Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 15.725
Filtrar
1.
Food Chem ; 401: 134072, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36108381

RESUMO

Plant growth regulator N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N'-phenylurea (CPPU) is widely used in fruit production. However, the mechanism in which CPPU affects melon fruit quality, especially aroma compound, remains unclear. Here, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was performed to detect the sugar, citric acid, and aroma content in CPPU-treated and pollinated melon fruit. Results showed that the application of CPPU decreased the sugar and aroma content in melon fruit. The relative content of several important esters, including isobutyl acetate, ethyl acetate, 2-methylbutyl acetate, methyl acetate, benzyl acetate, and phenethyl acetate, in CPPU-treated fruits was significantly lower than that in honeybee-pollinated fruits. The content of many amino acids (isoleucine, leucine, valine, methionine, and l-phenylalanine), which could be metabolized into aroma compounds, in CPPU-treated fruits was significantly higher than that in honeybee-pollinated fruits. In conclusion, CPPU application interferes with amino-acid metabolism and affects the production of aromatic esters in melon fruit.


Assuntos
Cucurbitaceae , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Abelhas , Animais , Frutas/metabolismo , Cucurbitaceae/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Açúcares/metabolismo , Isoleucina , Leucina/metabolismo , Metionina/metabolismo , Ácido Cítrico/metabolismo , Valina/metabolismo , Fenilalanina/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Odorantes
2.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 138: 104528, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36067906

RESUMO

Invertebrates' immune priming or innate immune memory is an analogous response to the vertebrates' adaptive memory. We investigated if honey bees have immune memory. We compared survival and immune response between bees that were: 1) manipulated (Naïve), 2) challenged twice with the same pathogen Escherichia coli (Memory), 3) challenged twice with different pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus versus E. coli, Micrococcus lysodeikticus versus E. coli), or 4) with PBS (the diluent of bacteria) versus E. coli (heterologous challenge; Control). Results indicate better survival in the Memory than the Control group, and the Memory group showed a similar survival than Naïve insects. The Memory group had higher lytic activity but lower prophenoloxidase, phenoloxidase activity, and hemocyte count than the Control and Naïve groups. No differences were found in relative expression of defensin-1. This first demonstration of immune memory opens the questions about its molecular mechanisms and whether, immune memory could be used against natural parasites that affect honey bees, hence, if they could be "vaccinated" against some natural parasites.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase , Animais , Abelhas , Defensinas , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Hemócitos/metabolismo , Memória Imunológica , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 857(Pt 1): 159298, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36216073

RESUMO

Pollinator decline is a grave challenge worldwide. One of the main culprits for this decline is the widespread use of, and pollinators' chronic exposure to, agrochemicals. Here, we examined the effect of a field-realistic dose of the world's most commonly used pesticide, glyphosate-based herbicide (GBH), on bumblebee cognition. We experimentally tested bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) color and scent discrimination using acute GBH exposure, approximating a field-realistic dose from a day's foraging in a patch recently sprayed with GBH. In a 10-color discrimination experiment with five learning bouts, GBH treated bumblebees' learning rate fell to zero by third learning bout, whereas the control bees increased their performance in the last two bouts. In the memory test, the GBH treated bumblebees performed to near chance level, indicating that they had lost everything they had learned during the learning bouts, while the control bees were performing close to the level in their last learning bout. However, GBH did not affect bees' learning in a 2-color or 10-odor discrimination experiment, which suggests that the impact is limited to fine color learning and does not necessarily generalize to less specific tasks or other modalities. These results indicate that the widely used pesticide damages bumblebees' fine-color discrimination, which is essential to the pollinator's individual success and to colony fitness in complex foraging environments. Hence, our study suggests that acute sublethal exposure to GBH poses a greater threat to pollination-based ecosystem services than previously thought, and that tests for learning and memory should be integrated into pesticide risk assessment.


Assuntos
Herbicidas , Praguicidas , Abelhas , Animais , Neonicotinoides , Nitrocompostos , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Ecossistema
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245536, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339403

RESUMO

Abstract Acacia mangium (Willd., 1806) (Fabales: Fabaceae) is a fast growing, rustic, pioneer species, with potential to fix nitrogen, and for programs to recover degraded areas. The objective was to evaluate the distribution and the functional diversity of interactions and the K-dominance of arthropod groups on A. mangium saplings. The number of individuals of eleven species of phytophagous insects, three bee species, and fourteen natural enemy species were highest on the adaxial leaf surface of this plant. Abundance, diversity and species richness of phytophagous insects and natural enemies, and abundance and species richness of pollinators were highest on the adaxial A. mangium leaf surface. The distribution of five species of sap-sucking hemipterans and six of protocooperating ants (Hymenoptera), with positive interaction between these groups, and three bee species (Hymenoptera) were aggregated on leaves of A. mangium saplings. Aethalion reticulatum (L.) (Hemiptera: Aethalionidae) and Bemisia sp. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae); Brachymyrmex sp. and Camponotus sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae); and Trigona spinipes Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Apidae) were the most dominant phytophagous insects, natural enemies, and pollinators, respectively, on A. mangium leaves. Knowledge of preferred leaf surfaces could help integrated pest management programs.


Resumo Acacia mangium (Willd., 1806) (Fabales: Fabaceae) é uma planta pioneira com rápido crescimento, rusticidade, potencial nitrificador e importante em programas de recuperação de áreas degradadas. O objetivo foi avaliar a distribuição e a diversidade funcional das interações e a dominância-K de grupos de artrópodes em árvores jovens de A. mangium. Os números de indivíduos de onze espécies de insetos fitófagos, três de abelhas e quatorze de inimigos naturais foram maiores na superfície adaxial de folhas dessa planta. A abundância, diversidade e riqueza de espécies de insetos fitófagos e inimigos naturais, e a abundância e riqueza de espécies de polinizadores foram maiores na face adaxial de folhas de A. mangium. A distribuição de cinco espécies de hemípteros sugadores de seiva e seis de formigas protocooperantes (Hymenoptera), com interação positiva entre esses grupos, e três de abelhas (Hymenoptera) foi agregada em folhas de plantas jovens de A. mangium. Aethalion reticulatum (L.) (Hemiptera: Aethalionidae) e Bemisia sp. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae); Brachymyrmex sp. e Camponotus sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae); e Trigona spinipes Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Apidae) foram os insetos fitófagos, inimigos naturais e polinizadores mais dominantes, respectivamente, em folhas de A. mangium. A definição da superfície foliar preferida pode auxiliar programas de manejo integrado de pragas.


Assuntos
Animais , Formigas , Artrópodes , Acacia , Fabaceae , Abelhas , Folhas de Planta
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e250373, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339376

RESUMO

Abstract Honey is a suitable matrix for the evaluation of environmental contaminants including organochlorine insecticides. The present study was conducted to evaluate residues of fifteen organochlorine insecticides in honey samples of unifloral and multifloral origins from Dir, Pakistan. Honey samples (5 g each) were extracted with GC grade organic solvents and then subjected to Rotary Evaporator till dryness. The extracts were then mixed with n-Hexane (5 ml) and purified through Column Chromatography. Purified extracts (1μl each) were processed through Gas Chromatograph coupled with Electron Capture Detector (GC-ECD) for identification and quantification of the insecticides. Of the 15 insecticides tested, 46.7% were detected while 53.3% were not detected in the honey samples. Heptachlor was the most prevalent insecticide with a mean level of 0.0018 mg/kg detected in 80% of the samples followed by β-HCH with a mean level of 0.0016 mg/kg detected in 71.4% of the honey samples. Honey samples from Acacia modesta Wall. were 100% positive for Heptachlor with a mean level of 0.0048 mg/kg followed by β-HCH with a mean level of 0.003 mg/kg and frequency of 83.3%. Minimum levels of the tested insecticides were detected in the unifloral honey from Ziziphus jujuba Mill. Methoxychlor, Endosulfan, Endrin and metabolites of DDT were not detected in the studied honey samples. Some of the tested insecticides are banned in Pakistan but are still detected in honey samples indicating their use in the study area. The detected levels of all insecticides were below the Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs) and safe for consumers. However, the levels detected can cause mortality in insect fauna. The use of banned insecticides is one of the main factors responsible for the declining populations of important insect pollinators including honeybees.


Resumo O mel é uma matriz adequada para a avaliação de contaminantes ambientais, incluindo inseticidas organoclorados. O presente estudo foi conduzido para avaliar resíduos de 15 inseticidas organoclorados em amostras de mel de origem unifloral e multifloral de Dir, Paquistão. Amostras de mel (5 g cada) foram extraídas com solventes orgânicos de grau GC e, em seguida, submetidas ao evaporador rotativo até a secura. Os extratos foram então misturados com n-hexano (5 ml) e purificados por cromatografia em coluna. Os extratos purificados (1μl cada) foram processados através de cromatógrafo gasoso acoplado a detector de captura de elétrons (GC-ECD) para identificação e quantificação dos inseticidas. Dos 15 inseticidas testados, 46,7% foram detectados enquanto 53,3% não foram detectados nas amostras de mel. O heptacloro foi o inseticida mais prevalente com um nível médio de 0,0018 mg / kg detectado em 80% das amostras, seguido por β-HCH com um nível médio de 0,0016 mg / kg detectado em 71,4% das amostras de mel. Amostras de mel da parede de Acacia modesta foram 100% positivos para heptacloro com um nível médio de 0,0048 mg / kg seguido por β-HCH com um nível médio de 0,003 mg / kg e frequência de 83,3%. Níveis mínimos dos inseticidas testados foram detectados no mel unifloral de Ziziphus jujuba da usina. Metoxicloro, Endosulfan, Endrin e metabólitos do DDT não foram detectados nas amostras de mel estudadas. Alguns dos inseticidas testados são proibidos no Paquistão, mas ainda são detectados em amostras de mel, indicando seu uso na área de estudo. Os níveis detectados de todos os inseticidas estavam abaixo dos Níveis Máximos de Resíduos (MRLs) e seguros para os consumidores. No entanto, os níveis detectados podem causar mortalidade na fauna de insetos. O uso de inseticidas proibidos é um dos principais fatores responsáveis pelo declínio das populações de importantes insetos polinizadores, incluindo as abelhas.


Assuntos
Animais , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/toxicidade , Mel/análise , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Abelhas , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Endossulfano/análise
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246651, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285627

RESUMO

Abstract The medicinal attributes of honey appears to overshadow its importance as a functional food. Consequently, several literatures are rife with ancient uses of honey as complementary and alternative medicine, with relevance to modern day health care, supported by evidence-based clinical data, with little attention given to honey's nutritional functions. The moisture contents of honey extracted from University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore honey bee farm was 12.19% while that of natural source was 9.03 ± 1.63%. Similarly, ash and protein contents of farmed honey recorded were 0.37% and 5.22%, respectively. Whereas ash and protein contents of natural honey were 1.70 ± 1.98% and 6.10 ± 0.79%. Likewise fat, dietary fiber and carbohydrates contents of farmed source documented were 0.14%, 1.99% and 62.26% respectively. Although fat, dietary fiber and carbohydrates contents of honey taken from natural resource were 0.54 ± 0.28%, 2.76 ± 1.07% and 55.32 ± 2.91% respectively. Glucose and fructose contents of honey taken out from honeybee farm were 27% and 34% but natural source were 22.50 ± 2.12% and 28.50 ± 3.54%. Glucose and fructose contents of honey taken out from honeybee farm were 27% and 34% but natural source were 22.50 ± 2.12% and 28.50 ± 3.54%. Similarly, sucrose and maltose contents of farmed honey were 2.5% and 12% while in natural honey were 1.35 ± 0.49% and 8.00 ± 1.41% respectively. The present study indicates that such as moisture, carbohydrates, sucrose and maltose contents were higher farmed honey as compared to the natural honey. In our recommendation natural honey is better than farmed honey.


Resumo Os atributos medicinais do mel parecem ofuscar sua importância como alimento funcional. Consequentemente, várias literaturas estão repletas de usos antigos do mel como medicina complementar e alternativa, com relevância para os cuidados de saúde modernos, apoiados por dados clínicos baseados em evidências, com pouca atenção dada às funções nutricionais do mel. O teor de umidade do mel extraído da Universidade de Veterinária e Ciências Animais, fazenda de abelhas de Lahore, foi de 12,19%, enquanto o de fonte natural foi de 9,03 ± 1,63%. Da mesma forma, os teores de cinzas e proteínas do mel cultivado foram de 0,37% e 5,22%, respectivamente. Já os teores de cinzas e proteínas do mel natural foram de 1,70 ± 1,98% e 6,10 ± 0,79%. Da mesma forma, os teores de gordura, fibra dietética e carboidratos de origem cultivada documentados foram de 0,14%, 1,99% e 62,26%, respectivamente. Embora os teores de gordura, fibra alimentar e carboidratos do mel retirado dos recursos naturais fossem de 0,54 ± 0,28%, 2,76 ± 1,07% e 55,32 ± 2,91%, respectivamente. Os conteúdos de glicose e frutose do mel retirado da fazenda de abelhas foram de 27% e 34%, mas a fonte natural foi de 22,50 ± 2,12% e 28,50 ± 3,54%. Os conteúdos de glicose e frutose do mel retirado da fazenda de abelhas foram de 27% e 34%, mas a fonte natural foi de 22,50 ± 2,12% e 28,50 ± 3,54%. Da mesma forma, os teores de sacarose e maltose no mel cultivado foram de 2,5% e 12%, enquanto no mel natural foram de 1,35 ± 0,49% e 8,00 ± 1,41%, respectivamente. O presente estudo indica que os teores de umidade, carboidratos, sacarose e maltose foram maiores no mel cultivado em comparação ao mel natural. Em nossa recomendação, o mel natural é melhor que o mel de cultivo.


Assuntos
Animais , Mel , Abelhas , Carboidratos
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e243651, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285608

RESUMO

Abstract Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. Ex Benth. (Fabaceae), a non-native pioneer species in Brazil with fast growth and rusticity, is used in restoration programs. Our goal was to assess during a 24-month survey the pattern of arthropods (phytophagous insects, bees, spiders, and predator insects) on the leaf surfaces of A. auriculiformis saplings. Fourteen species of phytophagous, two of bees and eleven of predators were most abundant on the adaxial surface. The values of the ecological indexes (abundance, diversity, and species richness) and the rarefaction, and k-dominance curves of phytophagous, bees and arthropod predators were highest on the adaxial leaf surface of A. auriculiformis. The k-dominance and abundance of Aleyrodidae (Hemiptera) (both leaf surfaces), the native stingless bee Tetragonisca angustula Latreille (Hymenoptera: Apidae) (both leaf surfaces) and the ant Brachymyrmex sp. (adaxial surface) and Pheidole sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) (abaxial surface) were the highest between the taxonomic groups of phytophagous, bees, and predators, respectively on A. auriculiformis saplings. The ecological indexes and rarefaction, abundance, and k-dominance curves of phytophagous insects, bees, and predators were highest on the adaxial leaf surface. The preference of phytophagous insects for the adaxial leaf surface is probably due to the lower effort required to move on this surface. Understanding the arthropod preferences between leaf surfaces may help to develop sampling and pest management plans for the most abundant phytophagous insects on A. auriculiformis saplings. Also, knowledge on the preference pattern of bees and predators may be used to favour their conservation.


Resumo Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. Ex Benth. (Fabaceae), espécie pioneira com rápido crescimento e rusticidade, é utilizada em programas de recuperação de áreas degradadas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, durante 24 meses, o padrão de distribuição de artrópodes (insetos fitófagos, abelhas, aranhas e insetos predadores) nas superfícies foliares de A. auriculiformis. Quatorze espécies de fitófagos, duas de abelhas e onze de predadores foram mais abundantes na superfície adaxial. Índices ecológicos (abundância, diversidade e riqueza de espécies) e curvas de rarefação e dominância-k de fitófagos, abelhas e artrópodes predadores foram maiores na face adaxial de folhas de A. auriculiformis. A dominância-k e a abundância de Aleyrodidae (Hemiptera) (ambas as superfícies foliares), da abelha nativa sem ferrão Tetragonisca angustula Latreille (Hymenoptera: Apidae) (ambas as superfícies foliares) e das formigas Brachymyrmex sp. (superfície adaxial) e Pheidole sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) (superfície abaxial) foram as maiores entre os grupos taxonômicos de fitófagos polinizadores e predadores, respectivamente, em plantas jovens de A. auriculiformis. A abundância, diversidade e riqueza e as curvas de rarefação e dominância-k de artrópodes fitófagos, abelhas e predadores foram maiores nas superfícies adaxiais das folhas dessa árvore. A preferência pela superfície adaxial da folha se deve, provavelmente, ao menor esforço para se movimentarem na mesma. Compreender as preferências dos artrópodes pelas superfícies foliares pode auxiliar no desenvolvimento de planos de amostragem e manejo de pragas em A. auriculiformis. Além disso, o conhecimento da distribuição de abelhas e predadores pode favorecer a conservação desses insetos.


Assuntos
Animais , Formigas , Artrópodes , Acacia , Abelhas , Folhas de Planta , Insetos
8.
J Environ Manage ; 325(Pt A): 116416, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36244287

RESUMO

Interactive maps can serve as powerful environmental decision-support tools. However, designing an interactive map that meets the needs of diverse constituencies is a challenge. In this article, we evaluate and characterize user needs for an interactive map and spatial decision-support tool called Beescape. Beescape is designed to visualize resources and environmental risks to bees and other pollinators (such as availability of nutritional resources from flowering plants and exposure to pesticides) in order to help users make informed decisions about managing bee populations and associated landscapes. We conducted a needs assessment workshop with twenty stakeholders from four user groups including beekeepers, growers, conservationists, and pollinator scientists to elicit their knowledge to guide future Beescape development. The results of the workshop identify current analytical gaps with the existing Beescape prototype, including the need for predictive and historical tools, more actionable data layers, finer-grain spatial data, and better explanations on what data represent and how they were created. Our findings on user's analytical, informational, and interface needs can be utilized to guide the future development of spatial decision support tools like Beescape, and our methodological approach may apply to other environmental informatics tools where it is important to design for multiple constituent user groups.


Assuntos
Praguicidas , Abelhas , Animais
9.
J Hazard Mater ; 442: 130109, 2023 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36303336

RESUMO

Honeybees (Apis mellifera) are indispensable pollinators in agricultural production, biodiversity conservation, and nutrients provision. The abundance and diversity of honeybees have been rapidly diminishing, possibly related to the extensive use of insecticides in ecosystems. Sulfoxaflor is a novel sulfoximine insecticide that, like neonicotinoids, acts as a competitive modulator of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) in insects. However, few studies have addressed the negative effects of sulfoxaflor on honeybees at environmentally relevant concentrations. In the present study, adult workers were fed a 50% (w/v) of sugar solution containing different concentrations (0, 0.05, 0.5 and 2.0 mg/L) of sulfoxaflor for two weeks consecutively. The survival rates, food intake, and body weight of the honeybees significantly decreased after continuous exposure at higher doses (0.5 and 2.0 mg/L) of sulfoxaflor when compared with the control. The change in the metabolites in the honeybee gut was determined using high-throughput non-targeted metabolomics on day 14 after sulfoxaflor treatment. The results revealed that 24 and 105 metabolites changed after exposure to 0.5 and 2.0 mg/L sulfoxaflor, respectively, compared with that of the control groups. A total of 12 changed compounds including pregenolone and glutathione were detected as potential biomarkers, which were eventually found to be enriched in pathways of the steroid hormone biosynthesis (p = 0.0001) and glutathione metabolism (p = 0.021). These findings provide a new perspective on the physiological influence of sulfoxaflor stress in honeybees.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Abelhas , Animais , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Ecossistema , Compostos de Enxofre/toxicidade , Neonicotinoides , Glutationa
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 857(Pt 3): 159518, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36270350

RESUMO

Understanding the frequency of non-additive effects of pesticides (synergism and antagonism) is important in the context of risk assessment. The goal of this study was to investigate the prevalence of non-additive effects of pesticides to honey bees (Apis mellifera). We investigated a large set of mixtures including insecticides and fungicides of different chemical modes of action and classes. The mixtures included represent a relevant sample of pesticides that are currently used globally. We investigated whether the experimental toxicity of the mixtures could be predicted based on the Concentration Addition (CA) model for acute contact and oral adult bee toxicity tests. We measured the degree of deviation from the additivity predictions of the experimental toxicity based on the well-known Mixture Deviation Ratio (MDR). Further, we investigated the appropriate MDR thresholds that should be used for the identification of non-additive effects based on acceptable rates for false positive (alpha) and true positive (beta) findings. We found that a deviation factor of MDR = 5 is a sound reference for labeling potential non-additive effects in acute adult bee experimental designs when assuming a typical Coefficient of Variation (CV%) = 100 in the determination of the LD50 of a pesticide (a factor of 2× deviation in the LD 50 resulting from inter-experimental variability). We found that only 2.4 % and 9 % of the mixtures evaluated had an MDR > 5 and MDR < 0.2, respectively. The frequency and magnitude of deviation from additivity found for bees in this study are consistent with those of other terrestrial and aquatic taxa. Our findings suggest that additivity is a good baseline for predicting the toxicity of pesticide mixtures to bees, and that the rare cases of synergy of pesticide mixtures to bees are not random but have a mechanistic basis.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais , Inseticidas , Praguicidas , Abelhas , Animais , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Dose Letal Mediana
11.
J Hazard Mater ; 443(Pt B): 130304, 2023 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36368063

RESUMO

The response of bee species to various stressors is assumed to depend on the availability of sufficient nutrients in their environment. We compare the response of three bee species (Apis mellifera, Bombus terrestris, Osmia bicornis) under laboratory conditions. Survival, physiology, and sensitivity, after exposure to the fungicide prochloraz, the insecticide chlorantraniliprole, and their mixture with different nutritional resources (sugar only, sugar with amino acids or pollen) were observed. Prochloraz reduced the bee survival of A. mellifera and O. bicornis fed with pollen, but not with other diets. Chlorantraniliprole impaired the survival of A. mellifera fed with sugar or pollen diet, but not with amino acid diet. The mixture impaired survival of A. mellifera and O. bicornis in association with every diet. B. terrestris was only affected by chlorantraniliprole and its mixture with prochloraz fed with sugar diet. The activity of P450 reductase was higher in A. mellifera fed with amino acids in all treatments, whereas no effect emerged in O. bicornis and B. terrestris. Our results indicate that the sensitivity of bee species after exposure to agrochemicals is affected by diet. Thus, balanced and species-dependent nutrition ameliorated the effects. Further field studies are necessary to evaluate the potential effects of such mixtures on bee populations.


Assuntos
Praguicidas , Abelhas , Animais , ortoaminobenzoatos/toxicidade , Açúcares , Aminoácidos
12.
Food Chem ; 404(Pt B): 134306, 2023 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36283315

RESUMO

Honeys produced by stingless bees Cephalotrigona capitata and Scutellaris Latrelle in the Caatinga and Atlantic Forest biomes were characterized in terms of chemical composition, antioxidant activity and phenolic, volatile and sensory profile. 'Mombucão' honey showed higher water activity, acidity, % sucrose and % organic acids, while 'uruçu' honey showed the highest % fructose and glucose. Nineteen phenolic compounds and flavonoids were quantified, with emphasis on epicatechin gallate, myricetin, quercetin and procyanidin A2. 'Mombucão' honey stood out with the highest to antioxidant activity. A total of 133 volatile compounds were identified in honeys, with emphasis on terpenes (41) and esters (26). 'Mombucão' honey presented a differentiated sensory profile and was characterized by the prevalence of acid and citrus aroma and flavor, while 'uruçu' honey presented a more characteristic sweet and woody aroma and flavor. The variability in the composition of honeys probably resulted from bee species, floral species and geographic origins.


Assuntos
Mel , Abelhas , Animais , Mel/análise , Antioxidantes , Brasil , Odorantes/análise , Paladar , Fenóis/análise
13.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 301: 115698, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36174808

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: African traditional medicine is one of the oldest and most diverse practices for treating ailments and numerous natural products have been recommended for gastric ulcer treatment. Helicobacter pylori is the main causative organism implicated in several diseases, most notably in causing inflammation and the onset of gastric ulcers. Current H. pylori treatment methods are losing efficacy as H. pylori rapidly gains resistance to antibiotics. Hence, a search into natural products and their historical traditional efficacy for the treatment of gastric ulcers is of interest. AIM OF THE STUDY: This review aimed to summarise the African use of natural products, including medicinal plants noted in ethnobotanical reviews, used traditionally to treat gastric ulcers, and highlights the investigations into the anti-H. pylori activity of medicinal plants and bee products found in Africa. METHODOLOGY: A systematic review was carried out to identify natural products, including those used traditionally in Africa to treat gastric ulcers, and to correlate this with scientific investigations into the anti-H. pylori activity of natural products used in Africa. RESULTS: A total of 107 literature sources describing the traditional use of medicinal plants in gastric ulcer treatment were found, from which 360 medicinal plants were identified. Of the plants used traditionally for gastric ulcer treatment, 11% were investigated either in vitro or in vivo for anti-ulcer and anti-H. pylori activity. Of the 122 medicinal plants eliciting antimicrobial or anti-ulcer activity, Hibiscus sabdariffa L. calyx extract and Terminalia macroptera Guill. & Perr. root extract were found to have the most noteworthy antimicrobial activity, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 0.01 mg/mL and 0.03 mg/mL respectively. The essential oils of Piper longum L. and Pachira aquatica Aubl. displayed the most notable in vitro anti-H. pylori activity (MIC of 0.01 mg/mL and 0.02 mg/mL). Several in vivo studies found medicinal plant extracts effective in reducing the H. pylori load along the gastric mucosa. The South African honey variants, Pure Honey and Champagne Royal Train (common names given by supplier) were the most antimicrobially effective (MIC of 0.01-10.0%, 0.63-10.00% v/v) in inhibiting H. pylori when assessed in vitro. CONCLUSION: These results highlight the potential of natural products to inhibit H. pylori growth and serve as a possible stepping-stone in understanding the management of ulcers. Furthermore, effective natural product treatment or prophylactic use for preventing H. pylori growth may provide a more affordable option for African populations.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Produtos Biológicos , Infecções por Helicobacter , Helicobacter pylori , Plantas Medicinais , Úlcera Gástrica , Abelhas , Animais , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamento farmacológico , Úlcera Gástrica/prevenção & controle , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/tratamento farmacológico
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20787, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36456591

RESUMO

Honey bee (Apis mellifera) colony loss is a widespread phenomenon with important economic and biological implications, whose drivers are still an open matter of investigation. We contribute to this line of research through a large-scale, multi-variable study combining multiple publicly accessible data sources. Specifically, we analyzed quarterly data covering the contiguous United States for the years 2015-2021, and combined open data on honey bee colony status and stressors, weather data, and land use. The different spatio-temporal resolutions of these data are addressed through an up-scaling approach that generates additional statistical features which capture more complex distributional characteristics and significantly improve modeling performance. Treating this expanded feature set with state-of-the-art feature selection methods, we obtained findings that, nation-wide, are in line with the current knowledge on the aggravating roles of Varroa destructor and pesticides in colony loss. Moreover, we found that extreme temperature and precipitation events, even when controlling for other factors, significantly impact colony loss. Overall, our results reveal the complexity of biotic and abiotic factors affecting managed honey bee colonies across the United States.


Assuntos
Clima Extremo , Parasitos , Praguicidas , Varroidae , Abelhas , Animais , Tempo (Meteorologia)
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(48): e2205043119, 2022 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36417443

RESUMO

As honeybees build their nests in preexisting tree cavities, they must deal with the presence of geometric constraints, resulting in nonregular hexagons and topological defects in the comb. In this work, we study how bees adapt to their environment in order to regulate the comb structure. Specifically, we identify the irregularities in honeycomb structure in the presence of various geometric frustrations. We 3D-print experimental frames with a variety of constraints imposed on the imprinted foundations. The combs constructed by the bees show clear evidence of recurring patterns in response to specific geometric frustrations on these starter frames. Furthermore, using an experimental-modeling framework, we demonstrate that these patterns can be successfully modeled and replicated through a simulated annealing process, in which the minimized potential is a variation of the Lennard-Jones potential that considers only first-neighbor interactions according to a Delaunay triangulation. Our simulation results not only confirm the connection between honeycomb structures and other crystal systems such as graphene, but also show that irregularities in the honeycomb structure can be explained as the result of analogous interactions between cells and their immediate surroundings, leading to emergent global order. Additionally, our computational model can be used as a first step to describe specific strategies that bees use to effectively solve geometric mismatches while minimizing cost of comb building.


Assuntos
Abelhas , Frustração , Animais , Simulação por Computador , Cristalografia , Alimentos
16.
Proc Biol Sci ; 289(1987): 20221443, 2022 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36448420

RESUMO

Many mutualisms are exploited by third-party species, which benefit without providing anything in return. Exploitation can either destabilize or promote mutualisms, via mechanisms that are highly dependent on the ecological context. Here we study a remarkable bird-human mutualism, in which wax-eating greater honeyguides (Indicator indicator) guide humans (Homo sapiens) to wild bees' nests, in an exchange of knowledge about the location of nests for access to the wax combs inside. We test whether the depletion of wax by mammalian and avian exploiter species either threatens or stabilizes the mutualism. Using camera traps, we monitored feeding visits to wax comb made available following honey harvests. We found that greater honeyguides face competition for wax from conspecifics and nine exploiter species, five of which were not previously known to consume wax. Our results support the hypothesis that heterospecific exploiters stabilize the mutualism, because wax depletion by these competitors probably limits feeding opportunities for conspecific exploiters, favouring the early-arriving individual that guided humans to the bees' nest. These findings highlight the importance of the ecological context of species interactions and provide further evidence for how mutualisms can persist because of, and not in spite of, exploitation by third-party species.


Assuntos
Mel , Simbiose , Humanos , Abelhas , Animais , Ceras , Aves , Mamíferos
17.
Molecules ; 27(22)2022 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36431835

RESUMO

Bee pollen, because of its high content of nutrients, is a very valuable medicinal and nutritional product. However, since its composition is not completely studied, the consumption of this product may cause adverse effects, including allergic reactions. Therefore, this study aimed to discover and characterize the bioactive proteins of bee pollen collected in Poland, focusing mainly on the allergens. For this purpose, the purified and concentrated pollen aqueous solutions were analyzed using the nanoLC-MALDI-TOF/TOF MS analytical platform. As a result of the experiments, 197 unique proteins derived from green plants (Viridiplantae) and 10 unique proteins derived from bees (Apis spp.) were identified. Among them, potential plant allergens were discovered. Moreover, proteins belonging to the group of hypothetical proteins, whose expression had not been confirmed experimentally before, were detected. Because of the content of bioactive compounds-both beneficial and harmful-there is a critical need to develop guidelines for standardizing bee pollen, especially intended for consumption or therapeutic purposes. This is of particular importance because awareness of the allergen content of bee pollen and other bee products can prevent health- or life-threatening incidents following the ingestion of these increasingly popular "superfoods".


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade , Abelhas , Animais , Hipersensibilidade/etiologia , Espectrometria de Massas , Pólen , Alérgenos , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos
18.
Molecules ; 27(22)2022 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36431935

RESUMO

The present study aimed to analyze and compare the chemical profile and antioxidant capacity of propolis from different bee species and different regions. The chemical profiles of propolis from six stingless bee species (Tetragonula iridipennis, T. laeviceps, Lepidotrigona terminata, L. ventralis, Lisotrigona carpenteri and Homotrigona apicalis) collected from a total of eight locations in Vietnam were investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). More than 70 compounds were identified, amongst which phenolic lipids (cardanols, resorcinols and anacardic acids), aromatic acids, triterpenes and xanthones. Taxonomic markers for Mangifera indica (phenolic lipids and cycloartane triterpenes) were detected in propolis from bees of the genera Tetragonula and Lepidotrigona, although in different amounts, whereas propolis from H. apicalis was characterized by triterpenes of the amyrine type, typical of dipterocarp trees. A clear discrimination between both groups was observed by principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). Propolis from Tetragonula and Lepidotrigona spp. and from Lisotrigona carpenteri, which is rich in xanthones, possesses higher radical scavenging and ferric-reducing capacity than that from H. apicalis. Propolis produced by all six stingless bee species in Vietnam was analyzed for the first time. In addition, this is the first report on L. carpenteri propolis.


Assuntos
Própole , Triterpenos , Xantonas , Abelhas , Animais , Própole/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Vietnã , Fenóis/análise , Triterpenos/análise , Lipídeos
19.
Molecules ; 27(22)2022 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36432097

RESUMO

Attempts have often been made to isolate and characterise monofloral pollens to correlate nutritional with botanical properties. Nevertheless, pollen harvested in a particular area that can have a high biodiversity could have healthier properties. In addition, the analysis of the pollen's botanical composition can be important for characterising the typical flora of a specific geographical area. On this basis, various pollens collected in different locations of the Marche region (Italy) and in different harvesting periods were analyzed for botanical composition and antioxidant (total phenolic content, ABTS, DPPH and ORAC tests), granulometry and colour (CIE L*a*b*) properties to evaluate the biodiversity of pollen sources within a particular geographical area and to correlate this to the nutraceutical characteristics. Antioxidant activity results showed values generally higher than those of monofloral pollens harvested in the same areas but manually separated according to colour, shape and size. This suggests that even the floral species present in low percentages may have an influence on the nutraceutical properties of these products. The multivariate statistical elaboration of the obtained results permitted the separation of samples containing a prevalent botanical species and the grouping of all the samples into separate clusters corresponding to different areas of Marche.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Quimiometria , Animais , Abelhas , Antioxidantes/química , Cor , Pólen/química , Fenóis/química , Excipientes
20.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18660, 2022 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36376353

RESUMO

The high loss rates of honey bee colonies drive research for solutions aimed to mitigate these losses. While honey bee colonies are superorganisms, experiments that measure the response to stressors often use caged individuals to allow for inference in a controlled setting. In an initial experiment, we showed that caged honey bees provisioned with various types of water (deionized, 1%NaCl in deionized, or tap) have greater median lifespans than those that did not. While researching the history of water provisioning in cage studies, we observed that the median lifespan of caged honey bees has been declining in the US since the 1970's, from an average of 34.3 days to 17.7 days. In response to this, we again turned to historical record and found a relationship between this trend and a decline in the average amount of honey produced per colony per year in the US over the last 5 decades. To understand the relationship between individual bee lifespan and colony success we used an established honey bee population model (BEEHAVE) to simulate the predicted effects of decreased worker lifespans. Declines in downstream measures of colony population, overall honey production, and colony lifespan resulted from reduced worker bee lifespans. Modeled colony lifespans allowed us to estimate colony loss rates in a beekeeping operation where lost colonies are replaced annually. Resulting loss rates were reflective of what beekeepers' experience today, which suggests the average lifespan of individual bees plays an important role in colony success.


Assuntos
Mel , Longevidade , Abelhas , Animais , Água , Criação de Abelhas/métodos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...