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1.
Univ. salud ; 26(2): 41-50, mayo-agosto 2024. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1553978

RESUMO

Introducción: El desarrollo positivo es un estadio de ajuste psicosocial que acentúa las potencialidades y los recursos entre jóvenes y sus contextos próximos. En Australia, se desarrolló el primer modelo de desarrollo positivo para adultos emergentes, el cual consta de cinco componentes (competencia social, satisfacción con la vida, confianza y tolerancia con los otros, confianza hacia autoridades e instituciones, acción y compromiso cívico), pero no ha sido investigado en Chile. Objetivo: Analizar la evidencia disponible en la literatura científica sobre los cinco componentes del modelo de desarrollo positivo en adultos emergentes universitarios de Chile. Materiales y métodos: Revisión narrativa de la literatura publicada entre 2013 y 2023, en bases de datos Web of Science, Scopus, SciELO, Redalyc y Dialnet. Resultados: Se obtuvieron 83 artículos, de los cuales 53 cumplieron los requisitos de inclusión; en su mayor parte fueron estudios cuantitativos (81,13%) y en español (75,47%). Se evidenció una disparidad en la cantidad de estudios por temática; se encuentra mayor investigación en satisfacción con la vida y acción y compromiso cívico. Conclusiones: Existen brechas en la literatura científica chilena en el estudio del desarrollo positivo; además de que se discuten particularidades idiosincrásicas y desafíos asociados a la etapa de adultez emergente.


Introduction: Positive development is a stage of psychosocial adjustment that accentuates the potentials and resources of young people and their close contexts. The first positive development model for emerging adulthood was developed in Australia, which includes five components: social; life satisfaction; trust and tolerance of others; trust in the authorities and institutions; and action and civic engagement. However, this model has not been investigated in Chile. Objective: To analyze the evidence available in the scientific literature on the five components of the positive development model in emerging adults universities. Materials and methods: A narrative review of the literature published between 2013 and 2023 in the Web of Science, Scopus, SciELO, Redalyc, and Dialnet databases was conducted. Results: 83 articles were selected, of which 53 met the inclusion criteria; most of them were qualitative studies (81.13%) and in Spanish (75.47%). There is an evident disparity in terms of the number of studies and topics, e.g., there is more research on life satisfaction and civic action and commitment. Conclusions: There are gaps in the Chilean scientific literature in the study of positive development. In addition, idiosyncratic particularities and challenges associated with the stages of emerging adulthood are discussed.


Introdução: O desenvolvimento positivo é uma fase de ajustamento psicossocial que acentua o potencial e os recursos dos jovens e dos seus contextos imediatos. Na Austrália, foi desenvolvido o primeiro modelo de desenvolvimento positivo para adultos emergentes, que consiste em cinco componentes (social, satisfação com a vida, confiança e tolerância com os outros, confiança nas autoridades e instituições, ação e envolvimento cívico), mas ainda não foi investigado no Chile. Objetivo: Analisar as evidências disponíveis na literatura científica sobre os cinco componentes do modelo de desenvolvimento positivo em adultos universitários emergentes no Chile. Materiais e métodos: Revisão narrativa da literatura publicada entre 2013 e 2023, nas bases de dados Web of Science, Scopus, SciELO, Redalyc e Dialnet. Resultados: foram obtidos 83 artigos, dos quais 53 atenderam aos requisitos de inclusão; A maioria deles eram estudos quantitativos (81,13%) e em espanhol (75,47%). Ficou evidente uma disparidade no número de estudos por tema; Há mais pesquisas sobre satisfação com a vida e ação e compromisso cívico. Conclusões: Existem lacunas na literatura científica chilena no estudo do desenvolvimento positivo; Além disso, são discutidas particularidades e desafios idiossincráticos associados à fase da idade adulta emergente.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto Jovem , Psicologia do Desenvolvimento , Universidades , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento
2.
J Surg Oncol ; 2024 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38764307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Many cancers in young adulthood differ in terms of biology, histologic variation, and prognosis compared to cancer in other older age groups. Differences in cutaneous melanoma among young adults compared to other older age groups, as well as between sexes in young adults are not well studied. METHODS: The National Cancer Database was queried for patients diagnosed with cutaneous melanoma between 2004 and 2017. Patient characteristics, disease factors, and treatment were stratified by age-based cohorts and compared using standard univariate statistics. The Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank tests were used to evaluate overall survival (OS) between age-based cohorts and young adult sexes. RESULTS: Of the 329 765 patients identified, 10.5% were between 18 and 39 years of age at diagnosis. Compared with other older age groups, young adult patients were more likely to be female and uninsured with higher proportions of superficial spreading melanoma, melanoma of the trunk and extremities, and earlier-stage disease. Young adults had improved OS compared to other older age groups. Young male patients had a greater proportion of no insurance, nodular melanoma, higher-stage disease, and decreased OS compared to young female patients. Additionally, while the 5-year OS difference was statistically significant across all stages of disease between young males and females, the clinical significance is likely limited to later stages. CONCLUSIONS: Age and sex-specific differences in cutaneous melanoma highlight distinct patterns and characteristics, emphasizing the need for tailored approaches to screening, diagnosis, and treatment.

3.
Nutrients ; 16(10)2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38794652

RESUMO

Eating disorders and body image concerns are increasingly prevalent issues among young individuals, with medical students being particularly vulnerable due to heightened stress levels. This study enrolled 879 medical students to investigate these concerns. The KomPAN questionnaire was utilized to assess dietary habits and knowledge, the Body Esteem Scale (BES) to evaluate body satisfaction, and The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) to identify eating disorders. A higher level of nutritional knowledge was found to be statistically significantly associated with attempts at excessive calorie restriction among women (ß = 0.0864) and negatively among men (ß = -0.2039). Moreover, it was negatively associated with self-control of food intake only among men (ß = -0.2060). Furthermore, a higher BMI was associated with attempts of excessive calorie restriction in both women and men (ß = 0.1052 and ß = 0.1656, respectively) and negatively with self-control of food intake (ß = -0.0813 and ß = -0.1453, respectively). A higher BMI was associated with poorer body esteem across all variables in both genders, except for upper body strength among men. Nutritional knowledge did not correspond with any of these variables, while dietary quality was positively associated with physical condition in women and with physical condition, physical attractiveness, and upper body strength in men. Our study findings suggest that dietary interventions could be improved by considering gender-based behavioral differences and focusing on portion control for individuals with a higher BMI. Caution is warranted in extrapolating the results to the general population due to the specific nature of the study population.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal , Comportamento Alimentar , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Adulto Jovem , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Adulto , Inquéritos e Questionários , Índice de Massa Corporal , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Adolescente , Autoimagem
4.
Cancers (Basel) ; 16(10)2024 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38791988

RESUMO

The population of young adults (YAs) aged 18-39 living with advanced cancer is growing and faces a compounded set of challenges at the intersection of age and disease. Despite these substantial challenges, behavioral interventions tailored to YAs living with advanced cancer remain scarce. This commentary aims to (1) discuss the unmet psychological, social, and behavioral needs of YAs living with advanced cancer; (2) highlight the paucity of behavioral interventions tailored to this growing population; (3) offer recommendations for the development of behavioral interventions targeting the unique needs of YAs living with advanced cancer; and (4) describe potential far-reaching public health benefits of these targeted behavioral interventions.

5.
Am J Mens Health ; 18(3): 15579883241252524, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38767052

RESUMO

Awareness of risk for oropharyngeal cancer from oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is low among men in the United States. This pilot study tested messages communicating oral HPV and oropharyngeal cancer risk among a sample of U.S. young adult men (aged 18-26). Six oral HPV and cancer risk messages were tested in an online survey. Participants (N = 68) were randomly assigned to one of two message sets, each containing three unique text-based messages. Participants evaluated messages separately based on various measures (e.g., perceived message effectiveness [PME], novelty). One-way repeated measures ANOVAs were used to assess evaluation differences within message sets. Participants provided open-ended feedback about each message, which were synthesized into overarching themes. Participants were receptive to the risk messages, rating them high on PME (mean range = 3.72-4.25 out of 5) and other measures. Analyses identified three high-performing messages. For example, participants rated a message about HPV-linked oropharyngeal cancer risk rates in men versus women higher on attention and novelty than two other messages in the same set (both ps < .05). Participants were shown three messages (instead of all six) in each message set to minimize survey fatigue. Common themes from open-ended feedback were that participants liked the short-form structure of the messages and that the messages used gender-tailored language. In conclusion, oral HPV and oropharyngeal cancer risk messages may be useful for increasing risk awareness among men in the U.S. Further work should test such messages in rigorous experimental contexts to assess their efficacy in modifying other health outcomes, such as HPV vaccination behaviors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Orofaríngeas , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/virologia , Projetos Piloto , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Medição de Risco
6.
Integr Cancer Ther ; 23: 15347354241253847, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38767143

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Having been diagnosed with and treated for cancer can have negative psychosocial repercussions that may differ across the lifespan. Mind-body therapies (MBTs), such as tai-chi/qigong (TCQ) or mindfulness-based cancer recovery (MBCR), have shown promise in decreasing negative psychosocial outcomes in cancer survivors, but few studies have explored potential differences in MBT use and effectiveness across age groups. METHODS: A descriptive phenomenological qualitative design was used. Participants included young (18-39), middle (40-64), and older (65+) adult cancer survivors who were diagnosed with any type of cancer and had participated in Mindfulness-Based Cancer Recovery (MBCR) or Tai Chi/Qigong (TCQ) MBTs. Semi-structured qualitative interviews explored participants' experiences in MBTs and these were analyzed using descriptive phenomenological analysis. RESULTS: Among the interviews (n = 18), young (n = 6), middle-aged (n = 8), and older (n = 4) adults participated. 5 themes emerged: influences in joining the program, unique lifestyles, positive class experiences, use of media, and program impacts. Though all age groups benefitted from MBT participation, variations between age groups with respect to the benefits received and motivations for joining the program were observed. DISCUSSION: MBTs had beneficial physical and mental health effects on survivors of all age groups. These benefits were particularly connected to the ongoing life stresses common to each age cohort, such as relief from work and family roles for young adults or support during retirement transition for older adults. Hence, access to MBT programs may be beneficial as part of the survivorship plan for patients and the recruitment strategies or content can be adapted by MBT providers to better target and support age-specific groups. More research is required with a larger sample.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer , Terapias Mente-Corpo , Neoplasias , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Humanos , Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Feminino , Adulto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapias Mente-Corpo/métodos , Idoso , Adulto Jovem , Neoplasias/psicologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Atenção Plena/métodos , Tai Chi Chuan/psicologia , Tai Chi Chuan/métodos , Adolescente , Qigong/métodos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia
7.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 25(1): 366, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38730399

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The onset of locomotive syndrome (LS) precedes that of frailty. Therefore, the first step in extending healthy life expectancy is to implement measures against LS in young adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of LS and its associated factors in young adults for early detection and prevention of LS. METHODS: The participants of this study comprised 413 university students specializing in health sciences (192 males and 221 females) with an average age of 19.1 ± 1.2 years. All participants voluntarily participated in the study and reported no serious health problems. The presence or absence of LS was evaluated using the stand-up test, two-step test, and the 25-question Geriatric Locomotive Function Scale. Additionally, musculoskeletal assessment (one-leg standing, squatting, shoulder elevation, and standing forward bend), body composition analysis (weight, body mass index, body fat mass, body fat percentage, skeletal muscle mass index (SMI), and phase angle), handgrip strength test, physical activity assessment, and nutritional assessment were conducted. Sex-stratified analyses were performed, comparing groups with and without LS. Factors associated with LS were explored using binomial logistic regression. RESULTS: Of the 413 young adults studied, 86 individuals (20.8%) were found to have LS. When stratified by sex, LS was observed to have a considerably higher prevalence in females (55, 24.9%) than in males (31, 16.1%). In males, the notable differences between the groups with and without LS were observed in one-leg standing and phase angle, whereas in females, differences were identified in body fat mass, body fat percentage, SMI, musculoskeletal pain, and handgrip strength. Two types of binomial logistic regression analysis revealed that the inability to perform one-leg standing was associated with LS in males, while the presence of musculoskeletal pain and a high body fat percentage were identified as factors associated with LS in females. CONCLUSIONS: One in five young adults were found to have LS in this study, underscoring the necessity for early intervention and LS health education. Furthermore, effective management of musculoskeletal pain is also crucial.


Assuntos
Locomoção , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Estudos Transversais , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem , Japão/epidemiologia , Locomoção/fisiologia , Composição Corporal , Adolescente , Síndrome , Fatores de Risco , Adulto , Força da Mão , Limitação da Mobilidade , População do Leste Asiático
8.
Cancers (Basel) ; 16(9)2024 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38730692

RESUMO

Pediatric brain tumors are often noted to be different from their adult counterparts in terms of molecular features. Primary CNS lymphomas (PCNSLs) are mostly found in elderly adults and are uncommon in children and teenagers. There has only been scanty information about the molecular features of PCNSLs at a young age. We examined PCNSLs in 34 young patients aged between 7 and 39 years for gene rearrangements of BCl2, BCL6, CCND1, IRF4, IGH, IGL, IGK, and MYC, homozygous deletions (HD) of CDKN2A, and HLA by FISH. Sequencing was performed using WES, panel target sequencing, or Sanger sequencing due to the small amount of available tissues. The median OS was 97.5 months and longer than that for older patients with PCNSLs. Overall, only 14 instances of gene rearrangement were found (5%), and patients with any gene rearrangement were significantly older (p = 0.029). CDKN2A HD was associated with a shorter OS (p < 0.001). Only 10/31 (32%) showed MYD88 mutations, which were not prognostically significant, and only three of them were L265P mutations. CARD11 mutations were found in 8/24 (33%) cases only. Immunophenotypically, the cases were predominantly GCB, in contrast to older adults (61%). In summary, we showed that molecular findings identified in the PCNSLs of the older patients were only sparingly present in pediatric and young adult patients.

9.
Contemp Clin Trials Commun ; 39: 101309, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38784967

RESUMO

The use of e-cigarettes ("vaping") by young adults has increased substantially in the past decade. Although health risks of long-term e-cigarette use remain unknown, there is evidence of acute physiological harms. Most young adults who vape report intent to quit, but little is known about effective interventions. This protocol paper reports on the development and design of a pilot trial of a vaping intervention for young military Veterans. Young adult Veterans accessing VA healthcare (n = 20) who vape daily and have been referred for cessation services will be enrolled. To maximize accessibility the intervention will be delivered virtually; participants will be randomized to receive behavioral counseling by telephone or by video telehealth. The intervention was adapted from an existing program targeting young adult cigarette smokers and will include 6 individual counseling sessions delivered over 8 weeks. Assessment visits will occur at baseline, at end-of-treatment, and 4 weeks later. Analyses will evaluate feasibility and acceptability of the intervention overall, and will compare telephone and video telehealth modalities. Longitudinal regression will be used to evaluate changes in vaping behavior and in nicotine dependence over time. This study will provide assessment of a novel intervention adapted for Veterans who vape nicotine. The comparison of two modalities of virtual intervention delivery will increase knowledge and the potential to disseminate across VA and other healthcare systems. Findings from this pilot trial will inform the design of future, larger studies of vaping cessation interventions for younger Veterans.

10.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 13: e56052, 2024 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38788203

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preconception is the period before a young woman or woman conceives, which draws attention to understanding how her health condition and certain risk factors affect her and her baby's health once she becomes pregnant. Adolescence and youth represent a life-course continuum between childhood and adulthood, in which the prepregnancy phase lacks sufficient research. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to identify, map, and describe existing empirical evidence on preconception interventions that enhance health outcomes for adolescents, young adults, and their offspring. METHODS: We will conduct an evidence gap map (EGM) activity following the Campbell guidelines by populating searches identified from electronic databases such as MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library. We will include interventional studies and reviews of interventional studies that report the impact of preconception interventions for adolescents and young adults (aged 10 to 25 years) on adverse maternal, perinatal, and child health outcomes. All studies will undergo title or abstract and full-text screening on Covidence software (Veritas Health Innovation). All included studies will be coded using the Evidence for Policy and Practice Information (EPPI) Reviewer software (EPPI Centre, UCL Social Research Institute, University College London). Cochrane Risk of Bias tool 2.0 and Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews-2 (AMSTAR-2) tool will be used to assess the quality of the included trials and reviews. A 2D graphical EGM will be developed using the EPPI Mapper software (version 2.2.4; EPPI Centre, UCL Social Research Institute, University College London). RESULTS: This EGM exercise began in July 2023. Through electronic search, 131,031 publications were identified after deduplication, and after the full-text screening, 18 studies (124 papers) were included in the review. We plan to submit the paper to a peer-reviewed journal once it is finalized, with an expected completion date in May 2024. CONCLUSIONS: This study will facilitate the prioritization of future research and allocation of funding while also suggesting interventions that may improve maternal, perinatal, and child health outcomes. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/56052.


Assuntos
Cuidado Pré-Concepcional , Humanos , Adolescente , Cuidado Pré-Concepcional/métodos , Feminino , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem , Saúde da Criança , Criança , Adulto , Saúde Materna , Lacunas de Evidências
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38695773

RESUMO

Purpose: Young adult cancer survivors experience disruptions in various life domains (e.g., relationships, academic/career) during and after treatment. This study examined life disruptions and related supports to update interventions to improve psychological outcomes. Methods: In April-July 2023, young adult survivors (n = 23) were recruited (via clinics, support groups, nonprofit organizations, etc.) to complete semi-structured interviews assessing cancer's impact across life domains, how they coped with related disruptions, and facilitators to improved psychosocial well-being. We used a dual deductive-inductive approach to develop a codebook and then coded transcripts in Dedoose. Results: This sample was on average 33.7 years old (standard deviation [SD] = 4.4), 78.3% female, 73.9% non-Hispanic White, 47.8% married/cohabitating, 2.4 (SD = 1.0) years post-diagnosis, 1.4 years (SD = 0.9) post-treatment, and largely diagnosed with breast cancer (52.1%) or leukemia/lymphoma (34.7%). The most salient themes related to disruptions included mental health, feelings of isolation during survivorship, and disruptions to career and relationships with family or partners. Participants reported challenges navigating these feelings and disruptions, and difficulty understanding and conveying their needs. Many experienced limited support for navigating cancer-related trauma and life disruptions as a survivor. Participants also reported some positive impacts, like reevaluating their values and goals or feeling resilient, and emphasized the need to identify supports, accept that life had changed because of cancer, and have their needs and continued struggles validated by others during survivorship. Conclusions: Young adults experience ongoing disruptions across multiple life domains, underscoring the need for integrated, longer-term psychosocial supports to help them navigate these disruptions and reevaluate their goals.

12.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; : e31062, 2024 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38757485

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In retrospective analyses, the Pediatric Oncology Group [POG) and the Federation National des Centres de Lutte Contre le Cancer (FNCLCC) histologic grade predict outcome in pediatric non-rhabdomyosarcoma soft tissue sarcoma (NRSTS), but prospective data on grading, clinical features, and outcomes of low-grade NRSTS are limited. METHODS: We analyzed patients less than 30 years of age enrolled on Children's Oncology Group (COG) study ARST0332 (NCT00346164) with POG grade 1 or 2 NRSTS. Low-risk patients were treated with surgery alone. Intermediate-/high-risk patients received ifosfamide/doxorubicin and radiotherapy, with definitive resection either before or after 12 weeks of chemoradiotherapy. RESULTS: Estimated 5-year event-free and overall survival were 90% and 100% low risk (n = 80), 55% and 78% intermediate risk (n = 15), and 25% and 25% high risk (n = 4). In low-risk patients, only local recurrence was seen in 10%; none with margins greater than 1 mm recurred locally. Sixteen of 17 intermediate-/high-risk patients who completed neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy underwent gross total tumor resection, 80% with negative margins. Intermediate-/high-risk group events included one local and seven metastatic recurrences. Had the FNCLCC grading system been used to direct treatment, 29% of low-risk (surgery alone) patients would have received radiotherapy ± chemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Most low-risk patients with completely resected POG low-grade NRSTS are successfully treated with surgery alone, and surgical margins greater than 1 mm may be sufficient to prevent local recurrence. Patients with intermediate- and high-risk low-grade NRSTS have outcomes similar to patients with high-grade histology, and require more effective therapies. Use of the current FNCLCC grading system may result in overtreatment of low-risk NRSTS curable with surgery alone.

13.
Support Care Cancer ; 32(6): 342, 2024 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38739198

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Over the past few decades, the incidence of cancer among adolescents and young adults (AYA) has been increasing. The impact of behaviors, such as physical activity (PA) and nutrition, on disease progression, prognosis, and overall health and quality of life for AYA cancer survivors is of significant importance. This systematic review aims to evaluate the effectiveness of PA and diet interventions for AYA cancer survivors and to critically evaluate existing literature, gaps, and limitations. METHODS: A search of literature was conducted in PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, and Google Scholar following the PRISMA guidelines. Twenty-two studies were included from online databases from 2012 to 2022, 13 of which were randomized controlled trials. RESULTS: Most interventions were related to PA, with only four studies including nutrition or Diet interventions. The interventions were generally feasible and acceptable to AYA cancer survivors, and digitally based PA interventions were commonly used. PA interventions mainly comprised aerobic and resistance training and were individualized. Overall, this review found various PA and diet interventions for AYA cancer survivors that were feasible and well-accepted, but gaps in knowledge and design still exist. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review underscores the importance of conducting more research on diet interventions for YCS. PROSPERO REGISTRATION: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/#aboutregpage.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer , Dieta , Exercício Físico , Adolescente , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Neoplasias , Qualidade de Vida
14.
Ann Cardiol Angeiol (Paris) ; 73(3): 101760, 2024 May 17.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38761589

RESUMO

BACKGROUND-AIMS: Sudden death in a young adult who showed no prodrome or complaint during his lifetime is a tragedy. The death often remains unexplained by doctors and is often the subject of a judicial investigation following which an autopsy is ordered. Our study joins several studies around the world, where the results have linked sudden death in adults to a cardiac origin. METHODS: Through a series of 305 autopsies carried out in the forensic medicine department of the Frantz Fanon hospital in the city of Bejaia in Algeria over a period of two years, 57 cases corresponded to unexplained sudden deaths, i.e. an incidence of 3 cases per 100,000 inhabitants per year. RESULTS: Sudden death was of cardiac origin in 50.8% of cases (N=28). Two epidemiologic profiles emerge in our study: the first is that of a man aged between 50 and 60 years of age, with several deleterious lifestyle habits (in particular smoking) with a cardiovascular history, previously followed by a cardiologist, who died suddenly out-of-hospital, from ischemic heart disease. The second is that of a young adult under 40 years of age, of average build, with no particular medical history, having not previously consulted a cardiologist, who died suddenly of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. CONCLUSIONS: In many instances, we observed major anatomical lesion, which had not motivated any prior medical consultation either with a general practitioner or with a cardiologist.

15.
Curr Oncol ; 31(5): 2582-2588, 2024 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38785474

RESUMO

Adolescents and young adults (AYAs; 15-39 years) diagnosed with cancer face disparities in outcomes and survival. Patient advocacy organizations can play a pivotal role in advancing outcomes for underserved health conditions, such as AYA cancer. In 2018 a group of AYA patient advocates founded AYA Canada (later renamed to "AYA Can-Canadian Cancer Advocacy"), a peer-led national organization aimed at improving the experiences and outcomes of Canadian AYAs affected by cancer. The aim of this article is to describe the development and impact of AYA Can. AYA Can was incorporated as a not-for-profit organization in 2021 and became a registered charity in 2023. Since 2018, AYA Can has established a thriving community of practice comprising nearly 300 patients, healthcare providers, researchers, and charitable organizations with an interest in advocacy for AYA cancer. Other activities have included advocacy at academic conferences and on scientific committees, collaboration with scientists to advance AYA cancer research, training the next generation of AYA patient advocates through a "patient ambassador program," and developing a national resource hub to centralize knowledge and information on AYA cancer. Through its work to foster collaboration and amplify patient priorities on a national scale, AYA Can has become a leading voice for AYA cancer advocacy in Canada.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Defesa do Paciente , Humanos , Canadá , Neoplasias/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Grupo Associado
16.
Curr Oncol ; 31(5): 2874-2880, 2024 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38785500

RESUMO

Adolescents and young adults (AYAs; 15-39 years) diagnosed with cancer have unique medical and psychosocial needs. These needs could be better addressed through research that is focused on the topics that matter most to them. However, there is currently no patient-oriented research agenda for AYA cancer in Canada. This manuscript describes the early development and project protocol for a priority-setting partnership (PSP) for establishing the top 10 research priorities for AYA cancer in Canada. This project follows the PSP methodology outlined by the James Lind Alliance (JLA) to engage patients, caregivers, and clinicians in research prioritization. The steps of a JLA PSP include establishing a steering group and project partners, gathering uncertainties, data processing and verifying uncertainties, interim priority setting, and a final priority setting workshop. The AYA cancer PSP will result in a top 10 list of research priorities identified by Canadian AYA patients, caregivers, and clinicians that will be published and shared broadly with the research community. The first steering group meeting was held in April 2023, and the project is ongoing. The establishment of a patient-oriented research agenda for AYA cancer will catalyze a long-term and impactful research focus and ultimately improve outcomes for AYA patients with cancer in Canada.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Humanos , Adolescente , Canadá , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pesquisa , Feminino , Pesquisa Biomédica , Prioridades em Saúde , Masculino
17.
Front Clin Diabetes Healthc ; 5: 1304577, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38799020

RESUMO

Introduction: Adolescents and young adults (AYA) living with type 1 diabetes (T1D) are a vulnerable demographic at risk for sub-optimal glycemic outcomes at a time when they are taking over their diabetes management. The purposes of this study were to examine levels of self-reported comfort with diabetes management tasks among AYA living with T1D and to describe the relationships among comfort levels, sociodemographic factors, and HbA1c. Methods: During a routine diabetes care visit, AYA aged 15-23 years old living with T1D received a transition survey to self-assess their comfort level with different diabetesmanagement tasks. Results: Among 161 participants who completed the survey (median age 17 years, median diabetes duration 7 years, 82.3% White, 40.9% female, 66.5% with private insurance, and median HbA1c 8.8%), comfort with diabetes management tasks was generally rated highly (median overall comfort level of 4.5 out of 5), irrespective of race or insurance type. Regression analysis revealed that higher self-reported comfort level with diabetes management tasks was associated with a higher HbA1c (p = 0.006), after controlling for age, sex, race, insurance type, and diabetes duration. Discussion: These findings suggest that self-reported comfort with independently managing T1D may not be a sufficient metric in assessing AYA patients' need for further intervention to optimize glycemic outcomes as they transition from pediatric to adult diabetes care, and highlights the importance of continuity of care to support diabetes management during this transitional period.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38802577

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the etiology of hearing loss, including genetic variants, in individuals who underwent cochlear implantation (CI) in their teens to thirties. It also sought to analyze post-CI speech performance and identify prognostic factors affecting CI outcomes in this age group. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of 421 cochlear implant patients at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, focusing on 63 subjects aged 10-39 years who underwent their first CI by a single surgeon between July 2018 and June 2022. The study included audiologic evaluation, molecular genetic testing, and analysis of speech performance post-CI. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 25 and GraphPad Prism 7. RESULTS: Among 63 participants (M:F, 24:39), nine underwent CI in their teens, 24 in their 20 s, and 30 in their 30 s. Most of them (40, 63.5%) had postlingual deafness. The study found that 65.2% (40/63) of subjects received a genetic diagnosis, with DFNB4 being the most common etiology (37.5%, 15/40). Post-CI speech evaluation showed an average sentence score of 80% across all subjects. Factors such as the onset of hearing loss, duration of deafness (DoD), and preoperative Speech Intelligibility Rating (SIR) significantly influenced CI outcomes. Notably, longer DoD was associated with poorer CI outcomes, but this did not affect individuals with postlingual hearing loss as much. CONCLUSION: The study concludes that in individuals aged 10-39 undergoing CI, the onset of hearing loss and preoperative SIR are critical predictors of postoperative outcomes. CI is recommended for those with postlingual hearing loss in this age group, irrespective of the DoD. The study highlights the importance of genetic factors especially DFNB4 in hearing loss etiology and underscores the value of the relatively easy-to-evaluate factor, preoperative SIR in predicting CI outcomes.

19.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; : e31074, 2024 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38778452

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adult- and adolescent-onset neuroblastomas are rare, with no established therapy. In addition, rare pheochromocytomas may harbor neuroblastic components. This study was designed to collect epidemiological, diagnostic and therapeutic data in order to better define the characteristics of malignant peripheral neuroblastic tumors (MPNT) and composite pheochromocytomas (CP) with MPNT. PROCEDURE: Fifty-nine adults and adolescents (aged over 15 years) diagnosed with a peripheral or composite neuroblastic tumor, who were treated in one of 17 institutions between 2000 and 2020, were retrospectively studied. RESULTS: Eighteen patients with neuroblastoma (NB) or ganglioneuroblastoma (GNB) had locoregional disease, and 28 patients had metastatic stage 4 NB. Among the 13 patients with CP, 12 had locoregional disease. Fifty-eight percent of the population were adolescents and young adults under 24 years of age. The probability of 5-year event-free survival (EFS) was 40% (confidence interval: 27%-53%). CONCLUSIONS: Outcomes were better for patients with localized tumor than for patients with metastases. For patients with localized tumor, in terms of survival, surgical treatment was the best therapeutic option. Multimodal treatment with chemotherapy, surgery, radiotherapy, and immunotherapy-based maintenance allowed long-term survival for some patients. Adolescent- and adult-onset neuroblastoma appeared to have specific characteristics associated with poorer outcomes compared to pediatric neuroblastoma. Nevertheless, complete disease control improved survival. The presence of a neuroblastic component in pheochromocytoma should be considered when making therapeutic management decisions. The development of specific tools/resources (Tumor Referral Board, Registry, biology, and trials with new agents or strategies) may help to improve outcomes for patients.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38769737

RESUMO

AIM: It is increasingly recognised that traditional models of mental health (MH) care, with a service transition at age 18 years, may not reflect best practice. The literature supports a move towards youth and young adult focused models of MH care, for young people up to the age of 25, which specifically cater to the unique psychosocial and developmental needs of this population. This service evaluation aimed to explore the facilitators and barriers to the implementation of youth models of MH care across England (UK). METHODS: Six services participated in separate focus groups pertaining to their experience of implementing youth models of MH care. The interview guide for the focus groups was informed by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) and explored barriers and facilitators to implementation and sustainment. The focus groups were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. RESULTS: Seven key themes relevant to the implementation of youth models of MH care were identified: a clear rationale for doing things differently, for young people by young people, "building those relationships is key", service identity development, resource and infrastructure, leadership at multiple levels, and valuing and developing staff. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest effective communication and leadership, co-production and cross system collaboration contribute to successful implementation of youth models of MH care. The findings will be of interest to those involved in informing and supporting successful implementation and delivery of youth models of mental health care at local and national levels.

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