Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 7.261
Filtrar
1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(10): 3267-3276, 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32101430

RESUMO

Cross-talk between various hormones is important in regulating many aspects of plant growth, development, and senescence, including fruit ripening. Here, exogenous ethylene (ETH, 100 µL/L, 12 h) rapidly accelerated 'Hayward' kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) softening and ethylene production and was enhanced by supplementing with continuous treatment with methyl jasmonate (MeJA, 100 µM/L, 12 h) (ETH+MeJA). ETH+MeJA enhanced ACC synthase (ACS) activities and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) accumulation but not ACC oxidase (ACO) activity. Increased transcripts of ACS genes AdACS1 and AdACS2, ACS activity, and ethylene production were positively correlated. The abundance of AdACS1 was about 6-fold higher than AdACS2. RNA-seq identified 6 transcription factors among the 87 differentially expressed unigenes induced by ETH+MeJA. Dual-luciferase and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) indicated that AdNAC2/3 physically interacted with and trans-activated the AdACS1 promoter 2.2- and 3.5-fold, respectively. Collectively, our results indicate that MeJA accelerates ethylene production in kiwifruit induced by exogenous ethylene, via a preferential activation of AdACS1 and AdACS2.


Assuntos
Acetatos/farmacologia , Actinidia/efeitos dos fármacos , Coenzima A Ligases/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Etilenos/biossíntese , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Actinidia/enzimologia , Actinidia/genética , Actinidia/metabolismo , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/enzimologia , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
2.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 35(1): 549-554, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31967484

RESUMO

A small series of 2,4-dioxothiazolidinyl acetic acids was prepared from thiourea, chloroacetic acid, aromatic aldehydes, and ethyl-2-bromoacetate. They were assayed for the inhibition of four physiologically relevant carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) isoforms of human (h) origin, the cytosolic hCA I and II, and the transmembrane hCA IX and XII, involved among others in tumorigenesis (hCA IX and XII) and glaucoma (hCA II and XII). The two cytosolic isoforms were not inhibited by these carboxylates, which were also rather ineffective as hCA IX inhibitors. On the other hand, they showed submicromolar hCA XII inhibition, with KIs in the range of 0.30-0.93 µM, making them highly CA XII-selective inhibitors.


Assuntos
Acetatos/farmacologia , Anidrase Carbônica IX/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/classificação , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/farmacologia , Anidrases Carbônicas/metabolismo , Tiazóis/farmacologia , Acetatos/síntese química , Acetatos/química , Antígenos de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Anidrase Carbônica IX/metabolismo , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/síntese química , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Tiazóis/síntese química , Tiazóis/química
3.
Food Chem ; 307: 125525, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639577

RESUMO

This study investigated effects of different concentrations of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on carotenoids accumulation, radical scavenging activity and proline content in germinated maize kernels. MeJA treatment promoted carotenoids accumulation, radical scavenging activity and proline accumulation, while salicyl hydroxamic acid (SHAM) reduced carotenoids accumulation. There was a significant increase of 42.5% in lutein content when treated with 0.5 µM MeJA. Furthermore, the transcriptional expression of seven carotenogenic genes were explored by MeJA and SHAM. The results showed that 0.5 µM MeJA significantly increased the gene expression levels of PSY, PDS, ZDS, LCYB, LCYE, BCH1, CYP97C, and their transcript levels, which were strongly associated with carotenoids content. Treatment of MeJA affected the carotenoids biosynthesis gene and led to the accumulation of carotenoids. These new findings would help to develop innovative approach for enrichment of lutein in germinated maize kernels for further development of functional food materials.


Assuntos
Acetatos/farmacologia , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carotenoides/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/química , Germinação , Luteína/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Prolina/análise , Zea mays/metabolismo
4.
Food Chem ; 305: 125483, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610420

RESUMO

Kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Jinkui) were treated with 0.1 mmol/L methyl jasmonate (MeJA) to investigate the effects on disease resistance to soft rot caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea. The results showed that MeJA treatment significantly reduced the diameter of lesions after inoculation with B. dothidea. This treatment significantly enhanced the activities of related antioxidant protective enzymes, defence-related enzymes including catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), chitinase (CHI), ß-1,3 glucanase (GLU) and increased the accumulation of total phenolic content, while the degree of membrane lipid peroxidation was reduced. MeJA treatment effectively enhanced gene expression of AcPOD, AcSOD, AcCHI and AcGLU. The results from this research suggest that MeJA treatment is a promising and safe strategy for controlling postharvest rot soft of kiwifruit.


Assuntos
Acetatos/farmacologia , Actinidia/microbiologia , Ascomicetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Resistência à Doença/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Actinidia/química , Actinidia/metabolismo , Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Quitinases/genética , Quitinases/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Frutas/microbiologia , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidase/genética , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Fenóis/análise , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
5.
Food Chem ; 306: 125634, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614291

RESUMO

The effects of postharvest treatments with γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), methyl jasmonate (MeJA) or methyl salicylate (MeSA) on antioxidant systems and sensory quality of blood oranges during cold storage were evaluated (150 days at 3 °C plus 2 days at 20 °C, shelf life). Fruit firmness, titratable acidity (TA), total antioxidant activity (TAA) and ascorbic acid (AA) decreased during cold storage, all these changes being delayed in treated fruit, with the greatest differences observed with the 50 µmol L-1 MeJA and 100 µmol L-1 MeSA treatments. Total phenolic content (TPC), total anthocyanin content (TAC) and the major individual anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-glucoside and cyanidin 3-(6″-malonylglucoside), were found at higher concentration in treated fruit than in control during the whole cold storage period. Overall, 100 µmol L-1 MeSA was the most effective for maintaining fruit quality and maintained higher anthocyanin concentration due to higher phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and lower polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activities.


Assuntos
Acetatos/farmacologia , Citrus sinensis/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Conservação de Alimentos , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Salicilatos/farmacologia , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/farmacologia , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Catecol Oxidase/metabolismo , Citrus sinensis/química , Citrus sinensis/efeitos dos fármacos , Temperatura Baixa , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Glucosídeos/metabolismo , Valor Nutritivo , Fenilalanina Amônia-Liase/metabolismo
6.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(1): 145-153, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471914

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous reports have addressed the effectiveness of postharvest methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatments on maintaining quality properties of pomegranate fruit during storage. However, there is no literature regarding the effects of preharvest MeJA treatments on pomegranate 'Mollar de Elche' crop yield, fruit ripening, quality attributes and bioactive compounds content (at harvest or after long-term storage), which were evaluated in this research. RESULTS: Preharvest MeJA treatments (1, 5, and 10 mmol L-1 ) increased pomegranate crop yield. MeJA at 1 and 5 mmol L-1 accelerated the on-tree ripening process, while it was delayed with 10 mmol L-1 . Losses in fruit weight, firmness and organic acids during storage at 10 °C were delayed in MeJA treated fruit, leading to quality maintenance. In addition, MeJA treatments improved arils colour due to increased concentration of total and individual anthocyanins, at harvest and during storage. Total phenolic and ascorbic acid contents and total antioxidant activity [hydrophilic (H-TAA) and lipophilic (L-TAA) fractions] were also higher in arils from treated pomegranate fruits than in controls. CONCLUSION: Preharvest treatments with MeJA could be a promising tool to improve pomegranate crop yield, fruit quality and its content in bioactive compounds at harvest and during storage. The higher effects were obtained with MeJA at 5 mmol L-1 dose, which could be the selected treatment for practical application purposes. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Acetatos/farmacologia , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Conservantes de Alimentos/farmacologia , Frutas/química , Lythraceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Antocianinas/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Cor , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Lythraceae/química , Fenóis/análise
7.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(1): 184-192, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Slight acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) has been widely used in cleaning systems of fruit and vegetables. It strongly reduces microbial contamination. However, no information is available on whether SAEW offers the potential for fresh jujube cleaning. The purposes of this study were, first, to compare the effectiveness of SAEW with commercial sanitizers (i.e. sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) or calcium hypochlorite (Ca(ClO)2 )) on 'Jiancui' jujube; second, to determine the response of fruit decay, tissue calcium (Ca) content, and quality attributes to dip application of calcium nitrate (Ca(NO3 )2 ) by concentration; and third, to investigate the effects of SAEW combined with Ca(NO3 )2 or calcium acetate (Ca(OAc)2 )) on fruit Ca uptake, quality attributes, and bioactive compounds. RESULTS: Fruits washed with NaClO, Ca(ClO)2 , or an SAEW solution showed no difference in reduction of decay incidence. In contrast to NaClO treatment, SAEW or Ca(ClO)2 significantly retarded losses in fruit firmness (FF), green color (hue angle), and skin lightness (L*), and maintained intact pericarp tissue structure during storage at 1 °C. Application of Ca(NO3 )2 at 5-10 g L-1 effectively promoted Ca2+ uptake and minimized declines in FF and L* value but had no effect on decay development. Adding 10 g L-1 Ca(NO3 )2 or Ca(OAc)2 to SAEW provided an additional benefit in increasing decay resistance, increasing Ca2+ into fruit and increasing levels of bioactive compounds in jujube fruit. CONCLUSION: SAEW in combination with Ca(NO3 )2 or Ca(OAc)2 has commercial potential for fresh jujube disinfection and improving storage quality as a result of the cleaning processes. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Acetatos/farmacologia , Compostos de Cálcio/farmacologia , Cálcio/análise , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Conservantes de Alimentos/farmacologia , Frutas/química , Nitratos/farmacologia , Ziziphus/efeitos dos fármacos , Eletrólise , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Controle de Qualidade , Água/química , Ziziphus/química
8.
Food Chem ; 309: 125737, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31780227

RESUMO

Chlorophyll degradation is the main reason for postharvest yellowing of broccoli. To uncover the role of jasmonic acid (JA) on the degradation of chlorophyll, broccoli flowers were treated with exogenous methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and diethyldithiocarbamic acid (DIECA). We found a surge of endogenous JA content with the yellowing process, and a significant correlation between JA and chlorophyll content. MeJA treatments led to increased endogenous JA, increased allene oxide cyclase (AOC) activity, and enhanced expression of JA synthesis genes. MeJA caused a stronger reduction in the maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm), fluorescence decline ratio (Rfd), and total chlorophyll content, advanced the peak of pheide a oxygenase (PAO) activity, and up-regulated the expression of chlorophyll degradation genes. The DIECA treatment resulted in lower endogenous levels of JA, and AOC and 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid reductase (OPR) activity. This study revealed that the potential role of JA on broccoli yellowing is to promote the chlorophyll degradation.


Assuntos
Brassica/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Acetatos/farmacologia , Brassica/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorofila/química , Ciclopentanos/química , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Ditiocarb/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxirredutases Intramoleculares/metabolismo , Oxigenases/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/química , Oxilipinas/farmacologia
9.
J Microbiol ; 57(11): 1019-1024, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31659687

RESUMO

Enterococci are Gram-positive facultative anaerobic bacteria that colonize the oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract. Enterococcal infections, mainly caused by Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium, include apical periodontitis, endocarditis, and bloodstream infections. Recently, vancomycinresistant Enterococci are considered major pathogens that are common but difficult to treat, especially in nosocomial settings. Moreover, E. faecalis is closely associated with recurrent endodontic infections and failed endodontic treatment. In this study, we investigated the effects of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), acetate, propionate, and butyrate, which are metabolites fermented by gut microbiota, on the growth of Enterococci. Enterococci were cultured in the presence or absence of acetate, propionate, or butyrate, and the optical density at 600 nm was measured to determine bacterial growth. The minimum inhibitory concentration/minimum bactericidal concentration test was conducted. Bacteria were treated with a SCFA, together with clinically used endodontic treatment methods such as triple antibiotics (metronidazole, minocycline, and ciprofloxacin) and chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) to determine the effects of combination treatment. Of the SCFAs, propionate had a bacteriostatic effect, inhibiting the growth of E. faecalis in a dose-dependent manner and also that of clinical strains of E. faecalis isolated from dental plaques. Meanwhile, acetate and butyrate had minimal effects on E. faecalis growth. Moreover, propionate inhibited the growth of other Enterococci including E. faecium. In addition, combination treatment of propionate and triple antibiotics led to further growth inhibition, whereas no cooperative effect was observed at propionate plus CHX. These results indicate that propionate attenuates the growth of Enterococci, suggesting propionate as a potential agent to control Enterococcal infections, especially when combined with triple antibiotics.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Enterococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Propionatos/farmacologia , Acetatos/farmacologia , Butiratos/farmacologia , Clorexidina/análogos & derivados , Ciprofloxacino/farmacologia , Combinação de Medicamentos , Enterococcus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococcus faecalis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Enterococcus faecium/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococcus faecium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Metronidazol/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Minociclina/farmacologia
10.
Life Sci ; 237: 116930, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610190

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by symptoms that include social communication impairments, interaction deficits, and repetitive and stereotyped behaviors. Recent studies have suggested that imbalanced cytokine levels are associated with impaired behavioral outcomes in individuals with ASD. VGX-1027 is a potent immunomodulatory compound that has shown promise for the treatment of several neuroinflammatory disorders. Here, we studied the effects of VGX-1027 on BTBR T+ Itpr3tf/J (BTBR) mice, an animal model of autism. BTBR mice exhibit most of the core behavioral features of ASD, such as reduced sociability and increased repetitive behaviors. In this study, we investigated the effects of VGX-1027 on self-grooming, marble burying and sociability tests using BTBR mice. We further examined its effect on IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and NF-κB p65 production in splenic CD4+ cells and on IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ, COX-2, and iNOS (NOS2) protein and mRNA expression in brain tissues. The administration of VGX-1027 was found to attenuate self-grooming and marble burying behaviors, and enhance social interactions in BTBR mice. Additionally, VGX-1027 treatment resulted in a substantial decrease in IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and NF-κB p65 production, but increased IL-10 production in CD4+ T cells. Moreover, this agent was also found to significantly decrease IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ, COX-2, and NOS2 levels and increase IL-10 expression at the protein and mRNA level in brain tissues. Based on results using BTBR mice, our data provide the first evidence that VGX-1027 could potentially be used for the amelioration of autism-like symptoms.


Assuntos
Acetatos/farmacologia , Transtorno Autístico/prevenção & controle , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Receptores de Inositol 1,4,5-Trifosfato/fisiologia , Oxazóis/farmacologia , Animais , Transtorno Autístico/etiologia , Transtorno Autístico/metabolismo , Transtorno Autístico/patologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Transdução de Sinais
11.
Molecules ; 24(19)2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574924

RESUMO

In order to find an efficient way for broccoli to increase the phenolic content, this study intended primarily to elucidate the effect of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment on the phenolic accumulation in broccoli. The optimum concentration of MeJA was studied first, and 10 µM MeJA was chosen as the most effective concentration to improve the phenolic content in wounded broccoli. Furthermore, in order to elucidate the effect of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment on phenolic biosynthesis in broccoli, the key enzyme activities of phenylpropanoid metabolism, the total phenolic content (TPC), individual phenolic compounds (PC), antioxidant activity (AOX) and antioxidant metabolism-associated enzyme activities were investigated. Results show that MeJA treatment stimulated phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H), and 4-coumarin coenzyme A ligase (4CL) enzymes activities in phenylpropanoid metabolism, and inhibited the activity of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and further accelerated the accumulation of the wound-induced rutin, caffeic acid, and cinnamic acid accumulation, which contributed to the result of the total phenolic content increasing by 34.8% and ferric reducing antioxidant power increasing by 154.9% in broccoli. These results demonstrate that MeJA in combination with wounding stress can induce phenylpropanoid metabolism for the wound-induced phenolic accumulation in broccoli.


Assuntos
Acetatos/farmacologia , Brassica/efeitos dos fármacos , Brassica/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Fenóis/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/química , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 144: 355-364, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622938

RESUMO

Eremochloa ophiuroides, a perennial warm-season lawn grass, has a characteristic phenotype of red pigmentation in tissues during maturation. The putative gene families associated with the red coloration were previously identified in E. ophiuroides. These genes encode chalcone synthases, flavonol 3-hydroxylases, and flavonol 3'-hydroxylases, acting on the early flavonoid-biosynthesis pathway. Here, a type-I chalcone isomerase (CHI) gene was isolated from E. ophiuroides based on leaf-transcriptome data, and the corresponding enzyme was functionally characterized in vitro and in planta. Complementation of Arabidopsis tt5 mutants by overexpressing EoCHI recapitulated the wild-type seed coat color. Wounding and methyl jasmonate treatments significantly elevated the transcript level of EoCHI and total anthocyanin content in shoots. Confocal microscopy indicated the localization of EoCHI to the endoplasmic reticulum. The genomic EoCHI sequence contained two introns with a novel pattern of exon‒intron organization. Further examinations on genomic structures of CHI family from ancient to advanced plant lineages should be of interests to decipher evolutionary pathways of extant plant CHI genes.


Assuntos
Acetatos/farmacologia , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Liases Intramoleculares/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Poaceae/genética , Poaceae/metabolismo , Éxons/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Íntrons/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Poaceae/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 143: 329-339, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539762

RESUMO

Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) is one of the most widely cultivated and economically important fruits. Most cultivated varieties of grape are highly susceptible to fungal diseases, and one of the most pervasive is powdery mildew, caused by Uncinula necator. The jasmonate-ZIM domain (JAZ) family proteins are critical for plant responses to environmental stresses. Here, we report the characterization of VqJAZ4, a jasmonate-ZIM domain gene isolated from Vitis quinquangularis, a Chinese wild Vitis species that exhibits high tolerance to several kinds of fungi. Subcellular localization assay indicated that the VqJAZ4 protein is targeted to the nucleus. The VqJAZ4 gene was strongly induced by U. necator inoculation, as well as by the defense-related hormones methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and salicylic acid (SA). The upregulation of VqJAZ4 after inoculation was dependent on its promoter sequences. Expression of VqJAZ4 in Arabidopsis thaliana improved resistance to powdery mildew. Histochemical staining assays indicated that plants expressing VqJAZ4 displayed a larger number of dead cells and stronger reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst than non-transgenic control (NTC) plants. Expression analysis of several disease-related genes suggested that VqJAZ4 expression enhanced defense responses though SA and/or JA signaling pathways. We also found that VqJAZ4-expressing Arabidopsis showed increased susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea. Taken together, these results provide evidence that VqJAZ4 may play an important role in response to fungal pathogens in grape, and may represent a candidate for future grape molecular breeding for disease resistance.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Vitis/metabolismo , Acetatos/farmacologia , Arabidopsis/efeitos dos fármacos , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Botrytis/patogenicidade , Cruzamento , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Resistência à Doença/genética , Resistência à Doença/fisiologia , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/microbiologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Ácido Salicílico/farmacologia
14.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(3): e20180462, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553365

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro antiproliferative and inhibition of oxidative DNA-damage activities of n-butanol (n-BuOH) extract of Centaurea sphaerocephala. The in vitro antioxidant activity of the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and the n-BuOH extracts of this plant were also assayed. To investigate the antioxidant potential, extracts were tested for their capacity to scavenge 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·) and to inhibit lipid peroxidation using the TBARs method. The contents of total phenolics and flavonoids were measured. Additionally, antiproliferative activity and DNA-damage inhibition of the n-BuOH extract was determined using XCELLigence RTCA instrument and photolyzing 46966 plasmid, respectively. The results exhibited that the scavenging abilities of the EtOAc extract were better than the n-BuOH extract with an IC50= 11.59 µg/mL and 16.67 µg/mL for both extracts, respectively. The phenolic and flavonoid contents were found higher in the n-BuOH and EtOAc extracts. Furthermore, our results showed that n-BuOH extract exhibited a remarkable inhibition of lipid peroxidation with an IC50 of 340.94±7.49 µg/mL and had an antiproliferative effect against Hela cells. Extracts of C. sphaerocephala showed antioxidant activity on scavenging DPPH·. In addition, the n-BuOH extract inhibited the lipid peroxidation and exhibited an antiproliferative effect against HeLa cells line (human cervix carcinoma).


Assuntos
1-Butanol/farmacologia , Acetatos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Centaurea/química , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , 1-Butanol/isolamento & purificação , Acetatos/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas
15.
Med Sci Monit ; 25: 6972-6979, 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31527568

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Ginsenosides, including ginsenoside Rg3, are components of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (Araliaceae) used in traditional Chinese medicine. Long-term peritoneal dialysis induces peritoneal fibrosis that impairs ultrafiltration and is associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of peritoneal cells. This study aimed to investigate the effects of ginsenoside Rg3 on EMT induced by transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1) in HMrSV5 human peritoneal mesothelial cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS The cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay measured HMrSV5 cell viability. The expression of EMT markers, E-cadherin, vimentin, and alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) were measured by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The wound-healing assay determined cell migration. The S-phase of the cell cycle was assessed by 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) labeling, and expression of phosphorylated AKT was measured by Western blot. The effect of ginsenoside Rg3 and the AKT activator SC79 on the TGF-ß1-induced EMT of HMrSV5 cells were evaluated. RESULTS Low concentration of ginsenoside Rg3 did not effect cell viability of HMrSV5 cells. TGF-ß1 treatment decreased the expression of E-cadherin, and increased the expression of vimentin and alpha-SMA and promoted cell migration of HMrSV5 cells. However, co-treatment of ginsenoside Rg3 and TGF-ß1 significantly reduced TGF-ß1-induced EMT in HMrSV5 cells. TGF-ß1 increased the phosphorylation of AKT and increased the expression of Smurf2. Ginsenoside Rg3 reduced TGF-ß1-induced activation of AKT and Smurf2. SC79 reversed the effects of ginsenoside Rg3 on TGF-ß1-induced EMT in HMrSV5 cells. CONCLUSIONS Ginsenoside Rg3 inhibited EMT induced by TGF-ß1 in HMrSV5 human peritoneal mesothelial cells by inhibiting the activation of AKT.


Assuntos
Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Epitélio/metabolismo , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Peritônio/citologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/farmacologia , Acetatos/farmacologia , Benzopiranos/farmacologia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(18)2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514406

RESUMO

The quality of alfalfa, a main forage legume worldwide, is of great importance for the dairy industry and is affected by the content of triterpene saponins. These natural terpenoid products of triterpene aglycones are catalyzed by squalene synthase (SQS), a highly conserved enzyme present in eukaryotes. However, there is scare information on alfalfa SQS. Here, an open reading frame (ORF) of SQS was cloned from alfalfa. Sequence analysis showed MsSQS had the same exon/intron composition and shared high homology with its orthologs. Bioinformatic analysis revealed the deduced MsSQS had two transmembrane domains. When transiently expressed, GFP-MsSQS fusion protein was localized on the plasma membrane of onion epidermal cells. Removal of the C-terminal transmembrane domain of MsSQS improved solubility in Escherichia coli. MsSQS was preferably expressed in roots, followed by leaves and stems. MeJA treatment induced MsSQS expression and increased the content of total saponins. Overexpression of MsSQS in alfalfa led to the accumulation of total saponins, suggesting a correlation between MsSQS expression level with saponins content. Therefore, MsSQS is a canonical squalene synthase and contributes to saponin synthesis in alfalfa. This study provides a key candidate gene for genetic manipulation of the synthesis of triterpene saponins, which impact both plant and animal health.


Assuntos
Farnesil-Difosfato Farnesiltransferase/genética , Genes de Plantas , Medicago sativa/enzimologia , Medicago sativa/genética , Acetatos/farmacologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Clonagem Molecular , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Éxons/genética , Farnesil-Difosfato Farnesiltransferase/química , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Íntrons/genética , Cebolas/citologia , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Filogenia , Epiderme Vegetal/citologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Domínios Proteicos , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Saponinas/metabolismo , Solubilidade
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(18)2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31510080

RESUMO

In Arabidopsis basal hypocotyls of dark-grown seedlings, xylary cells may form from the pericycle as an alternative to adventitious roots. Several hormones may induce xylogenesis, as Jasmonic acid (JA), as well as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) auxins, which also affect xylary identity. Studies with the ethylene (ET)-perception mutant ein3eil1 and the ET-precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), also demonstrate ET involvement in IBA-induced ectopic metaxylem. Moreover, nitric oxide (NO), produced after IBA/IAA-treatments, may affect JA signalling and interact positively/negatively with ET. To date, NO-involvement in ET/JA-mediated xylogenesis has never been investigated. To study this, and unravel JA-effects on xylary identity, xylogenesis was investigated in hypocotyls of seedlings treated with JA methyl-ester (JAMe) with/without ACC, IBA, IAA. Wild-type (wt) and ein3eil1 responses to hormonal treatments were compared, and the NO signal was quantified and its role evaluated by using NO-donors/scavengers. Ectopic-protoxylem increased in the wt only after treatment with JAMe(10 µM), whereas in ein3eil1 with any JAMe concentration. NO was detected in cells leading to either xylogenesis or adventitious rooting, and increased after treatment with JAMe(10 µM) combined or not with IBA(10 µM). Xylary identity changed when JAMe was applied with each auxin. Altogether, the results show that xylogenesis is induced by JA and NO positively regulates this process. In addition, NO also negatively interacts with ET-signalling and modulates auxin-induced xylary identity.


Assuntos
Acetatos/farmacologia , Arabidopsis/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Ácidos Indolacéticos/farmacologia , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Xilema/efeitos dos fármacos , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Etilenos/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocótilo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocótilo/genética , Hipocótilo/metabolismo , Mutação , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/genética , Plântula/metabolismo , Xilema/citologia , Xilema/metabolismo
18.
Planta ; 250(5): 1613-1620, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31388830

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: A novel GA13-oxidase ofTripterygium wilfordii, TwGA13ox, is a 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase. It specifically catalyzes the conversion of GA9to GA20, but not GA4to GA1. Gibberellins (GAs) play essential roles in plant growth and development. Previous characterization of GA20- and GA3-oxidases yielded a large number of genetic elements that can interconvert different GAs. However, enzymes that catalyze the 13-hydroxylation step are rarely identified. Here, we report that the GA13-oxidase of Tripterygium wilfordii, TwGA13ox, is a 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase instead of reported cytochrome P450 oxygenases, among 376 differential proteins in comparative proteomics. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the enzyme resides in its own independent branch in the DOXC class. Unexpectedly, it specifically catalyzes the conversion of GA9 to GA20, but not GA4 to GA1. Contrary to the previous research, TwGA13ox transcriptional expression was upregulated ~ 146 times by exogenous application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA). RNAi targeting of TwGA13ox in T. wilfordii led to an 89.9% decrease of triptolide, a diterpenoid epoxide with extensive anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor properties. In subsequent MeJA supplementation experiments, triptolide production increased 13.4-times. TwGA13ox displayed root-specific expression. Our results provide a new GA13-oxidase from plants and elucidate the metabolic associations within the diterpenoid biosynthetic pathway (GAs, triptolide) at the genetic level.


Assuntos
Acetatos/farmacologia , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Dioxigenases/metabolismo , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Giberelinas/metabolismo , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Tripterygium/enzimologia , Vias Biossintéticas , Dioxigenases/genética , Diterpenos/metabolismo , Compostos de Epóxi/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ácidos Cetoglutáricos/metabolismo , Oxirredutases/genética , Fenantrenos/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Tripterygium/genética
19.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(35): 9958-9966, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419123

RESUMO

Chilling injury (CI) is a physiological disorder induced by cold, which heavily limit crop production and postharvest preservation worldwide. Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) can alleviate CI in various fruit species, including peach; however, the underlying molecular mechanism is poorly understood. Here, changes in contents of phenolics, lipids, and jasmonic acid (JA) and gene expressions are compared between MeJA and control fruit. Exogenous MeJA inhibited expressions of PpPAL1, PpPPO1, and PpPOD1/2 but did not affect the phenolic content. Furthermore, MeJA fruit showed lower relative electrolyte leakage, indicating less membrane damage. Meanwhile, the enrichment of linoleic acid in the potential lipid biomarkers, especially phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylglycerol, coincided with lower expressions of PpFAD8.1 but higher PpLOX3.1 and JA content. In the JA signaling pathway, MeJA significantly upregulated expressions of PpMYC2.2 and PpCBF3 but downregulated PpMYC2.1. In conclusion, adjustments of fatty acids in phospholipids contribute to MeJA-induced alleviation of CI in peach fruit via induction of the JA-mediated C-repeat-binding factor pathway.


Assuntos
Acetatos/farmacologia , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/farmacologia , Prunus persica/metabolismo , Temperatura Baixa , Frutas/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Prunus persica/efeitos dos fármacos , Prunus persica/genética , Prunus persica/crescimento & desenvolvimento
20.
Food Chem ; 299: 125099, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299513

RESUMO

Applying methyl jasmonate can mimic the defense response to insect damage in broccoli and enhances the production of glucosinolates, especially inducible indolyl GS-neoglucobrassicin. Previous studies have suggested that glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products are anti-carcinogenic. Therefore, MeJA treatment may increase the nutritional quality of broccoli. However, there are few reports on the sensory evaluation and consumer acceptance of MeJA-treated broccoli. In this study, an untrained consumer panel could not detect any taste differences between steamed MeJA-treated and untreated broccoli, even though the steamed MeJA-treated broccoli contained 50% more glucosinolates than untreated broccoli. The partial least square-regression model suggested that neoglucobrassicin-derived hydrolysis compounds were the major metabolites that determined overall preference for raw MeJA-treated broccoli potentially due to their potential negative sensory qualities. The results imply that MeJA treatment can increase the nutritional quality of broccoli without sacrificing taste in precooked meals or frozen vegetables.


Assuntos
Acetatos/farmacologia , Brassica/efeitos dos fármacos , Brassica/metabolismo , Comportamento do Consumidor , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Glucosinolatos/análise , Humanos , Hidrólise , Indóis/metabolismo , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Nutritivo , Vapor , Paladar
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA