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1.
Intest Res ; 22(2): 172-185, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38720466

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Mirikizumab is a p19-directed anti-interleukin-23 antibody with potential efficacy against ulcerative colitis (UC). We evaluated the efficacy and safety of mirikizumab in a Japanese subpopulation with moderately to severely active UC from the LUCENT-1 and LUCENT-2 studies. METHODS: LUCENT-1 and LUCENT-2 were phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of mirikizumab therapy in adults with moderately to severely active UC. LUCENT-1 was a 12-week induction trial where patients were randomized 3:1 to receive intravenous mirikizumab 300 mg or placebo every 4 weeks (Q4W). Patients achieving a clinical response with mirikizumab following the induction study were re-randomized 2:1 to double-blind treatment with either mirikizumab 200 mg or placebo subcutaneously Q4W during the 40-week maintenance study. The primary outcomes were clinical remission at week 12 of LUCENT-1 and week 40 of LUCENT-2. RESULTS: A total of 137 patients enrolled in Japan were randomized to mirikizumab (n = 102) or placebo (n = 35). Compared with placebo, patients who received mirikizumab showed numerically higher clinical remission at week 12 of induction (32.4% [n = 33] vs. 2.9% [n = 1]) and at week 40 of maintenance (48.9% [n = 23] vs. 28.0% [n = 7]). A greater number of patients achieved key secondary endpoints in the mirikizumab group compared with placebo. The frequency of treatment-emergent adverse events was similar across mirikizumab and placebo groups. Efficacy and safety results observed in the Japanese subpopulation were generally consistent with those in the overall population. CONCLUSIONS: Mirikizumab induction and maintenance treatments were effective in Japanese patients with moderately to severely active UC. No new safety concerns were identified.

2.
Cells ; 13(9)2024 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38727323

RESUMO

IL-36 cytokines are emerging as beneficial in immunity against pathogens and cancers but can also be detrimental when dysregulated in autoimmune and autoinflammatory conditions. Interest in targeting IL-36 activity for therapeutic purposes is rapidly growing, yet many unknowns about the functions of these cytokines remain. Thus, the availability of robust research tools is essential for both fundamental basic science and pre-clinical studies to fully access outcomes of any manipulation of the system. For this purpose, a floxed Il1rl2, the gene encoding the IL-36 receptor, mouse strain was developed to facilitate the generation of conditional knockout mice. The targeted locus was engineered to contain an inverted mCherry reporter sequence that upon Cre-mediated recombination will be flipped and expressed under the control of the endogenous Il1rl2 promoter. This feature can be used to confirm knockout in individual cells but also as a reporter to determine which cells express the IL-36 receptor IL-1RL2. The locus was confirmed to function as intended and further used to demonstrate the expression of IL-1RL2 in barrier tissues. Il1rl2 expression was detected in leukocytes in all barrier tissues. Interestingly, strong expression was observed in epithelial cells at locations in direct contact with the environment such as the skin, oral mucosa, the esophagus, and the upper airways, but almost absent from epithelial cells at more inward facing sites, including lung alveoli, the small intestine, and the colon. These findings suggest specialized functions of IL-1RL2 in outward facing epithelial tissues and cells. The generated mouse model should prove valuable in defining such functions and may also facilitate basic and translational research.


Assuntos
Camundongos Knockout , Animais , Camundongos , Genes Reporter , Loci Gênicos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Receptores de Interleucina-1/metabolismo , Receptores de Interleucina-1/genética , Proteína 1 Semelhante a Receptor de Interleucina-1/metabolismo , Proteína 1 Semelhante a Receptor de Interleucina-1/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica
3.
J Transl Med ; 22(1): 439, 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38720389

RESUMO

Despite advances in treatment strategies, colorectal cancer (CRC) continues to cause significant morbidity and mortality, with mounting evidence a close link between immune system dysfunctions issued. Interleukin-2 receptor gamma (IL-2RG) plays a pivotal role as a common subunit receptor in the IL-2 family cytokines and activates the JAK-STAT pathway. This study delves into the role of Interleukin-2 receptor gamma (IL-2RG) within the tumor microenvironment and investigates potential microRNAs (miRNAs) that directly inhibit IL-2RG, aiming to discern their impact on CRC clinical outcomes. Bioinformatics analysis revealed a significant upregulation of IL-2RG mRNA in TCGA-COAD samples and showed strong correlations with the infiltration of various lymphocytes. Single-cell analysis corroborated these findings, highlighting IL-2RG expression in critical immune cell subsets. To explore miRNA involvement in IL-2RG dysregulation, mRNA was isolated from the tumor tissues and lymphocytes of 258 CRC patients and 30 healthy controls, and IL-2RG was cloned into the pcDNA3.1/CT-GFP-TOPO vector. Human embryonic kidney cell lines (HEK-293T) were transfected with this construct. Our research involved a comprehensive analysis of miRPathDB, miRWalk, and Targetscan databases to identify the miRNAs associated with the 3' UTR of human IL-2RG. The human microRNA (miRNA) molecules, hsa-miR-7-5p and hsa-miR-26b-5p, have been identified as potent suppressors of IL-2RG expression in CRC patients. Specifically, the downregulation of hsa-miR-7-5p and hsa-miR-26b-5p has been shown to result in the upregulation of IL-2RG mRNA expression in these patients. Prognostic evaluation of IL-2RG, hsa-miR-7-5p, and hsa-miR-26b-5p, using TCGA-COAD data and patient samples, established that higher IL-2RG expression and lower expression of both miRNAs were associated with poorer outcomes. Additionally, this study identified several long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs), such as ZFAS1, SOX21-AS1, SNHG11, SNHG16, SNHG1, DLX6-AS1, GAS5, SNHG6, and MALAT1, which may act as competing endogenous RNA molecules for IL2RG by sequestering shared hsa-miR-7-5p and hsa-miR-26b-5p. In summary, this investigation underscores the potential utility of IL-2RG, hsa-miR-7-5p, and hsa-miR-26b-5p as serum and tissue biomarkers for predicting CRC patient prognosis while also offering promise as targets for immunotherapy in CRC management.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Subunidade gama Comum de Receptores de Interleucina , MicroRNAs , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sequência de Bases , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/imunologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Células HEK293 , Imunoterapia , Subunidade gama Comum de Receptores de Interleucina/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Prognóstico
4.
Clin Transplant Res ; 38(1): 1-6, 2024 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38725179

RESUMO

Following kidney transplantation, antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) occurs when the antibodies of the immune system attack the transplanted organ, leading to damage of the kidney tissue. De novo human leukocyte antigen donor-specific antibodies (HLA-DSAs) play a key role in AMR. Current therapeutic approaches include intravenous immunoglobulin, anti-CD20 antibodies, and plasmapheresis. In cases resistant to treatment, proteasome inhibitors and C5 inhibitors may be employed. Nevertheless, a pressing need exists for new medications to improve transplant survival and reduce complications. In the context of AMR, interleukin (IL)-6 is instrumental in the development and maturation of B cells into plasma cells, which then produce HLA-DSAs targeting the allograft. IL-6 inhibitors are currently under investigation and show promise due to the essential role of IL-6 in the immune response; however, additional research is necessary.

5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(9)2024 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38731867

RESUMO

Interleukin-4 (IL4) is a Th2 cytokine that can signal through two different receptors, one of which-the type II receptor-is overexpressed by various cancer cells. Previously, we have shown that type II IL4 receptor signaling increases proliferation and metastasis in mouse models of breast cancer, as well as increasing glucose and glutamine metabolism. Here, we expand on those findings to determine mechanistically how IL4 signaling links glucose metabolism and histone acetylation to drive proliferation in the context of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). We used a combination of cellular, biochemical, and genomics approaches to interrogate TNBC cell lines, which represent a cancer type where high expression of the type II IL4 receptor is linked to reduced survival. Our results indicate that type II IL4 receptor activation leads to increased glucose uptake, Akt and ACLY activation, and histone acetylation in TNBC cell lines. Inhibition of glucose uptake through the deletion of Glut1 ablates IL4-induced proliferation. Additionally, pharmacological inhibition of histone acetyltransferase P300 attenuates IL4-mediated gene expression and proliferation in vitro. Our work elucidates a role for type II IL4 receptor signaling in promoting TNBC progression, and highlights type II IL4 signaling, as well as histone acetylation, as possible targets for therapy.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células , Epigênese Genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas , Humanos , Feminino , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Interleucina-4/metabolismo , Interleucina-4/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Glucose/metabolismo , Receptores de Interleucina-4/metabolismo , Receptores de Interleucina-4/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Acetilação , Progressão da Doença , Animais , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 1/metabolismo , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 1/genética
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(9)2024 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38732000

RESUMO

Alterations in cellular signaling, chronic inflammation, and tissue remodeling contribute to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development. The release of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) upon tissue injury and the ensuing sterile inflammation have also been attributed a role in HCC pathogenesis. Cargoes of extracellular vesicles (EVs) and/or EVs themselves have been listed among circulating DAMPs but only partially investigated in HCC. Mitochondria-derived vesicles (MDVs), a subpopulation of EVs, are another missing link in the comprehension of the molecular mechanisms underlying the onset and progression of HCC biology. EVs have been involved in HCC growth, dissemination, angiogenesis, and immunosurveillance escape. The contribution of MDVs to these processes is presently unclear. Pyroptosis triggers systemic inflammation through caspase-dependent apoptotic cell death and is implicated in tumor immunity. The analysis of this process, together with MDV characterization, may help capture the relationship among HCC development, mitochondrial quality control, and inflammation. The combination of immune checkpoint inhibitors (i.e., atezolizumab and bevacizumab) has been approved as a synergistic first-line systemic treatment for unresectable or advanced HCC. The lack of biomarkers that may allow prediction of treatment response and, therefore, patient selection, is a major unmet need. Herein, we overview the molecular mechanisms linking mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation, and pyroptosis, and discuss how immunotherapy targets, at least partly, these routes.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Vesículas Extracelulares , Inflamação , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Mitocôndrias , Piroptose , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Animais
7.
Heliyon ; 10(9): e30013, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38742061

RESUMO

Objective: Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) was a stroke with high occurrence and mortality. At the early stage, SAH patients have severe cerebral injury which is contributed by inflammation. In this study, we aimed to explore the anti-inflammation effect of low-dose IL-2 in SAH mice. Methods: The 12-week-old C57BL/6J male mice were conducted with SAH surgery (Internal carotid artery puncture method). Different dose of IL-2 was injected intraperitoneally for 1 h, 1 day, and 2 days after SAH. Single-cell suspension and flow cytometry were used for the test of regulatory T (Treg) cells. Immunofluorescence staining was used to investigate the phenotypic polarization of microglia and inflammation response around neurons. Enzyme-Linked Immuno-sorbent Assay (ELISA) was applied to detect the level of pro-inflammatory factors. Results: Low-dose IL-2 could enrich the Treg cells and drive the microglia polarizing to M2. The level of pro-inflammatory factors, IL-1α, IL-6, and TNF-α decreased in the low-dose IL-2 group. The inflammation response around neurons was attenuated. Low-dose IL-2 could increase the number of Treg cells, which could exert a neuroprotective effect against inflammation after SAH. Conclusion: Low-dose IL-2 had the potential to be an effective clinical method to inhibit inflammation after SAH.

8.
J Pain Res ; 17: 1683-1692, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38742243

RESUMO

Purpose: Pain is an understudied physiological effect of spaceflight. Changes in inflammatory and tissue degradation markers are often associated with painful conditions. Our aim was to evaluate the changes in markers associated with tissue deterioration after a short-term spaceflight. Patients and Methods: Plasma levels of markers for systemic inflammation and tissue degeneration markers were assessed in two astronauts before and within 24 h after the 17-day Axiom Space AX-1 mission. Results: After the spaceflight, C-reactive protein (CRP) was reduced in both astronauts, while INFγ, GM-CSF, TNFα, BDNF, and all measured interleukins were consistently increased. Chemokines demonstrated variable changes, with consistent positive changes in CCL3, 4, 8, 22 and CXCL8, 9, 10, and consistent negative change in CCL8. Markers associated with tissue degradation and bone turnover demonstrated consistent increases in MMP1, MMP13, NTX and OPG, and consistent decreases in MMP3 and MMP9. Conclusion: Spaceflight induced changes in the markers of systemic inflammation, tissue deterioration, and bone resorption in two astronauts after a short, 17-day, which were often consistent with those observed in painful conditions on Earth. However, some differences, such as a consistent decrease in CRP, were noted. All records for the effect of space travel on human health are critical for improving our understanding of the effect of this unique environment on humans.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38733591

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is one of the most catastrophic forms of genetic heterotopic ossification (HO). FOP is characterized by severe, progressive inflammatory flare-ups, that often lead to HO. The flare-ups are associated with increased inflammatory cytokine production, suggesting auto-inflammatory features driven by interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß). This study describes the short- and long-term responses of FOP patients to anti-IL-1 therapy. METHODS: Previously, we reported that a patient with FOP treated with anti-IL-1 agents showed dramatically lower rates of flare-ups, improved flare-up symptoms, decreased use of glucocorticoids, and apparently decreased size of residual lesions. Plasma analyses also showed marked elevation in IL-1ß levels during a FOP flare, further supporting a role of IL-1ß in the pathogenesis of FOP flares. Here, we report results from long-term therapy with IL-1 inhibitors in that patient, and describe 3 additional patients, from two medical centers. RESULTS: All 4 patients showed persistent improvement in flare activity during treatment with IL-1 inhibitors, with minimal formation of new HO sites. Two patients who stopped therapy experienced resurgence of flare activity that was re-suppressed upon re-initiation. These patients had IL-1ß levels comparable to those in IL-1ß-driven diseases. Child Health Assessment Questionnaires confirmed extensive subjective improvements in the pain and general health visual analogue scales. CONCLUSION: This case series demonstrates significant benefits from IL-1 inhibitors for reducing flare activity and improving the general health of patients with FOP. These data provide strong support for additional studies to better understand the function of IL-1 inhibition, primarily in reducing formation new HO. FUNDING: RH received support from the International FOP Association ACT grant; ECH received support from NIH/NIAMS R01AR073015 and the UCSF Robert Kroc Chair in Connective Tissue and Rheumatic Diseases III.

10.
Neuroscience ; 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38734302

RESUMO

Postoperative stroke is a challenging and potentially devastating complication after elective carotid endarterectomy (CEA). We previously demonstrated that transmembrane protein 166 (TMEM166) levels were directly related to neuronal damage after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. In this subsequent clinical study, we aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of TMEM166 in patients suffering from post-CEA strokes. Thirty-five patients undergoing uncomplicated elective CEA and 8 patients who suffered ischemic strokes after CEA were recruited. We evaluated the protein level and expression of TMEM166 in patients diagnosed with postoperative strokes and compared it to those in patients who underwent uncomplicated elective CEA. Blood samples and carotid artery plaques were collected and analyzed. High expressions of TMEM166 were detected by immunofluorescence staining and Western Blot in carotid artery plaques of all patients who underwent CEA. Furthermore, circulating TMEM166 concentrations were statistically higher in post-CEA stroke patients than in patients allocated to the control group. Mean plasma concentrations of inflammatory markers, including interleukin 6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP), were also elevated in patients with postoperative strokes. Therefore, based on these findings, we hypothesize that elevated TMEM166 levels, accompanied by a strong inflammatory response, serve as a useful biomarker for risk assessment of postoperative stroke following CEA.

11.
Front Neurosci ; 18: 1389132, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38707593

RESUMO

Fever during childbirth, which is often observed in clinical settings, is characterized by a temperature of 38°C or higher, and can occur due to infectious and non-infectious causes. A significant proportion of non-infectious causes are associated with epidural-related maternal fever during vaginal delivery. Therapeutic interventions are required because fever has adverse effects on both mother and newborn. Effective treatment options for ERMF are lacking. As it is difficult to distinguish it from intrauterine infections such as chorioamnionitis, antibiotic administration remains the only viable option. We mentioned the importance of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist in the sterile inflammatory fever pathway and the hormonal influence on temperature regulation during childbirth, an important factor in elucidating the pathophysiology of ERMF. This review spotlighted the etiology and management of ERMF, underscoring recent advancements in our understanding of hypothalamic involvement in thermoregulation and its link to sterile inflammation. We propose to deepen the understanding of ERMF within the broader context of autonomic neuroscience, aiming to foster the development of targeted therapies.

12.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 134: 112173, 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38728884

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD) is characterized by a high incidence and mortality rate, highlighting the need for biomarkers to detect ILD early in RA patients. Previous studies have shown the protective effects of Interleukin-22 (IL-22) in pulmonary fibrosis using mouse models. This study aims to assess IL-22 expression in RA-ILD to validate foundational experiments and explore its diagnostic value. The study included 66 newly diagnosed RA patients (33 with ILD, 33 without ILD) and 14 healthy controls (HC). ELISA was utilized to measure IL-22 levels and perform intergroup comparisons. The correlation between IL-22 levels and the severity of RA-ILD was examined. Logistic regression analysis was employed to screen potential predictive factors for RA-ILD risk and establish a predictive nomogram. The diagnostic value of IL-22 in RA-ILD was assessed using ROC. Subsequently, the data were subjected to 30-fold cross-validation. IL-22 levels in the RA-ILD group were lower than in the RA-No-ILD group and were inversely correlated with the severity of RA-ILD. Logistic regression analysis identified IL-22, age, smoking history, anti-mutated citrullinated vimentin antibody (MCV-Ab), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) as independent factors for distinguishing between the groups. The diagnostic value of IL-22 in RA-ILD was moderate (AUC = 0.75) and improved when combined with age, smoking history, MCV-Ab and MCHC (AUC = 0.97). After 30-fold cross-validation, the average AUC was 0.886. IL-22 expression is dysregulated in the pathogenesis of RA-ILD. This study highlights the potential of IL-22, along with other factors, as a valuable biomarker for assessing RA-ILD occurrence and progression.

13.
Exp Mol Pathol ; 137: 104898, 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38729059

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: NK cells are an untapped resource for cancer therapy. Sarcomas transduced with lentiviruses to express human IL-12 are only cleared in mice bearing mature human NK cells. However, systemic inflammation limits IL-12 utilization. Fate control a.k.a. "suicide mechanisms" regulate unchecked systemic inflammation caused by cellular immunotherapies. Despite increasing utilization, there remains limited data on immune consequences or tumor-directed effects of fate control. OBJECTIVES: We sought to engage the mutant thymidylate kinase (mTMPK) metabolic fate control system to regulate systemic inflammation and assess the impact on NK cell effector functions. METHODS: Primary human sarcoma short-passage samples and cell lines were transduced with LV/hu-IL-12_mTMPK engineering expression of IL-12 and an AZT-associated fate control enzyme. We assessed transduced sarcoma responses to AZT engagement and subsequent modulation of NK cell functions as measured by inflammatory cytokine production and cytotoxicity. RESULTS: AZT administration to transduced (LV/hu-IL-12_mTMPK) short-passage primary human sarcomas and human Ewing sarcoma, osteosarcoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines, abrogated the robust expression of human IL-12. Fate control activation elicited a specific dose-dependent cytotoxic effect measured by metabolic activity (WST-1) and cell death (Incucyte). NK effector functions of IFN-γ and cytotoxic granule release were significantly augmented despite IL-12 abrogation. This correlated with preferentially induced expression of NK cell activation ligands. CONCLUSIONS: mTMPK fate control engagement terminates transduced sarcoma IL-12 production and triggers cell death, but also augments an NK cell-mediated response coinciding with metabolic stress activating surface ligand induction. Fate control engagement could offer a novel immune activation method for NK cell-mediated cancer clearance.

14.
Adv Med Sci ; 2024 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38705460

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Oral diseases act as a silent epidemic, and the pathogenetic role of interleukin-33/ suppression of tumorigenicity-2 axis (IL-33/ST2) remains unclear due to a lack of literature. This review has attempted to highlight the importance of this axis in oral diseases, which may be helpful in developing therapeutic modalities required to halt disease progression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A thorough search was conducted using various databases. Original research articles that assessed both IL-33 and ST2 levels in oral diseases using different techniques were included in the review. The risk of bias for each study was analyzed using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2 (QUADAS-2) tool and Review Manager 5.4 was used to output the results. RESULTS: In the qualitative data synthesis we included 13 published articles. The most commonly used method was serum estimation, while methods with optimistic results were saliva, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. The predominant mechanism of action was nuclear factor kappa B signaling and type 2 immune response. However, salivary gland epithelial cell activation, activation of mast cells, type 1 immune response, and upregulated angiogenesis are crucial in mediating IL-33/ST2 signaling in oral diseases. CONCLUSIONS: Accumulating evidence demonstrates that the IL-33/ST2 axis is a fundamental pathogenetic mechanism of oral diseases of inflammatory, autoimmune, or neoplastic origin.

15.
Pain Ther ; 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724743

RESUMO

Chronic pain, a complex and debilitating condition, involves intricate interactions between central and peripheral inflammatory processes. Cytokines, specifically tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukins (IL), are key mediators in the initiation and maintenance of chronic pain states. Sensory neurons expressing receptors for cytokines like TNF, IL-1, and IL-6 are implicated in peripheral sensitization, contributing to increased signaling of painful sensations. The potential of targeting TNF and IL for therapeutic intervention in chronic pain states is the focus of this review, with preclinical and clinical evidence supporting the use of TNF and IL modulators for pain management. The physiological and pathological roles of TNF in neuropathic pain is complex. Experimental evidence highlights the effectiveness of TNF modulation in mitigating pain symptoms in animal models and displays promising outcomes of clinical trials with TNF inhibitors, such as infliximab and etanercept. ILs, a diverse group of cytokines, including IL-1, IL-6, and IL-17, are discussed for their contributions to chronic pain through inflammation and peripheral sensitization. Specific IL modulators, such as secukinumab and tocilizumab, have shown potential in managing chronic neuropathic pain, as demonstrated in various studies and clinical trials. The pharmacokinetics, safety profiles, and challenges associated with TNF and IL modulators highlight the need for cautious medication monitoring in clinical practice. Comparative evaluations have revealed distinct efficacy and safety profiles among different cytokine modulators, emphasizing the need for personalized approaches based on the specific underlying causes of pain. Further research is necessary to elucidate the intricate mechanisms by which cytokines contribute to chronic pain, as well as to understand why they may affect pain differently in various contexts. Additionally, long-term safety profiles of cytokine modulators require more thorough investigation. This continued exploration holds the promise of enhancing our comprehension of cytokine modulation in chronic pain and shaping more potent therapeutic strategies for the future.

17.
Immunol Res ; 2024 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38698191

RESUMO

The pathological manifestation of the inflammatory process primarily stems from the heightened release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, with IL-1ß standing out as a pivotal cytokine. The excessive presence of IL-1ß disrupts immune signaling, thereby assuming a pathogenic and exacerbating role in the pathophysiology of numerous inflammatory diseases. Regulating IL-1ß levels becomes crucial, and the IL-1Ra molecule serves this purpose by binding to the IL-1R1 receptor, thereby impeding the binding of IL-1ß. Several pharmaceuticals have entered the market, aiming to neutralize IL-1ß's biological function through diverse mechanisms. However, the existing IL-1ß inhibitors are recombinant proteins, characterized by a high production cost and limited stability. Therefore, this study aimed to predict a peptide, named DAP1-2, based on the IL-1Ra molecule. DAP1-2 was designed to attenuate responses triggered by IL-1ß by blocking the IL-1R1 receptor. The selection of amino acids from the IL-1Ra molecule (PDB: I1RA) that interact with the three domains of the IL-1R1 receptor was performed using Swiss PDB Viewer. After prediction, chemical synthesis was made using the Fmoc-Synthesis technique. The efficacy of DAP1-2 was assessed using RAW 264.7 cells, which were exposed to LPS (5 µg/mL) for 24 h to induce IL-1ß expression and treated with the peptides in different concentrations. IL-1ß levels were assessed using ELISA, and the gene expression of IL-1ß was measured by RT-qPCR, additionally to the viability test. Results revealed a significant reduction in IL-1ß levels and gene expression in cells stimulated by LPS and treated with DAP1-2 in different concentrations. Furthermore, the MTT assay confirmed the nontoxic nature of the peptides on the cell lineage. This alternative approach shows promise as an IL-1 inhibitor, due to the stability, ease of production, and cost-effectiveness provided by the use of synthetic peptides.

18.
Ir J Med Sci ; 2024 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38698250

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cytokines, including interleukin-12 (IL-12), are proteins that regulate cell survival, proliferation, differentiation, and function. IL-12 is a heterodimeric proinflammatory cytokine. It possesses tumoricidal properties and promotes M1 macrophage polarization and IFN-γ production by T helper (Th1) cells, which in turn stimulates the antitumor cytotoxic cluster of eight positive (CD8+) and natural killer cells, therefore activating an effector immune response against tumor cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Herein, the IL-2 levels of 60 patients with generalized chronic periodontitis (GCP) were assessed. Plaque index, gingival index, pocket probing depth, bleeding on probing percentage (BOP %), and clinical attachment loss were the clinical indicators reported. RESULTS: Patients with GCP in the pretreatment group had substantially lower mean IL-12 levels than those in the post-treatment group. Short-term, nonsurgical treatment (NST) considerably improved periodontal indices and increased IL-12 levels, thereby reducing oral cancer risk. CONCLUSION: NST is a cost-effective and accessible cancer prevention procedure for general dentists.

19.
World J Stem Cells ; 16(4): 444-458, 2024 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38690512

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leukemia stem cells (LSCs) are found to be one of the main factors contributing to poor therapeutic effects in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), as they are protected by the bone marrow microenvironment (BMM) against conventional therapies. Gossypol acetic acid (GAA), which is extracted from the seeds of cotton plants, exerts anti-tumor roles in several types of cancer and has been reported to induce apoptosis of LSCs by inhibiting Bcl2. AIM: To investigate the exact roles of GAA in regulating LSCs under different microenvironments and the exact mechanism. METHODS: In this study, LSCs were magnetically sorted from AML cell lines and the CD34+CD38- population was obtained. The expression of leucine-rich pentatricopeptide repeat-containing protein (LRPPRC) and forkhead box M1 (FOXM1) was evaluated in LSCs, and the effects of GAA on malignancies and mitochondrial function were measured. RESULTS: LRPPRC was found to be upregulated, and GAA inhibited cell proliferation by degrading LRPPRC. GAA induced LRPPRC degradation and inhibited the activation of interleukin 6 (IL-6)/janus kinase (JAK) 1/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 signaling, enhancing chemosensitivity in LSCs against conventional chemotherapies, including L-Asparaginase, Dexamethasone, and cytarabine. GAA was also found to downregulate FOXM1 indirectly by regulating LRPPRC. Furthermore, GAA induced reactive oxygen species accumulation, disturbed mitochondrial homeostasis, and caused mitochondrial dysfunction. By inhibiting IL-6/JAK1/STAT3 signaling via degrading LRPPRC, GAA resulted in the elimination of LSCs. Meanwhile, GAA induced oxidative stress and subsequent cell damage by causing mitochondrial damage. CONCLUSION: Taken together, the results indicate that GAA might overcome the BMM protective effect and be considered as a novel and effective combination therapy for AML.

20.
Oncoimmunology ; 13(1): 2352179, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38746869

RESUMO

Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) exhibit remarkable phenotypic heterogeneity, with specific subsets implicated in immunosuppression in various malignancies. However, whether and how they attenuate anti-tumor immunity in gastric cancer (GC) remains elusive. CPT1C, a unique isoform of carnitine palmitoyltransferase pivotal in regulating fatty acid oxidation, is briefly indicated as a protumoral metabolic mediator in the tumor microenvironment (TME) of GC. In the present study, we initially identified specific subsets of fibroblasts exclusively overexpressing CPT1C, hereby termed them as CPT1C+CAFs. Subsequent findings indicated that CPT1C+CAFs fostered a stroma-enriched and immunosuppressive TME as they correlated with extracellular matrix-related molecular features and enrichment of both immunosuppressive subsets, especially M2-like macrophages, and multiple immune-related pathways. Next, we identified that CPT1C+CAFs promoted the M2-like phenotype of macrophage in vitro. Bioinformatic analyses unveiled the robust IL-6 signaling between CPT1C+CAFs and M2-like phenotype of macrophage and identified CPT1C+CAFs as the primary source of IL-6. Meanwhile, suppressing CPT1C expression in CAFs significantly decreased IL-6 secretion in vitro. Lastly, we demonstrated the association of CPT1C+CAFs with therapeutic resistance. Notably, GC patients with high CPT1C+CAFs infiltration responded poorly to immunotherapy in clinical cohort. Collectively, our data not only present the novel identification of CPT1C+CAFs as immunosuppressive subsets in TME of GC, but also reveal the underlying mechanism that CPT1C+CAFs impair tumor immunity by secreting IL-6 to induce the immunosuppressive M2-like phenotype of macrophage in GC.


Assuntos
Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer , Carnitina O-Palmitoiltransferase , Interleucina-6 , Macrófagos , Microambiente Tumoral , Humanos , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Carnitina O-Palmitoiltransferase/genética , Carnitina O-Palmitoiltransferase/metabolismo , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/metabolismo , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/imunologia , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/patologia , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/genética , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Neoplasias Gástricas/imunologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Animais , Camundongos , Masculino , Feminino , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Tolerância Imunológica
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