processing can also facilitate the removal of surface hairs and toxicity reduction, making the medicinal material crispy and easy to crush. Previous studies have shown that the main chemical constituents of Bombyx Batryticatus include protein polypeptides, sterols, and flavonoids, with anticonvulsant, anticoagulation, antithrombotic, anti-cancer, hypnotic, hypoglycemic, and other pharmacological effects. This paper reviewed the processing historical evolution, chemical constituents, and pharmacological effects of Bombyx Batryticatus to lay a foundation for the research on the processing mechanism, quality control, and active core substances of Bombyx Batryticatus.


Assuntos
Bombyx , Animais , China , Evolução Química , Flavonoides , Frutas
4.
Artigo em Chinês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-953942

RESUMO

By reviewing the relevant literature of ancient herbal works and modern codices, this paper sorted out the historical evolution and developmental venation of processing of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma. On this basis, the modern research of processed products of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma was used as the breakthrough point to analyze the literature in terms of processing technology, chemical composition changes and changes in pharmacological effects before and after processing. According to the research status of processing of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma, some existing problems were analyzed in this paper, such as not many ancient processing methods used in modern time, lack of standardized research on processing technology. And saponins, polysaccharides, amino acids, flavonoids and other chemical components in Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma may change to different degrees before and after processing, which was the main reason for the difference of efficacy before and after processing. However, the current research on the pharmacological effects of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma mainly focuses on raw products, resulting in a lack of in-depth research on the transformation mechanism of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma in processing difference, and the scientific connotation of "Shengxiao Shubu" has not been clearly elaborated, which is not conducive to the standardized clinical use of drugs. Therefore, it is necessary to further analyze the material basis of Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma and its processed products, and to explore the change rule of chemical components before and after processing and its correlation with pharmacodynamic activity, so as to clarify the processing mechanism for providing scientific basis for its standardized processing, quality control and clinical rational use.

5.
Artigo em Chinês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-979463

RESUMO

The classic formula Guizhi Shaoyao Zhimutang, listed as the 15th formula in the Catalog of Ancient Classic Formulas (First Batch) published in 2018, originated from Synopsis of the Golden Chamber (《金匮要略》) written by ZHANG Zhongjing in the Eastern Han Dynasty. It consists of Cinnamomi Ramulus, Ephedrae Herba, Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata, Anemarrhenae Rhizoma, Paeoniae Radix Alba, Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma, Saposhnikoviae Radix, Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens, and Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, and is effective in dispelling wind, eliminating dampness, dispersing cold, relieving impediment, nourishing Yin, and clearing heat. It is mainly used to treat diseases characterized by wind, cold, and dampness invading the body, combined with heat damaging Yin, such as joint disorders, rheumatism, gout, and knee osteoarthritis. Based on the call for "inheritance of essence and application of ancient knowledge for modern use", this study conducted a comprehensive analysis of historical evolution, composition, formulation principles, processing, dosage, decocting methods, and indications of Guizhi Shaoyao Zhimutang using textual research on ancient and modern literature. When analyzing modern literature, it has been found that this formula is widely used in the treatment of various diseases. It is mainly applied to rheumatic diseases such as rheumatism, rheumatoid arthritis, gout, gouty arthritis, and psoriatic arthritis, as well as orthopedic diseases like knee osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, sciatica, and knee joint effusion. It can also be used for diseases in other systems, including the endocrine system, gynecology, respiratory system, and circulatory system. The pathological mechanisms involve the invasion of wind, cold, and dampness accompanied by heat pathogens, reflecting the concept of treating different diseases with the same principles in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Through the analysis of ancient and modern literature on Guizhi Shaoyao Zhimutang using a literature statistical method, the historical evolution and key formula and syndrome information were clarified to provide a theoretical basis for the development and further research of Guizhi Shaoyao Zhimutang in terms of its formulation and subsequent in-depth studies.

6.
Artigo em Chinês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-981464

RESUMO

Bombyx Batryticatus is a precious traditional Chinese animal drug commonly used in clinical practice in China, which has the effects of extinguishing wind, stopping convulsions, dispelling wind, relieving pain, resolving phlegm, and dissipating mass. The processing of Bombyx Batryticatus has a long history. As early as in the Liu Song period of the Southern and Northern Dynasties, there was a record of the processing of Bombyx Batryticatus with rice swill. In addition to the processing with bran, honey bran, and ginger juice, which are still used today, there are also processing methods such as rendering, flour processing, wine processing, salt processing, oil processing, charcoal, and red dates processing in ancient times. After processing, the fishy smell of Bombyx Batryticatus can be removed, and avoid nausea and vomiting caused by the direct taking. Furthermore, processing can also facilitate the removal of surface hairs and toxicity reduction, making the medicinal material crispy and easy to crush. Previous studies have shown that the main chemical constituents of Bombyx Batryticatus include protein polypeptides, sterols, and flavonoids, with anticonvulsant, anticoagulation, antithrombotic, anti-cancer, hypnotic, hypoglycemic, and other pharmacological effects. This paper reviewed the processing historical evolution, chemical constituents, and pharmacological effects of Bombyx Batryticatus to lay a foundation for the research on the processing mechanism, quality control, and active core substances of Bombyx Batryticatus.


Assuntos
Animais , Bombyx , China , Evolução Química , Flavonoides , Frutas
7.
Artigo em Chinês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-965643

RESUMO

Danggui Liuhuangtang is the 47th of the 100 famous classical formulas published by the National Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine, and is known as the holy medicine for night sweat. By bibliometrics, the authors collected the ancient books on Danggui Liuhuangtang and screened out 269 valid data, involving 156 ancient books of traditional Chinese medicine. The analysis on the historical origin, disease syndromes, pathogenesis, composition, dosage, preparation, usage, and processing of Danggui Liuhuangtang found that this famous classical formula originated from Secret Book of the Orchid Chamber (《兰室秘藏》) written by LI Dongyuan, and is composed of Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Rehmanniae Radix, Rehmanniae Radix Praeparata, Phellodendri Chinensis Cortex, Scutellariae Radix, Coptidis Rhizoma and Astragali Radix. It has the functions of nourishing Yin, reducing fire, consolidating exterior and stopping sweating, and mainly treats night sweat due to Yin deficiency and fire exuberance. In the later generations, disease syndromes are mostly treated based on LI Dongyuan's theory, and have expanded to more than 30 kinds (339 in total), among which night sweat (208) was the most, accounting for 61.36% of the total disease syndromes, followed by spontaneous sweating (38), accounting for 11.21%. Additionally, it was found that Danggui Liuhuangtang was widely used in modern clinical practice for various disease syndromes. Among them, endocrine disease (77, 28.21%) was predominant, followed by gynecological disease (48, 17.58%), and pediatric disease (24, 8.79%). Although Danggui Liuhuangtang treats many disease syndromes, their pathogenesis was always yin deficiency and fire exuberance. Through the systematic excavation of the ancient books on Danggui Liuhuangtang and the analysis of its modern clinical application, this paper probed into the historical evolution and confirmed the key information of the formula, providing detailed literature basis for the research and development application of famous classical formulas.

8.
Artigo em Chinês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-965571

RESUMO

Combretum indicum can kill insects and benefit the spleen and stomach, which is the most important medicine to treat children's diseases. The classics of materia medica, calendar edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia, local processing standards and related literature were reviewed to sort out the processing history of Combretum indicum, compare the ancient medicinal parts and processing methods, and summarize the inclusion in national and local standards. The history of the evolution of Combretum indicum was summarized in order to provide ideas for rational drug use in clinical and standard improvement.

9.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 184: 114100, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36155413

RESUMO

The present study determined total mercury (Hg) in four 210Pb dated sediment cores to assess the historical anthropogenic Hg accumulation in the Santos estuary, Southeastern Brazil. Background levels were identified using the deepest sections of the cores, corresponding to pre-industrial ages. Mercury distribution in the sediment cores (0.02-2.64 mg kg-1) presented a large spatial and temporal variation. Contamination is highest in the upper estuary and indicates that the industrial hub, especially a chlor-alkali plant is the primary source of Hg. A contaminant trap effect is observed in this area associated with high fine sediment accumulation and Hg fluxes. The contamination pattern indicates that the regions not affected by direct inputs are influenced by reworking, resuspension, and transport of contaminated sediments by tidal flows. The Hg enrichment in the upper layers of the sediment cores demonstrates that the environmental actions fulfilled in the 1980s were insufficient to control Hg pollution in the Santos estuary.


Assuntos
Mercúrio , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Mercúrio/análise , Estuários , Sedimentos Geológicos , Brasil , América Latina , Chumbo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Álcalis
10.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 47(15): 4033-4041, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36046892

RESUMO

Xuanfu Daizhe Decoction, first seen in Zhang Zhongjing's Treatise on Cold Damage Diseases, was composed of seven medicinal materials: Inulae Flos, Glycyrrhizae Radix, Ginseng Radix, Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens, Haematitum, Pinelliae Rhizoma and Jujubae Fructus. It was used to treat gastric fullness and hardness and belching due to the wrong treatment of typhoid fever and sweating. With detailed records and description in ancient medical books, Xuanfu Daizhe Decoction was widely adopted in clinical practice by physicians of later generations, which expanded its main therapeutic functions. By comprehensive collation of ancient and modern literature on Xuanfu Daizhe Decoction, this paper systematically explored the historical evolution of the prescription from the source, composition, dosage, processing, clinical application, function interpretation and decocting method. It was found that the composition and processing method of the prescription in the past dynasties were relatively consistent, and there was a gradual decrease in dosage in clinical application. In ancient times, Xuanfu Daizhe Decoction was mainly used to treat nausea, vomiting, hiccups, constipation, etc., while modern clinicians mainly used it for digestive diseases such as reflux esophagitis and gastritis. Through the analysis and textual research, the composition, dosage, processing, function evolution and decocting method of this prescription were determined, which provided reference for the research and development of compound preparations of Xuanfu Daizhe Decoction.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Triterpenos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Extratos Vegetais , Rizoma
11.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 47(14): 3956-3962, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35850855

RESUMO

Wumei Pills originates from Treatise on Cold Damage. A total of 128 records on it were screened out, involving 102 ancient books, 110 modern clinical studies, and 48 diseases. According to the records, the prescription origin, prescription composition, prescription explanation, main indications, dosage, medicinal processing, preparation, and usage, contraindications, and mo-dern clinical applications were analyzed. The result shows that Wumei Pills is composed of Mume Fructus, Asari Radix et Rhizoma, Zingiberis Rhizoma, Coptidis Rhizoma, Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata, Zanthoxyli Pericarpium, Cinnamomi Ramulus, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, and Phellodendri Chinensis Cortex. The main indications expand over time, and it can be applied to diarrhea, dysentery, retching, chest pain, cough, Qi ascending from lower abdomen, and reversal cold of hands and feet with the syndromes of cold and heat in complexity and hyperactivity of liver Yang and spleen deficiency. According to modern clinical records, it is mainly used for the treatment of diseases in the digestive system, nervous system, endocrine system, metabolic system, etc., such as ulcerative colitis, diarrhea, insomnia, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The dosage of Wumei Pills has gradually reduced from the Han Dynasty to the Qing Dynasty, but the proportions of the medicinals has remained basically unchanged. In this prescription, Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata and Zanthoxyli Pericarpium need to be processed, while the rest medicinals are used in raw form. As for the medicinal selection, Zanthoxyli Pericarpium is examinable. Asari Radix et Rhizoma is derived from Aristolochiaceae, which is toxic to the liver and kidney, so the dosage should be kept in a safe range. In summary, Wumei Pills has great clinical value. The textual research on Wumei Pills helps clarify the development of Wumei Pills, which provides evidence in-depth research and development and rational clinical application of Wumei Pills.


Assuntos
Aconitum , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa
12.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 47(2): 562-568, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35179001

RESUMO

The development of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) has always been highly valued and supported since 1949. However, Chinese medicine industry still faces great challenges in view of the current status of the industry and registration and approval of new products in recent years. Related policies also directly influence the development of the industry. The latest version of the Provisions for Drug Registration and Requirement on Registration Classification and Application Information of Traditional Chinese Medicines have been put into practice since 2020. Registration classification is the core content of the Chinese medicine registration management system, as it is closely related to the research, development, and registration of Chinese medicine and the innovative development of the industry. This article aims to systematically review the historical evolution of the category of Chinese medicine registration and analyze the current status and problems, which is expected to provide a reference for the formulation of supporting documents according to related laws and regulations.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Indústria Farmacêutica , Políticas
13.
Tog (A Coruña) ; 19(nro esp. 1): S9-S15, feb. 2022. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-207081

RESUMO

La AOTA ha publicado la Cuarta Edición del Marco de Trabajo para la Práctica de la terapia ocupacional: Dominio y Proceso. En este artículo vamos a hacer un recorrido por su historia desde el primer Marco de Trabajo publicado en el año 2002 pasando por cada una de sus revisiones realizadas cada 5 años hasta llegar a este cuarto Marco de Trabajo publicado el pasado año 2020. El objetivo es poder conocer tanto sus inicios como la evolución del mismo para lo que nos remontaremos a sus antecedentes: la Terminología Uniforme. (AU)


The objective is to be able to know both its beginnings and its evolution for which we will go back to its antecedents: the Uniform Terminology. The AOTA has published the Fourth Edition of the Framework for the Practice of Occupational Therapy: Domain and Process. In this article we are going to go through its history from the first Framework published in 2002, focusing on each review carried out every 5 years, ending with this fourth Framework published in 2020. The objective is to know both its beginnings and its evolution, and we go back to its antecedents: the Uniform Terminology. (AU)


Assuntos
História do Século XXI , Terapia Ocupacional/história , Terapia Ocupacional/tendências , Conselhos de Especialidade Profissional , Publicações/história , Publicações/tendências
14.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 47(23): 6520-6528, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36604899

RESUMO

This paper reviewed the historical evolution of the varieties of Draconis Sanguis in traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) and discussed several doubts. Draconis Sanguis used in ancient Europe and Arabia was derived from Dracaena plants, and that originating from Southeast Asia entered the market in the 16 th century. Draconis Sanguis was introduced into China in the 5 th century at the latest and was once mixed with shellac for use. Draconis Sanguis in the Tang Dynasty and before was the resin of Dracaena plants. Scholars in the Song Dynasty have known that Draconis Sanguis came from the resin of tall trees, but their understanding of origin plants was inconsistent with the facts. The origin of Draconis Sanguis in the Song Dynasty was basically determined to be Mirbat(Maliba), Cengtan, and Somali, as well as Socotra Archipelago. About 1371-1416, Draconis Sanguis prepared from Daemonorops draco was imported into China, and was recorded earlier in The Overall Survey of the Ocean's Shores(Ying Ya Sheng Lan) and Code of Great Ming Dynasty(Da Ming Hui Dian). Draconis Sanguis prepared from Dracaena plants was still authentic for a long time after the import of that from D. draco into China. During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, Dian Zhi(1625), a lost edition of Materia Medica in Southern Yunnan(Dian Nan Ben Cao), Textual Research on Reality and Titles of Plants(Zhi Wu Ming Shi Tu Kao), and other local chronicles recorded that a new type of Draconis Sanguis(Mu Xue Jie) was produced in Yuanjiang, Yunnan province. The New Yunnan Chronicles of the Republic of China recorded the production of another type of Draconis Sanguis(Qi Lin Jie) in Xishuangbanna. However, the authenticity of the above two types has been difficult to confirm. In modern times, Draconis Sanguis prepared from D. draco gradually became the mainstream variety. In the 1970 s, Dracaena cochinchinensi was found in Yunnan and other provinces, and Draconis Sanguis from D. cochinchinensi was developed. This study is expected to provide a solid and reliable literature support for the research and development of Draconis Sanguis, enrich historical materials, and provide new clues for follow-up research.


Assuntos
Dracaena , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , China , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/história , Materia Medica/história , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/história , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XX , História Medieval
15.
Artigo em Chinês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-940855

RESUMO

As a traditional Chinese medicinal material, Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus is often used as medicine after steaming to reduce its pungency and give full play to its medicinal effects. By consulting the relevant literature, this paper intends to sort out the related researches on the processing history, modern processing standard records, flavor and meridian tropism, efficacy, processing and taking methods, processing technology, chemical composition, pharmacological effects and quality analysis of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus. It is found that the processing methods of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus in the past dynasties are mainly roasting, distilled into dew, aging, frying, salting and steaming, of which steaming is the most common. In modern times, steaming is mainly used in Guangdong and Sichuan. The descriptions of flavor and meridian tropism and efficacy of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus in the past dynasties are basically consistent with the modern descriptions. Its taste is pungent, bitter and acidic, and it is warm in nature. It belongs to the liver, spleen, stomach and lung meridians. Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus contains volatile oil, flavonoids and their glycosides, coumarins and limonins and other compounds. In recent years, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) and other methods are commonly used for the chemical composition analysis. Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus has the activities of relieving cough, reducing phlegm, relieving asthma, anti-inflammation, anti-bacteria and anti-oxidation, etc. After processing, its volatile and non-volatile components, and pharmacological effects all have a certain change. However, the current research on processing of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus is not in-depth enough. It is necessary to further analyze the material basis of steaming to reduce dryness, explore its dryness medicinal substances and dryness-effect quantitative correlation, so as to clarify its processing mechanism, and provide basis for the subsequent processing research, resource development and comprehensive application of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus in the future.

16.
Artigo em Chinês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-940613

RESUMO

Rehmanniae Radix is a common medicine of traditional Chinese medicine, which has the function of nourishing Yin and tonifying the kidney, and has a long application history of processing. This medicine was first recorded in Synopsis of Golden Chamber (《金匮要略》), which was mainly produced by steaming and boiling. Its processing materials were diverse. In addition to rice wine, honey, Amomi Fructus, milk, Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum, and Carthami Flos were also recorded in ancient books, but with the evolution of time, the characteristic excipients gradually disappeared. Based on this, starting with different excipients, the author consulted the classics of materia medica and processing specifications in various regions, sorted out the historical evolution of Rehmanniae Radix processing, and explored new methods and new ideas to exert the maximum efficacy on this basis. At the same time, the effects of different processing excipients on the chemical components and pharmacodynamic effects of Rehmanniae Radix were analyzed. After literature review, it was found that Rehmanniae Radix mainly had the effects of clearing heat and cooling blood, nourishing Yin and generating fluid. Its traditional processing excipients generally used rice wine, Carthami Flos and others. After processing with different excipients, there was different effects on the chemical components and pharmacological effects of Rehmanniae Radix. In summary, this paper can provide useful reference for standardized research on different processed products of Rehmanniae Radix.

17.
Artigo em Chinês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-940609

RESUMO

This study systematically combed and analyzed the use of such terms as "prohibition", "contraindication", and "use with caution" in ancient Chinese books on materia medica and prescriptions, Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China(《中华人民共和国药典》), and teaching materials and monographs of Chinese materia medica by means of hermeneutics, commentariology, textology, and data mining, and explored the historical evolution and conceptual connotations of "prohibition", "contraindication", and "use with caution" in Chinese materia medica, so as to provide reference for standardizing their understandings and clinical reasonable medication. The "prohibition", "contraindication", and "use with caution" of Chinese materia medica were first proposed in the period of pre-Qin and Han dynasties. "Prohibition" and "contraindication" were separately developed in the Sui, Tang, and Five dynasties and Song, Jin, and Yuan dynasties and have been widely used since the Ming and Qing dynasties. The "use with caution" becomes popular rapidly in modern times and is often present in clinical medication together with "prohibition" and "contraindication". "Prohibition" basically means strictly prohibited and "contraindication" means to avoid as much as possible. The terms "prohibition", "contraindication", and "use with caution" have experienced evolution from the pre-Qin period to modern times, and they are used to describe the degree of restriction on drug use("prohibition" > " contraindication" > "use with caution").

18.
Artigo em Chinês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-940468

RESUMO

Xiao Xumingtang in The Catalogue of Famous Ancient Classics (The First Batch) issued by the National Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine is derived from the Important Prescriptions Worth a Thousand Gold for Emergency (Bei Ji Qian Jin Yao Fang) written by SUN Si-miao in the Tang dynasty. The present study systematically explored the origin, development, historical evolution, and clinical application of Xiao Xumingtang. As revealed by the results, Xiao Xumingtang as well as its analogues are primary prescriptions indicated for apoplexy before the Tang and Song dynasties and serve as the benchmark for the treatment of apoplexy. After the Song dynasty, due to the changes in the understanding of the pathogenesis of apoplexy and the limitations of the understanding of Xiao Xumingtang, its clinical application to apoplexy gradually decreased. In modern times, it has been re-recognized and applied, during which its clinical applications have undergone great changes. Its clinical applications are extensive, involving a variety of diseases related to the brain and nervous systems, such as stroke and its sequelae, peripheral facial paralysis, rheumatoid arthritis, hypertension, and other diseases related to the motor nervous system. Its primary indications are stroke and its sequelae, followed by peripheral facial paralysis. Other new indications are gradually found. This study is expected to provide references for the clinical application of Xiao Xumingtang and the transformation of new drugs.

19.
Artigo em Chinês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-940233

RESUMO

In this paper, by consulting the historical herbs and medical classics coupled with related literature in modern research, the historical edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia and local chronicles of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) along with the ancient historical evolution of the processing methods of Pinelliae Rhizoma origin as well as the related processing methods of Pinelliae Rhizoma origin from 1959 to 2020 were systematically collated and summarized. It was found that the main processing methods of Pinelliae Rhizoma origin were peeling, decoction washing, lime wrapping and sun-drying. However, stacking, peeling, sun-drying or oven-drying are the primary methods in modern local chronicles of TCM. Meanwhile, washing, peeling, removing fibrous roots and sun-drying are the main methods in Chinese Pharmacopoeia. In addition, there were some changes in the quality evaluation of Pinelliae Rhizoma in different historical periods. Round and white were the best in the quality evaluation of Pinelliae Rhizoma in ancient times, while the evaluation indexes were further refined to size, color, texture, powder property, purity and evenness in modern herbal works. In modern studies, the quality of Pinelliae Rhizoma was mostly evaluated by the chemical components such as alkaloids, total organic acids, polysaccharides, nucleosides, fingerprint and pharmacodynamics. At present, the purification and drying stages of Pinelliae Rhizoma are in the transitional stage between the traditional manual peeling and natural drying methods as well as the modern mechanized and large-scale production. Therefore, a reasonable and feasible modern processing methods and guiding standards of Pinelliae Rhizoma are developed urgently to normalize the processing of Pinelliae Rhizoma and ensure the quality of medicinal materials.

20.
Artigo em Chinês | WPRIM (Pacífico Ocidental) | ID: wpr-940189

RESUMO

Shengyang Yiweitang is one of the first 100 classical prescriptions published by the National Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine. It originated from the Clarifying Doubts about Damage from Internal and External Causes by physician LI Dongyuan of Jin dynasty, and is composed of Astragali Radix, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma, Poria, Pinelliae Rhizoma, Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium, Angelicae Pubescentis Radix, Saposhnikoviae Radix, Notopterygii Rhizoma et Radix, Bupleuri Radix, Paeoniae Radix Alba, Alismatis Rhizoma, and Coptidis Rhizoma. With the effects of replenishing Qi, promoting Yang, clearing heat and removing dampness, Shengyang Yiweitang is used to treat spleen-stomach weakness and dampness-heat accumulation syndrome. Using bibliometrics, the authors systematically sorted out the source,composition, dosage, preparation, efficacy, indications, principle of composition, origin and processing of drugs,and modern clinical application of the prescription, and explored its history and key information. Additionally, it was found that Shengyang Yiweitang was widely used in modern clinical practice and was suitable for multisystem diseases, of which digestive system (264) was the most common, accounting for 41.71%, followed by urogenital system (57, 9.00%) and nervous system (48, 7.58%). Although the treatment scope was wide, the pathogenesis of the diseases in traditional Chinese medicine belongs to "spleen-stomach weakness", which fully reflected Li's academic thought of "internal injury of spleen and stomach leads to various diseases". The key information of Shengyang Yiweitang was determined by summarizing the relevant ancient books and modern literature, so as to provide accurate reference for its rational clinical application and further research and development.

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