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1.
Planta ; 259(6): 152, 2024 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38735012

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Overexpression of Artemisia annua jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase (AaJMT) leads to enhanced artemisinin content in Artemisia annua. Artemisinin-based combination therapies remain the sole deterrent against deadly disease malaria and Artemisia annua remains the only natural producer of artemisinin. In this study, the 1101 bp gene S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM): Artemisia annua jasmonic acid carboxyl methyltransferase (AaJMT), was characterised from A. annua, which converts jasmonic acid (JA) to methyl jasmonate (MeJA). From phylogenetic analysis, we confirmed that AaJMT shares a common ancestor with Arabidopsis thaliana, Eutrema japonica and has a close homology with JMT of Camellia sinensis. Further, the Clustal Omega depicted that the conserved motif I, motif III and motif SSSS (serine) required to bind SAM and JA, respectively, are present in AaJMT. The relative expression of AaJMT was induced by wounding, MeJA and salicylic acid (SA) treatments. Additionally, we found that the recombinant AaJMT protein catalyses the synthesis of MeJA from JA with a Km value of 37.16 µM. Moreover, site-directed mutagenesis of serine-151 in motif SSSS to tyrosine, asparagine-10 to threonine and glutamine-25 to histidine abolished the enzyme activity of AaJMT, thus indicating their determining role in JA substrate binding. The GC-MS analysis validated that mutant proteins of AaJMT were unable to convert JA into MeJA. Finally, the artemisinin biosynthetic and trichome developmental genes were upregulated in AaJMT overexpression transgenic lines, which in turn increased the artemisinin content.


Assuntos
Acetatos , Artemisia annua , Artemisininas , Ciclopentanos , Metiltransferases , Oxilipinas , Filogenia , Artemisia annua/genética , Artemisia annua/enzimologia , Artemisia annua/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Artemisininas/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Metiltransferases/genética , Acetatos/farmacologia , Acetatos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ácido Salicílico/metabolismo
2.
BMC Genom Data ; 25(1): 41, 2024 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38711007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Class III peroxidase (POD) enzymes play vital roles in plant development, hormone signaling, and stress responses. Despite extensive research on POD families in various plant species, the knowledge regarding the POD family in Chinese pear (Pyrus bretschenedri) is notably limited. RESULTS: We systematically characterized 113 POD family genes, designated as PbPOD1 to PbPOD113 based on their chromosomal locations. Phylogenetic analysis categorized these genes into seven distinct subfamilies (I to VII). The segmental duplication events were identified as a prevalent mechanism driving the expansion of the POD gene family. Microsynteny analysis, involving comparisons with Pyrus bretschenedri, Fragaria vesca, Prunus avium, Prunus mume and Prunus persica, highlighted the conservation of duplicated POD regions and their persistence through purifying selection during the evolutionary process. The expression patterns of PbPOD genes were performed across various plant organs and diverse fruit development stages using transcriptomic data. Furthermore, we identified stress-related cis-acting elements within the promoters of PbPOD genes, underscoring their involvement in hormonal and environmental stress responses. Notably, qRT-PCR analyses revealed distinctive expression patterns of PbPOD genes in response to melatonin (MEL), salicylic acid (SA), abscisic acid (ABA), and methyl jasmonate (MeJA), reflecting their responsiveness to abiotic stress and their role in fruit growth and development. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we investigated the potential functions and evolutionary dynamics of PbPOD genes in Pyrus bretschenedri, positioning them as promising candidates for further research and valuable indicators for enhancing fruit quality through molecular breeding strategies.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Filogenia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Pyrus , Pyrus/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Melatonina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Peroxidase/genética , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Acetatos/farmacologia , Acetatos/metabolismo , Frutas/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento
3.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0302487, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38713701

RESUMO

This study describes the operation of two independent parallel laboratory-scale biotrickling filters (BTFs) to degrade different types of binary volatile organic compound (VOC) mixtures. Comparison experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of two typical VOCs, i.e., ethyl acetate (a hydrophilic VOC) and n-hexane (a hydrophobic VOC) on the removal performance of toluene (a moderately hydrophobic VOC) in BTFs ''A" and ''B", respectively. Experiments were carried out by stabilizing the toluene concentration at 1.64 g m-3 and varying the concentrations of gas-phase ethyl acetate (0.85-2.8 g m-3) and n-hexane (0.85-2.8 g m-3) at an empty bed residence time (EBRT) of 30 s. In the presence of ethyl acetate (850 ± 55 mg m-3), toluene exhibited the highest removal efficiency (95.4 ± 2.2%) in BTF "A". However, the removal rate of toluene varied from 48.1 ± 6.9% to 70.1 ± 6.8% when 850 ± 123 mg m-3 to 2800 ± 136 mg m-3 of n-hexane was introduced into BTF "B". The high-throughput sequencing data revealed that the genera Pseudomonas and Comamonadaceae_unclassified are the core microorganisms responsible for the degradation of toluene. The intensity of the inhibitory or synergistic effects on toluene removal was influenced by the type and concentration of the introduced VOC, as well as the number and activity of the genera Pseudomonas and Comamonadaceae_unclassified. It provides insights into the interaction between binary VOCs during biofiltration from a microscopic perspective.


Assuntos
Acetatos , Biodegradação Ambiental , Filtração , Hexanos , Tolueno , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Tolueno/metabolismo , Hexanos/química , Acetatos/metabolismo , Filtração/métodos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Microbiota
4.
Environ Microbiol Rep ; 16(3): e13276, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38733087

RESUMO

Syntrophic interactions are key in anaerobic food chains, facilitating the conversion of complex organic matter into methane. A typical example involves acetogenic bacteria converting fatty acids (e.g., butyrate and propionate), a process thermodynamically reliant on H2 consumption by microorganisms such as methanogens. While most studies focus on H2-interspecies transfer between these groups, knowledge on acetate cross-feeding in anaerobic systems is lacking. This study investigated butyrate oxidation by co-cultures of Syntrophomonas wolfei and Methanospirillum hungatei, both with and without the addition of the acetate scavenger Methanothrix soehngenii. Growth and gene expression patterns of S. wolfei and M. hungatei were followed in the two conditions. Although butyrate consumption rates remained constant, genes in the butyrate degradation pathway of S. wolfei were less expressed in the presence of M. soehngenii, including genes involved in reverse electron transport. Higher expression of a type IV-pili operon in S. wolfei hints to the potential for direct interspecies electron transfer between S. wolfei and M. soehngenii and an energetically advantageous relationship between the two microorganisms. Overall, the presence of the acetate scavenger M. soehngenii positively influenced the energy metabolism of S. wolfei and highlighted the relevance of including acetate scavengers when investigating syntrophic fatty acid degradation.


Assuntos
Methanospirillum , Methanospirillum/metabolismo , Methanospirillum/genética , Butiratos/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Anaerobiose , Oxirredução , Acetatos/metabolismo , Interações Microbianas , Metano/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cocultura , Transporte de Elétrons
5.
J Anim Sci ; 1022024 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38581217

RESUMO

Pelleted total mixed ration (P-TMR) feeding, which has become a common practice in providing nutrition for fattening sheep, requires careful consideration of the balance between forage neutral detergent fiber (FNDF) and rumen degradable starch (RDS) to maintain proper rumen functions. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of the dietary FNDF/RDS ratio (FRR) on chewing activity, ruminal fermentation, ruminal microbes, and nutrient digestibility in Hu sheep fed a P-TMR diet. This study utilized eight ruminally cannulated male Hu sheep, following a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 31 d each period. Diets consisted of four FRR levels: 1.0 (high FNDF/RDS ratio, HFRR), 0.8 (middle high FNDF/RDS ratio, MHFRR), 0.6 (middle low FNDF/RDS ratio, MLFRR), and 0.4 (low FNDF/RDS ratio, LFRR). Reducing the dietary FRR levels resulted in a linear decrease in ruminal minimum pH and mean pH, while linearly increasing the duration and area of pH below 5.8 and 5.6, as well as the acidosis index. Sheep in the HFRR and MHFRR groups did not experience subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA), whereas sheep in another two groups did. The concentration of total volatile fatty acid and the molar ratios of propionate and valerate, as well as the concentrate of lactate in the rumen linearly increased with reducing dietary FRR, while the molar ratio of acetate and acetate to propionate ratio linearly decreased. The degradability of NDF and ADF for alfalfa hay has a quadratic response with reducing the dietary FRR. The apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber linearly decreased when the dietary FRR was reduced. In addition, reducing the dietary FRR caused a linear decrease in OTUs, Chao1, and Ace index of ruminal microflora. Reducing FRR in the diet increased the percentage of reads assigned as Firmicutes, but it decreased the percentage of reads assigned as Bacteroidetes in the rumen. At genus level, the percentage of reads assigned as Prevotella, Ruminococcus, Succinivibrio, and Butyrivibrio linearly decreased when the dietary FRR was reduced. The results of this study demonstrate that the dietary FRR of 0.8 is crucial in preventing the onset of SARA and promotes an enhanced richness of ruminal microbes and also improves fiber digestibility, which is a recommended dietary FRR reference when formulating P-TMR diets for sheep.


Forage neutral detergent fiber (FNDF) and rumen degradable starch (RDS) are key components of carbohydrates in the diet for ruminants, which would reflect saliva secretion and the acid production potential of feed. However, appropriate FNDF to RDS ratios (FRR) applicable to ruminants under the condition of pelleted total mixed ration (P-TMR) feeding have not been reported. In this study, we investigated the effects of the dietary FRR on chewing activity, ruminal fermentation, ruminal microbial communities, and nutrient digestibility of Hu sheep under P-TMR feeding. The results indicate that reducing dietary FRR levels would induce acidosis in sheep, which negatively affected fiber utilization and ruminal bacterial communities. The FRR of 0.8 was a recommended dietary FRR when formulating a P-TMR diet for fattening sheep, as indicated by decreased ruminal acidosis risk and increased richness of ruminal microbes in the rumen as well as nutrient digestibility.


Assuntos
Acidose , Doenças dos Ovinos , Masculino , Feminino , Animais , Ovinos , Leite/metabolismo , Mastigação/fisiologia , Amido/metabolismo , Lactação/fisiologia , Detergentes/metabolismo , Silagem/análise , Propionatos/metabolismo , Fermentação , Rúmen/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Nutrientes , Acetatos/metabolismo , Acidose/veterinária , Digestão/fisiologia
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(8)2024 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38673998

RESUMO

As one of the largest and most diverse classes of specialized metabolites in plants, terpenoids (oprenoid compounds, a type of bio-based material) are widely used in the fields of medicine and light chemical products. They are the most important secondary metabolites in coniferous species and play an important role in the defense system of conifers. Terpene synthesis can be promoted by regulating the expressions of terpene synthase genes, and the terpene biosynthesis pathway has basically been clarified in Pinus massoniana, in which there are multiple rate-limiting enzymes and the rate-limiting steps are difficult to determine, so the terpene synthase gene regulation mechanism has become a hot spot in research. Herein, we amplified a PmDXR gene (GenBank accession no. MK969119.1) of the MEP pathway (methyl-erythritol 4-phosphate) from Pinus massoniana. The DXR enzyme activity and chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoid contents of overexpressed Arabidopsis showed positive regulation. The PmDXR gene promoter was a tissue-specific promoter and can respond to ABA, MeJA and GA stresses to drive the expression of the GUS reporter gene in N. benthamiana. The DXR enzyme was identified as a key rate-limiting enzyme in the MEP pathway and an effective target for terpene synthesis regulation in coniferous species, which can further lay the theoretical foundation for the molecularly assisted selection of high-yielding lipid germplasm of P. massoniana, as well as provide help in the pathogenesis of pine wood nematode disease.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Pinus , Proteínas de Plantas , Pinus/genética , Pinus/metabolismo , Pinus/parasitologia , Pinus/enzimologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Clorofila/biossíntese , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Alquil e Aril Transferases/genética , Alquil e Aril Transferases/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Terpenos/metabolismo , Clorofila A/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Acetatos/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Vias Biossintéticas
7.
Food Chem ; 449: 139193, 2024 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38604037

RESUMO

The desirable wine aroma compounds 3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol (3SH) and 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate (3SHA) are released during fermentation from non-volatile precursors present in the grapes. This work explores the relative contribution of four precursors (E-2-hexenal, 3-S-glutathionylhexan-1-ol, 3-S-glutathionylhexanal, and 3-S-cysteinylhexan-1-ol) to 3SH and 3SHA. Through the use of isotopically labelled analogues of these precursors in defined fermentation media, new insights into the role of each precursor have been identified. E-2-Hexenal was shown to contribute negligible amounts of thiols, while 3-S-glutathionylhexan-1-ol was the main precursor of both 3SH and 3SHA. The glutathionylated precursors were both converted to 3SHA more efficiently than 3-S-cysteinylhexan-1-ol. Interestingly, 3-S-glutathionylhexanal generated 3SHA without detectable concentrations of 3SH, suggesting possible differences in the way this precursor is metabolised compared to 3-S-glutathionylhexan-1-ol and 3-S-cysteinylhexan-1-ol. We also provide the first evidence for chemical conversion of 3-S-glutathionylhexan-1-ol to 3-S-(γ-glutamylcysteinyl)-hexan-1-ol in an oenological system.


Assuntos
Fermentação , Vitis , Vinho , Vinho/análise , Vitis/química , Vitis/metabolismo , Acetatos/metabolismo , Acetatos/química , Aldeídos/metabolismo , Aldeídos/química , Odorantes/análise , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química
8.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 3502, 2024 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38664378

RESUMO

Beneficial gut bacteria are indispensable for developing colonic mucus and fully establishing its protective function against intestinal microorganisms. Low-fiber diet consumption alters the gut bacterial configuration and disturbs this microbe-mucus interaction, but the specific bacteria and microbial metabolites responsible for maintaining mucus function remain poorly understood. By using human-to-mouse microbiota transplantation and ex vivo analysis of colonic mucus function, we here show as a proof-of-concept that individuals who increase their daily dietary fiber intake can improve the capacity of their gut microbiota to prevent diet-mediated mucus defects. Mucus growth, a critical feature of intact colonic mucus, correlated with the abundance of the gut commensal Blautia, and supplementation of Blautia coccoides to mice confirmed its mucus-stimulating capacity. Mechanistically, B. coccoides stimulated mucus growth through the production of the short-chain fatty acids propionate and acetate via activation of the short-chain fatty acid receptor Ffar2, which could serve as a new target to restore mucus growth during mucus-associated lifestyle diseases.


Assuntos
Colo , Fibras na Dieta , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Mucosa Intestinal , Receptores de Superfície Celular , Animais , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Camundongos , Colo/metabolismo , Colo/microbiologia , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Masculino , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/genética , Feminino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Muco/metabolismo , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal , Simbiose , Propionatos/metabolismo , Clostridiales/metabolismo , Acetatos/metabolismo , Adulto
9.
Eur J Med Res ; 29(1): 233, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38622672

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with circulating inflammation. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) derived from gut microbiota (GM) regulate leukocyte function and inhibit the release of inflammatory cytokines, which are partly mediated by the G-protein-coupled receptor 43 (GPR43) signaling. This study aimed to investigate the expression of GPR43/NOD-like receptors family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) in leukocytes and the interaction with intestinal SCFAs levels in AF patients. METHODS: Expressions of GPR43 and NLRP3 mRNA in peripheral blood leukocytes from 23 AF patients and 25 non-AF controls were detected by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Expressions of leukocyte GPR43 and NLRP3 protein were evaluated by western blot analysis. The levels of plasma IL-1ß were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The fecal SCFAs levels based on GC/MS metabolome of corresponding 21 controls and 14 AF patients were acquired from our published dataset. To evaluate the expression of NLRP3 and GPR43 and the release of IL-1ß, human THP-1 cells were stimulated with or without SCFAs (acetate, propionate, and butyrate), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and nigericin in vitro, respectively. RESULTS: Compared to the controls, the mRNA expression in peripheral leukocytes was significantly reduced in AF patients (P = 0.011) coupled with the increase in downstream leukocyte NLRP3 mRNA expression (P = 0.007) and plasma IL-1ß levels (P < 0.001), consistent with changes in GPR43 and NLRP3 protein expression. Furthermore, leukocyte GPR43 mRNA levels were positively correlated with fecal GM-derived acetic acid (P = 0.046) and negatively correlated with NLRP3 mRNA expression (P = 0.024). In contrast to the negative correlation between left atrial diameter (LAD) and GPR43 (P = 0.008), LAD was positively correlated with the leukocyte NLRP3 mRNA levels (P = 0.024). Subsequent mediation analysis showed that 68.88% of the total effect of intestinal acetic acid on AF might be mediated by leukocyte GPR43/NLRP3. The constructed GPR43-NLRP3 score might have a predictive potential for AF detection (AUC = 0.81, P < 0.001). Moreover, SCFAs treatment increased GPR43 expression and remarkably reduced LPS/nigericin-induced NLRP3 expression and IL-1ß release in human THP-1 cells in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: Disrupted interactions between GPR43 and NLRP3 expression in peripheral blood leukocytes, associated with reduced intestinal GM-derived SCFAs, especially acetic acid, may be involved in AF development and left atrial enlargement by enhancing circulating inflammation.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR , Humanos , Acetatos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Nigericina/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/genética , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
10.
Anim Biotechnol ; 35(1): 2337748, 2024 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38592802

RESUMO

The use of chitosan (CHI) in ruminant diets is a promising natural modifier for rumen fermentation, capable of modulating both the rumen pattern and microbial activities. The objective of this study was to explore the rumen fermentation and microbial populations in Dhofari goats fed a diet supplemented with CHI. A total of 24 Dhofari lactating goats (body weight, 27.32 ± 1.80 kg) were assigned randomly into three experimental groups (n = 8 ewes/group). Goats were fed a basal diet with either 0 (control), 180 (low), or 360 (high) mg CHI/kg of dietary dry matter (DM) for 45 days. Feeding high CHI linearly increased (p < 0.05) the propionate level and reduced the acetate, butyrate, and total protozoa count (p < 0.05). Ruminal ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) concentrations and the acetate:propionate ratio decreased linearly when goats were fed CHI (p < 0.05). The abundances of both Spirochetes and Fibrobacteres phyla were reduced (p < 0.05) with both CHI doses relative to the control. Both low and high CHI reduced (p < 0.05) the relative abundances of Butyrivibrio hungatei, Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus albus, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, Selenomonas ruminantium and Neocallimastix californiae populations. Adding CHI significantly decreased (p < 0.05) the abundances of Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, and Bacillariophyta phyla compared to the control. Adding CHI to the diet reduces the abundance of fibrolytic-degrading bacteria, however, it increases the amylolytic-degrading bacteria. Application of 360 mg of CHI/kg DM modified the relative populations of ruminal microbes, which could enhance the rumen fermentation patterns in Dhofari goats.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Animais , Ovinos , Feminino , Quitosana/metabolismo , Propionatos/metabolismo , Rúmen/metabolismo , Lactação , Cabras , Fermentação , Dieta/veterinária , Acetatos/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise
11.
Food Microbiol ; 121: 104513, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38637075

RESUMO

Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a major actor in winemaking that converts sugars from the grape must into ethanol and CO2 with outstanding efficiency. Primary metabolites produced during fermentation have a great importance in wine. While ethanol content contributes to the overall profile, other metabolites like glycerol, succinate, acetate or lactate also have significant impacts, even when present in lower concentrations. S. cerevisiae is known for its great genetic diversity that is related to its natural or technological environment. However, the variation range of metabolic diversity which can be exploited to enhance wine quality depends on the pathway considered. Our experiment assessed the diversity of primary metabolites production in a set of 51 S. cerevisiae strains from various genetic backgrounds. Results pointed out great yield differences depending on the metabolite considered, with ethanol having the lowest variation. A negative correlation between ethanol and glycerol was observed, confirming glycerol synthesis as a suitable lever to reduce ethanol yield. Genetic groups were linked to specific yields, such as the wine group and high α-ketoglutarate and low acetate yields. This research highlights the potential of using natural yeast diversity in winemaking. It also provides a detailed data set on production of well known (ethanol, glycerol, acetate) or little-known (lactate) primary metabolites.


Assuntos
Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Vinho , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Vinho/análise , Fermentação , Glicerol/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo , Etanol/metabolismo , Acetatos/metabolismo , Lactatos
12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(18): 10420-10427, 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38657224

RESUMO

Strategic allocation of metabolic flux is essential for achieving a higher production performance in genetically engineered organisms. Flux optimization between cell growth and chemical production has led to the establishment of cost-effective chemical production methods in microbial cell factories. This effect is amplified when utilizing a low-cost carbon source. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), crucial in pharmaceuticals and biodegradable polymers, can be efficiently produced from acetate, a cost-effective substrate. However, a balanced distribution of acetate-derived flux is essential for optimizing the production without hindering growth. In this study, we demonstrated GABA production from acetate using Escherichia coli by focusing on optimizing the metabolic flux at isocitrate and α-ketoglutarate nodes. Through a series of flux optimizations, the final strain produced 2.54 g/L GABA from 5.91 g/L acetate in 24 h (0.43 g/g yield). These findings suggest that delicate flux balancing with the application of a cheap substrate can contribute to cost-effective production of GABA.


Assuntos
Acetatos , Escherichia coli , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/genética , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo , Acetatos/metabolismo , Engenharia Metabólica
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38621758

RESUMO

Lycopene has been widely used in the food industry and medical field due to its antioxidant, anti-cancer, and anti-inflammatory properties. However, achieving efficient manufacture of lycopene using chassis cells on an industrial scale remains a major challenge. Herein, we attempted to integrate multiple metabolic engineering strategies to establish an efficient and balanced lycopene biosynthetic system in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. First, the lycopene synthesis pathway was modularized to sequentially enhance the metabolic flux of the mevalonate pathway, the acetyl-CoA supply module, and lycopene exogenous enzymatic module. The modular operation enabled the efficient conversion of acetyl-CoA to downstream pathway of lycopene synthesis, resulting in a 3.1-fold increase of lycopene yield. Second, we introduced acetate as an exogenous carbon source and utilized an acetate-repressible promoter to replace the natural ERG9 promoter. This approach not only enhanced the supply of acetyl-CoA but also concurrently diminished the flux toward the competitive ergosterol pathway. As a result, a further 42.3% increase in lycopene production was observed. Third, we optimized NADPH supply and mitigated cytotoxicity by overexpressing ABC transporters to promote lycopene efflux. The obtained strain YLY-PDR11 showed a 12.7-fold increase in extracellular lycopene level compared to the control strain. Finally, the total lycopene yield reached 343.7 mg/L, which was 4.3 times higher than that of the initial strain YLY-04. Our results demonstrate that combining multi-modular metabolic engineering with efflux engineering is an effective approach to improve the production of lycopene. This strategy can also be applied to the overproduction of other desirable isoprenoid compounds with similar synthesis and storage patterns in S. cerevisiae. ONE-SENTENCE SUMMARY: In this research, lycopene production in yeast was markedly enhanced by integrating a multi-modular approach, acetate signaling-based down-regulation of competitive pathways, and an efflux optimization strategy.


Assuntos
Acetilcoenzima A , Carotenoides , Licopeno , Engenharia Metabólica , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Licopeno/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Engenharia Metabólica/métodos , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Acetilcoenzima A/metabolismo , Ácido Mevalônico/metabolismo , Vias Biossintéticas , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , NADP/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Acetatos/metabolismo
14.
J Anim Sci ; 1022024 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38502875

RESUMO

The world population is growing exponentially, increasing demand to produce high-quality protein for human consumption. Changes in weather patterns, drought, and decreased land resources due to urbanization have increased the strain on the agriculture sector to meet world demands. An alternative method to combat these issues and continue to produce high-quality livestock feed would be through a controlled environment vertical farming system. Commonly, cereal grains, such as barley, are used in these systems to produce livestock feed. However, there is little information on the viability of feeding sprouted grains to beef cattle. Two diets of either feeder-quality alfalfa hay (n = 10 pairs; ALF) or the same alfalfa hay and sprouted barley (SB; 12.6% dry matter [DM]; n = 10 pairs) were fed for 90 d to Angus pairs with a steer calf during mid to late lactation. On days 0 and 90, body weight (BW), milk, rumen fluid, and body condition score were collected from cows and hip height and BW were recorded for calves. On day 10, BW was recorded for cows and calves and rumen fluid was collected from cows. Rumen fluid was also collected from cows on day 45. On day 55, BW was collected for both cows and calves and milk from cows. Intake was recorded throughout the trial via bunks with Vytelle technology. The PROC MIXED procedure of SAS was used to analyze all data with the day as a repeated measure to determine the main effect of diet. Individual volatile fatty acids (VFA) were measured as a percent of total VFA. No differences (P ≥ 0.16) were observed in calf BW, hip height, milk protein, fat, lactose, calf DM intake (DMI), or cow DMI. Cows fed SB tended (P = 0.08) to have a decreased somatic cell count compared to ALF. Percent butyrate was impacted by diet × day (P = 0.02), but no difference (P > 0.09) at any time points were detected. Additionally, a diet × day effect (P = 0.001) on rumen pH demonstrated that both groups stayed consistent until day 45 and then SB pH decreased the last 45 d. There was a day effect for total VFA (P = 0.0009), acetate:propionate (Ac:Pr; P < 0.0001), acetate (P < 0.0001), and propionate (P < 0.0001) demonstrating that total VFA, acetate, and Ac:Pr all increased throughout the trial, while propionate decreased. These results indicate that SB can be a potential alternative feed at this stage of production as it does not negatively impact health or production, but does affect the rumen pH and proportion of some VFA.


Climate variability and uncertainty associated with weather patterns can greatly impact feed security for cattle producers. Flooding, drought, and temperature extremes can reduce a farmer's ability to produce a consistent crop, resulting in feed prices that can fluctuate greatly. Vertical farming systems that sprout cereal grains in a controlled environment, using precision irrigation, may alleviate the effects of external factors such as climate and resulting feed prices. The objective of this study was to determine if sprouted barley (SB) could be used as an effective alternative feed source for cow-calf pairs. Two diets were fed to 20 cow-calf pairs, a control diet consisting of 100% feeder-quality alfalfa hay, or an experimental diet comprised of feeder-quality alfalfa hay and a 12.6% dry matter inclusion of SB for 90 d. Body weight, feed intake, and feeding behavior were analyzed in the cows and calves. Ruminal health was also assessed in cows by analyzing the ruminal fluid for pH and volatile fatty acid composition. When health and performance metrics were analyzed, no differences were found between the two diets that were administered to the cattle.


Assuntos
Hordeum , Feminino , Humanos , Bovinos , Animais , Hordeum/metabolismo , Medicago sativa/metabolismo , Propionatos/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Rúmen/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Lactação , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Acetatos/metabolismo , Fermentação
15.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0298930, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38507436

RESUMO

The rumen represents a dynamic microbial ecosystem where fermentation metabolites and microbial concentrations change over time in response to dietary changes. The integration of microbial genomic knowledge and dynamic modelling can enhance our system-level understanding of rumen ecosystem's function. However, such an integration between dynamic models and rumen microbiota data is lacking. The objective of this work was to integrate rumen microbiota time series determined by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing into a dynamic modelling framework to link microbial data to the dynamics of the volatile fatty acids (VFA) production during fermentation. For that, we used the theory of state observers to develop a model that estimates the dynamics of VFA from the data of microbial functional proxies associated with the specific production of each VFA. We determined the microbial proxies using CowPi to infer the functional potential of the rumen microbiota and extrapolate their functional modules from KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes). The approach was challenged using data from an in vitro RUSITEC experiment and from an in vivo experiment with four cows. The model performance was evaluated by the coefficient of variation of the root mean square error (CRMSE). For the in vitro case study, the mean CVRMSE were 9.8% for acetate, 14% for butyrate and 14.5% for propionate. For the in vivo case study, the mean CVRMSE were 16.4% for acetate, 15.8% for butyrate and 19.8% for propionate. The mean CVRMSE for the VFA molar fractions were 3.1% for acetate, 3.8% for butyrate and 8.9% for propionate. Ours results show the promising application of state observers integrated with microbiota time series data for predicting rumen microbial metabolism.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Propionatos , Feminino , Animais , Bovinos , Propionatos/metabolismo , Fermentação , Rúmen/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Acetatos/metabolismo , Butiratos/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Ração Animal/análise
16.
Nat Cell Biol ; 26(4): 613-627, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38429478

RESUMO

The ability of tumour cells to thrive in harsh microenvironments depends on the utilization of nutrients available in the milieu. Here we show that pancreatic cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) regulate tumour cell metabolism through the secretion of acetate, which can be blocked by silencing ATP citrate lyase (ACLY) in CAFs. We further show that acetyl-CoA synthetase short-chain family member 2 (ACSS2) channels the exogenous acetate to regulate the dynamic cancer epigenome and transcriptome, thereby facilitating cancer cell survival in an acidic microenvironment. Comparative H3K27ac ChIP-seq and RNA-seq analyses revealed alterations in polyamine homeostasis through regulation of SAT1 gene expression and enrichment of the SP1-responsive signature. We identified acetate/ACSS2-mediated acetylation of SP1 at the lysine 19 residue that increased SP1 protein stability and transcriptional activity. Genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of the ACSS2-SP1-SAT1 axis diminished the tumour burden in mouse models. These results reveal that the metabolic flexibility imparted by the stroma-derived acetate enabled cancer cell survival under acidosis via the ACSS2-SP1-SAT1 axis.


Assuntos
Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Animais , Camundongos , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Acetatos/farmacologia , Acetatos/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Poliaminas , Microambiente Tumoral
17.
J Anim Sci ; 1022024 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38513071

RESUMO

This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of including a mixed-dimensional attapulgite clay (MDA) into a naturally moldly diet for Hu lambs. Fifty male Hu lambs with similar initial body weight (28.24 ±â€…1.80 kg) were randomly allocated into five dietary treatments: a basal diet containing naturally occurring mycotoxins with 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 kg/t MDA, and basal diet with a commercial mycotoxin adsorbent Solis with montmorillonite as the major component at 1 kg/t. Both MDA and Solis increased average daily gain (ADG) and dry matter intake (DMI; P ≤ 0.004), and there was no difference in growth performance between MDA and Solis (P ≥ 0.26). The final body weight, DMI, and ADG were linearly increased with increasing MDA supplementation (P < 0.01). Lambs treated with both MDA and Solis demonstrated greater apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), and energy compared with the control group (P ≤ 0.03), and there were no differences in nutrient digestibilities between MDA and Solis (P ≥ 0.38). Digestibility of CP was linearly increased with the increasing MDA supplementation (P = 0.01). Neither MDA nor Solis affected rumen total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) concentration (P ≥ 0.39), but decreased the acetate-to-propionate ratio and molar proportion of n-butyrate (P ≤ 0.01), and MDA also increased the concentration of ammonia (P = 0.003). Besides, increasing MDA supplementation linearly reduced the acetate-to-propionate ratio and molar proportion of n-butyrate (P = 0.01), but linearly and quadratically increased the concentration of ammonia (P ≥ 0.003). These results showed that the incorporation of MDA into a naturally moldy diet of Hu lambs yielded comparable results to the Solis product, with higher growth performance and nutrient digestibility but lower acetate-to-propionate ratio observed. In conclusion, including ≥ 1 kg/t of MDA in high mycotoxin risk diets for growing lambs improves feed intake and rumen fermentation.


The issue of mycotoxin-contaminated animal feed has consistently presented a significant challenge in relation to animal health and production. The mixed-dimensional attapulgite clay (MDA) has been proven effective in binding polar mycotoxins such as aflatoxin, while also effectively adsorbing hydrophobic or weakly polar mycotoxins such as zearalenone (ZEN) and ochratoxin. Therefore, this study was undertaken to assess the impact of MDA inclusion in mycotoxin-contaminated diets on performance and rumen fermentation variables in lambs. The results indicated that MDA not only significantly improved the growth performance and nutrient digestibility of Hu lambs but also enhanced the molar proportion of propionate and ammonia concentration, and reduced the acetate to propionate ratio and the molar proportion of n-butyrate.


Assuntos
Compostos de Magnésio , Micotoxinas , Rúmen , Compostos de Silício , Ovinos , Animais , Masculino , Argila , Rúmen/metabolismo , Propionatos/metabolismo , Fermentação , Amônia/metabolismo , Digestão , Dieta/veterinária , Carneiro Doméstico , Ingestão de Alimentos , Acetatos/metabolismo , Butiratos/metabolismo , Peso Corporal , Ração Animal/análise
18.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(11): 5797-5804, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38465388

RESUMO

Biological production of citramalate has garnered attention due to its wide application for food additives and pharmaceuticals, although improvement of yield is known to be challenging. When glucose is used as the sole carbon source, carbon loss through decarboxylation steps for providing acetyl-CoA from pyruvate is inevitable. To avoid this, we engineered a strain to co-utilize glucose and cost-effective acetate while preventing carbon loss for enhancing citramalate production. The production pathway diverged to independently supply the precursors required for the synthesis of citramalate from glucose and acetate, respectively. Moreover, the phosphotransferase system was inactivated and the acetate assimilation pathway and the substrate ratio were optimized to enable the simultaneous and efficient utilization of both carbon sources. This yielded results (5.0 g/L, 0.87 mol/mol) surpassing the yield and titer of the control strain utilizing glucose as the sole carbon source in flask cultures, demonstrating an economically efficient strain redesign strategy for synthesizing various products.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , Malatos , Engenharia Metabólica , Escherichia coli/genética , Glucose/metabolismo , Acetatos/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo
19.
Biotechnol Bioeng ; 121(5): 1518-1531, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38548678

RESUMO

Clostridium tyrobutyricum is an anaerobe known for its ability to produce short-chain fatty acids, alcohols, and esters. We aimed to develop inducible promoters for fine-tuning gene expression in C. tyrobutyricum. Synthetic inducible promoters were created by employing an Escherichia coli lac operator to regulate the thiolase promoter (PCathl) from Clostridium acetobutylicum, with the best one (LacI-Pto4s) showing a 5.86-fold dynamic range with isopropyl ß- d-thiogalactoside (IPTG) induction. A LT-Pt7 system with a dynamic range of 11.6-fold was then created by combining LacI-Pto4s with a T7 expression system composing of RNA polymerase (T7RNAP) and Pt7lac promoter. Furthermore, two inducible expression systems BgaR-PbgaLA and BgaR-PbgaLB with a dynamic range of ~40-fold were developed by optimizing a lactose-inducible expression system from Clostridium perfringens with modified 5' untranslated region (5' UTR) and ribosome-binding site (RBS). BgaR-PbgaLB was then used to regulate the expressions of a bifunctional aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase encoded by adhE2 and butyryl-CoA/acetate Co-A transferase encoded by cat1 in C. tyrobutyricum wild type and Δcat1::adhE2, respectively, demonstrating its efficient inducible gene regulation. The regulated cat1 expression also confirmed that the Cat1-catalyzed reaction was responsible for acetate assimilation in C. tyrobutyricum. The inducible promoters offer new tools for tuning gene expression in C. tyrobutyricum for industrial applications.


Assuntos
Clostridium acetobutylicum , Clostridium tyrobutyricum , Clostridium tyrobutyricum/genética , Clostridium tyrobutyricum/metabolismo , Clostridium acetobutylicum/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Expressão Gênica , Acetatos/metabolismo
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 926: 171808, 2024 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38508273

RESUMO

Enteric methane (CH4) produced by ruminant livestock is a potent greenhouse gas and represents significant energy loss for the animal. The novel application of oxidising compounds as antimethanogenic agents with future potential to be included in ruminant feeds, was assessed across two separate experiments in this study. Low concentrations of oxidising agents, namely urea hydrogen peroxide (UHP) with and without potassium iodide (KI), and magnesium peroxide (MgO2), were investigated for their effects on CH4 production, total gas production (TGP), volatile fatty acid (VFA) profiles, and nutrient disappearance in vitro using the rumen simulation technique. In both experiments, the in vitro diet consisted of 50:50 grass silage:concentrate on a dry matter basis. Treatment concentrations were based on the amount of oxygen delivered and expressed in terms of fold concentration. In Experiment 1, four treatments were tested (Control, 1× UHP + KI, 1× UHP, and 0.5× UHP + KI), and six treatments were assessed in Experiment 2 (Control, 0.5× UHP + KI, 0.5× UHP, 0.25× UHP + KI, 0.25× UHP, and 0.12× MgO2). All treatments in this study had a reducing effect on CH4 parameters. A dose-dependent reduction of TGP and CH4 parameters was observed, where treatments delivering higher levels of oxygen resulted in greater CH4 suppression. 1× UHP + KI reduced TGP by 28 % (p = 0.611), CH4% by 64 % (p = 0.075) and CH4 mmol/g digestible organic matter by 71 % (p = 0.037). 0.12× MgO2 reduced CH4 volume by 25 % (p > 0.05) without affecting any other parameters. Acetate-to-propionate ratios were reduced by treatments in both experiments (p < 0.01). Molar proportions of acetate and butyrate were reduced, while propionate and valerate were increased in UHP treatments. High concentrations of UHP affected the degradation of neutral detergent fibre in the forage substrate. Future in vitro work should investigate alternative slow-release oxygen sources aimed at prolonging CH4 suppression.


Assuntos
Propionatos , Rúmen , Animais , Feminino , Propionatos/metabolismo , Metano/metabolismo , Óxido de Magnésio/metabolismo , Dieta , Silagem/análise , Ruminantes , Acetatos/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Fermentação , Digestão , Lactação
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