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1.
Ital J Pediatr ; 50(1): 102, 2024 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38764095

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a global perception that psychotropic utilization in children and adolescents is increasing, especially with the onset of COVID-19 pandemic. Available literature data on paediatric psychotropic medication prescriptions in Italy are limited to one or few regions and not updated. The aim of this study was to provide updated data on psychotropic prescriptions referred to the whole Italian paediatric population, as overall and by subgroups of medications and to evaluate if the COVID-19 pandemic during 2020 had an impact on prescription rates. METHODS: A descriptive study on psychotropic drug utilization in children and adolescents (< 18 years) resident in all Italian regions during 2020 was performed. Patients registered in the Pharmaceutical Prescriptions database with at least one prescription/dispensing of a psychotropic medication (antipsychotics-N05A), (antidepressants-N06A) and (psychostimulants-N06BA) during the study period were considered. The indicators used were the prescription rate (number of prescriptions per 1000 children) and prevalence of use (proportion of the paediatric population with at least one prescription in the relevant year). RESULTS: During the 2020 the prevalence of psychotropic drug use in the paediatric population was 0.3%, increased of 7.8% if compared to 2019. The same trend was observed for the prescription rate, which recorded an average of 28.2 per 1000 children with an increase of 11.6% if compared to previous year, representing the 0.6% of the overall drug use in this age group. The data showed a growing trend prescription by age, reaching the peak in adolescents aged 12-17 years old, with a prescription rate of 65 per 1000 children and a prevalence of 0.71%. Considering the subgroups of psychotropic medications, the highest prevalence of use was found for antipsychotic drugs, received by the 0.19% of the paediatric population during 2020. CONCLUSIONS: Psychotropic drug utilization in children and adolescents has grown during 2020 in Italy and worldwide, raising alarms from health care clinicians and patient advocates about the increase of burden of mental diseases in paediatric population during the COVID-19 pandemic. A more systematic monitoring of the use of psychotropic medications should be implemented in all countries for collecting relevant information about children and adolescents taking psychotropic drugs, in order to address the present and the future of the mental health of the paediatric population.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Psicotrópicos , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Criança , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Psicotrópicos/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Masculino , Feminino , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pré-Escolar , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Medicamentos/tendências , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Expert Rev Neurother ; 24(6): 575-584, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38771657

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a disabling psychiatric condition with a worldwide prevalence between 6% and 9%, and more common in the female than in the male sex. The aim of this paper is to review and comment on the different factors that might explain the discrepancies in the pharmacological management of women and men. AREAS COVERED: The available literature shows that there exists a vulnerability of women to develop PTSD that may depend on neurobiological as well as environmental/cultural factors. These variables might influence the clinical picture, the outcome and the response to specific treatments, given their consequences on the pharmacokinetics of commonly prescribed drugs. Women suffering from PTSD are more prone to consult and receive more prescriptions of psychotropic drugs than men. However, it is evident that the particular stages of a women's life such as pregnancy or breastfeeding might require a specific evaluation and care. EXPERT OPINION: It is necessary to explore the pharmacokinetics of compounds highlighting sex-related differences, and their safety during pregnancy and lactation. Taking care of differences between women and men should represent a main focus of research, while being a primary target towards a really tailored pharmacological treatment of PTSD.


Assuntos
Psicotrópicos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Humanos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Masculino , Psicotrópicos/uso terapêutico , Gravidez , Caracteres Sexuais , Fatores Sexuais
3.
Actas Dermosifiliogr ; 2024 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38768806

RESUMO

Trichotillomania (TTM) is an obsessive-compulsive disorder in which affected individuals recurrently pull-out hair from any region of the body, causing hair loss or alopecia. The management of TTM is a therapeutic challenge for dermatologists and consists of a combination of pharmacological and non-pharmacological alternatives. Cognitive-behavioral therapy has successfully been used to treat TTM. However, not all patients are willing to follow this treatment strategy. Unconventional support tools are proposed, such as electronic devices, internet therapies and microneedling. N-acetylcysteine and memantine are considered suitable first-line therapies thanks to their favorable safety and efficacy profile, low risk of adverse effects, and significant benefits. The use of other drugs, including fluoxetine, clomipramine, olanzapine, and naltrexone has limited evidence of variable efficacy. The present review illustrates the current treatment modalities for the management of TTM.

4.
J Intensive Care Soc ; 25(2): 171-180, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38737305

RESUMO

Background: Many people survive critical illness with the burden of new or worsened mental health issues and sleep disturbances. We examined the frequency of psychotropic prescribing after critical illness, comparing critical care to non-critical care hospitalised survivors, and whether this varied in important subgroups. Methods: This retrospective cohort study included 23,340 critical care and 367,185 non-critical care hospitalised adults from 2012 through 2019 in Lothian, Scotland, who survived to discharge. Results: One-third of critical care survivors (32%; 7527/23,340) received a psychotropic prescription within 90 days after hospital discharge (25% antidepressants; 14% anxiolytics/hypnotics; 4% antipsychotics/mania medicines). In contrast, 15% (54,589/367,185) of non-critical care survivors received a psychotropic prescription (12% antidepressants; 5% anxiolytics/hypnotics; 2% antipsychotics/mania medicines). Among patients without psychotropic prescriptions within 180 days prior to hospitalisation, after hospital discharge, the critical care group had a higher incidence of psychotropic prescription (10.3%; 1610/15,609) compared with the non-critical care group (3.2%; 9743/307,429); unadjusted hazard ratio (HR) 3.39, 95% CI: 3.22-3.57. After adjustment for potential confounders, the risk remained elevated (adjusted HR 2.03, 95% CI: 1.91-2.16), persisted later in follow-up (90-365 days; adjusted HR 1.38, 95% CI: 1.30-1.46), and was more pronounced in those without recorded comorbidities (adjusted HR 3.49, 95% CI: 3.22-3.78). Conclusions: Critical care survivors have a higher risk of receiving psychotropic prescriptions than hospitalised patients, with a significant proportion receiving benzodiazepines and other hypnotics. Future research should focus on the requirement for and safety of psychotropic medicines in survivors of critical illness, to help guide policy for clinical practice.

5.
Psychiatry Res ; 337: 115946, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38703562

RESUMO

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is an important regulatory protein in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. Several studies have reported the relationship between peripheral BDNF concentrations and the use of psychoactive drugs. However, the results remain controversial. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of psychoactive drugs on BDNF concentrations and to explore the association between changes in BDNF concentrations and improvements in clinical scores. A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted. Six electronic databases, including PubMed, Scopus, Medline, Web of Science, Google Scholar and Science Direct, were searched. Changes in BDNF concentrations were compared before and after psychoactive treatment, using the standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI). Twenty-three studies were included. A significant increase in serum BDNF concentrations was observed after treatment with antipsychotics (SMD=0.43; 95 %CI: 0.26, 0.60) and antidepressants (SMD=0.49; 95 %CI: 0.23, 0.74). However, the plasma BDNF concentration was not affected by antidepressant and antipsychotic medication. Although an improvement in clinical scores was observed after treatment, no significant association was observed between changes in BDNF concentrations and the changes in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) scores. In conclusion, antidepressants and antipsychotics increase serum BDNF concentrations.

6.
Drug Metab Rev ; 56(2): 164-174, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38655747

RESUMO

Due to legal, political, and cultural changes, the use of cannabis has rapidly increased in recent years. Research has demonstrated that the cannabinoids cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) inhibit and induce cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes. The objective of this review is to evaluate the effect of CBD and THC on the activity of CYP450 enzymes and the implications for drug-drug interactions (DDIs) with psychotropic agents that are CYP substrates. A systematic search was conducted using PubMed, Scopus, Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) and PsychINFO. Search terms included 'cannabidiol', 'tetrahydrocannabinol', and 'cytochrome P450'. A total of seven studies evaluating the interaction of THC and CBD with CYP450 enzymes and psychotropic drugs were included. Both preclinical and clinical studies were included. Results from the included studies indicate that both CBD and THC inhibit several CYP450 enzymes including, but not limited to, CYP1A2, CYP3C19, and CYP2B6. While there are a few known CYP450 enzymes that are induced by THC and CBD, the induction of CYP450 enzymes is an understudied area of research and lacks clinical data. The inhibitory effects observed by CBD and THC on CYP450 enzymes vary in magnitude and may decrease the metabolism of psychotropic agents, cause changes in plasma levels of psychotropic medications, and increase adverse effects. Our findings clearly present interactions between THC and CBD and several CYP450 enzymes, providing clinicians evidence of a high risk of DDIs for patients who consume both cannabis and psychotropic medication. However, more clinical research is necessary before results are applied to clinical settings.


Assuntos
Canabidiol , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450 , Dronabinol , Interações Medicamentosas , Animais , Humanos , Canabidiol/farmacologia , Inibidores das Enzimas do Citocromo P-450/farmacologia , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Dronabinol/farmacologia , Psicotrópicos/farmacologia
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38624143

RESUMO

In December 2022, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) of Japan issued and implemented the guideline for evaluating the effects of psychotropic drugs on motor vehicle driving performance. This guideline recommends the use of a tiered approach to assess clinically meaningful driving impairment. It is noted that adverse events cannot be solely explained by pharmacokinetics, as the onset and duration of these events vary. Among these adverse events, those affecting alertness, such as drowsiness caused by psychotropic drugs on driving performance, are more frequently observed during initial treatment stages and dose escalation. Hence, when evaluating the effects of psychotropic drugs on driving performance, it becomes crucial to assess the persistence of clinically meaningful impairment. Therefore, the MHLW guideline, developed by the authors, emphasizes the need to assess the temporal profile of adverse events affecting driving in all clinical trials. Additionally, the guideline states that when conducting driving studies, the timing of multiple dosing should consider not only the pharmacokinetics of the investigational drug but also its tolerance.

8.
Front Pharmacol ; 15: 1356813, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38601469

RESUMO

Background: Clozapine (CLO) is a very effective antipsychotic, whose use is associated with dose-dependent risk of complications. Due to high interindividual variability in CLO metabolism, there is a need to identify factors affecting the blood concentrations of CLO and its active metabolite, norclozapine (NCLO). Methods: A total of 446 blood samples (collected from 233 women and 213 men, aged from 18 to 77 years) were included in this study and analyzed for CLO and NCLO concentrations. The patients were treated at a psychiatric hospital in Warsaw in the years 2016-2021. Serum CLO and NCLO concentrations were determined with high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to UV. Results: The following factors were shown to increase serum CLO and NCLO levels: higher CLO dose (p < 0.001), female sex (p < 0.001), nonsmoker status (p < 0.001), the use of more than two additional psychotropic drugs (only in the case of CLO; p = 0.046), concomitant use of beta-blockers (for CLO p = 0.049; for NCLO p < 0.001), and older age (for CLO p < 0.001; for NCLO p = 0.011). Despite the use of CLO at daily doses within the recommended range (200-450 mg), the evaluated serum CLO and NCLO levels were within the therapeutic ranges in only 37% and 75% of cases, respectively, with 5.6% of cases exceeding the CLO toxicity threshold. Discussion: The use of CLO at recommended doses does not guarantee achieving therapeutic concentrations of CLO or NCLO. Women and nonsmokers were at the highest risk of having toxic CLO levels.

9.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 12(8)2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38667570

RESUMO

Psychotropic drugs (PDs) include anxiolytics, sedatives and hypnotics, antidepressants, and antipsychotics, and they are available as medicines with different safety profiles. Given Portugal's high anxiolytic consumption and the rising prevalence of mental disorders, safety monitoring is crucial. This study aimed to analyze the individual case safety reports (ICSR) of suspected adverse drug reactions (ADRs) related to PDs, obtained through spontaneous reporting, and recorded in the Portuguese National Pharmacovigilance System between January 2017 and December 2021. This observational and retrospective study analyzed the ICSRs of suspected ADRs to PDs. Most reports pertained to female individuals (67.78%) between 18 and 64 years of age (63.71%). The pharmaceutical industry was the primary source of these reports (62.16%). Antidepressants were responsible for most ICSRs (61.90%). At least one serious ADR was recorded in 58.44% of the reports, and 43.84% of ADRs evolved into "cure". The most-observed ADRs were nausea (10.92%), dizziness (10.70%), and off-label use (10.30%). In the causality assessment, 45.49% of ADRs were classified as "possible", and only 4.96% were classified as "definitive". The current analysis helps to strengthen the safety evidence for PDs. In the future, some measures could be implemented to improve the use of and/or access to PDs, as well as to reinforce the rate of suspected ADR reports within the community, contributing to the safety data available.

10.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38676687

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the possibilities of therapy with minimal effective doses (MED) of psychotropic drugs for mental disorders (MD) that manifest during the treatment of hematological malignancies (HM). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A prospective study was conducted at the National Medical Research Center for Hematology of the Russian Ministry of Health (Moscow), which included 204 (39.4%) men and 314 (60.6%) women (518 patients in total), aged 17 to 83 years (median 45 years), with various HM, in which the manifestation of MD occurred during the treatment of the underlying disease. To minimize the side-effects of psychotropic drugs and given the relatively mild level of MD, psychopharmacotherapy of patients was carried out mainly at MED. The severity of MD, manifested in patients, was assessed by the illness severity scale of the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) scale, and the effectiveness of the treatment was assessed by the improvement scale (CGI-I). RESULTS: Mainly mild (188, 36%) and moderately pronounced (270, 52%) MD were noted in patients with HM during the treatment of the underlying disease. Severe psychopathological disorders (60, 12%) were observed much less often. Because of psychopharmacotherapy with MED, patients experienced a very significant (97, 19%) and significant improvement (354, 68%) of their mental state, less often the improvement was regarded as minimal (67, 13%). Therefore, almost all patients showed a stable relief of MD; in 87% (95% CI 84-90) of patients, this improvement was significant. CONCLUSION: The tactics of treatment MD that manifest in patients with HM with MED of psychotropic drugs turned out to be therapeutically effective according to the results of the assessment on CGI scales.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Hematológicas , Transtornos Mentais , Psicotrópicos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feminino , Adulto , Masculino , Neoplasias Hematológicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hematológicas/complicações , Transtornos Mentais/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Idoso , Psicotrópicos/uso terapêutico , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Adolescente , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Adv Life Course Res ; 60: 100607, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38569249

RESUMO

Intra-family crossover effects triggered by job losses have received growing attention across scientific disciplines, but existing research has reached discrepant conclusions concerning if, and if so how, parental job losses affect child mental health. Drawing on sociological models of stress and life course epidemiology, we ask if parental job losses have long-term effects on child mental health, and if these effects are conditional on the timing of, or the cumulative exposure to, job losses. We use intergenerationally linked Swedish register data combined with entropy balance and structural nested mean models for the analyses. The data allow us to track 400,000 children over 14 years and thereby test different life-course models of cross-over effects. We identify involuntary job losses using information on workplace closures, thus reducing the risk of confounding. Results show that paternal but not maternal job loss significantly increases the risk of psychotropic drug use among children, that the average effects are modest in size (less than 4% in relative terms), that they may persist for up to five years, and that they are driven by children aged 6-10 years. Moreover, cumulative exposure to multiple job losses are more harmful than zero or one job loss.


Assuntos
Psicotrópicos , Humanos , Criança , Feminino , Suécia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Psicotrópicos/efeitos adversos , Desemprego/psicologia , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Pais/psicologia , Adolescente , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
12.
Front Psychiatry ; 15: 1358461, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38633030

RESUMO

Introduction: Mood stabilisers and other psychotropic drugs can lead to serious adverse drug events (ADEs). However, the incidence remains unknown. We aimed to (a) determine the incidence of serious ADEs in patients with bipolar or schizoaffective disorders, (b) explore the role of lithium exposure, and (c) describe the aetiology. Methods: This study is part of the LiSIE (Lithium-Study into Effects and Side Effects) retrospective cohort study. Between 2001 and 2017, patients in the Swedish region of Norrbotten, with a diagnosis of bipolar or schizoaffective disorder, were screened for serious ADEs to psychotropic drugs, having resulted in critical, post-anaesthesia, or intensive care. We determined the incidence rate of serious ADEs/1,000 person-years (PY). Results: In 1,521 patients, we identified 41 serious ADEs, yielding an incidence rate of 1.9 events per 1,000 PY. The incidence rate ratio (IRR) between ADEs with lithium present and causally implicated and ADEs without lithium exposure was significant at 2.59 (95% CI 1.20-5.51; p = 0.0094). The IRR of ADEs in patients <65 and ≥65 years was significant at 3.36 (95% CI 1.63-6.63; p = 0.0007). The most common ADEs were chronic lithium intoxication, oversedation, and cardiac/blood pressure-related events. Discussion: Serious ADEs related to treatment of bipolar (BD) or schizoaffective disorder (SZD) were uncommon but not rare. Older individuals were particularly at risk. The risk was higher in individuals exposed to lithium. Serum lithium concentration should always be checked when patients present with new or unclear somatic symptoms. However, severe ADEs also occurred with other mood stabilisers and other psychotropic drugs.

13.
Implement Sci ; 19(1): 24, 2024 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38438918

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Clinical practice guidelines recommend against the routine use of psychotropic medications in residential aged care facilities (RACFs). Knowledge brokers are individuals or groups who facilitate the transfer of knowledge into practice. The objective of this trial is to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of using knowledge brokers to translate Australia's new Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Appropriate Use of Psychotropic Medications in People Living with Dementia and in Residential Aged Care. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The Evidence-based Medication knowledge Brokers in Residential Aged CarE (EMBRACE) trial is a helix-counterbalanced randomised controlled trial. The 12-month trial will be conducted in up to 19 RACFs operated by four Australian aged care provider organisations in Victoria, New South Wales, Western Australia and Queensland. RACFs will be randomised to receive three levels of implementation strategies (knowledge broker service, pharmacist-led quality use of medications education activities and distribution of the Guidelines and supporting materials) across three medication contexts (antipsychotics, benzodiazepines and antidepressants). Implementation strategies will be delivered by an embedded on-site aged care pharmacist working at a system level across each participating RACF. All RACFs will receive all implementation strategies simultaneously but for different medication contexts. The primary outcome will be a composite dichotomous measure of 6-month RACF-level concordance with Guideline recommendations and good practice statements among people using antipsychotics, benzodiazepines and antidepressants for changed behaviours. Secondary outcomes will include proportion of residents with Guideline concordant use of antipsychotics, benzodiazepines and antidepressants measured at the RACF-level and proportion of residents with psychotropic medication use, hospitalisation, falls, falls with injury, polypharmacy, quality of life, activities of daily living, medication incidents and behavioural incidents measured at the RACF-level. DISCUSSION: The EMBRACE trial investigates a novel guideline implementation strategy to improve the safe and effective use of psychotropic medications in RACFs. We anticipate that the findings will provide new information on the potential role of knowledge brokers for successful and cost-effective guideline implementation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR): ACTRN12623001141639. Registered 6 November 2023 - retrospectively registered, https://www.anzctr.org.au/TrialSearch.aspx .


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Antipsicóticos , Humanos , Idoso , Qualidade de Vida , Benzodiazepinas , Antidepressivos , Vitória , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
14.
World J Psychiatry ; 14(2): 194-198, 2024 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38464773

RESUMO

Women represent the majority of patients with psychiatric diagnoses and also the largest users of psychotropic drugs. There are inevitable differences in efficacy, side effects and long-term treatment response between men and women. Psychopharmacological research needs to develop adequately powered animal and human trials aimed to consider pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of central nervous system drugs in both male and female subjects. Healthcare professionals have the responsibility to prescribe sex-specific psychopharmacotherapies with a priority to differentiate between men and women in order to minimize adverse drugs reactions, to maximize therapeutic effectiveness and to provide personalized management of care.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38499795

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a substantial impact on mental health. An increase in the use of anxiolytic, hypnotic, and antidepressant drugs has been highlighted in France, but with no information at the individual level (trajectories) or concerning patient characteristics. The objective of this study was to describe the profile of new psychotropic drug users since the beginning of the pandemic. We formed two historical cohorts using the Pays-de-la-Loire regional component of the National Health Data System (SNDS): a "COVID-19 crisis cohort" (2020-2021) and a "control cohort" (2018-2019). We analyzed reimbursements for psychotropic medications (anxiolytics, antidepressants, hypnotics, mood stabilizers, and antipsychotics) using a multichannel sequence analysis and performed clustering analysis of sequences. The proportion of new consumers of psychotropic drugs was higher in the COVID-19 crisis cohort (18.0%) than that in the control cohort (16.0%). In the COVID-19 cohort, three clusters of psychotropic drug users were identified, whereas four clusters were identified in the control cohort. A time lag in treatment initiation was observed in the COVID-19 crisis cohort (September) compared with the control cohort (July). This study is one of the first to analyze the profile of psychotropic treatment users during the COVID-19 crisis. Our analysis sheds light on changes in patterns of psychotropic drug use during the COVID-19 pandemic, possibly associated with changes in prescribing conditions and mental health conditions during the crisis. This study also provides an example of the application of an innovative longitudinal analysis methodology in the field of pharmacoepidemiology.

17.
Arh Hig Rada Toksikol ; 75(1): 61-67, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38548381

RESUMO

Olanzapine treatment sometimes produces transient liver biochemistry abnormalities, and such drug-induced liver injuries are mainly monitored by measuring blood levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), whereas alpha-glutathione-S-transferase (α-GST) is not routinely measured in clinics, even though it can serve as an earlier and more specific biomarker of liver damage. Susceptibility to drug-induced liver injury can much depend on the gene polymorphisms regulating the activity of DNA detoxification and repair enzymes. The aim of this study was to evaluate which of the three liver enzymes - α-GST, ALT, and AST - is the most sensitive biomarker of olanzapine-induced liver injury and how their blood levels are affected by the GSTT1, GSTM1, GSTP1, and OGG1 gene polymorphisms in 30 olanzapine-treated patients. Contrary to our hypothesis, the increase in serum α-GST levels was not significantly greater than that of the transaminases. ALT turned out to be an earlier biomarker of liver injury than the other two enzymes. No significant association was found between gene polymorphisms and liver enzyme levels, save for GSTP1 Ile/Val + Val/Val and ALT, which points to this genotype as a risk factor for drug-induced liver injury. Future studies might help to identify the underlying mechanisms of transient liver enzyme increase associated with this genotype.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Polimorfismo Genético , Humanos , Olanzapina , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Glutationa S-Transferase pi/genética , Fatores de Risco , Biomarcadores , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Predisposição Genética para Doença
18.
Acta Psychiatr Scand ; 149(5): 415-424, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38433720

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The influence of psychotherapy duration on common mental disorder (CMD) outcomes remains a topic of ongoing debate. Whereas most research has focused on CMD symptom change, the evidence on the psychotherapy duration of subsequent CMD-related work disability and the change in psychotropic drug purchases is scarce. METHODS: We used a register-based cohort representing 33% of the Finnish population. The participants included working-age individuals (N = 12,047, 76% women, mean age = 36) who initiated long-term psychotherapy, between 2014 and 2017. They were followed from 2011 to 2021 and psychotherapy duration ranged from less than a year to over 3 years. We used an interrupted time series design to analyze the psychotherapy duration-dependent changes in CMD-related work disability (primary outcome, operationalized as depression or anxiety-related sickness absence, SA, days) and the annual number of psychotropic drug purchases or distinct drugs purchased (secondary outcomes). RESULTS: There were no differences in the levels of work disability or drug purchases before the psychotherapy. We observed a decreasing level and trend in all outcomes across all psychotherapy duration groups. The largest decline in level was observed in the <1-year duration group (88% decline for SA and 43%-44% for drug purchases) while the smallest decline was in the 3+ years duration group (73% for SA and 27% for drug purchases). CONCLUSION: Work disability outcomes and duration varied among individuals, even with similar initial mental health-related work disability or use of auxiliary psychotropic treatments. Compared to longer psychotherapy, shorter psychotherapy was associated with sharper improvements.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Psicotrópicos/uso terapêutico , Psicoterapia
19.
Clin Epigenetics ; 16(1): 36, 2024 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38419113

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolic side effects of psychotropic medications are a major drawback to patients' successful treatment. Using an epigenome-wide approach, we aimed to investigate DNA methylation changes occurring secondary to psychotropic treatment and evaluate associations between 1-month metabolic changes and both baseline and 1-month changes in DNA methylation levels. Seventy-nine patients starting a weight gain inducing psychotropic treatment were selected from the PsyMetab study cohort. Epigenome-wide DNA methylation was measured at baseline and after 1 month of treatment, using the Illumina Methylation EPIC BeadChip. RESULTS: A global methylation increase was noted after the first month of treatment, which was more pronounced (p < 2.2 × 10-16) in patients whose weight remained stable (< 2.5% weight increase). Epigenome-wide significant methylation changes (p < 9 × 10-8) were observed at 52 loci in the whole cohort. When restricting the analysis to patients who underwent important early weight gain (≥ 5% weight increase), one locus (cg12209987) showed a significant increase in methylation levels (p = 3.8 × 10-8), which was also associated with increased weight gain in the whole cohort (p = 0.004). Epigenome-wide association analyses failed to identify a significant link between metabolic changes and methylation data. Nevertheless, among the strongest associations, a potential causal effect of the baseline methylation level of cg11622362 on glycemia was revealed by a two-sample Mendelian randomization analysis (n = 3841 for instrument-exposure association; n = 314,916 for instrument-outcome association). CONCLUSION: These findings provide new insights into the mechanisms of psychotropic drug-induced weight gain, revealing important epigenetic alterations upon treatment, some of which may play a mediatory role.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Aumento de Peso/genética , Psicotrópicos/efeitos adversos
20.
J Neural Transm (Vienna) ; 131(3): 253-266, 2024 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38353811

RESUMO

Edema as an adverse drug reaction is a commonly underestimated yet potentially debilitating condition. This study analyzes the incidence of severe psychotropic drug-induced edema (e.g., edema affecting the face, legs, or multiple body parts and lasting for more than 1 week, or in any case necessitating subsequent diuretic use) among psychiatric inpatients. The cases under examination are derived from an observational pharmacovigilance program conducted in German-speaking countries ("Arzneimittelsicherheit in der Psychiatrie", AMSP) from 1993 to 2016. Among the 462,661 inpatients monitored, severe edema was reported in 231 cases, resulting in an incidence of 0.05%. Edema occurred more frequently in women (80% of all cases) and older patients (mean age 51.8 years). Pregabalin had the highest incidence of severe edema, affecting 1.46‰ of patients treated with pregabalin, followed by mirtazapine (0.8‰). The majority of edema cases showed a positive response to appropriate countermeasures, such as dose reduction and drug discontinuation, and resolved by the end of the observation period. While most instances of drug-induced edema are reversible, they can have a significant impact on patient well-being and potentially result in decreased treatment adherence. It is, therefore, crucial to remain vigilant regarding risk-increasing circumstances during treatment with psychotropic drugs.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Notificação de Reações Adversas a Medicamentos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Edema/epidemiologia , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Pregabalina , Psicotrópicos/efeitos adversos , Farmacovigilância
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