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1.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 363, 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724910

RESUMO

Salinity stress is a significant challenge in agricultural production. When soil contains high salts, it can adversely affect plant growth and productivity due to the high concentration of soluble salts in the soil water. To overcome this issue, foliar applications of methyl jasmonate (MJ) and gibberellic acid (GA3) can be productive amendments. Both can potentially improve the plant's growth attributes and flowering, which are imperative in improving growth and yield. However, limited literature is available on their combined use in canola to mitigate salinity stress. That's why the current study investigates the impact of different levels of MJ (at concentrations of 0.8, 1.6, and 3.2 mM MJ) and GA3 (0GA3 and 5 mg/L GA3) on canola cultivated in salt-affected soils. Applying all the treatments in four replicates. Results indicate that the application of 0.8 mM MJ with 5 mg/L GA3 significantly enhances shoot length (23.29%), shoot dry weight (24.77%), number of leaves per plant (24.93%), number of flowering branches (26.11%), chlorophyll a (31.44%), chlorophyll b (20.28%) and total chlorophyll (27.66%) and shoot total soluble carbohydrates (22.53%) over control. Treatment with 0.8 mM MJ and 5 mg/L GA3 resulted in a decrease in shoot proline (48.17%), MDA (81.41%), SOD (50.59%), POD (14.81%) while increase in N (10.38%), P (15.22%), and K (8.05%) compared to control in canola under salinity stress. In conclusion, 0.8 mM MJ + 5 mg/L GA3 can improve canola growth under salinity stress. More investigations are recommended at the field level to declare 0.8 mM MJ + 5 mg/L GA3 as the best amendment for alleviating salinity stress in different crops.


Assuntos
Acetatos , Antioxidantes , Brassica napus , Ciclopentanos , Giberelinas , Oxilipinas , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Solo , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Brassica napus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica napus/efeitos dos fármacos , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Giberelinas/metabolismo , Giberelinas/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Acetatos/farmacologia , Solo/química , Clorofila/metabolismo , Estresse Salino/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Nutrientes/metabolismo
2.
Planta ; 259(6): 152, 2024 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38735012

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Overexpression of Artemisia annua jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase (AaJMT) leads to enhanced artemisinin content in Artemisia annua. Artemisinin-based combination therapies remain the sole deterrent against deadly disease malaria and Artemisia annua remains the only natural producer of artemisinin. In this study, the 1101 bp gene S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM): Artemisia annua jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase (AaJMT), was characterised from A. annua, which converts jasmonic acid (JA) to methyl jasmonate (MeJA). From phylogenetic analysis, we confirmed that AaJMT shares a common ancestor with Arabidopsis thaliana, Eutrema japonica and has a close homology with JMT of Camellia sinensis. Further, the Clustal Omega depicted that the conserved motif I, motif III and motif SSSS (serine) required to bind SAM and JA, respectively, are present in AaJMT. The relative expression of AaJMT was induced by wounding, MeJA and salicylic acid (SA) treatments. Additionally, we found that the recombinant AaJMT protein catalyses the synthesis of MeJA from JA with a Km value of 37.16 µM. Moreover, site-directed mutagenesis of serine-151 in motif SSSS to tyrosine, asparagine-10 to threonine and glutamine-25 to histidine abolished the enzyme activity of AaJMT, thus indicating their determining role in JA substrate binding. The GC-MS analysis validated that mutant proteins of AaJMT were unable to convert JA into MeJA. Finally, the artemisinin biosynthetic and trichome developmental genes were upregulated in AaJMT overexpression transgenic lines, which in turn increased the artemisinin content.


Assuntos
Acetatos , Artemisia annua , Artemisininas , Ciclopentanos , Metiltransferases , Oxilipinas , Filogenia , Artemisia annua/genética , Artemisia annua/enzimologia , Artemisia annua/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Artemisininas/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Metiltransferases/genética , Acetatos/farmacologia , Acetatos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ácido Salicílico/metabolismo
3.
BMC Genom Data ; 25(1): 41, 2024 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38711007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Class III peroxidase (POD) enzymes play vital roles in plant development, hormone signaling, and stress responses. Despite extensive research on POD families in various plant species, the knowledge regarding the POD family in Chinese pear (Pyrus bretschenedri) is notably limited. RESULTS: We systematically characterized 113 POD family genes, designated as PbPOD1 to PbPOD113 based on their chromosomal locations. Phylogenetic analysis categorized these genes into seven distinct subfamilies (I to VII). The segmental duplication events were identified as a prevalent mechanism driving the expansion of the POD gene family. Microsynteny analysis, involving comparisons with Pyrus bretschenedri, Fragaria vesca, Prunus avium, Prunus mume and Prunus persica, highlighted the conservation of duplicated POD regions and their persistence through purifying selection during the evolutionary process. The expression patterns of PbPOD genes were performed across various plant organs and diverse fruit development stages using transcriptomic data. Furthermore, we identified stress-related cis-acting elements within the promoters of PbPOD genes, underscoring their involvement in hormonal and environmental stress responses. Notably, qRT-PCR analyses revealed distinctive expression patterns of PbPOD genes in response to melatonin (MEL), salicylic acid (SA), abscisic acid (ABA), and methyl jasmonate (MeJA), reflecting their responsiveness to abiotic stress and their role in fruit growth and development. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we investigated the potential functions and evolutionary dynamics of PbPOD genes in Pyrus bretschenedri, positioning them as promising candidates for further research and valuable indicators for enhancing fruit quality through molecular breeding strategies.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Filogenia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Pyrus , Pyrus/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Melatonina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Peroxidase/genética , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Acetatos/farmacologia , Acetatos/metabolismo , Frutas/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento
4.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0302487, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38713701

RESUMO

This study describes the operation of two independent parallel laboratory-scale biotrickling filters (BTFs) to degrade different types of binary volatile organic compound (VOC) mixtures. Comparison experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of two typical VOCs, i.e., ethyl acetate (a hydrophilic VOC) and n-hexane (a hydrophobic VOC) on the removal performance of toluene (a moderately hydrophobic VOC) in BTFs ''A" and ''B", respectively. Experiments were carried out by stabilizing the toluene concentration at 1.64 g m-3 and varying the concentrations of gas-phase ethyl acetate (0.85-2.8 g m-3) and n-hexane (0.85-2.8 g m-3) at an empty bed residence time (EBRT) of 30 s. In the presence of ethyl acetate (850 ± 55 mg m-3), toluene exhibited the highest removal efficiency (95.4 ± 2.2%) in BTF "A". However, the removal rate of toluene varied from 48.1 ± 6.9% to 70.1 ± 6.8% when 850 ± 123 mg m-3 to 2800 ± 136 mg m-3 of n-hexane was introduced into BTF "B". The high-throughput sequencing data revealed that the genera Pseudomonas and Comamonadaceae_unclassified are the core microorganisms responsible for the degradation of toluene. The intensity of the inhibitory or synergistic effects on toluene removal was influenced by the type and concentration of the introduced VOC, as well as the number and activity of the genera Pseudomonas and Comamonadaceae_unclassified. It provides insights into the interaction between binary VOCs during biofiltration from a microscopic perspective.


Assuntos
Acetatos , Biodegradação Ambiental , Filtração , Hexanos , Tolueno , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Tolueno/metabolismo , Hexanos/química , Acetatos/metabolismo , Filtração/métodos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Microbiota
5.
PeerJ ; 12: e17371, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38708338

RESUMO

Background: Platycodon grandiflorus belongs to the genus Platycodon and has many pharmacological effects, such as expectorant, antitussive, and anti-tumor properties. Among transcription factor families peculiar to eukaryotes, the basic leucine zipper (bZIP) family is one of the most important, which exists widely in plants and participates in many biological processes, such as plant growth, development, and stress responses. However, genomic analysis of the bZIP gene family and related stress response genes has not yet been reported in P. grandiflorus. Methods: P. grandiflorus bZIP (PgbZIP) genes were first identified here, and the phylogenetic relationships and conserved motifs in the PgbZIPs were also performed. Meanwhile, gene structures, conserved domains, and the possible protein subcellular localizations of these PgbZIPs were characterized. Most importantly, the cis-regulatory elements and expression patterns of selected genes exposed to two different stresses were analyzed to provide further information on PgbZIPs potential biological roles in P. grandiflorus upon exposure to environmental stresses. Conclusions: Forty-six PgbZIPs were identified in P. grandiflorus and divided into nine groups, as displayed in the phylogenetic tree. The results of the chromosomal location and the collinearity analysis showed that forty-six PgbZIP genes were distributed on eight chromosomes, with one tandem duplication event and eleven segmental duplication events identified. Most PgbZIPs in the same phylogenetic group have similar conserved motifs, domains, and gene structures. There are cis-regulatory elements related to the methyl jasmonate (MeJA) response, low-temperature response, abscisic acid response, auxin response, and gibberellin response. Ten PgbZIP genes were selected to study their expression patterns upon exposure to low-temperature and MeJA treatments, and all ten genes responded to these stresses. The real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) results suggest that the expression levels of most PgbZIPs decreased significantly within 6 h and then gradually increased to normal or above normal levels over the 90 h following MeJA treatment. The expression levels of all PgbZIPs were significantly reduced after 3 h of the low-temperature treatment. These results reveal the characteristics of the PgbZIP family genes and provide valuable information for improving P. grandiflorus's ability to cope with environmental stresses during growth and development.


Assuntos
Acetatos , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica , Ciclopentanos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Oxilipinas , Filogenia , Platycodon , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Acetatos/farmacologia , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/genética , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Platycodon/genética , Platycodon/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Temperatura Baixa , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia
6.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 353, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38693493

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wasabi, a Brassicaceae member, is well-known for its unique pungent and hot flavor which is produced from glucosinolate (GSL) degradation. Myrosinase (MYR) is a principle enzyme catalyzing the primary conversion of GSLs to GSL hydrolysis products (GHPs) which is responsible for plant defense system and food quality. Due to the limited information in relation to MYRs present in wasabi (Wasabia japonica M.), this study aimed to identify the MYR isogenes in W. japonica and analyze their roles in relation to GSL metabolism. RESULTS: In results, WjMYRI-1 was abundantly expressed in all organs, whereas WjMYRI-2 showed only trace expression levels. WjMYRII was highly expressed in the aboveground tissues. Interestingly, WjMYRII expression was significantly upregulated by certain abiotic factors, such as methyl jasmonate (more than 40-fold in petioles and 15-fold in leaves) and salt (tenfold in leaves). Young leaves and roots contained 97.89 and 91.17 µmol‧g-1 of GSL, whereas less GSL was produced in mature leaves and petioles (38.36 and 44.79 µmol‧g-1, respectively). Similar pattern was observed in the accumulation of GHPs in various plant organs. Notably, despite the non-significant changes in GSL production, abiotic factors treated samples enhanced significantly GHP content. Pearson's correlation analysis revealed that WjMYRI-1 expression significantly correlated with GSL accumulation and GHP formation, suggesting the primary role of WjMYRI-1-encoding putative protein in GSL degradation. In contrast, WjMYRII expression level showed no correlation with GSL or GHP content, suggesting another physiological role of WjMYRII in stress-induced response. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusions, three potential isogenes (WjMYRI-1, WjMYRI-2, and WjMYRII) encoding for different MYR isoforms in W. japonica were identified. Our results provided new insights related to MYR and GSL metabolism which are important for the implications of wasabi in agriculture, food and pharmaceutical industry. Particularly, WjMYRI-1 may be primarily responsible for GSL degradation, whereas WjMYRII (clade II) may be involved in other regulatory pathways induced by abiotic factors.


Assuntos
Acetatos , Glucosinolatos , Glicosídeo Hidrolases , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Brassicaceae/genética , Brassicaceae/metabolismo , Brassicaceae/enzimologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/genética
7.
Environ Microbiol Rep ; 16(3): e13276, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38733087

RESUMO

Syntrophic interactions are key in anaerobic food chains, facilitating the conversion of complex organic matter into methane. A typical example involves acetogenic bacteria converting fatty acids (e.g., butyrate and propionate), a process thermodynamically reliant on H2 consumption by microorganisms such as methanogens. While most studies focus on H2-interspecies transfer between these groups, knowledge on acetate cross-feeding in anaerobic systems is lacking. This study investigated butyrate oxidation by co-cultures of Syntrophomonas wolfei and Methanospirillum hungatei, both with and without the addition of the acetate scavenger Methanothrix soehngenii. Growth and gene expression patterns of S. wolfei and M. hungatei were followed in the two conditions. Although butyrate consumption rates remained constant, genes in the butyrate degradation pathway of S. wolfei were less expressed in the presence of M. soehngenii, including genes involved in reverse electron transport. Higher expression of a type IV-pili operon in S. wolfei hints to the potential for direct interspecies electron transfer between S. wolfei and M. soehngenii and an energetically advantageous relationship between the two microorganisms. Overall, the presence of the acetate scavenger M. soehngenii positively influenced the energy metabolism of S. wolfei and highlighted the relevance of including acetate scavengers when investigating syntrophic fatty acid degradation.


Assuntos
Methanospirillum , Methanospirillum/metabolismo , Methanospirillum/genética , Butiratos/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Anaerobiose , Oxirredução , Acetatos/metabolismo , Interações Microbianas , Metano/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cocultura , Transporte de Elétrons
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(19): e2315597121, 2024 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38687786

RESUMO

Snakebite envenoming is a neglected tropical disease that causes substantial mortality and morbidity globally. The venom of African spitting cobras often causes permanent injury via tissue-destructive dermonecrosis at the bite site, which is ineffectively treated by current antivenoms. To address this therapeutic gap, we identified the etiological venom toxins in Naja nigricollis venom responsible for causing local dermonecrosis. While cytotoxic three-finger toxins were primarily responsible for causing spitting cobra cytotoxicity in cultured keratinocytes, their potentiation by phospholipases A2 toxins was essential to cause dermonecrosis in vivo. This evidence of probable toxin synergism suggests that a single toxin-family inhibiting drug could prevent local envenoming. We show that local injection with the repurposed phospholipase A2-inhibiting drug varespladib significantly prevents local tissue damage caused by several spitting cobra venoms in murine models of envenoming. Our findings therefore provide a therapeutic strategy that may effectively prevent life-changing morbidity caused by snakebite in rural Africa.


Assuntos
Acetatos , Venenos Elapídicos , Indóis , Cetoácidos , Necrose , Mordeduras de Serpentes , Animais , Mordeduras de Serpentes/tratamento farmacológico , Camundongos , Humanos , Acrilamidas/farmacologia , Fosfolipases A2/metabolismo , Naja , Elapidae , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/patologia , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos
10.
J Anim Sci ; 1022024 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38581217

RESUMO

Pelleted total mixed ration (P-TMR) feeding, which has become a common practice in providing nutrition for fattening sheep, requires careful consideration of the balance between forage neutral detergent fiber (FNDF) and rumen degradable starch (RDS) to maintain proper rumen functions. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of the dietary FNDF/RDS ratio (FRR) on chewing activity, ruminal fermentation, ruminal microbes, and nutrient digestibility in Hu sheep fed a P-TMR diet. This study utilized eight ruminally cannulated male Hu sheep, following a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 31 d each period. Diets consisted of four FRR levels: 1.0 (high FNDF/RDS ratio, HFRR), 0.8 (middle high FNDF/RDS ratio, MHFRR), 0.6 (middle low FNDF/RDS ratio, MLFRR), and 0.4 (low FNDF/RDS ratio, LFRR). Reducing the dietary FRR levels resulted in a linear decrease in ruminal minimum pH and mean pH, while linearly increasing the duration and area of pH below 5.8 and 5.6, as well as the acidosis index. Sheep in the HFRR and MHFRR groups did not experience subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA), whereas sheep in another two groups did. The concentration of total volatile fatty acid and the molar ratios of propionate and valerate, as well as the concentrate of lactate in the rumen linearly increased with reducing dietary FRR, while the molar ratio of acetate and acetate to propionate ratio linearly decreased. The degradability of NDF and ADF for alfalfa hay has a quadratic response with reducing the dietary FRR. The apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber linearly decreased when the dietary FRR was reduced. In addition, reducing the dietary FRR caused a linear decrease in OTUs, Chao1, and Ace index of ruminal microflora. Reducing FRR in the diet increased the percentage of reads assigned as Firmicutes, but it decreased the percentage of reads assigned as Bacteroidetes in the rumen. At genus level, the percentage of reads assigned as Prevotella, Ruminococcus, Succinivibrio, and Butyrivibrio linearly decreased when the dietary FRR was reduced. The results of this study demonstrate that the dietary FRR of 0.8 is crucial in preventing the onset of SARA and promotes an enhanced richness of ruminal microbes and also improves fiber digestibility, which is a recommended dietary FRR reference when formulating P-TMR diets for sheep.


Forage neutral detergent fiber (FNDF) and rumen degradable starch (RDS) are key components of carbohydrates in the diet for ruminants, which would reflect saliva secretion and the acid production potential of feed. However, appropriate FNDF to RDS ratios (FRR) applicable to ruminants under the condition of pelleted total mixed ration (P-TMR) feeding have not been reported. In this study, we investigated the effects of the dietary FRR on chewing activity, ruminal fermentation, ruminal microbial communities, and nutrient digestibility of Hu sheep under P-TMR feeding. The results indicate that reducing dietary FRR levels would induce acidosis in sheep, which negatively affected fiber utilization and ruminal bacterial communities. The FRR of 0.8 was a recommended dietary FRR when formulating a P-TMR diet for fattening sheep, as indicated by decreased ruminal acidosis risk and increased richness of ruminal microbes in the rumen as well as nutrient digestibility.


Assuntos
Acidose , Doenças dos Ovinos , Masculino , Feminino , Animais , Ovinos , Leite/metabolismo , Mastigação/fisiologia , Amido/metabolismo , Lactação/fisiologia , Detergentes/metabolismo , Silagem/análise , Propionatos/metabolismo , Fermentação , Rúmen/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Nutrientes , Acetatos/metabolismo , Acidose/veterinária , Digestão/fisiologia
11.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 49(4): 1000-1006, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38621907

RESUMO

This study aims to investigate the effect and mechanism of Maxingshigan Decoction on inflammation in the rat model of cough variant asthma(CVA). The SPF-grade SD rats of 6-8 weeks were randomized into normal, model, Montelukast sodium, and low-, medium-, and high-dose Maxing Shigan Decoction groups, with 8 rats in each group. The CVA rat model was induced by ovalbumin(OVA) and aluminum hydroxide sensitization and ovalbumin stimulation. The normal group and model group were administrated with equal volume of normal saline by gavage, and other groups with corresponding drugs by gavage. After the experiment, the number of white blood cells in blood and the levels of interleukin-6(IL-6), interleukin-10(IL-10), and tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) in the serum were measured. The lung tissue was stained with hematoxylin-eosin(HE). Western blot was employed to determine the protein levels of nuclear factor-κB(NF-κB), Toll-like receptor 4(TLR4), myeloid differentiation protein(MyD88), and mitogen-activated protein kinase(MAPK) in the lung tissue. Real-time PCR was carried out to measure the mRNA levels of TLR4 and MyD88 in the lung tissue. Compared with the normal group, the model group showed increased white blood cells, elevated IL-6 and TNF-α levels(P<0.01), lowered IL-10 level(P<0.01), up-regulated protein levels of TLR4, MyD88, p-p65/NF-κB p65, and p-p38 MAPK/p38 MAPK(P<0.01) and mRNA levels of TLR4 and MyD88(P<0.01) in the lung tissue. HE staining showed obvious infiltration of inflammatory cells around the airway and cell disarrangement in the model group. Compared with the model group, Montelukast sodium and high-dose Maxing Shigan Decoction reduced the white blood cells, lowered the IL-6 and TNF-α levels(P<0.01), and elevated the IL-10 level(P<0.01). Moreover, they down-regulated the protein levels of TLR4, MyD88, p-p65/NF-κB p65, p-p38 MAPK/p38 MAPK in the lung tissue(P<0.01) and the mRNA levels of TLR4 and MyD88 in the lung tissue(P<0.01). HE staining showed that Montelukast sodium and high-dose Maxing Shigan Decoction reduced inflammatory cell infiltration and cell disarrangement. The number of white blood cells, the levels of IL-10 and TNF-α in the serum, the protein levels of TLR4, MyD88, p-p65/NF-κB p65, and p-p38 MAPK/p38 MAPK, and the mRNA levels of TLR4 and MyD88 in the lung tissue showed no significant differences between the Montelukast sodium group and high-dose Maxing Shigan Decoction group. Maxing Shigan Decoction can inhibit airway inflammation in CVA rats by inhibiting the activation of TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB and p38 MAPK signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Acetatos , Variante Tussígena da Asma , Ciclopropanos , NF-kappa B , Quinolinas , Sulfetos , Ratos , Animais , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/genética , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/metabolismo , Interleucina-10/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Ovalbumina , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Inflamação , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(8)2024 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38673998

RESUMO

As one of the largest and most diverse classes of specialized metabolites in plants, terpenoids (oprenoid compounds, a type of bio-based material) are widely used in the fields of medicine and light chemical products. They are the most important secondary metabolites in coniferous species and play an important role in the defense system of conifers. Terpene synthesis can be promoted by regulating the expressions of terpene synthase genes, and the terpene biosynthesis pathway has basically been clarified in Pinus massoniana, in which there are multiple rate-limiting enzymes and the rate-limiting steps are difficult to determine, so the terpene synthase gene regulation mechanism has become a hot spot in research. Herein, we amplified a PmDXR gene (GenBank accession no. MK969119.1) of the MEP pathway (methyl-erythritol 4-phosphate) from Pinus massoniana. The DXR enzyme activity and chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoid contents of overexpressed Arabidopsis showed positive regulation. The PmDXR gene promoter was a tissue-specific promoter and can respond to ABA, MeJA and GA stresses to drive the expression of the GUS reporter gene in N. benthamiana. The DXR enzyme was identified as a key rate-limiting enzyme in the MEP pathway and an effective target for terpene synthesis regulation in coniferous species, which can further lay the theoretical foundation for the molecularly assisted selection of high-yielding lipid germplasm of P. massoniana, as well as provide help in the pathogenesis of pine wood nematode disease.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Pinus , Proteínas de Plantas , Pinus/genética , Pinus/metabolismo , Pinus/parasitologia , Pinus/enzimologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Clorofila/biossíntese , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Alquil e Aril Transferases/genética , Alquil e Aril Transferases/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Terpenos/metabolismo , Clorofila A/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Acetatos/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Vias Biossintéticas
13.
BMC Genomics ; 25(1): 390, 2024 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38649807

RESUMO

Medicinal plants are rich sources for treating various diseases due their bioactive secondary metabolites. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) is one of the medicinal plants traditionally used in human nutrition and medicine which contains an active substance, called diosgenin, with anticancer properties. Biosynthesis of this important anticancer compound in fenugreek can be enhanced using eliciting agents which involves in manipulation of metabolite and biochemical pathways stimulating defense responses. Methyl jasmonate elicitor was used to increase diosgenin biosynthesis in fenugreek plants. However, the molecular mechanism and gene expression profiles underlying diosgening accumulation remain unexplored. In the current study we performed an extensive analysis of publicly available RNA-sequencing datasets to elucidate the biosynthesis and expression profile of fenugreek plants treated with methyl jasmonate. For this purpose, seven read datasets of methyl jasmonate treated plants were obtained that were covering several post-treatment time points (6-120 h). Transcriptomics analysis revealed upregulation of several key genes involved in diosgenein biosynthetic pathway including Squalene synthase (SQS) as the first committed step in diosgenin biosynthesis as well as Squalene Epoxidase (SEP) and Cycloartenol Synthase (CAS) upon methyl jasmonate application. Bioinformatics analysis, including gene ontology enrichment and pathway analysis, further supported the involvement of these genes in diosgenin biosynthesis. The bioinformatics analysis led to a comprehensive validation, with expression profiling across three different fenugreek populations treated with the same methyl jasmonate application. Initially, key genes like SQS, SEP, and CAS showed upregulation, followed by later upregulation of Δ24, suggesting dynamic pathway regulation. Real-time PCR confirmed consistent upregulation of SQS and SEP, peaking at 72 h. Additionally, candidate genes Δ24 and SMT1 highlighted roles in directing metabolic flux towards diosgenin biosynthesis. This integrated approach validates the bioinformatics findings and elucidates fenugreek's molecular response to methyl jasmonate elicitation, offering insights for enhancing diosgenin yield. The assembled transcripts and gene expression profiles are deposited in the Zenodo open repository at https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.8155183 .


Assuntos
Vias Biossintéticas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Oxilipinas , Terpenos , Transcriptoma , Trigonella , Trigonella/metabolismo , Trigonella/genética , Vias Biossintéticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Terpenos/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Acetatos/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Food Chem ; 449: 139193, 2024 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38604037

RESUMO

The desirable wine aroma compounds 3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol (3SH) and 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate (3SHA) are released during fermentation from non-volatile precursors present in the grapes. This work explores the relative contribution of four precursors (E-2-hexenal, 3-S-glutathionylhexan-1-ol, 3-S-glutathionylhexanal, and 3-S-cysteinylhexan-1-ol) to 3SH and 3SHA. Through the use of isotopically labelled analogues of these precursors in defined fermentation media, new insights into the role of each precursor have been identified. E-2-Hexenal was shown to contribute negligible amounts of thiols, while 3-S-glutathionylhexan-1-ol was the main precursor of both 3SH and 3SHA. The glutathionylated precursors were both converted to 3SHA more efficiently than 3-S-cysteinylhexan-1-ol. Interestingly, 3-S-glutathionylhexanal generated 3SHA without detectable concentrations of 3SH, suggesting possible differences in the way this precursor is metabolised compared to 3-S-glutathionylhexan-1-ol and 3-S-cysteinylhexan-1-ol. We also provide the first evidence for chemical conversion of 3-S-glutathionylhexan-1-ol to 3-S-(γ-glutamylcysteinyl)-hexan-1-ol in an oenological system.


Assuntos
Fermentação , Vitis , Vinho , Vinho/análise , Vitis/química , Vitis/metabolismo , Acetatos/metabolismo , Acetatos/química , Aldeídos/metabolismo , Aldeídos/química , Odorantes/análise , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química
15.
Curr Microbiol ; 81(6): 140, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622481

RESUMO

Environmental problems are caused by the disposal of agrowastes in developing countries. It is imperative to convert such wastes into useful products, which require enzymes such as ß-glucosidase. ß-Glucosidase has variety of applications in biotechnology including food, textile, detergents, pulp and paper, pharmaceutical and biofuel industries. ß-Glucosidase production was performed using the locally isolated Aspergillus protuberus using best growth circumstances on rice husk in solid-state fermentation (SSF). Leaching of ß-glucosidase from fermented rice husk with number of solvents to evaluate their extraction efficacy. Among the different solvents examined, acetate buffer (0.02 M, pH 5.0) proved to be the best solvent. The subsequent parameters were optimized with acetate buffer. Two washes with acetate buffer each by shaking (30 min) in a ratio of 1 g of rice husk: 5 ml of acetate buffer together attained maximum recovery of ß-glucosidase with 41.95 U/g of rice husk.


Assuntos
Aspergillus , Oryza , beta-Glucosidase , Fermentação , Solventes , Acetatos
16.
Islets ; 16(1): 2339558, 2024 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38607959

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies suggest that short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which are primarily produced from fermentation of fiber, regulate insulin secretion through free fatty acid receptors 2 and 3 (FFA2 and FFA3). As these are G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), they have potential therapeutic value as targets for treating type 2 diabetes (T2D). The exact mechanism by which these receptors regulate insulin secretion and other aspects of pancreatic ß cell function is unclear. It has been reported that glucose-dependent release of acetate from pancreatic ß cells negatively regulates glucose stimulated insulin secretion. While these data raise the possibility of acetate's potential autocrine action on these receptors, these findings have not been independently confirmed, and multiple concerns exist with this observation, particularly the lack of specificity and precision of the acetate detection methodology used. METHODS: Using Min6 cells and mouse islets, we assessed acetate and pyruvate production and secretion in response to different glucose concentrations, via liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Using Min6 cells and mouse islets, we showed that both intracellular pyruvate and acetate increased with high glucose conditions; however, intracellular acetate level increased only slightly and exclusively in Min6 cells but not in the islets. Further, extracellular acetate levels were not affected by the concentration of glucose in the incubation medium of either Min6 cells or islets. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings do not substantiate the glucose-dependent release of acetate from pancreatic ß cells, and therefore, invalidate the possibility of an autocrine inhibitory effect on glucose stimulated insulin secretion.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Células Secretoras de Insulina , Animais , Camundongos , Acetatos , Glucose , Ácido Pirúvico
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 927: 172368, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38614346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disinfection byproducts (DBPs) have been shown to impair thyroid function in experimental models. However, epidemiological evidence is scarce. METHODS: This study included 1190 women undergoing assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment from the Tongji Reproductive and Environmental (TREE) cohort from December 2018 to August 2021. Serum thyrotropin (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3), and free thyroxine (FT4) were measured as indicators of thyroid function. FT4/FT3 and TSH/FT4 ratios were calculated as markers of thyroid hormone homeostasis. Dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) and trichloroacetic acid (TCAA), the two most abundant HAAs, in urine were detected to assess individual DBP exposures. RESULTS: After adjusting for relevant covariates, positive associations were observed between urinary TCAA concentrations and serum TSH and TSH/FT4 levels (e.g., percent change = 5.82 %, 95 % CI: 0.70 %, 11.21 % for TSH), whereas inverse associations were found for serum FT3 and FT4 (e.g., percent change = -1.29 %, 95 % CI: -2.49 %, -0.07 % for FT3). There also was a negative association between urinary DCAA concentration and serum FT4/FT3 (percent change = -2.49 %, 95 % CI: -4.71 %, -0.23 %). These associations were further confirmed in the restricted cubic spline and generalized additive models with linear or U-shaped dose-response relationships. CONCLUSION: Urinary HAAs were associated with altered thyroid hormone homeostasis among women undergoing ART treatment.


Assuntos
Glândula Tireoide , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Tiroxina/sangue , Tri-Iodotironina/sangue , Tireotropina/sangue , Hormônios Tireóideos/sangue , Testes de Função Tireóidea , Desinfetantes , Acetatos , China
18.
J Neuroinflammation ; 21(1): 101, 2024 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38632579

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increased neuroinflammation in brain regions regulating sympathetic nerves is associated with hypertension. Emerging evidence from both human and animal studies suggests a link between hypertension and gut microbiota, as well as microbiota-derived metabolites short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). However, the precise mechanisms underlying this gut-brain axis remain unclear. METHODS: The levels of microbiota-derived SCFAs in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. To observe the effect of acetate on arterial blood pressure (ABP) in rats, sodium acetate was supplemented via drinking water for continuous 7 days. ABP was recorded by radio telemetry. The inflammatory factors, morphology of microglia and astrocytes in rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) were detected. In addition, blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, composition and metabolomics of the gut microbiome, and intestinal pathological manifestations were also measured. RESULTS: The serum acetate levels in SHRs are lower than in normotensive control rats. Supplementation with acetate reduces ABP, inhibits sympathetic nerve activity in SHRs. Furthermore, acetate suppresses RVLM neuroinflammation in SHRs, increases microglia and astrocyte morphologic complexity, decreases BBB permeability, modulates intestinal flora, increases fecal flora metabolites, and inhibits intestinal fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS: Microbiota-derived acetate exerts antihypertensive effects by modulating microglia and astrocytes and inhibiting neuroinflammation and sympathetic output.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Microbiota , Humanos , Ratos , Animais , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR , Doenças Neuroinflamatórias , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea , Bulbo/metabolismo , Acetatos/farmacologia
19.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301848, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38640139

RESUMO

Ketamine has been shown to produce analgesia in various acute and chronic pain states; however, abuse liability concerns have limited its utility. The ketamine metabolite (2R,6R)-hydroxynorketamine (HNK) has been shown to produce antidepressant-like effects similar to ketamine without abuse liability concerns. (2R,6R)-HNK produces sustained analgesia in models of chronic pain, but has yet to be evaluated in models of acute pain. The present study evaluated the efficacy of acute (2R,6R)-HNK administration (one injection) in assays of pain-stimulated (52- and 56-degree hot plate test and acetic acid writhing) and pain-depressed behavior (locomotor activity and rearing) in male and female C57BL/6 mice. In assays of pain-stimulated behaviors, (2R,6R)-HNK (1-32 mg/kg) failed to produce antinociception in the 52- and 56-degree hot plate and acetic acid writhing assays. In assays of pain-depressed behaviors, 0.56% acetic acid produced a robust depression of locomotor activity and rearing that was not blocked by pretreatment of (2R,6R)-HNK (3.2-32 mg/kg). The positive controls morphine (hot plate test) and ketoprofen (acetic acid writhing, locomotor activity, and rearing) blocked pain-stimulated and pain-depressed behaviors. Finally, the effects of intermittent (2R,6R)-HNK administration were evaluated in 52-degree hot plate and pain-depressed locomotor activity and rearing. Intermittent administration of (2R,6R)-HNK also did not produce antinociceptive effects in the hot plate or pain-depressed locomotor activity assays. These results suggest that (2R,6R)-HNK is unlikely to have efficacy in treating acute pain; however, the efficacy of (2R,6R)-HNK in chronic pain states should continue to be evaluated.


Assuntos
Dor Aguda , Dor Crônica , Ketamina , Ketamina/análogos & derivados , Camundongos , Masculino , Feminino , Animais , Ketamina/farmacologia , Ketamina/uso terapêutico , Dor Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Acetatos
20.
ACS Sens ; 9(4): 2000-2009, 2024 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38584366

RESUMO

This study presents a colorimetric/electrical dual-sensing system (CEDS) for low-power, high-precision, adaptable, and real-time detection of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas. The lead acetate/poly(vinyl alcohol) (Pb(Ac)2/PVA) nanofiber film was transferred onto a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) flexible substrate by electrospinning to obtain colorimetric/electrical sensors. The CEDS was constructed to simultaneously record both the visual and electrical response of the sensor, and the improved Manhattan segmentation algorithm and deep neural network (DNN) were used as its intelligent algorithmic aids to achieve quantitative exposure to H2S. By exploring the mechanism of color change and resistance response of the sensor, a dual-sensitivity mechanism explanation model was proposed to verify that the system, as a dual-mode parallel system, can adequately solve the sensor redundancy problem. The results show that the CEDS can achieve a wide detection range of H2S from 0.1-100 ppm and identify the H2S concentration in 4 s at the fastest. The sensor can be stabilized for 180 days with excellent selectivity and a low limit of detection (LOD) to 0.1 ppm of H2S. In addition, the feasibility of the CEDS for measuring H2S levels in underground waterways was validated. This work provides a new method for adaptable, wide range of applications and low-power, high-precision H2S gas detection.


Assuntos
Colorimetria , Aprendizado Profundo , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/análise , Colorimetria/métodos , Limite de Detecção , Nanofibras/química , Álcool de Polivinil/química , Chumbo/análise , Chumbo/química , Acetatos/química
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