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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(10): e37071, 2024 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38457586

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Uterine rupture is extremely hazardous to both mothers and infants. Diagnosing silent uterine rupture in pregnant women without uterine contractions is challenging due to the presence of nonspecific symptoms, signs, and laboratory indicators. Therefore, it is crucial to identify the elevated risks associated with silent uterine rupture. PATIENT CONCERNS: on admission, case 1 was at 37 gestational weeks, having undergo laparoscopic transabdominal cerclage 8 months prior to the in vitro fertilization embryo transfer procedure, case 2 was at 38 4/7 gestational weeks with a history of 5 previous artificial abortion and 2 previous vaginal deliveries, case 3 was at 37 6/7 gestational weeks with a history of laparoscopic myomectomy. DIAGNOSES: The diagnosis of silent uterine rupture was based on clinical findings from cesarean delivery or laparoscopic exploration. INTERVENTIONS: Case 1 underwent emergent cesarean delivery, revealing a 0.25 cm × 0.25 cm narrow concave area above the Ring Ties with active and bright amniotic fluid flowing from the tear. Case 2 underwent vaginal delivery, and on the 12th postpartum day, ultrasound imaging and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 5.8 cm × 3.3 cm × 2.3 cm lesion on the lower left posterior wall of the uterus, and 15th postpartum day, laparoscopic exploration confirmed the presence of an old rupture of uterus. Case 3 underwent elective cesarean delivery, revealing a 3.0 cm × 2.0 cm uterine rupture without active bleeding at the bottom of the uterus. OUTCOMES: The volumes of antenatal bleeding for the 3 patients were approximately 500 mL, 320 mL, and 400 mL, respectively. After silent uterine ruptures were detected, the uterine tear was routinely repaired. No maternal or neonatal complications were reported. LESSONS: Obstetricians should give particular consideration to the risk factors for silent uterine rupture, including a history of uterine surgery, such as laparoscopic transabdominal cerclage, laparoscopic myomectomy, and induced abortion.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Laparoscopia , Ruptura Uterina , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Ruptura Uterina/diagnóstico , Ruptura Uterina/etiologia , Ruptura Uterina/cirurgia , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Útero , Aborto Induzido/efeitos adversos , Laparoscopia/efeitos adversos
2.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol ; 63(2): 214-219, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38485317

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: While the decision of abortion is undeniably complex, there are situations where it becomes a necessary choice. In such circumstances, a secure abortion procedure is essential to safeguard the physical and mental well-being of women. A uterine direct visualization system was designed to fulfill the requirements and this study undertook an assessment of the system's safety and effectiveness within a medical facility setting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Induced abortion requested women in 17 institutions across the country between December 2016 and February 2017 were enrolled. Subjects were separated to the study and control group randomly. Induced abortion was conducted by a uterine direct visualization system and an ultrasound-guided system in the study and control group, respectively. The clinical indexes collected during intra- and post-procedures were analyzed and compared between groups. RESULTS: Overall, 392 and 339 subjects were included in the study and control group, respectively. The baseline demographic and clinical characteristics were similar between two groups. Subjects in the study group had significant smaller number of uterine cavity entry (p < 0.001), less 2-h and 14-days postoperative bleeding (all p < 0.001), and less 14-days postoperative abdominal pain (p < 0.001). Significantly higher ratio of normal menstruation, in terms of incidence and duration after 60-days of operation, was observed in the study group (all p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Induced abortion with uterine direct visualization system generate better outcome and less complication than the conventional ultrasound-guided abortion procedures.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Aborto Espontâneo , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Aborto Induzido/efeitos adversos , Aborto Induzido/métodos , Útero/diagnóstico por imagem , Útero/cirurgia , Dor Abdominal
3.
Rev Med Liege ; 79(3): 143-145, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38487907

RESUMO

An intrauterine infection during the first trimester of pregnancy can rapidly lead to bacteremia, with severe consequences for the patient. While these infections are mainly found after a miscarriage or an abortion, the diagnosis is sometimes made while the pregnancy is still in progress. The clinical history and symptoms reported by the patient lead to the suspicion of such a complication. Treatment must be rapid and based on a broad-spectrum antibiotic regimen covering Gram-negative, Gram-positive, aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. As soon as the treatment has been initiated, uterine curettage should be performed to remove the infected material, whether or not foetal cardiac activity is present at the time of diagnosis.


Une infection intra-utérine durant le premier trimestre de la grossesse peut rapidement mener à une bactériémie et avoir des conséquences sévères pour la patiente. Alors que ces infections sont principalement retrouvées après une fausse couche ou une interruption volontaire de grossesse, le diagnostic est parfois posé alors que la grossesse est évolutive. L'histoire clinique et les symptômes rapportés par la patiente permettent de suspecter une telle complication. La prise en charge doit être rapide et repose sur un traitement antibiotique à large spectre couvrant les bactéries Gram négatif, Gram positif, les aérobies et les anaérobies. Dès le traitement instauré, un curetage utérin devra être réalisé afin d'éliminer le matériel infecté, que l'activité cardiaque fœtale soit présente ou non au moment du diagnostic.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Aborto Espontâneo , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Aborto Espontâneo/cirurgia , Aborto Espontâneo/etiologia , Aborto Induzido/efeitos adversos , Útero , Curetagem/efeitos adversos
4.
Obstet Gynecol Surv ; 79(1): 54-63, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38306292

RESUMO

Importance: Several medications have been used to achieve medical abortion in the first trimester of pregnancy. The most commonly used is the combination of mifepristone and misoprostol; however, different doses and routes of administration have been proposed. Objective: The aim of this study was to summarize published data on the effectiveness, adverse effects, and acceptability of the various combinations of mifepristone and misoprostol in medical abortion protocols in the first trimester of pregnancy. Evidence Acquisition: This was a comprehensive review, synthesizing the findings of the literature on the current use of mifepristone and misoprostol for first-trimester abortion. Results: The combination of mifepristone and misoprostol seems to be more effective than misoprostol alone. Regarding the dosages and routes, mifepristone is administered orally, and the optimal dose is 200 mg. The route of administration of misoprostol varies; the sublingual and buccal routes are more effective; however, the vaginal route (800 µg) is associated with fewer adverse effects. Finally, the acceptability rates did not differ significantly. Conclusions: Different schemes for first-trimester medical abortion have been described so far. Future research needs to focus on identifying the method that offers the best trade-off between efficacy and safety in first-trimester medical abortion.


Assuntos
Abortivos não Esteroides , Aborto Induzido , Misoprostol , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Mifepristona/efeitos adversos , Misoprostol/efeitos adversos , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Aborto Induzido/efeitos adversos , Abortivos não Esteroides/efeitos adversos
5.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 24(1): 143, 2024 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38368325

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Acknowledging the associated risk factors may have a positive impact on reducing the incidence of ectopic pregnancy (EP). In recent years, body mass index (BMI) has been mentioned in research. However, few studies are available and controversial on the relationship between EP and BMI. METHODS: We retrospectively studied the EP women as a case group and the deliveries as a control group in the central hospital of Wuhan during 2017 ~ 2021. χ2 test of variables associated with ectopic pregnancy was performed to find differences. Univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression analysis was conducted to analyze the association of the variables of age, parity, history of induced abortion, history of ectopic pregnancy, history of spontaneous abortion, history of appendectomy surgery and BMI (< 18.5 kg/m2, 18.5 ~ 24.9 kg/m2, 25 kg/m2 ~ 29.9 kg/m2, ≥ 30 kg /m2) with EP. RESULTS: They were 659 EP and 1460 deliveries. The variables of age, parity, history of induced abortion, history of ectopic pregnancy and BMI were different significantly(P < 0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that the variables of age > 35 years old [(OR (Odds Ratio), 5.415; 95%CI (Confidence Interval), 4.006 ~ 7.320, P < 0.001], history of ectopic pregnancy (OR, 3.944; 95%CI, 2.405 ~ 6.467; P < 0.001), history of induced abortion(OR, 3.365; 95%CI, 2.724 ~ 4.158, P < 0.001) and low BMI (< 18.5 kg/m2) (OR, 1.929; 95%CI, 1.416 ~ 2.628, P < 0.001])increased the risk of EP. CONCLUSION: The history of ectopic pregnancy, history of induced abortion and age > 35 years old were the risk factors with EP. In addition to these traditional factors, we found low BMI (< 18.5 kg/m2) with women may increase the risk to EP.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Gravidez Ectópica , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Índice de Massa Corporal , Gravidez Ectópica/epidemiologia , Gravidez Ectópica/etiologia , Aborto Induzido/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco
6.
Hum Reprod ; 39(2): 326-334, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38166353

RESUMO

STUDY QUESTION: Do prepregnancy peripheral leukocytes (PPLs) and their subsets influence the risk of spontaneous abortion (SAB)? SUMMARY ANSWER: PPLs and their subsets are associated with the risk of SAB. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Compelling studies have revealed the crucial role of maternal peripheral leukocytes in embryo implantation and pregnancy maintenance. Adaptive changes are made by PPLs and their subsets after conception. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: This population-based retrospective cohort study was based on data from the National Free Pre-pregnancy Check-up Project (NFPCP) in mainland China. Couples preparing for pregnancy within the next six months were provided with free prepregnancy health examinations and counseling services for reproductive health. The current study was based on 1 310 494 female NFPCP participants aged 20-49 who became pregnant in 2016. After sequentially excluding 235 456 participants lost to follow-up, with multiple births, and who failed to complete blood tests, a total of 1 075 038 participants were included in the primary analysis. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: PPLs and their subset counts and ratios were measured. The main outcome was SAB. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% CI of SAB associated with PPLs and their subsets, and restricted cubic spline (RCS) was used to estimate the nonlinear exposure-response relationship. MAIN RESULTS AND ROLE OF CHANCE: Of the included pregnant participants, a total of 35 529 SAB events (3.30%) were recorded. Compared to participants with reference values of PPLs, the ORs (95% CIs) of leukopenia and leukocytosis for SAB were 1.14 (1.09-1.20) and 0.74 (0.69-0.79), respectively. The RCS result revealed a monotonous decreasing trend (Pnonlinear < 0.05). Similar relationships were observed for the neutrophil count and ratio, monocyte count, and middle-sized cell count and ratio. The lymphocyte ratio showed a positive and nonlinear relationship with the risk of SAB (Pnonlinear < 0.05). Both eosinophils and basophils showed positive relationships with the risk of SAB (eosinophil Pnonlinear > 0.05 and basophil Pnonlinear < 0.05). LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: Chemical abortion events and the cause of SAB were not collected at follow-up. Whether women with abnormal PPLs had recovered during periconception was not determined. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: PPLs and their subsets are associated with the risk of SAB. Leukopenia and neutropenia screening in women preparing for pregnancy and developing a feasible PPL stimulation approach should be emphasized to utilize the immune window of opportunity to prevent SAB. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): This study was approved by the Institutional Research Review Board of the National Health and Family Planning Commission. This study was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (grants 2021YFC2700705 [Y.Y.] and 2016YFC100307 [X.M.]) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant no. 82003472 [L.W.]). The funding source was not involved in the study design, data collection, analysis and interpretation of the data, writing the report, or the decision to submit this article for publication. No competing interests. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: N/A.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Aborto Espontâneo , Leucopenia , Gravidez , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Cavalos , Aborto Espontâneo/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Aborto Induzido/efeitos adversos , Leucócitos , Leucopenia/complicações
7.
J Gynecol Obstet Hum Reprod ; 53(1): 102705, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38013013

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The National French Assembly promoted a law in 2022 allowing an extension of the period of abortion up to 16 week's amenorrhea. Medication protocols vary internationally, and there are no French data on medical management between 14- and 16-weeks' amenorrhea. OBJECTIVE: To assess effectiveness and feasibility of a medical management abortion between 14 and 16 weeks of amenorrhea. STUDY DESIGN: We retrospectively collected data from women undergoing medical abortion between 14 and 16 weeks' amenorrhea from April 2022 to April 2023 in Archet's University hospital, Nice, France. Medical protocol consisted in a single dose of oral mifepristone 600 mg and 36-48 h later, vaginal gemeprost 1 mg. Three hours after gemeprost, oral 400 µg of misoprostol were administered every three hours, to a maximum of three doses. Success was defined as fetal expulsion. RESULTS: Thirty women were enrolled in the study. Twenty-nine (96.7 %) patients aborted successfully. The median dose of misoprostol required was 800 µg (400 µg -1200 µg) and the median induction-to-abortion interval after first prostaglandin administration was 7 h (5.5-11.6). One patient (3.3 %) didn't expulse the fetus after 3 doses of misoprostol. Nine patients (30.0 %) had additional surgical aspiration for retained product of conception within 24 h. We encountered one post-abortum hemorrhage controlled only with surgical intra uterine aspiration. We did not need complementary hemostatic procedure and we reported no immediate or late complication. CONCLUSIONS: Medical abortion between 14 and 16 weeks of amenorrhea provides a noninvasive and effective management for a daycare mid trimester abortion in 96.7 % of cases, with a 36.7 % of risk of staying in hospital overnight and 30.0 % to have additional surgery for retained product of conception (RPOC).


Assuntos
Abortivos não Esteroides , Aborto Induzido , Misoprostol , Gravidez , Humanos , Feminino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Amenorreia/etiologia , Aborto Induzido/efeitos adversos , Aborto Induzido/métodos
8.
BJOG ; 131(3): 319-326, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37667661

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether letrozole pre-treatment is non-inferior to mifepristone pre-treatment, followed by misoprostol, for complete evacuation in the medical treatment of first-trimester missed miscarriage. DESIGN: Prospective open-label non-inferiority randomised controlled trial. SETTING: A university-affiliated hospital. POPULATION: We recruited 294 women diagnosed with first-trimester missed miscarriage who opted for medical treatment. METHODS: Participants were randomly assigned to: (i) the mifepristone group, who received 200 mg mifepristone orally followed 24-48 h later by 800 µg misoprostol vaginally; or (ii) the letrozole group, who received 10 mg letrozole orally once-a-day for 3 days, followed by 800 µg misoprostol vaginally on the third (i.e. last) day of letrozole administration. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was the rate of complete evacuation without surgical intervention at 42 days post-treatment. Secondary outcomes included induction-to-expulsion interval, adverse effects, women's satisfaction, number of doses of misoprostol required, duration of vaginal bleeding, pain score on the day of misoprostol administration and other adverse events. RESULTS: The complete evacuation rates were 97.8% (95% CI 95.1%-100%) and 97.2% (95% CI 94.4%-99.9%) in the letrozole and mifepristone groups, respectively (p ≤ 0.001 for non-inferiority). The mean induction-to-tissue expulsion interval in the letrozole group was longer compared with the mifepristone group (15.4 vs 9.0 h) (p = 0.03). The letrozole group had less heavy post-treatment bleeding and an earlier return of menses. There were no statistically significant differences in the number of doses of misoprostol required, the duration of vaginal bleeding, the pain score on the day of misoprostol administration and the rate of other adverse events between the two groups. The majority of the women (91.2% and 93.9% in the letrozole and mifepristone groups, respectively) were satisfied with their treatment option. CONCLUSIONS: Letrozole is non-inferior to mifepristone as a pre-treatment, followed by misoprostol, for the medical treatment of first-trimester missed miscarriage.


Assuntos
Abortivos não Esteroides , Aborto Incompleto , Aborto Induzido , Misoprostol , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Aborto Induzido/efeitos adversos , Letrozol , Mifepristona , Dor/etiologia , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Hemorragia Uterina/etiologia
9.
Biomol Biomed ; 24(1): 153-158, 2024 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37597215

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical efficacy of combining pelvic floor neuromuscular stimulation treatment (NMES) with sodium hyaluronate in preventing intrauterine adhesions (IUA) following abortion. A total of 140 women who underwent artificial abortion were enrolled. The control group received only an intrauterine injection of sodium hyaluronate post-surgery, while the observation group received both the injection and daily pelvic floor NMES treatments, beginning on the day after the abortion. Monthly follow-ups on menstrual conditions were conducted for six months post-surgery. Fasting venous blood samples from both groups were collected on the second day post-abortion and the day after treatment. Transvaginal color Doppler ultrasound was used on the second day post-abortion and the 15th day post the first menstrual cycle to measure endometrial thickness, and the pulsatility and resistance indices of the endometrial spiral arteries. Over the six-month follow-up, the combination therapy group exhibited a notably lower IUA incidence compared to the control group (2.8% vs. 15.7%). Furthermore, combined treatment significantly expedited post-abortion menstrual recovery, reduced vaginal bleeding volume and duration (P < 0.001). It also increased endometrial thickness and reduced the endometrial spiral artery's pulsatility and resistance indices (P < 0.05). In addition, lower serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and higher interleukin-10 (IL-10) were found in the observation group compared to the control group (P < 0.05). The combination therapy offers significant advantages in preventing and reducing IUA after abortion, resulting in a substantial reduction in IUA occurrence.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Aborto Espontâneo , Doenças Uterinas , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Ácido Hialurônico/farmacologia , Diafragma da Pelve/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Uterinas/tratamento farmacológico , Aborto Induzido/efeitos adversos , Aborto Espontâneo/tratamento farmacológico , Estimulação Elétrica/efeitos adversos
10.
Womens Health Issues ; 34(1): 45-50, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37479629

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The general public and abortion patients in the United States have misinformation about the risks of infertility associated with abortion, which may influence abortion care-seeking. METHODS: The Google Ads Abortion Access Study was a national study of people considering abortion and searching online for information. Participants completed baseline and follow-up surveys, providing free text responses to questions about barriers and facilitators to abortion. We conducted an exploratory analysis of the free text responses related to fertility and used thematic analysis to identify concerns raised about links between abortion and future fertility. RESULTS: Of 864 participants who provided free text responses in the follow-up survey, 32 specifically mentioned fertility. Few expressed fear that complications from the abortion procedure would somehow lead to infertility; rather, most discussed complex and overlapping thoughts about how abortion factored into their reproductive life plans. These included age-related concerns, missing out on their "chance" to have a child, fear of being punished by God with infertility for having an abortion, and conflicting emotions if they had previously been told they were subfecund or infertile. CONCLUSION: Although previous research has focused on misinformation about the link between abortion and infertility, participants in this study rarely mentioned it as a concern. Researchers and practitioners should be attuned to the distinctions people make between infertility occurring as a result of abortion and other fears they might have about not achieving their future reproductive aspirations, ask questions, and provide counseling accordingly.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Aborto Espontâneo , Infertilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Aborto Induzido/efeitos adversos , Medo , Fertilidade , Reprodução , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
11.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 23(1): 863, 2023 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38102587

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the predictive value of ultrasound indicators in early pregnancy for the outcome of caesarean scar pregnancy (CSP) after pregnancy termination. METHODS: This study retrospectively analysed the ultrasound images of 98 CSP patients who underwent transabdominal ultrasound-guided hysteroscopic curettage during early pregnancy at Changsha Hospital for Maternal and Child Health Care between January 2017 and October 2021. Patients were equally divided into a case group and a control group. The case group included 49 CSP patients with postoperative complications, such as intraoperative blood loss ≥ 200 ml or retained products of conception (RPOC). The remaining 49 CSP patients, with similar age and gestational age and with good postoperative outcomes, such as intraoperative blood loss ≤ 50 ml and no RPOC, were included in the control group. CSP was classified into three types according to the location of the gestational sac (GS) relative to the uterine cavity line (UCL) and serosal contour. Differences in ultrasound indicators between the case and control group were compared. RESULTS: There were significant differences between the case and control groups in the mean gestational sac diameter (MGSD), residual myometrium thickness (RMT) between the GS and the bladder, blood flow around the GS at the site of the previous caesarean incision, and types of CSP (P < 0.05). The rs of each ultrasound indicator were as follows: 0.258, -0.485, 0.369, 0.350. The optimal threshold for predicting good postoperative outcomes, such as intraoperative blood loss ≤ 50 ml and no RPOC, by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis of the RMT was 2.3 mm. CONCLUSION: Our findings show that the RMT, blood flow around the GS at the site of the previous caesarean incision, and types of CSP have a low correlation with postoperative complications, such as intraoperative blood loss ≥ 200 ml or RPOC, of early pregnancy termination in patients with CSP. To some extent, this study may be helpful for clinical prognostic prediction of patients with CSP and formulation of treatment strategies. Given the low correlation between these three indicators and postoperative complications, further studies are needed to identify indicators that can better reflect the postoperative outcomes of CSP patients.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Complicações na Gravidez , Gravidez Ectópica , Gravidez , Feminino , Criança , Humanos , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Cicatriz/etiologia , Cicatriz/complicações , Ultrassom , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Gravidez Ectópica/diagnóstico por imagem , Gravidez Ectópica/etiologia , Gravidez Ectópica/cirurgia , Aborto Induzido/efeitos adversos , Complicações na Gravidez/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
BMC Womens Health ; 23(1): 586, 2023 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37940884

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A diagnosis of cancer during pregnancy or within one year after the end of pregnancy is a major clinical and public health issue. The current study aimed at estimating the incidence of pregnancy-associated cancer (PAC) and assessing whether the risk of abortion is increased in women diagnosed with cancer. METHODS: This population-based cohort study used the regional healthcare utilization (HCU) databases of Lombardy, the largest region in Italy, to identify the women who delivered between 2010 and 2020. PAC were identified by oncological ICD-9-CM codes reported in the hospital discharge forms. We computed the ratio of PAC cases to the total number of pregnancies. Following a diagnosis of PAC, the prevalence ratio (PR) of abortion and the corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI), was estimated using a log-binomial model adjusted for maternal age. RESULTS: During the study period, 926 women who gave birth (1.29 cases per 1000 births) and 341 women who had an abortion (1.52 cases per 1000 abortions) were diagnosed with PAC. Regardless of the outcome of pregnancy, the risk of PAC increased with increasing age. The rate of PAC was initially lower among births, but it came very close to the rate of PAC among abortions in the last two calendar years. The proportion of abortions among women with PAC gradually decreased from 27.7% in 2010-2012 to 18.5% in 2019-2020 (p-value < 0.001). Overall, a diagnosis of PAC was related to an approximately 10% increased risk of abortion (PR = 1.11, 95%CI:1.01-1.22). However, no association was observed in 2019-2020 (PR = 0.87, 95%CI:0.65-1.17). Considering only diagnoses made during the first trimester of pregnancy, the risk of abortion was about 2.5 times higher (PR = 2.53, 95%CI:2.05-3.11) and the risk of induced abortion was almost 4 times higher (PR = 3.71, 95%CI:2.82-4.90). CONCLUSION: In this population the risk of abortion was about 10% higher in women with PAC than in women without PAC. However, this association tended to decrease in more recent calendar periods. This trend seemed to be influenced more by spontaneous than by induced abortions.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Aborto Espontâneo , Neoplasias , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Aborto Induzido/efeitos adversos , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Aborto Espontâneo/etiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Complicações Neoplásicas na Gravidez
13.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) ; 69(9): 172-176, 2023 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37807316

RESUMO

Abortion is a significant global public health concern affecting millions of women each year. Factors such as maternal diabetes and hypertension have been recognized as major contributors to increased abortion risk. Immunoglobulins, specifically IgG and IgM, play crucial roles in pregnancy outcomes and have been studied extensively. This study aimed to assess the levels of Toxoplasma IgG and IgM in aborted women with and without diabetes or hypertension. This cross-sectional study examined 64 women who experienced Toxoplasma gondii-induced abortions at Erbil Maternity Teaching Hospital between January 2021 and May 2021. Their medical history, including diabetes and hypertension status, was collected through interviews. Blood samples were analyzed using VIDAS technology to measure serum IgG and IgM levels. The mean IgG and IgM antibody levels were compared between groups of women based on the number of abortions, diabetes status, and hypertension status. In women with a history of abortion, IgM antibody levels differed significantly among the five groups (P ≤ 0.01). While the average serum toxoplasma IgG concentration varied between diabetic and non-diabetic women, these differences were not significant (P>0.05). Conversely, there were highly significant differences in the concentration of serum toxoplasma IgM (P<0.01). Comparing women with and without hypertension, no significant differences were found in the mean concentrations of serum toxoplasma IgG and IgM (P > 0.05).  The IgM antibody had a significant impact on the number of performed abortions, and these effects were also observed in abortion in women with diabetes.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Aborto Espontâneo , Diabetes Gestacional , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Toxoplasmose/complicações , Estudos Transversais , Imunoglobulina G , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Fatores de Risco , Aborto Induzido/efeitos adversos , Imunoglobulina M
14.
Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol ; 35(6): 490-495, 2023 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37873766

RESUMO

The safety and efficacy of medical abortion in the second trimester is provider independent and may therefore offer advantages over surgical second trimester abortion in certain settings. Due to bleeding risk, medical abortions in the second trimester are still mostly performed in a clinic or hospital setting. The most effective regimen for abortion includes pretreatment with oral mifepristone and following doses of misoprostol. An alternative is misoprostol only which should only be used when mifepristone is not available. The optimal dosing of prostaglandin to achieve the highest efficacy with the lowest proportion of complications remains to be established. Complications are rare and serious adverse events uncommon but may include uterine rupture especially in women with a previous cesarean delivery or uterine surgery. Women having second trimester medical abortion are a diverse group with different indications for the abortion. All women should be offered pain relief and respectful care. Staff involved in second trimester medical abortion often find their work challenging. At the same time, staff indicate pride and a conviction of contributing to the 'greater good' for women and society. Staff involved in second trimester abortion should be offered guidance and support through the employer. Post abortion contraception should be offered to all women having second trimester medical abortions, including those who have the abortion due to fetal malformation. All methods of contraception can be started immediately after a second trimester medical abortion except for cycle based methods and diaphragms.


Assuntos
Abortivos não Esteroides , Aborto Induzido , Misoprostol , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Segundo Trimestre da Gravidez , Mifepristona , Aborto Induzido/efeitos adversos , Aborto Induzido/métodos , Prostaglandinas
15.
Obstet Gynecol ; 142(6): 1357-1364, 2023 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37884011

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk difference of uterine rupture when using current mifepristone and misoprostol regimens for second-trimester abortion among individuals with prior cesarean birth compared with those without prior cesarean birth. DATA SOURCES: We searched the terms second trimester, induction, mifepristone, and abortion in PubMed, EMBASE, POPLINE, ClinicalTrials.gov , and Cochrane Library from inception until December 2022. METHODS OF STUDY SELECTION: We included randomized trials and observational studies including a mixed cohort, with and without uterine scar, of individuals at 14-28 weeks of gestation who used mifepristone and misoprostol to end a pregnancy or to manage a fetal death. We excluded case reports, narrative reviews, and studies not published in English. Two reviewers independently screened studies. TABULATION, INTEGRATION, AND RESULTS: Absolute risks with binomial CIs were calculated from pooled data. Using R software, we estimated total risk difference by the Mantel-Haenszel random-effects method without continuity correction. For studies with zero events, a continuity correction of 0.5 was applied for individual risk differences and plotted graphically with forest plots. Statistical heterogeneity was assessed with Higgins I2 statistics. Funnel plot assessed for publication bias. Of 198 articles identified, 22 met the inclusion criteria: seven randomized trials (n=923) and 15 observational studies (n=6,195). Uterine rupture risk with prior cesarean birth was 1.1% (10/874) (95% CI 0.6-2.1) and without prior cesarean birth was 0.01% (2/6,244) (95% CI 0.0-0.12). The risk difference was 1.23% (95% CI 0.46-2.00, I2 =0%). Of the 12 reported uterine ruptures, three resulted in hysterectomy. CONCLUSION: Uterine rupture with mifepristone and misoprostol use during second-trimester induction abortion is rare, with the risk increased to 1% in individuals with prior cesarean birth. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO, CRD42022302626.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Misoprostol , Ruptura Uterina , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Misoprostol/efeitos adversos , Mifepristona/efeitos adversos , Segundo Trimestre da Gravidez , Ruptura Uterina/induzido quimicamente , Ruptura Uterina/epidemiologia , Aborto Induzido/efeitos adversos , Aborto Induzido/métodos
16.
BMC Womens Health ; 23(1): 534, 2023 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37817177

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Placental polyps are rare complications of delivery or abortion. They are thought to complicate less than 0.25% of all pregnancies, although the actual incidence is unknown. While they typically occur within four weeks of delivery or abortion, they can have a variable presentation, which can lead to a delay in care. CASE PRESENTATION: A 35-year-old G4P2012 patient presented at 9 weeks gestation for a medication abortion. Post-abortion ultrasound after one week confirmed the abortion was complete and her bleeding ceased. The patient then presented two months later with the new onset of worrisome bleeding. She was found on ultrasound to have a new hypervascular polypoidal mass in the endometrial cavity. She then underwent an in-office dilation and curettage with an electric vacuum aspirator, which was curative. A follow up ultrasound three months later demonstrated no recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: Placental polyps are a rare complication following pregnancy and should be included in the differential when a patient presents with bleeding and a new mass in the endometrial cavity on ultrasound following a delivery or abortion, even when frankly retained products of conception had been ruled out at time of abortion.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Aborto Espontâneo , Pólipos , Transtornos Puerperais , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto , Placenta , Útero , Aborto Induzido/efeitos adversos , Pólipos/complicações , Pólipos/diagnóstico por imagem
17.
Crit Care Nurs Q ; 46(4): 417-425, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37684737

RESUMO

Female patients are at a greater risk for infections such as urinary tract infections and mastitis, as well as complications from abortions/miscarriages, and sexually transmitted infections. This review highlights risk factors, pathogenesis, complications, diagnostic, and treatment modalities associated with the following infections: mastitis, sexually transmitted diseases, postpartum/abortion-related infections, and urinary tract infections.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Mastite , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Infecções Urinárias , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis/etiologia , Aborto Induzido/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Infecções Urinárias/diagnóstico , Infecções Urinárias/etiologia , Mastite/etiologia
18.
Clin Obstet Gynecol ; 66(4): 676-684, 2023 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37750678

RESUMO

First-trimester abortion is a common and safe procedure. A focused history and physical examination are essential for providing this care. Laboratory assessment can include Rh typing, hemoglobin, and cervicitis testing as indicated by a patient's risk factors. Procedural abortion in the first trimester includes cervical dilation with or without cervical preparation, and uterine evacuation utilizing a manual vacuum aspirator or electric vacuum aspirator. Complications occur rarely and are often easily managed at the time of diagnosis.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Aborto Espontâneo , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Curetagem a Vácuo/efeitos adversos , Curetagem a Vácuo/métodos , Aborto Induzido/efeitos adversos , Aborto Induzido/métodos , Colo do Útero , Segundo Trimestre da Gravidez
19.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; 36(2): 2253349, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37648652

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Induced abortion could increase the risk of placenta accreta spectrum (PAS) in the next pregnancy. We aimed to explore the associations between characteristics of previous induced abortion and grades of current PAS. METHODS: A retrospective case-control study was performed in eligible pregnant women with PAS between January 2014 and June 2022. Data collected included demographics, obstetric characteristics, and information on previous induced abortion. RESULTS: The study included 211 pregnant women, with 51 and 160 in the invasive (placenta increta or percreta) and adherence (placenta creta) PAS groups, respectively. The risk of invasive PAS was 14.3-fold higher in patients with abnormal vaginal bleeding after abortion (odds ratio = 14.3, 95% confidence interval 5.6-36.4, p < .01) than those without abnormal vaginal bleeding and approximately 5.8-fold higher in patients with the last induced abortion ≥5 years ago than those within 5 years (odds ratio = 5.8, 95% confidence interval 2.2-15.2, p < .01). The risk of invasive PAS was 13.4-fold higher in patients with placenta attached to uterine cornu than patients with the placenta attached to uterine wall (odds ratio = 17.5, 95% confidence interval 5.5-55.5, p < .01). The number of previous induced abortions, hospital grades, and gestational age at abortion were not different between two groups. CONCLUSION: In pregnant women with a history of induced abortion, abnormal vaginal bleeding after induced abortion and prolonged duration after the last induced abortion increased the risk for invasive PAS in the current pregnancy. The number of previous induced abortions and gestational age at abortion had no relation to the grades of PAS.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Placenta Acreta , Gravidez , Humanos , Feminino , Placenta Acreta/epidemiologia , Placenta Acreta/etiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Retrospectivos , Aborto Induzido/efeitos adversos , Útero
20.
PLoS One ; 18(8): e0289689, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37619217

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In Kenya, where abortion is legally restricted, most abortions are induced using unsafe procedures, and lead to complications treated in public health facilities. The introduction of Manual Vacuum Aspiration (MVA) to treat incomplete abortion has improved the management of abortion complications. However, this technology comes with pain whose management has been a challenge. This paper explores the lived experiences of pain (management) during MVA to document the contributing factors. METHODS: We used an ethnographic approach to explore girls and healthcare providers' experiences in offering and accessing post-abortion care in Kilifi County, Kenya. The data collection approach included participant observation and informal conversations in public health facilities and neighboring communities, as well as in-depth interviews with 21 girls and young women treated for abortion complication and 12 healthcare providers. RESULTS: Our findings show that almost all patients described the MVA as the most painful procedure they have ever experienced. The unbearable pain was explained by various factors, including the lack of preparedness of health facilities to offer PAC services (i.e. lack of pain medicine, lack of training, inadequate knowledge and grasp of pain medication guidelines, and malfunctioning MVA kits). Moreover, the attitudes of healthcare providers and facilities management toward the MVA device limited the supply and replacement of MVA kits. Moreover, the scarcity of pain medicines also gave some providers the opportunity to abuse patients guided by their values, whereby they would deny patients pain medication as a form of "punishment" if they were suspected of inducing their abortion, especially adolescent girls. CONCLUSION: The study findings suggest the need for clearer guidelines on pain medication, value clarification and attitude transformation training for providers, systematizing the use of medical uterine evacuation using medical abortion drug and strengthening the supply chain of pain medication and MVA kits to reduce the pain and improve the quality of post-abortion care.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Aborto Espontâneo , Gravidez , Adolescente , Humanos , Feminino , Quênia , Curetagem a Vácuo/efeitos adversos , Dor , Aborto Induzido/efeitos adversos
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