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1.
Pulm Pharmacol Ther ; 85: 102300, 2024 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38723942

RESUMO

Over the past few decades, there has been extensive research on the use of vitamin D as an adjunctive therapy in the treatment and prevention of tuberculosis. In vitro studies have provided valuable insights into the mechanisms by which vitamin D activates the immune response to combat Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These encouraging findings have spurred clinical investigations globally to assess the effectiveness of vitamin D as a preventive measure and as an adjunctive treatment for tuberculosis. However, the results from these clinical studies have been contradictory, with some demonstrating clear efficacy while others report only modest or no activity. In this review, we aim to analyze the clinical studies on vitamin D and examine the possible discrepancies observed in their outcomes.

2.
Cureus ; 16(4): e57927, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38725746

RESUMO

Background and objective Vitamin D, a fat-soluble vitamin also called the sunshine vitamin, is produced in plants, and animals when exposed to sunlight. It plays a crucial role in musculoskeletal development, immune system regulation, and glucose metabolism, thereby reducing the risk of diabetes. This study aimed to investigate the association of vitamin D levels with glycemic control markers [glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c)] and lipid profile, as well as sociodemographic factors and comorbidities. Methodology A cross-sectional study was conducted at the King Saud Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, among adult diabetic patients aged 20 years and above. The sociodemographic characteristics, vitamin D levels, HbA1c, and lipid profiles of 472 participants were studied. Data were analyzed using SPSS Statistics version 27 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY). Results The majority of the participants were women (n=296, 62.7%); the mean age of the cohort was 56.5 ±13.13 years. Most participants were Saudi nationals (n=361, 76.5%). Lab tests revealed vitamin D deficiency (71.41 ±36.88 nmol/l) and elevated HbA1c (9.49 ±9.85%) in the cohort. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels were higher than normal (2.71 ±4.26 mmol/l), while high-density lipoprotein (HDL) was slightly lower (1.23 ±0.39 mmol/l). Bivariate correlations showed weak negative and positive associations between vitamin D and HbA1c (r=-0.093, p<0.05) and HDL (r=0.114, p<0.05), respectively. HbA1c correlated positively with triglycerides (r=0.168, p<0.01). Conclusions We found an association between deficiency of vitamin D and levels of HbA1c and lipid profile in type 2 diabetes patients. The association was marked by low vitamin D levels and characterized by high HbA1c, LDL cholesterol, and lipid profile. Elevated HbA1c, LDL cholesterol, and triglyceride levels suggested vitamin D's role in lipid homeostasis. Variations in biomarker levels across sociodemographic factors highlight the need for personalized interventions for diabetes prevention and management.

3.
Food Sci Nutr ; 12(5): 3164-3176, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38726436

RESUMO

Orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) is a critical process in dental alignment, driven by the application of calibrated orthodontic forces. This study delves into the intricate molecular and cellular mechanisms by which vitamin D3 influences OTM. Vitamin D3 is identified as a critical regulator in bone metabolism, enhancing osteoblast activity and bone formation while also modulating osteoclast quantity and RANKL expression, essential for the remodeling of the alveolar bone. The precise mechanisms through which vitamin D3 facilitates these processes are explored, highlighting its potential in accelerating bone remodeling and, consequently, tooth alignment. This comprehensive review underscores vitamin D3's anabolic impact on bone metabolism and its pivotal role in the synthesis and mineralization processes governed by osteoblasts. The findings illuminate vitamin D3's promise in augmenting orthodontic therapy, suggesting its utility in improving treatment efficiency and reducing duration. However, the need for further research into the optimal application of vitamin D3 in orthodontics is emphasized, particularly concerning dosage, timing, and delivery methods.

4.
J Endocrinol Invest ; 2024 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38733429

RESUMO

PURPOSE: While serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) deficiency is prevalent in chronic kidney disease (CKD), the effects of 25(OH)D deficiency on cardiovascular mortality and kidney outcomes in patients with early-stage CKD remain incompletely understood. METHODS: This multicenter retrospective cohort study included adult patients with stages 1-3 CKD from 19 medical centers across China between January 2000 and May 2021. The primary outcome was cardiovascular mortality. The secondary study outcome included CKD progression (defined as a sustained > 40% eGFR decrease from baseline or progress to end-stage kidney disease), and annual percentage change of eGFR. RESULTS: Of 9229 adults with stages 1-3 CKD, 27.0% and 38.9% had severe (< 10 ng/mL) and moderate (10 to < 20 ng/mL) serum 25(OH)D deficiency, respectively. Compared with patients having 25(OH)D ≥ 20 ng/mL, a significantly higher risk of cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 1.90, 95% CI 1.37-2.63), CKD progression (HR 2.20, 95% CI 1.68-2.88), and a steeper annual decline in eGFR (estimate - 7.87%; 95% CI - 10.24% to - 5.51% per year) was found in those with serum 25(OH)D < 10 ng/mL. Similar results were obtained in subgroups and by sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: 25(OH)D deficiency is associated with increased risks of cardiovascular mortality and CKD progression in patients with early-stage CKD. Studies are needed to determine whether early intervention for 25(OH)D deficiency could improve the prognosis of patients with early-stage CKD.

5.
Cancers (Basel) ; 16(9)2024 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38730587

RESUMO

Studies have evaluated vitamin D3's therapeutic potential in estrogen-responsive cancers, with conflicting findings. We have shown that the proliferation of breast cancer cells is regulated by 24R,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (24R,25(OH)2D3) depending on estrogen receptor alpha 66 (ERα66) expression, suggesting that this could also be the case for estrogen-sensitive laryngeal cancer cells. Accordingly, we examined levels of ERα isoforms in ERα66-positive UM-SCC-12 and ERα66-negative UM-SCC-11A cells and their response to 24R,25(OH)2D3. 24R,25(OH)2D3 stimulated proliferation, increased the expression of metastatic markers, and inhibited apoptosis in UM-SCC-12 cells while having the opposite effect in UM-SCC-11A cells. To evaluate if vitamin metabolites could act via autocrine/paracrine mechanisms, we assessed the expression, protein levels, and activity of vitamin D3 hydroxylases CYP24A1 and CYP27B1. Both cell types expressed both mRNAs; but the levels of the enzymes and their activities were differentially regulated by estrogen. ERα66-negative UM-SCC-11A cells produced more 24,25(OH)2D3 than UM-SCC-12 cells, but comparable levels of 1,25(OH)2D3 when treated with 25(OH)D3 These results suggest that the regulation of vitamin D3 metabolism in laryngeal cancer cells is modulated by ERα66 expression, and support a role for 24R,25(OH)2D3 as an autocrine/paracrine regulator of laryngeal cancer. The local metabolism of 25(OH)D3 should be considered when determining the potential of vitamin D3 in laryngeal cancer.

6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(9)2024 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38732025

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by amyloid beta (Aß) buildup and neuronal degeneration. An association between low serum vitamin D levels and an increased risk of AD has been reported in several epidemiological studies. Calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol) is the active form of vitamin D, and is generated in the kidney and many other tissues/organs, including the brain. It is a steroid hormone that regulates important functions like calcium/phosphorous levels, bone mineralization, and immunomodulation, indicating its broader systemic significance. In addition, calcitriol confers neuroprotection by mitigating oxidative stress and neuroinflammation, promoting the clearance of Aß, myelin formation, neurogenesis, neurotransmission, and autophagy. The receptors to which calcitriol binds (vitamin D receptors; VDRs) to exert its effects are distributed over many organs and tissues, representing other significant roles of calcitriol beyond sustaining bone health. The biological effects of calcitriol are manifested through genomic (classical) and non-genomic actions through different pathways. The first is a slow genomic effect involving nuclear VDR directly affecting gene transcription. The association of AD with VDR gene polymorphisms relies on the changes in vitamin D consumption, which lowers VDR expression, protein stability, and binding affinity. It leads to the altered expression of genes involved in the neuroprotective effects of calcitriol. This review summarizes the neuroprotective mechanism of calcitriol and the role of VDR polymorphisms in AD, and might help develop potential therapeutic strategies and markers for AD in the future.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Calcitriol , Receptores de Calcitriol , Receptores de Calcitriol/genética , Receptores de Calcitriol/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Humanos , Calcitriol/metabolismo , Animais , Polimorfismo Genético , Predisposição Genética para Doença
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(9)2024 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38732029

RESUMO

Neointimal hyperplasia is the main cause of vascular graft failure in the medium term. Vitamin D receptor activation modulates the biology of vascular smooth muscle cells and has been reported to protect from neointimal hyperplasia following endothelial injury. However, the molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. We have now explored the impact of the selective vitamin D receptor activator, paricalcitol, on neointimal hyperplasia, following guidewire-induced endothelial cell injury in rats, and we have assessed the impact of paricalcitol or vehicle on the expression of key cell stress factors. Guidewire-induced endothelial cell injury caused neointimal hyperplasia and luminal stenosis and upregulated the expression of the growth factor growth/differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15), the cytokine receptor CD74, NFκB-inducing kinase (NIK, an upstream regulator of the proinflammatory transcription factor NFκB) and the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2). Immunohistochemistry confirmed the increased expression of the cellular proteins CD74 and NIK. Paricalcitol (administered in doses of 750 ng/kg of body weight, every other day) had a non-significant impact on neointimal hyperplasia and luminal stenosis. However, it significantly decreased GDF-15, CD74, NIK and MCP-1/CCL2 mRNA expression, which in paricalcitol-injured arteries remained within the levels found in control vehicle sham arteries. In conclusion, paricalcitol had a dramatic effect, suppressing the stress response to guidewire-induced endothelial cell injury, despite a limited impact on neointimal hyperplasia and luminal stenosis. This observation identifies novel molecular targets of paricalcitol in the vascular system, whose differential expression cannot be justified as a consequence of improved tissue injury.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios , Quimiocina CCL2 , Ergocalciferóis , Hiperplasia , Animais , Ratos , Ergocalciferóis/farmacologia , Masculino , Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Quimiocina CCL2/genética , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Neointima/metabolismo , Neointima/patologia , Neointima/tratamento farmacológico , Fator 15 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/metabolismo , Fator 15 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/genética , Túnica Íntima/patologia , Túnica Íntima/efeitos dos fármacos , Túnica Íntima/metabolismo , Antígenos de Diferenciação de Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Antígenos de Diferenciação de Linfócitos B/genética , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II
8.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38729818

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency is associated with mortality and morbidity in critically ill patients. This study investigated the safety and effectiveness of enteral high-dose vitamin D supplementation in intensive care unit (ICU) patients in Asia. METHODS: This was a multicenter, prospective, randomized-controlled study. Eligible participants with vitamin D deficiency were randomly assigned to the control or vitamin D supplementation group. In the vitamin D supplementation group, the patients received 569,600 IU vitamin D. The primary outcome was the serum 25(OH)D level on day 7. RESULTS: 41 and 20 patients were included in the vitamin D supplementation and control groups, respectively. On day 7, the serum 25(OH)D level was significantly higher in the vitamin D supplementation group compared to the control group (28.5 [IQR: 20.2-52.6] ng/mL and 13.9 [IQR: 11.6-18.8] ng/mL, p < 0.001). Only 41.5% of the patients achieved serum 25(OH)D levels higher than 30 ng/mL in the supplementation group. This increased level was sustained in the supplementation group on both day 14 and day 28. There were no significant adverse effects noted in the supplementation group. Patients who reached a serum 25(OH)D level of >30 ng/mL on day 7 had a significantly lower 30-day mortality rate than did those who did not (5.9% vs 37.5%, p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In our study, less than half of the patients reached adequate vitamin D levels after the enteral administration of high-dose vitamin D. A reduction in 30-day mortality was noted in the patients who achieved adequate vitamin D levels. TRIAL REGISTRATION CLINICALTRIALS. GOV ID: NCT04292873, Registered, March 1, 2020.

9.
Indian J Surg Oncol ; 15(2): 218-224, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38741652

RESUMO

Surgical site infections (SSI) following head and neck oncology surgery can lead to significant morbidity and healthcare costs. This cross-sectional study was used to investigate a potential link between pre-operative 25-hydroxy vitamin D deficiency and an increased risk of surgical site infections in patients undergoing oral cavity oncology surgery. This cross-sectional study was conducted at a tertiary center in northwestern India from May 2022 to May 2023. Patients scheduled to undergo oral cavity oncology surgery during this period were eligible for inclusion. Patients with complete pre-operative 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels and documented post-operative wound infection status were included in the analysis. A total of 85 patients who underwent oral cavity oncology surgery were included in the study. Among them, 30.58% (26 patients) had pre-operative vitamin D deficiency, The overall incidence of surgical site infection (SSI) was 36.47% (31 patients). Among the patients with pre-operative vitamin D deficiency, 23 (88.5%) developed surgical site infections. Finally, pre-operative levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D, pre-operative poor oral hygiene, and low albumin were confirmed as statistically significant independent predictors of SSI. After doing multivariate analysis, vitamin D deficiency was found to be a significant predictor of post-op wound infection [adjusted odds ratio - 0.71 (95% CI 0.61-0.82); p value < 0.001]. This study highlights the significant association between pre-operative 25-hydroxy vitamin D deficiency and an increased risk of surgical site infections in patients. Vitamin D plays a crucial role in modulating the immune response, promoting antimicrobial peptides, and enhancing wound healing. These findings support the importance of assessing and addressing vitamin D deficiency in patients scheduled for oral cavity oncology surgery to potentially reduce the incidence of SSIs.

10.
Clin Interv Aging ; 19: 763-768, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38741720

RESUMO

Purpose: Vitamin D deficiency is a common finding in geriatric patients. The ESPEN micronutrient guideline states that vitamin D serum levels significantly decrease in the presence of inflammation and should be interpreted with caution. This is of great interest for hospital care and would imply a significant change to the current approach to hospitalized patients with suspected vitamin D deficiency. Patients and methods: To evaluate the association of vitamin D and inflammation, we reanalyzed the data set of serum 25(OH)D-Levels of 687 consecutive geriatric hospitalized patients of a previously published study. Results: We found that vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/dl) was prevalent in 78.0% and vitamin D insufficiency (20-30 ng/dl) in 9.9% of patients. Sperman's correlation showed a significant but very weak correlation (R = -0.100, P < 0.01) of serum vitamin D and C-reactive protein. However, linear regression with the inclusion of age and gender revealed no significant association (beta-coefficient -0.070; p=0.067). Conclusion: In this study, we could not confirm a significant and clinically relevant association between serum vitamin D levels and inflammation, contrasting with a previous study. However, longitudinal studies need to be performed to draw a final conclusion.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa , Hospitalização , Inflamação , Deficiência de Vitamina D , Vitamina D , Humanos , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Masculino , Feminino , Vitamina D/sangue , Idoso , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inflamação/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Lineares , Prevalência
11.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 11: 1380128, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38741762

RESUMO

Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of cyclic cryotherapy and vitamin D administration on early rehabilitation after total knee arthroplasty (TKA), as its efficacy remains unclear. Methods: We divided 150 patients (three groups) who underwent TKA into those treated with or without cyclic cryotherapy and vitamin D. Results: Compared with patients who did not receive cyclic cryotherapy, those who received postoperative cyclic cryotherapy and vitamin D supplementation had significantly higher American Knee Society Scores (AKSS) on postoperative day (POD) 7 and at 1 month postoperatively; higher visual analogue scale (VAS) values on POD1-3 and POD7; reduced thigh swelling on POD3 and POD7; increased range of motion (ROM) on POD3, POD7, and at 1 month postoperatively; and reduced postoperative length of stay (PLOS). However, no significant difference in patient satisfaction was observed between the patient groups. At 1 and 3 months postoperatively, patients administered cyclic cryotherapy and vitamin D had significantly higher AKSS, ROM, and vitamin D levels than those who did not receive vitamin D. No perioperative complications such as surgical site infection, skin frostbite, or vitamin D intoxication were observed. Conclusion: Cyclic cryotherapy post-TKA had short-term advantages in terms of AKSS, VAS, thigh swelling, ROM, PLOS, and accelerated rehabilitation, but did not improve patient satisfaction. Cyclic cryotherapy combined with vitamin D improved AKSS and ROM at 1 and 3 months postoperatively.

12.
Cureus ; 16(4): e58133, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38741878

RESUMO

This study investigates the relationship between vitamin D deficiency and uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) indicated by elevated glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, alongside assessing the association between fasting C peptide levels and uncontrolled T2DM, considering their roles in ß-cell function and insulin secretion. The study employs a cohort design, selecting individuals diagnosed with T2DM aged 18 years or older with baseline data on vitamin D, fasting C peptide, and HbA1c. Data were collected through electronic medical records and follow-up assessments at regular intervals. Binary logistic regression analyses were conducted to explore associations between exposure variables and uncontrolled T2DM. Significant associations were observed between vitamin D and C peptide levels with uncontrolled diabetes, with coefficients of -0.097 and -0.222, respectively. Higher vitamin D and C peptide levels are linked to a decreased likelihood of uncontrolled diabetes. In conclusion, there is a potential connection between vitamin D levels, C peptide levels, and uncontrolled diabetes mellitus (HbA1C > 7%), while higher levels of both vitamin D and C peptide appeared to correlate with a decreased likelihood of uncontrolled diabetes.

13.
J Prev Med Hyg ; 65(1): E36-E42, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38706771

RESUMO

Background: Iron and Vitamin D3 deficiency is one of the major global health problems in teenagers and adolescent population. This study was aimed to monitor the utilization and predictive factors of Iron and Vitamin D Supplementations Program (IVDSP) in high schools' girls. Methods: In a cross sectional study, the pattern of Iron and D3 consumption based on IVDSP on 400 high schools' girl in Qom, Iran assesses. Data collection was used by a reliable and standard researcher based questionnaire and daily, weekly, monthly and seasonally consumption of complementary minerals in schools were gathered. Data analysis conducted using SPSS version 20 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) by chi square, independent t-test and multivariate logistic regression. Results: The mean age of subjects was 15.14 ± 1.52 years and ranged from 12 to 18 years old. The total weekly prevalence of D3 and Iron consumption in high schools' girls was calculated 36.73% and the weekly prevalence of Iron and monthly prevalence of Vitamin D3 consumption was 33.75% and 40.5%, respectively. The most common causes of non-consumption were bad taste 49.31%, Iranian made drug 20.27%, drug sensitivity 19.82% and drug interaction 10.60%, respectively. Conclusions: The inadequate and incomplete rate of IVDSP in Qom was high and more than 60% of distributed supplementations have been wasted. Results showed that students who were participated in educational orientation classes were more successful and eager in Iron and Vitamin D3 consumption. Therefore, more educational explanatory interventions for both students and her parents recommended to increase the efficiency of the program.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Irã (Geográfico) , Estudos Transversais , Criança , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Colecalciferol/administração & dosagem , Colecalciferol/uso terapêutico , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Ferro/administração & dosagem , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Cureus ; 16(4): e57583, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38707155

RESUMO

Introduction Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) is considered one of the leading causes of poor bone quality. It may also be related to severe muscular weakness, especially in the elderly, which leads to frequent falls. Thus, VDD might be associated with fragility fractures of the hip, wrist, and spine in this age category. In this cross-sectional study, our goal was to present vitamin D levels in an elderly Mediterranean population with hip fractures and to assess whether its levels are related to the incidence or prevention of such injuries. Methods Between January and December 2021, 140 patients aged 65 years or older were hospitalized in our department with a fracture involving the hip joint. Serum calcium and vitamin D level control was performed upon admission, as well as recording whether anti-osteoporosis medication had been prescribed. Only patients with low-energy fractures were included, whereas oncologic patients and those with high-energy trauma were excluded. Results Thirty-eight men and 102 women, with a mean age of 83.12 and 84.88 years, respectively, participated in our study. Intertrochanteric fractures were the most common injuries (50.72%). Low vitamin D levels (<30 ng/mL) were observed in 132 patients (94.28%). A bone density scan during the last year had been conducted by only seven patients (5%), whereas in 136 patients (97.14%), no anti-osteoporotic medication was given. Conclusion There is an excessive percentage of aged patients with hip fractures in Greece, demonstrating a significant vitamin D insufficiency despite the high annual frequency of sunny days in this Mediterranean region. Presumably, most of these patients neither perform the routine bone density scan nor do they take any kind of preventive pharmaceutical treatment, which might reveal devaluation of osteoporosis from this age group due to contingent comorbidities.

15.
J Food Sci ; 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38725370

RESUMO

Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disruptor with reproductive toxicity. Further, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (VD3) plays an important role in male reproduction by binding vitamin D receptor (VDR) and mediating the pleiotropic biological actions that include spermatogenesis. However, whether VD3/VDR regulates the effect of BPA on Leydig cells (LCs) injury remains unknown. This study aimed to explore the effects of VD on BPA-induced cytotoxicity in mouse LCs. Hereby, LCs treated with BPA, VD3, or both were subjected to the assays of cell apoptosis, proliferation, autophagy, and levels of target proteins. This study unveiled that cell viability was dose-dependently reduced after exposure to BPA. BPA treatment significantly inhibited LC proliferation, induced apoptosis, and also downregulated VDR expression. By jointly analyzing transcriptome data and Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD) data, autophagy signaling pathways related to testicular development and male reproduction were screened out. Therefore, the autophagy phenomenon of cells was further detected. The results showed that BPA treatment could activate cell autophagy, Vdr-/- inhibits cell autophagy, and active VD3 does not have a significant effect on the autophagy of normal LCs. After VD3 and BPA were used in combination, the autophagy of cells was further enhanced, and VD3 could alleviate BPA-induced damage of LCs. In conclusion, this study found that supplementing VD3 could eliminate the inhibition of BPA on VDR expression, further enhance LCs autophagy effect, and alleviate the inhibition of LCs proliferation and induction of apoptosis by BPA, playing a protective role in cells. The research results will provide valuable strategies to alleviate BPA-induced reproductive toxicity.

16.
Reprod Health ; 21(1): 61, 2024 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38698459

RESUMO

Vitamin D is a fat-soluble steroid hormone that was initially known only for regulating calcium and phosphorus levels and maintaining bone health. However, it was later discovered that many organs express vitamin D metabolizing enzymes and have a ligand for vitamin D, which regulates the expression of an extensive assortment of genes. As a result, vitamin D is indispensable for the proper function of organs, and its deficiency is believed to be a critical factor in symptoms and disorders such as cardiovascular diseases, autoimmune diseases, and cancers. The significance of vitamin D in reproductive tissues was recognized later, and studies have revealed its crucial role in male and female fertility, as well as proper reproductive function during pregnancy. Vitamin D deficiency has been identified as a risk factor for infertility, gonadal cancers, pregnancy complications, polycystic ovary syndrome, and endometriosis. However, data investigating the association between vitamin D levels and reproductive disorders, including endometriosis, have encountered inconsistencies. Therefore, the present study aims to review existing research on the effect of vitamin D on proper reproductive function, and the role of deficiency in reproductive diseases and specifically focuses on endometriosis.


Assuntos
Endometriose , Deficiência de Vitamina D , Vitamina D , Humanos , Endometriose/metabolismo , Feminino , Vitamina D/sangue , Vitamina D/metabolismo , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações , Gravidez , Reprodução/fisiologia , Infertilidade Feminina/etiologia
17.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 14(9)2024 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38732334

RESUMO

Early pregnancy loss (EPL) is a prevalent health concern with significant implications globally for gestational health. This research leverages machine learning to enhance the prediction of EPL and to differentiate between typical pregnancies and those at elevated risk during the initial trimester. We employed different machine learning methodologies, from conventional models to more advanced ones such as deep learning and multilayer perceptron models. Results from both classical and advanced machine learning models were evaluated using confusion matrices, cross-validation techniques, and analysis of feature significance to obtain correct decisions among algorithmic strategies on early pregnancy loss and the vitamin D serum connection in gestational health. The results demonstrated that machine learning is a powerful tool for accurately predicting EPL, with advanced models such as deep learning and multilayer perceptron outperforming classical ones. Linear discriminant analysis and quadratic discriminant analysis algorithms were shown to have 98 % accuracy in predicting pregnancy loss outcomes. Key determinants of EPL were identified, including levels of maternal serum vitamin D. In addition, prior pregnancy outcomes and maternal age are crucial factors in gestational health. This study's findings highlight the potential of machine learning in enhancing predictions related to EPL that can contribute to improved gestational health outcomes for mothers and infants.

18.
J Crohns Colitis ; 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38747639

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Epidemiological studies have shown that subnormal levels of vitamin D (25(OH)D) are associated with a more aggravated clinical course of ulcerative colitis (UC). Despite an increased focus on the therapeutic importance of vitamin D and vitamin D receptor (VDR) signaling, the mechanisms underlying the effects of the vitamin D-VDR axis on UC remain elusive. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether exposure to active vitamin D (1,25(OH)2D3)/VDR signaling in human organoids could influence the maintenance of the colonic epithelium. METHODS: Intestinal VDR expression was studied by immunohistochemistry, RNA expression arrays, and single-cell RNA sequencing of colonic biopsy specimens obtained from patients with UC and healthy individuals. To characterize the functional and transcriptional effects of 1,25(OH)2D3, we used patient-derived colonic organoids. The dependency of VDR was assessed by knocking out the receptor with CRISPR/Cas9. RESULTS: Our results suggest that 1,25(OH)2D3/VDR stimulation supports differentiation of the colonic epithelium and that impaired 1,25(OH)2D3/VDR signaling thereby may compromise the structure of the intestinal epithelial barrier, leading to flares of UC. Furthermore, a transcriptional response to VDR activity was observed primarily in fully differentiated cells at the top of the colonic crypt, and this response was reduced during flares of UC. CONCLUSIONS: We identified an important role of vitamin D signaling in supporting differentiated cell states in the human colonic epithelium, and thereby maintenance of the intestinal barrier integrity. This makes the vitamin D-VDR signaling axis an interesting target for therapeutic efforts to achieve and maintain remission in patients with UC.

19.
Eur J Pediatr ; 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38743288

RESUMO

Little is known about the impact of vitamin D supplementation on hand grip strength (HGS) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in children and adolescents with sickle cell disease (SCD). We aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of monthly high-dose vitamin D3 supplementation and its implications on bone mineral density (BMD), HGS, and HRQoL in patients with SCD and healthy controls. The study included 42 children with SCD and 42 healthy matched controls. The study participants were supplemented with high-dose monthly oral vitamin D3. Changes in the serum level of 25(OH) vitamin D3, maximum HGS, and BMD from baseline to 6 months were assessed, and the HRQoL questionnaire and Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire (CHAQ) were used to evaluate the functional capacity. At baseline, SCD subjects had poorer growth status indicated by negative Z scores. Suboptimal BMD was detected by significantly lower Z score, and lower HGS and worse HRQL parameters were found compared to the controls (P < 0.001). Median 25(OH) vitamin D3 was significantly lower in SCD patients compared to controls (16.5 vs. 28 ng/mL, respectively (P < 0.001)). After 6 months of vitamin D supplementation, there was significant improvement in the DEXA Z-score (P < 0.001), limitation of physical health (P = 0.02), pain scores (P < 0.001), and CHAQ grades (P = 0.01) in SCD patients. A significant improvement in HGS (P < 0.001 and P = 0.005) as well as the CHAQ score (P < 0.001 and P = 0.003) was detected in the SCD group and controls, respectively. There were no reported clinical adverse events (AEs) or new concomitant medications (CMs) during the study duration, and safe levels of Ca and 25 (OH) D3 were observed at 3 and 6 months for both groups. There was a significant positive correlation between HGS and total physical score (r = 0.831, P < 0.001) and a negative correlation with CHAQ score (r = - 0.685, P < 0.001). We also detected a significant positive correlation between vitamin D levels at 6 months and HGS (r = 0.584, P < 0.001), pain score (r = 0.446, P < 0.001), and a negative correlation with CHAQ score (r = - 0.399, P < 0.001).   Conclusion: Monthly oral high-dose vitamin D supplementation was safe and effective in improving vitamin D levels, HGS, and HRQoL in SCD children and healthy subjects, and BMD scores in SCD patients. Further randomized controlled trials are warranted to assess an optimal dosing strategy and to investigate the impact on clinically significant outcomes in children and adolescents with SCD and their healthy counterparts.   Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov , identifier NCT06274203, date of registration: 23/02/2024, retrospectively registered. What is known: • Several studies have reported a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and suboptimal bone mineral density (BMD) in sickle cell disease (SCD) patients. • Musculoskeletal dysfunction is reported in SCD patients with a negative impact on physical activity and health-related quality of life (HRQL). • Little is known regarding the impact of vitamin D3 supplementation in children and adolescents with SCD. What is new: • We found that monthly oral high-dose vitamin D3 supplementation was safe, tolerated, and effective in improving serum vitamin D levels, HGS, BMD scores, and HRQL in SCD patients.

20.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 18(5): 103037, 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38744090

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate the potential of the combined individual vascular histopathological lesion and serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] level as predictors of outcomes in patients with diabetes and chronic kidney disease. METHODS: A total of 190 patients with type 2 diabetes and kidney disease stages 1-4 were retrospectively included. Kaplan-Meier analysis and the log-rank test were performed to assess renal survival differences. And the time-dependent receiver operating characteristic analyses were used to characterize the predictive accuracy. Hazard ratios for vascular lesion scores and 25(OH)D levels with renal outcomes were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression models with follow-up time. RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 23.78 (12.61, 37.14) months, 71 patients (37.4 %) experienced the renal outcomes. Enrolled patients with more severe vascular lesions had worse kidney function, heavier proteinuria, lower serum 25(OH)D levels, and higher prevalence of composite kidney outcomes. Baseline serum 25(OH)D was a significant independent risk factor for vascular lesion scores. The effect of serum 25(OH)D level on kidney prognosis was more pronounced in males and those with more exacerbated vascular lesions (score 2). The severity of vascular lesions and serum 25(OH)D levels were associated with unfavorable kidney outcomes. Accordingly, further time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curves confirmed that combined 25(OH)D level and vascular lesion score had a stable and reliable performance in renal outcomes prediction at short and long-term follow-up times. CONCLUSIONS: 25(OH)D level and vascular lesion scores in kidney histopathology could serve as a useful risk-stratification tool for predicting renal progression in patients with type 2 diabetes.

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