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1.
Hig. Aliment. (Online) ; 38(298): e1145, jan.-jun. 2024. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1531447

RESUMO

A higienização é um procedimento importante na indústria de alimentos e sua realização deve ocorrer rotineiramente para evitar que os alimentos sejam contaminados. Além disso, todos os manipuladores de alimentos devem receber treinamentos de modo a entender como ocorrem as contaminações e como evitá-las, para que não ocorra deterioração antecipada dos alimentos e para que não exponham os consumidores ao risco de doenças transmitidas por alimentos em caso de contaminação. Esta pesquisa avaliou o processo de higienização e sua eficiência em superfícies presentes em uma agroindústria da agricultura familiar produtora de embutidos cárneos. Apesar de ter instalações adequadas a agroindústria apresentava inadequações quanto aos produtos utilizados e a frequência inadequada para uma higienização eficiente. Foi realizada análise microbiológica das superfícies dos equipamentos para contagem de aeróbios mesófilos e notou-se uma elevada carga microbiana que indicou uma baixa eficiência no processo de higienização. Sugeriu-se melhorias na higiene ambiental associado à instrução dos colaboradores, para contribuir na promoção da qualidade dos produtos, aumento dos lucros e salvaguardando a saúde do consumidor.


Hygiene is an important procedure in the food industry, and its performance must occur routinely to prevent food from being contaminated. In addition, all food handlers must receive training in order to understand how contamination occurs and how to avoid it, so that there is no anticipated deterioration of food and that consumers are not exposed to the risk of foodborne diseases. in case of contamination by pathogenic microorganisms. Thus, this research evaluated the cleaning process and its efficiency on surfaces present in a family farming agroindustry that produces meat products, which despite having adequate facilities, had some difficulties such as product use and inadequate frequency for eficiente cleaning. After performing a microbiological analysis to count surface mesophilic aerobes, a high level of contamination was noted, relating to low efficiency in the cleaning process. Improvements in environmental hygiene are suggested, associated with the instruction of employees for the implementation of the Standard Operating Hygiene Procedure, promoting improvements in product quality, increasing profits and safeguarding consumer health.


Assuntos
Bovinos , Higiene dos Alimentos , Indústria da Carne/normas , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Brasil , Indústria Alimentícia/normas , Produtos da Carne
2.
Enferm. actual Costa Rica (Online) ; (46): 58440, Jan.-Jun. 2024. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1550243

RESUMO

Resumo Introdução: A Cultura de Segurança do Paciente é considerada um importante componente estrutural dos serviços, que favorece a implantação de práticas seguras e a diminuição da ocorrência de eventos adversos. Objetivo: Identificar os fatores associados à cultura de segurança do paciente nas unidades de terapia intensiva adulto em hospitais de grande porte da região Sudeste do Brasil. Método: Estudo transversal do tipo survey e multicêntrico. Participaram 168 profissionais de saúde de quatro unidades (A, B, C e D) de terapia intensiva adulto. Foi utilizado o questionário "Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture". Considerou-se como variável dependente o nível de cultura de segurança do paciente e variáveis independentes aspectos sociodemográficos e laborais. Foram usadas estatísticas descritivas e para a análise dos fatores associados foi elaborado um modelo de regressão logística múltipla. Resultados: Identificou-se associação entre tipo de hospital com onze dimensões da cultura de segurança, quanto à função a categoria profissional médico, técnico de enfermagem e enfermeiro foram relacionadas com três dimensões; o gênero com duas dimensões e tempo de atuação no setor com uma dimensão. Conclusão: Evidenciou-se que o tipo de hospital, categoria profissional, tempo de atuação no setor e gênero foram associados às dimensões de cultura de segurança do paciente.


Resumen Introducción: La cultura de seguridad del paciente se considera un componente estructural importante de los servicios, que favorece la aplicación de prácticas seguras y la reducción de la aparición de acontecimientos adversos. Objetivo: Identificar los factores asociados a la cultura de seguridad del paciente en unidades de terapia intensiva adulto en hospitales de la región Sudeste del Brasil. Metodología: Estudio transversal de tipo encuesta y multicéntrico. Participaron 168 profesionales de salud de cuatro unidades (A, B, C y D) de terapia intensiva adulto. Se utilizó el cuestionario "Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture". Se consideró como variable dependiente el nivel de cultura de seguridad del paciente y variables independientes los aspectos sociodemográficos y laborales. Fueron usadas estadísticas descriptivas y, para analizar los factores asociados, fue elaborado un modelo de regresión logística múltiple. Resultados: Se identificó asociación entre tipo de hospital con once dimensiones de cultura de seguridad del paciente. En relación a la función, personal médico, técnicos de enfermería y personal de enfermería fueron asociados con tres dimensiones, el género con dos dimensiones y tiempo de actuación con una dimensión en el modelo de regresión. Conclusión: Se evidenció que el tipo de hospital, función, tiempo de actuación en el sector y género fueron asociados a las dimensiones de la cultura de seguridad del paciente.


Abstract Introduction: Patient safety culture is considered an important structural component of the services, which promotes the implementation of safe practices and the reduction of adverse events. Objective: To identify the factors associated with patient safety culture in adult intensive care units in large hospitals in Belo Horizonte. Method: Cross-sectional survey and multicenter study. A total of 168 health professionals from four units (A, B, C and D) of adult intensive care participated. The questionnaire "Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture" was used. The patient's level of safety culture was considered as a dependent variable, and sociodemographic and labor aspects were the independent variables. Descriptive statistics were used and a multiple logistic regression model was developed to analyze the associated factors. Results: An association was identified between the type of hospital and eleven dimensions of the safety culture. In terms of function, the doctors, nursing technicians, and nurse were related to three dimensions; gender with two dimensions, and time working in the sector with one dimension. Conclusion: It was evidenced that the type of hospital, function, time working in the sector, and gender were associated with the dimensions of patient safety culture.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Segurança do Paciente , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Brasil , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde/normas
3.
Multimedia | Recursos Multimídia | ID: multimedia-13168

RESUMO

Los diálogos de saberes, también llamados diálogos interculturales, son procesos de comunicación e intercambio entre personas, grupos o comunidades que provienen de diferentes orígenes o culturas. En el caso del sector de la salud, los intercambios se realizan entre determinados grupos o personas y personal de salud capacitado. Su objetivo es, entre otros, mejorar el acceso a los servicios de salud y construir una salud intercultural, con énfasis en la resolución de problemas previamente planteados y sus causas, la comprensión mutua y la creación de vínculos sólidos. Esta infografía destaca los aspectos principales de los Diálogos de saberes


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde Culturalmente Competente/métodos , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/normas , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Grupos Populacionais/etnologia
4.
Multimedia | Recursos Multimídia | ID: multimedia-13169

RESUMO

Los diálogos de saberes, también llamados diálogos interculturales, son procesos de comunicación e intercambio entre personas, grupos o comunidades que provienen de diferentes orígenes o culturas. En el caso del sector de la salud, los intercambios se realizan entre determinados grupos o personas y personal de salud capacitado. Su objetivo es, entre otros, mejorar el acceso a los servicios de salud y construir una salud intercultural, con énfasis en la resolución de problemas previamente planteados y sus causas, la comprensión mutua y la creación de vínculos sólidos. Este brochure describe de manera general el proceso que tienen los diálogos de saberes.


Assuntos
Competência Cultural/educação , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/etnologia , Troca de Informação em Saúde/normas , Assistência à Saúde Culturalmente Competente/etnologia
5.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 24(1): 110, 2024 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38714936

RESUMO

Bayesian statistics plays a pivotal role in advancing medical science by enabling healthcare companies, regulators, and stakeholders to assess the safety and efficacy of new treatments, interventions, and medical procedures. The Bayesian framework offers a unique advantage over the classical framework, especially when incorporating prior information into a new trial with quality external data, such as historical data or another source of co-data. In recent years, there has been a significant increase in regulatory submissions using Bayesian statistics due to its flexibility and ability to provide valuable insights for decision-making, addressing the modern complexity of clinical trials where frequentist trials are inadequate. For regulatory submissions, companies often need to consider the frequentist operating characteristics of the Bayesian analysis strategy, regardless of the design complexity. In particular, the focus is on the frequentist type I error rate and power for all realistic alternatives. This tutorial review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the use of Bayesian statistics in sample size determination, control of type I error rate, multiplicity adjustments, external data borrowing, etc., in the regulatory environment of clinical trials. Fundamental concepts of Bayesian sample size determination and illustrative examples are provided to serve as a valuable resource for researchers, clinicians, and statisticians seeking to develop more complex and innovative designs.


Assuntos
Teorema de Bayes , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas , Tamanho da Amostra , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Modelos Estatísticos
6.
BMC Geriatr ; 24(1): 407, 2024 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38714958

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Quality of life of osteoporosis patients had caused widespread concern, due to high incidence and difficulty to cure. Scale specifics for osteoporosis and suitable for Chinese cultural background lacked. This study aimed to develop an osteoporosis scale in Quality of Life Instruments for Chronic Diseases system, namely QLICD-OS (V2.0). METHODS: Procedural decision-making approach of nominal group, focus group and modular approach were adopted. Our scale was developed based on experience of establishing scales at home and abroad. In this study, Quality of life measurements were performed on 127 osteoporosis patients before and after treatment to evaluate the psychometric properties. Validity was evaluated by qualitative analysis, item-domain correlation analysis, multi-scaling analysis and factor analysis; the SF-36 scale was used as criterion to carry out correlation analysis for criterion-related validity. The reliability was evaluated by the internal consistency coefficients Cronbach's α, test-retest reliability Pearson correlation r. Paired t-tests were performed on data of ​​the scale before and after treatment, with Standardized Response Mean (SRM) being calculated to evaluate the responsiveness. RESULTS: The QLICD-OS, composed of a general module (28 items) and an osteoporosis-specific module (14 items), had good content validity. Correlation analysis and factor analysis confirmed the construct, with the item having a strong correlation (most > 0.40) with its own domains/principle components, and a weak correlation (< 0.40) with other domains/principle components. Correlation coefficient between the similar domains of QLICD-OS and SF-36 showed reasonable criterion-related validity, with all coefficients r being greater than 0.40 exception of physical function of SF-36 and physical domain of QLICD-OS (0.24). Internal consistency reliability of QLICD-OS in all domains was greater than 0.7 except the specific module. The test-retest reliability coefficients (Pearson r) in all domains and overall score are higher than 0.80. Score changes after treatment were statistically significant, with SRM ranging from 0.35 to 0.79, indicating that QLICD-OS could be rated as medium responsiveness. CONCLUSION: As the first osteoporosis-specific quality of life scale developed by the modular approach in China, the QLICD-OS showed good reliability, validity and medium responsiveness, and could be used to measure quality of life in osteoporosis patients.


Assuntos
Osteoporose , Qualidade de Vida , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Feminino , Masculino , Osteoporose/psicologia , Osteoporose/diagnóstico , Idoso , Doença Crônica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Psicometria/métodos , Psicometria/instrumentação , Psicometria/normas , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais
7.
BMC Med Educ ; 24(1): 504, 2024 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38714975

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evaluation of students' learning strategies can enhance academic support. Few studies have investigated differences in learning strategies between male and female students as well as their impact on United States Medical Licensing Examination® (USMLE) Step 1 and preclinical performance. METHODS: The Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI) was administered to the classes of 2019-2024 (female (n = 350) and male (n = 262)). Students' performance on preclinical first-year (M1) courses, preclinical second-year (M2) courses, and USMLE Step 1 was recorded. An independent t-test evaluated differences between females and males on each LASSI scale. A Pearson product moment correlation determined which LASSI scales correlated with preclinical performance and USMLE Step 1 examinations. RESULTS: Of the 10 LASSI scales, Anxiety, Attention, Information Processing, Selecting Main Idea, Test Strategies and Using Academic Resources showed significant differences between genders. Females reported higher levels of Anxiety (p < 0.001), which significantly influenced their performance. While males and females scored similarly in Concentration, Motivation, and Time Management, these scales were significant predictors of performance variation in females. Test Strategies was the largest contributor to performance variation for all students, regardless of gender. CONCLUSION: Gender differences in learning influence performance on STEP1. Consideration of this study's results will allow for targeted interventions for academic success.


Assuntos
Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Avaliação Educacional , Licenciamento em Medicina , Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/normas , Fatores Sexuais , Licenciamento em Medicina/normas , Aprendizagem , Estados Unidos , Desempenho Acadêmico , Adulto Jovem
8.
BMC Vet Res ; 20(1): 180, 2024 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38715028

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR), caused by Bovine alphaherpesvirus-1 (BoAHV-1), is an acute, highly contagious disease primarily characterized by respiratory tract lesions in infected cattle. Due to its severe pathological damage and extensive transmission, it results in significant economic losses in the cattle industry. Accurate detection of BoAHV-1 is of paramount importance. In this study, we developed a real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR detection method for detecting BoAHV-1 infections. Utilizing this method, we tested clinical samples and successfully identified and isolated a strain of BoAHV-1.1 from positive samples. Subsequently, we conducted a genetic evolution analysis on the isolate strain's gC, TK, gG, gD, and gE genes. RESULTS: The study developed a real-time quantitative PCR detection method using SYBR Green II, achieving a detection limit of 7.8 × 101 DNA copies/µL. Specificity and repeatability analyses demonstrated no cross-reactivity with other related pathogens, highlighting excellent repeatability. Using this method, 15 out of 86 clinical nasal swab samples from cattle were found to be positive (17.44%), which was higher than the results obtained from conventional PCR detection (13.95%, 12/86). The homology analysis and phylogenetic tree analysis of the gC, TK, gG, gD, and gE genes of the isolated strain indicate that the JL5 strain shares high homology with the BoAHV-1.1 reference strains. Amino acid sequence analysis revealed that gC, gE, and gG each had two amino acid mutations, while the TK gene had one synonymous mutation and one H to Y mutation, with no amino acid mutations observed in the gD gene. Phylogenetic tree analysis indicated that the JL5 strain belongs to the BoAHV-1.1 genotype and is closely related to American strains such as C33, C14, and C28. CONCLUSIONS: The established real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR detection method exhibits good repeatability, specificity, and sensitivity. Furthermore, genetic evolution analysis of the isolated BoAHV-1 JL-5 strain indicates that it belongs to the BoAHV-1.1 subtype. These findings provide a foundation and data for the detection, prevention, and control Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis.


Assuntos
Alphaherpesvirinae , Rinotraqueíte Infecciosa Bovina , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Rinotraqueíte Infecciosa Bovina/virologia , Animais , Bovinos , Alphaherpesvirinae/classificação , Alphaherpesvirinae/genética , Alphaherpesvirinae/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/normas , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Manejo de Espécimes/veterinária , Filogenia
9.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 24(1): 592, 2024 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38715066

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Considering the significance of care delegation in enhancing the quality of nursing care and ensuring patient safety, it is imperative to explore nurses' experiences in this domain. As such, this study aimed to explore the experiences of Iranian nurses regarding the delegation of care. METHODS: This qualitative study was conducted between 2022 and 2023, employing the content analysis method with a conventional approach. The study utilized purposeful sampling method to select qualified participants. Data collection was carried out through in-depth and semi-structured interviews utilizing open-ended questions. The data analysis process followed the steps proposed by Graneheim and Lundman (2004) and involved the use of MAXQDA version 12 software. To ensure the trustworthiness of the data, the study employed the four rigor indices outlined by Lincoln and Guba (1985). RESULTS: In the present study, a total of 15 interviews were conducted with 12 participants, the majority of whom were women. The age range of the participants fell between 25 and 40 years. Through qualitative data analysis, eight subcategories and three main categories of "insourcing of care", "outsourcing of care" and "delegating of care to non-professionals" were identified. Additionally, the overarching theme that emerged from the analysis was "delegation of care, a double-edged sword". CONCLUSIONS: The results of the study revealed that the delegation of care occurred through three distinct avenues: to colleagues within the same unit, to colleagues in other units, and to non-professionals. Delegating care was found to have potential benefits, such as reducing the nursing workload and fostering teamwork. However, it was also observed that in certain instances, delegation was not only unhelpful but also led to missed nursing care. Therefore, it is crucial to adhere to standardized principles when delegating care to ensure the maintenance of high-quality nursing care.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Qualitativa , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Feminino , Irã (Geográfico) , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/normas , Adulto , Masculino , Entrevistas como Assunto , Cuidados de Enfermagem/normas , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem Hospitalar/psicologia
10.
Korean J Intern Med ; 39(3): 383-398, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38715229

RESUMO

The identification of antimicrobial use patterns is essential for determining key targets for antimicrobial stewardship interventions and evaluating the effectiveness thereof. Accurately identifying antimicrobial use patterns requires quantitative evaluation, which focuses on measuring the quantity and frequency of antimicrobial use, and qualitative evaluation, which assesses the appropriateness, effectiveness, and potential side effects of antimicrobial prescriptions. This paper summarizes the quantitative and qualitative methods used to evaluate antimicrobials, drawing insights from overseas and domestic cases.


Assuntos
Gestão de Antimicrobianos , Padrões de Prática Médica , Humanos , Gestão de Antimicrobianos/normas , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Infecciosos/efeitos adversos , Revisão de Uso de Medicamentos , Prescrições de Medicamentos
11.
Korean J Intern Med ; 39(3): 399-412, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38715230

RESUMO

Antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) can lower antibiotic use, decrease medical expenses, prevent the emergence of resistant bacteria, and enhance treatment for infectious diseases. This study summarizes the stepwise implementation and effects of ASPs in a single university-affiliated tertiary care hospital in Korea; it also presents future directions and challenges in resource-limited settings. At the study hospital, the core elements of the ASP such as leadership commitment, accountability, and operating system were established in 2000, then strengthened by the formation of the Antimicrobial Stewardship (AMS) Team in 2018. The actions of ASPs entail key components including a computerized restrictive antibiotic prescription system, prospective audit, post-prescription review through quantitative and qualitative intervention, and pharmacy-based interventions to optimize antibiotic usage. The AMS Team regularly tracked antibiotic use, the effects of interventions, and the resistance patterns of pathogens in the hospital. The reporting system was enhanced and standardized by participation in the Korea National Antimicrobial Use Analysis System, and educational efforts are ongoing. Stepwise implementation of the ASP and the efforts of the AMS Team have led to a substantial reduction in the overall consumption of antibiotics, particularly regarding injectables, and optimization of antibiotic use. Our experience highlights the importance of leadership, accountability, institution-specific interventions, and the AMS Team.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Gestão de Antimicrobianos , Hospitais Universitários , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Gestão de Antimicrobianos/organização & administração , Humanos , Centros de Atenção Terciária/organização & administração , Centros de Atenção Terciária/normas , Hospitais Universitários/organização & administração , República da Coreia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Revisão de Uso de Medicamentos
12.
Arq Bras Cir Dig ; 37: e1794, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38716919

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The concept introduced by protocols of enhanced recovery after surgery modifies perioperative traditional care in digestive surgery. The integration of these modern recommendations components during the perioperative period is of great importance to ensure fewer postoperative complications, reduced length of hospital stay, and decreased surgical costs. AIMS: To emphasize the most important points of a multimodal perioperative care protocol. METHODS: Careful analysis of each recommendation of both ERAS and ACERTO protocols, justifying their inclusion in the multimodal care recommended for digestive surgery patients. RESULTS: Enhanced recovery programs (ERPs) such as ERAS and ACERTO protocols are a cornerstone in modern perioperative care. Nutritional therapy is fundamental in digestive surgery, and thus, both preoperative and postoperative nutrition care are key to ensuring fewer postoperative complications and reducing the length of hospital stay. The concept of prehabilitation is another key element in ERPs. The handling of crystalloid fluids in a perfect balance is vital. Fluid overload can delay the recovery of patients and increase postoperative complications. Abbreviation of preoperative fasting for two hours before anesthesia is now accepted by various guidelines of both surgical and anesthesiology societies. Combined with early postoperative refeeding, these prescriptions are not only safe but can also enhance the recovery of patients undergoing digestive procedures. CONCLUSIONS: This position paper from the Brazilian College of Digestive Surgery strongly emphasizes that the implementation of ERPs in digestive surgery represents a paradigm shift in perioperative care, transcending traditional practices and embracing an intelligent approach to patient well-being.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório , Assistência Perioperatória , Humanos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório/métodos , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Assistência Perioperatória/normas , Brasil , Recuperação Pós-Cirúrgica Melhorada/normas , Protocolos Clínicos
13.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0303102, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38718000

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disability is an important multifaceted construct. A brief, generic self-reported disability questionnaire that promises a broader and more comparable measure of disability than disease-specific instruments does not currently exist. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate such a questionnaire: the Universal Disability Index (UDI). METHODS: An online survey was used to collect general population data. Data were randomly divided into training and validation subsets. The dimensionality and structure of eight UDI questionnaire items were evaluated using exploratory factor analysis (EFA, training subset) followed by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA, validation subset). To assess concurrent validity, the UDI summed score from the full dataset was compared to the Groningen Activity Restriction Scale (GARS) and the Graded Chronic Pain Scale (GCPS) disability scores. Internal consistency and discriminant validity were also assessed. Bootstrapping was used to evaluate model stability and generalisability. RESULTS: 403 participants enrolled; 364 completed at least one UDI item. Three single-factor versions of the UDI were assessed (8-item, 7-item, and 6-item). All versions performed well during EFA and CFA (182 cases assigned to each), but none met the RMSEA (Root Mean Square Error of Approximation) criterion (≤ 0.08). All versions of the UDI had high internal consistency (Cronbach's α > 0.90), were strongly correlated (Pearson's r > 0.7) with both GARS and GCPS disability scores, indicating concurrent validity, and could accurately discriminate between upper and lower quartiles of these comparators. Confidence intervals of estimates were narrow, suggesting model stability and generalisability. CONCLUSIONS: A brief, generic self-reported disability questionnaire was found to be valid and to possess good psychometric properties. The UDI has a single factor structure and either a 6-item, 7-item or 8-item version can be used to measure disability. For brevity and parsimony, the 6-item UDI is recommended, but further testing of all versions is warranted.


Assuntos
Avaliação da Deficiência , Pessoas com Deficiência , Autorrelato , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Análise Fatorial , Idoso , Psicometria/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
14.
Health Informatics J ; 30(2): 14604582241252791, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38721881

RESUMO

Before a medical procedure requiring anesthesia, patients are required to not eat or drink non-clear fluids for 6 h and not drink clear fluids for 2 h. Fasting durations in standard practice far exceed these minimum thresholds due to uncertainties in procedure start time. The aim of this retrospective, observational study was to compare fasting durations arising from standard practice with different approaches for calculating the timepoint at which patients are instructed to stop eating and drinking. Scheduling data for procedures performed in the cardiac catheterization laboratory of an academic hospital in Canada (January 2020 to April 2022) were used. Four approaches utilizing machine learning (ML) and simulation were used to predict procedure start times and calculate when patients should be instructed to start fasting. Median fasting duration for standard practice was 10.08 h (IQR 3.5) for both food and clear fluids intake. The best performing alternative approach, using tree-based ML models to predict procedure start time, reduced median fasting from food/non-clear fluids to 7.7 h (IQR 2) and clear liquids fasting to 3.7 h (IQR 2.4). 97.3% met the minimum fasting duration requirements (95% CI 96.9% to 97.6%). Further studies are required to determine the effectiveness of operationalizing this approach as an automated fasting alert system.


Assuntos
Jejum , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Canadá , Aprendizado de Máquina/normas , Agendamento de Consultas , Feminino , Masculino
15.
Br J Nurs ; 33(9): 435-436, 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38722009

RESUMO

John Tingle, Lecturer in Law, Birmingham Law School, University of Birmingham, discuses some key NHS stakeholder perspectives on NHS patient safety.


Assuntos
Segurança do Paciente , Medicina Estatal , Medicina Estatal/organização & administração , Segurança do Paciente/normas , Humanos , Reino Unido , Participação dos Interessados
16.
Child Care Health Dev ; 50(3): e13267, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38722088

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal parenting self-efficacy plays a critical role in facilitating positive parenting practices and successful adaption to motherhood. The Perceived Maternal Parenting Self-Efficacy Scale (PMPS-E), as a task-specific measure, confirms its psychometric properties in cultural contexts. Compared with other tools, the advantages of the PMPS-E are as follows: (i) specific context or time period during the lifespan of a child, (ii) explicitly assess parenting self-efficacy across a diverse enough range of parenting tasks or activities during the perinatal/postnatal period and (iii) having robust psychometric properties. The aim of this study was to translate and determine the psychometric properties of the PMPS-E among Chinese postpartum women (C-PMPS-E). METHOD: The cross-cultural adaptation process followed Beaton et al.'s intercultural debugging guidelines. A total of 471 women were included to establish the psychometric properties of the C-PMPS-E. Mothers were asked to complete the C-PMPS-E, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) and several demographic questions. The psychometric testing of the C-PMPS-E was established through item analysis, construct validity and internal consistency reliability. RESULTS: Item analysis showed that the critical ratios of all items were greater than 3 between the low-score group and high-score group, and all item-total correlation coefficients were greater than 0.4. The fit indices showed that the original correlated four-factor model of C-PMPS-E was observed to be an excellent fit to the data. The PMPS-E was negatively correlated with the EPDS and GAD-7 demonstrating its discriminant validity. As expected, no significant correlation was found between PMPS-E total or subscale scores and mothers' age. In addition, statistically significant differences for parity were detected for C-PMPS-E total and subscale scores with multipara having higher scores. This was taken as further evidence of the scale known-groups discriminant validity. In terms of internal consistency, the Cronbach's alpha of the C-PMPS-E total scale was 0.950, and subscales ranged from 0.76 to 0.89. Furthermore, a ROC curve analysis was conducted to establish the ability of the C-PMPS-E to distinguish between symptoms of depression and symptoms of anxiety. A cut-off value of 55 was identified that resulted in good specificity and fair sensitivity. CONCLUSION: The C-PMPS-E is a reliable and valid tool to assess maternal parenting self-efficacy in a Chinese context.


Assuntos
Mães , Poder Familiar , Período Pós-Parto , Psicometria , Autoeficácia , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Período Pós-Parto/psicologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Mães/psicologia , China , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adulto Jovem , Traduções , Depressão Pós-Parto/psicologia , Depressão Pós-Parto/diagnóstico
17.
J Med Internet Res ; 26: e57963, 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38722675

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As digital health services are increasingly developing and becoming more interactive in Serbia, a comprehensive instrument for measuring eHealth literacy (EHL) is needed. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to translate, culturally adapt, and investigate the psychometric properties of the Serbian version of the eHealth Literacy Questionnaire (eHLQ); to evaluate EHL in the population of primary health care (PHC) users in Serbia; and to explore factors associated with their EHL. METHODS: The validation study was conducted in 8 PHC centers in the territory of the Macva district in Western Serbia. A stratified sampling method was used to obtain a representative sample. The Translation Integrity Procedure was followed to adapt the questionnaire to the Serbian language. The psychometric properties of the Serbian version of the eHLQ were analyzed through the examination of factorial structure, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability. Descriptive statistics were calculated to determine participant characteristics. Differences between groups were tested by the 2-tailed Students t test and ANOVA. Univariable and multivariable linear regression analyses were used to determine factors related to EHL. RESULTS: A total of 475 PHC users were enrolled. The mean age was 51.0 (SD 17.3; range 19-94) years, and most participants were female (328/475, 69.1%). Confirmatory factor analysis validated the 7-factor structure of the questionnaire. Values for incremental fit index (0.96) and comparative fit index (0.95) were above the cutoff of ≥0.95. The root mean square error of approximation value of 0.05 was below the suggested value of ≤0.06. Cronbach α of the entire scale was 0.95, indicating excellent scale reliability, with Cronbach α ranging from 0.81 to 0.90 for domains. The intraclass correlation coefficient ranged from 0.63 to 0.82, indicating moderate to good test-retest reliability. The highest EHL mean scores were obtained for the understanding of health concepts and language (mean 2.86, SD 0.32) and feel safe and in control (mean 2.89, SD 0.33) domains. Statistically significant differences (all P<.05) for all 7 eHLQ scores were observed for age, education, perceived material status, perceived health status, searching for health information on the internet, and occupation (except domain 4). In multivariable regression models, searching for health information on the internet and being aged younger than 65 years were associated with higher values of all domain scores except the domain feel safe and in control for variable age. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that the Serbian version of the eHLQ can be a useful tool in the measurement of EHL and in the planning of digital health interventions at the population and individual level due to its strong psychometric properties in the Serbian context.


Assuntos
Atenção Primária à Saúde , Telemedicina , Humanos , Sérvia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Masculino , Telemedicina/métodos , Telemedicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Traduções , Adulto Jovem , Idoso , Letramento em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicometria/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
18.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf ; 33(5): e5787, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724471

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Real-world evidence (RWE) is increasingly used for medical regulatory decisions, yet concerns persist regarding its reproducibility and hence validity. This study addresses reproducibility challenges associated with diversity across real-world data sources (RWDS) repurposed for secondary use in pharmacoepidemiologic studies. Our aims were to identify, describe and characterize practices, recommendations and tools for collecting and reporting diversity across RWDSs, and explore how leveraging diversity could improve the quality of evidence. METHODS: In a preliminary phase, keywords for a literature search and selection tool were designed using a set of documents considered to be key by the coauthors. Next, a systematic search was conducted up to December 2021. The resulting documents were screened based on titles and abstracts, then based on full texts using the selection tool. Selected documents were reviewed to extract information on topics related to collecting and reporting RWDS diversity. A content analysis of the topics identified explicit and latent themes. RESULTS: Across the 91 selected documents, 12 topics were identified: 9 dimensions used to describe RWDS (organization accessing the data source, data originator, prompt, inclusion of population, content, data dictionary, time span, healthcare system and culture, and data quality), tools to summarize such dimensions, challenges, and opportunities arising from diversity. Thirty-six themes were identified within the dimensions. Opportunities arising from data diversity included multiple imputation and standardization. CONCLUSIONS: The dimensions identified across a large number of publications lay the foundation for formal guidance on reporting diversity of data sources to facilitate interpretation and enhance replicability and validity of RWE.


Assuntos
Farmacoepidemiologia , Farmacoepidemiologia/métodos , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Coleta de Dados/normas , Fonte de Informação
19.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 12: e50851, 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38743461

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medication nonadherence remains a significant health and economic burden in many high-income countries. Emerging smartphone interventions have started to use features such as gamification and financial incentives with varying degrees of effectiveness on medication adherence and health outcomes. A more consistent approach to applying these features, informed by patient perspectives, may result in more predictable and beneficial results from this type of intervention. OBJECTIVE: This qualitative study aims to identify patient perspectives on the use of gamification and financial incentives in mobile health (mHealth) apps for medication adherence in Australian patients taking medication for chronic conditions. METHODS: A total of 19 participants were included in iterative semistructured web-based focus groups conducted between May and December 2022. The facilitator used exploratory prompts relating to mHealth apps, gamification, and financial incentives, along with concepts raised from previous focus groups. Transcriptions were independently coded to develop a set of themes. RESULTS: Three themes were identified: purpose-driven design, trust-based standards, and personal choice. All participants acknowledged gamification and financial incentives as potentially effective features in mHealth apps for medication adherence. However, they also indicated that the effectiveness heavily depended on implementation and execution. Major concerns relating to gamification and financial incentives were perceived trivialization and potential for medication abuse, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The study's findings provide a foundation for developers seeking to apply these novel features in an app intervention for a general cohort of patients. However, the study highlights the need for standards for mHealth apps for medication adherence, with particular attention to the use of gamification and financial incentives. Future research with patients and stakeholders across the mHealth app ecosystem should be explored to formalize and validate a set of standards or framework.


Assuntos
Grupos Focais , Adesão à Medicação , Aplicativos Móveis , Motivação , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Telemedicina , Humanos , Aplicativos Móveis/normas , Aplicativos Móveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Focais/métodos , Masculino , Feminino , Adesão à Medicação/psicologia , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Austrália , Telemedicina/métodos , Telemedicina/normas , Idoso , Jogos de Vídeo/normas , Jogos de Vídeo/psicologia
20.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 13: e53790, 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38743477

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic and the subsequent need for social distancing required the immediate pivoting of research modalities. Research that had previously been conducted in person had to pivot to remote data collection. Researchers had to develop data collection protocols that could be conducted remotely with limited or no evidence to guide the process. Therefore, the use of web-based platforms to conduct real-time research visits surged despite the lack of evidence backing these novel approaches. OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to review the remote or virtual research protocols that have been used in the past 10 years, gather existing best practices, and propose recommendations for continuing to use virtual real-time methods when appropriate. METHODS: Articles (n=22) published from 2013 to June 2023 were reviewed and analyzed to understand how researchers conducted virtual research that implemented real-time protocols. "Real-time" was defined as data collection with a participant through a live medium where a participant and research staff could talk to each other back and forth in the moment. We excluded studies for the following reasons: (1) studies that collected participant or patient measures for the sole purpose of engaging in a clinical encounter; (2) studies that solely conducted qualitative interview data collection; (3) studies that conducted virtual data collection such as surveys or self-report measures that had no interaction with research staff; (4) studies that described research interventions but did not involve the collection of data through a web-based platform; (5) studies that were reviews or not original research; (6) studies that described research protocols and did not include actual data collection; and (7) studies that did not collect data in real time, focused on telehealth or telemedicine, and were exclusively intended for medical and not research purposes. RESULTS: Findings from studies conducted both before and during the COVID-19 pandemic suggest that many types of data can be collected virtually in real time. Results and best practice recommendations from the current protocol review will be used in the design and implementation of a substudy to provide more evidence for virtual real-time data collection over the next year. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that virtual real-time visits are doable across a range of participant populations and can answer a range of research questions. Recommended best practices for virtual real-time data collection include (1) providing adequate equipment for real-time data collection, (2) creating protocols and materials for research staff to facilitate or guide participants through data collection, (3) piloting data collection, (4) iteratively accepting feedback, and (5) providing instructions in multiple forms. The implementation of these best practices and recommendations for future research are further discussed in the paper. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/53790.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Coleta de Dados , Pandemias , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Coleta de Dados/normas , SARS-CoV-2 , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Telemedicina/métodos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas
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