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1.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053590

RESUMO

The removal of a central venous catheter on a ward leads to a paradox air embolism in a 53-year-old male patient with an unknown ventricular septal defect. The patient undergoes sufficient cardiopulmonary resuscitation but suffers from a multiple stroke syndrome with serious neurological deficits.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Venoso Central , Cateteres Venosos Centrais , Embolia Aérea , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Cateterismo Venoso Central/efeitos adversos , Cateteres Venosos Centrais/efeitos adversos , Infarto Cerebral , Embolia Aérea/diagnóstico por imagem , Embolia Aérea/etiologia , Embolia Aérea/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e22465, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019438

RESUMO

The present study aimed to investigate the predictive value of free fatty acid (FFA) in embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS) according to the presence of potential embolic sources (PES) after extensive etiologic evaluation.This was a retrospective observational study based on a single-center registry from January 2011 to July 2017. Stroke subtypes were determined through laboratory findings, brain, and angiographic imaging, carotid ultrasonography, transthoracic echocardiography, and 24-hour Holter monitoring. If ESUS was suspected, transesophageal echocardiography was additionally performed. Patients were classified into ESUS with PES and ESUS without PES. PES included mitral annular calcification, mitral valve prolapse, patent foramen ovale, atrial septal aneurysm, spontaneous echo contrast, ventricular aneurysm, and high-risk plaques of aortic arch, or carotid bulb. We compared clinical and laboratory findings between the two groups.Of a total of 110 ESUS patients, 61 patients (55.5%) had no PES. Patients with ESUS without PES had higher levels of serum FFA, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and left atrial (LA) enlargement compared with those of ESUS with PES. Multivariable analysis demonstrated that the FFA level, DBP, and LA volume index were associated with ESUS without PES [odds ratio (OR) 1.038, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.019-1.058 for FFA/10 µEq/L, OR 1.414, 95% CI 1.037-1.928 for DBP/10 mm Hg, and OR 1.073, 95% CI 1.009-1.141 for LA volume index].Higher levels of FFA, DBP, and LA volume index are associated with ESUS without PES, highlighting the need to identify the role of these markers in ESUS through further large-scale, multi-center and prospective studies.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/sangue , Embolia Intracraniana/sangue , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Embolia Intracraniana/complicações , Embolia Intracraniana/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia
4.
Yonsei Med J ; 61(9): 741-749, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882758

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are widely used in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) because of their effectiveness in preventing stroke and their better safety, compared with warfarin. However, there are concerns for an increased risk of bleeding associated with concomitant use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) with NOACs. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the risk of bleeding events in individuals taking concomitant NSAIDs or SSRIs with NOACs after being diagnosed with AF. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A nested case-control analysis to assess the safety of NSAIDs and SSRIs among NOAC users with AF was performed using data from Korean National Health Insurance Service from January 2012 to December 2017. Among patients who were newly prescribed NOACs, 1233 cases hospitalized for bleeding events were selected, and 24660 controls were determined. RESULTS: The risk of bleeding events was higher in patients receiving concomitant NSAIDs [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.41; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.24-1.61] or SSRIs (aOR 1.92; 95% CI 1.52-2.42) with NOACs, compared to no use of either drug, respectively. The risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding was higher in patients receiving concomitant NSAIDs or SSRIs without proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) (NSAIDs: aOR 2.47; 95% CI 1.26-4.83, SSRI: aOR 10.8; 95% CI 2.41-2.48) compared to no use. CONCLUSION: When NSAIDs or SSRIs are required for NOAC users with AF, physicians need to monitor bleeding events and consider the use of PPIs, especially for combined use of both drugs or when initiating NOACs treatment.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/prevenção & controle , Hemorragia/prevenção & controle , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Varfarina/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Idoso , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/complicações , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/efeitos adversos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia
5.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 27(3): 448-455, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955229

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cerebrovascular diseases in Poland constitute a bigger threat to life in men than in women, especially after the age of 60. Death rates indicate higher stroke over-mortality in the rural population rather than the urban. At the same time, stroke is the main cause of long-term disability, since half of the patients are unable to independently perform daily activities, which makes them dependent on other people. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted in the Independent Public Healthcare Institution in Krasnik, eastern Poland. It covered the medical records of 1,500 patients, 780 women (52%) and 720 men (48%), aged 20-100, diagnosed with cerebral infarction. The patients were hospitalised between 2011-2016 in the Neurology Ward with a Stroke Unit, the Internal Medicine Ward, and the Anaesthetics and Intensive Care Ward. RESULTS: The stroke patients hospitalised in the Independent Public Healthcare Institution in Krasnik were residents of urban communes (59.1% of subjects) and rural communes (40.9%). The most often diagnosed type of stroke was due to embolism of the cerebral arteries (I63.4) in women (63.48%). In men, the most most often diagnosed type was cerebral infarction due to thrombosis of the cerebral arteries (I63.3; 51.33%). Stroke in 36.15% of the female subjects resulted in death. In male subjects, death occurred in 26.11% of the cases. CONCLUSIONS: Women aged around 78-years-old were the most likely to suffer a stroke. In men, it occurred eight years earlier. Despite residents of urban areas being hospitalised due to stroke more often, deaths caused by this disease were recorded the most frequently among rural residents. It can be concluded that primary stroke prevention is the only effective measure for reducing morbidity and premature mortality in the population.


Assuntos
População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/classificação , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(9)2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907873

RESUMO

A 71-year-old man presented to the emergency department (ED) with low oxygen saturations and symptoms consistent with COVID-19 infection. Apart from a small left-sided ischaemic stroke 10 years prior with very minor residual deficit, he had been well and in full-time employment until development of symptoms. Within minutes of commencing non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in the ED, he developed a complete left-sided paralysis and hemineglect. This case highlights the significance of the prothrombotic complications associated with COVID-19 infection. It also raises the question whether pressure changes upon commencing NIV could lead to clot migration.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Ventilação não Invasiva/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Evolução Fatal , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Trombolítica/métodos , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/uso terapêutico , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(38): e22305, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957391

RESUMO

RATIONALE: A developmental venous anomaly (DVA) is the most common intracranial congenital anomaly and is mostly asymptomatic. Thrombosis rarely develops in a DVA due to hypercoagulation. We report a case of ischemic stroke in the area of a DVA after minor head trauma in a patient with DVA and without a predisposition thrombosis. PATIENT CONCERNS: A healthy 17-year-old male was admitted to the emergency room due to left hemiparesis, which was caused by a ball hitting the right side of his head during a soccer game. DIAGNOSIS: Brain magnetic resonance (MR) susceptibility-weighted image showed several small veins draining to the central vein in the area from the right posterior putamen to the periventricular white matter. INTERVENTIONS: We diagnosed the patient with an ischemic stroke associated with a DVA and administered antiplatelet agents. The patient's autoantibodies (including antiphospholipid antibody) and factors of blood coagulation were normal. OUTCOMES: The left hemiparesis of the patient worsened by the second day of admission. Moreover, high signal intensity was observed in the DVA region of the diffusion weighted image of brain MR. The patient's symptoms gradually improved afterward, and left hemiparesis recovered fully 3 weeks after the onset. LESSONS: DVAs may predispose to ischemic stroke due to thrombosis and hypercoagulation, although it is rare. It is necessary to consider the possibility of ischemic stroke due to minor head trauma, even without factors causing hypercoagulation.


Assuntos
Concussão Encefálica/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Adolescente , Concussão Encefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Ventrículos Cerebrais/diagnóstico por imagem , Ventrículos Cerebrais/patologia , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Humanos , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Futebol/lesões , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico
8.
Mol Neurobiol ; 57(12): 5263-5275, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32869183

RESUMO

Similar to its predecessors, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) exhibits neurotrophic properties, which lead to progression of neurologic sequelae. Besides direct viral invasion to the central nervous system (CNS), indirect CNS involvement through viral-mediated immune response is plausible. Aberrant immune pathways such as extreme release of cytokines (cytokine storm), autoimmunity mediated by cross-reactivity between CNS components and viral particles, and microglial activation propagate CNS damage in these patients. Here, we review the currently available evidence to discuss the plausible immunologic pathways that may contribute to the development of COVID-19 neurological complications, namely Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, stroke, multiple sclerosis, Guillain-Barre syndrome, seizure, and brainstem involvement.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/etiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Animais , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Tronco Encefálico/fisiopatologia , Tronco Encefálico/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/etiologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Efeito Citopatogênico Viral , Surtos de Doenças , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/etiologia , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/imunologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Esclerose Múltipla/etiologia , Esclerose Múltipla/imunologia , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/fisiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/imunologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/etiologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/imunologia , Neuroglia/patologia , Neuroglia/virologia , Neurônios/patologia , Neurônios/virologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/fisiologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Receptores Virais/fisiologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/fisiopatologia , Convulsões/etiologia , Convulsões/imunologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/complicações , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/imunologia
9.
Cell ; 183(1): 16-27.e1, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882182

RESUMO

Neurological complications have emerged as a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Beside respiratory insufficiency, many hospitalized patients exhibit neurological manifestations ranging from headache and loss of smell, to confusion and disabling strokes. COVID-19 is also anticipated to take a toll on the nervous system in the long term. Here, we will provide a critical appraisal of the potential for neurotropism and mechanisms of neuropathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 as they relate to the acute and chronic neurological consequences of the infection. Finally, we will examine potential avenues for future research and therapeutic development.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Animais , Encefalopatias/epidemiologia , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Humanos , Transtornos do Olfato/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
10.
J Med Vasc ; 45(5): 260-267, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862983

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Carotid endarterectomy has traditionally been the strategy for the surgical management of carotid stenosis. Alongside the usual techniques, this study presents another technique: endarterectomy with systematized resection-anastomosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective study from January 2006 to December 2018, included all patients managed for carotid stenosis at Meaux hospital with the "endarterectomy with systematized resection-anastomosis" technique. The perioperative death and stroke rate were evaluated according to the judgment criterion "homolateral ischemic stroke and any stroke or perioperative death". Statistical analysis of the data was performed using SPSS software. RESULTS: For 415 carotids operated, we identified 240 managed with this technique. The average age was 71.7±9.6 years, 70% men and 30% women. The main cardiovascular risk factor was hypertension (76.7%), 24.2% of patients had an ischemic heart disease history, 43.7% homolateral ischemic stroke and 29% transient ischemic attack. Bilateral lesions were diagnosed in 6.2% of patients and 7.5% had contralateral occlusion. Carotid stenosis was symptomatic in 52.9% of patients. The average stenosis rate observed was 82.9±8.1% on computed tomography angiogram and 83.7±7.7% on magnetic resonance angiogram. The shunt was used in 45.4% of procedures. The average length of stay was 5.9±2.3 days. All patients had satisfactory results in terms of patency and anatomical appearance on the 1st check. In the post-operative period during the first month, complications occurred in 12.5% of patients (1.6% acute coronary syndrome, 0.8% neurological event, 0.8% death, 0.4% infection, 12.1% hematoma, 1.6% recovery for bleeding). The overall perioperative death and stroke rate was 2.6%. Myocardial infarction and sepsis were the causes of death for the 2 patients in the peri operative period. The mean duration of follow-up was 21.2 months, without any restenosis or occurrence of neurological complications. One patient died beyond the 1st month of follow-up without established cause, and the overall mortality rate was 1.3%. CONCLUSION: Thromboendarterectomy with "systematized" anastomosis resection represents an angioplasty method for carotid stenosis surgical management under visual control.


Assuntos
Artérias Carótidas/cirurgia , Estenose das Carótidas/cirurgia , Endarterectomia das Carótidas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anastomose Cirúrgica , Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose das Carótidas/complicações , Estenose das Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose das Carótidas/mortalidade , Endarterectomia das Carótidas/efeitos adversos , Endarterectomia das Carótidas/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(10): 105047, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912511

RESUMO

COVID-19 is a pandemic disease which predominantly affects the respiratory system, however it also causes multi-organ dysfunction in a subset of patients. There is a growing evidence that it increases the propensity of strokes in younger patients. Besides producing a prothrombotic state, arterial dissection could be one of its many manifestations, increasing the risks of stroke. Herein, we report the first case of spontaneous bilateral vertebral artery dissection in a patient with COVID-19. 39-year female presented with spontaneous bilateral vertebral artery dissections without any instigating traumatic events and no history of connective tissue disorders. Whether this patient's vertebral artery dissections were triggered by exaggerated inflammatory response or arteriopathy secondary to COVID-19 remains speculative. Nonetheless, arterial dissection could be one of it's complications. It is important for the physicians to be aware of different clinical manifestations of COVID-19 as we manage these patients with no historical experience, to provide adequate care.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Dissecação da Artéria Vertebral/etiologia , Adulto , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/virologia , Dissecação da Artéria Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Dissecação da Artéria Vertebral/tratamento farmacológico , Dissecação da Artéria Vertebral/virologia
12.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(10): 105074, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912559

RESUMO

Recent evidence has underlined the association between large-vessel stroke and COVID-19, probably due to a proinflammatory and prothrombotic microenvironment induced by SARS-CoV-2. Here, we report the case of a young fit woman affected by COVID-19 without any flu-like symptom, who suffered from speech disorder and left hemiparesis. Brain magnetic resonance evidenced two small acute brain infarctions in right perirolandic cortex without signs of previous ischemic lesions and hemorrhagic infarction. Diagnostic workup excluded cardiac embolic sources, acquired and inherited thrombophilia or autoimmune diseases. Two positive nasopharyngeal swab tests and high titers of serum specific IgA/IgM confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis. In our case stroke seems to be the only manifestation of SARS-COV-2 infection. Therefore the hypothesis of an underlying viral infection, as COVID-19, should be investigated in all the cases of small vessel cryptogenic stroke.


Assuntos
Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital , Pandemias , Paresia/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Fatores de Risco , Distúrbios da Fala/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/virologia
13.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239443, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946512

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In the setting of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) global pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2, a potential association of this disease with stroke has been suggested. We aimed to describe the characteristics of patients who were admitted with COVID-19 and had an acute ischemic stroke (AIS). METHODS: This is a case series of PCR-confirmed COVID-19 patients with ischemic stroke admitted to an academic health system in metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia (USA) between March 24th, 2020 and July 17th, 2020. Demographic, clinical, and radiographic characteristics were described. RESULTS: Of 396 ischemic stroke patients admitted during this study period, 13 (2.5%) were also diagnosed with COVID-19. The mean age of patients was 61.6 ± 10.8 years, 10 (76.9%) male, 8 (61.5%) were Black Americans, mean time from last normal was 4.97 ± 5.1 days, and only one received acute reperfusion therapy. All 13 patients had at least one stroke-associated co-morbidity. The predominant pattern of ischemic stroke was embolic with 4 explained by atrial fibrillation. COVID-19 patients had a significantly higher rate of cryptogenic stroke than non-COVID-19 patients during the study period (69% vs 17%, p = 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: In our case series, ischemic stroke affected COVID-19 patients with traditional stroke risk factors at an age typically seen in non-COVID populations, and mainly affecting males and Black Americans. We observed a predominantly embolic pattern of stroke with a higher than expected rate of cryptogenic strokes, a prolonged median time to presentation and symptom recognition limiting the use of acute reperfusion treatments. These results highlight the need for increased community awareness, early identification, and management of AIS in COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Afro-Americanos , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Isquemia Encefálica/etnologia , Isquemia Encefálica/virologia , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/etnologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Diagnóstico Precoce , Embolia/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/etnologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etnologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/virologia
14.
JAMA ; 324(9): 871-878, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870297

RESUMO

Importance: Outcomes of postoperative atrial fibrillation (AF) after noncardiac surgery are not well defined. Objective: To determine the association of new-onset postoperative AF vs no AF after noncardiac surgery with risk of nonfatal and fatal outcomes. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study in Olmsted County, Minnesota, involving 550 patients who had their first-ever documented AF within 30 days after undergoing a noncardiac surgery (postoperative AF) between 2000 and 2013. Of these patients, 452 were matched 1:1 on age, sex, year of surgery, and type of surgery to patients with noncardiac surgery who were not diagnosed with AF within 30 days following the surgery (no AF). The last date of follow-up was December 31, 2018. Exposures: Postoperative AF vs no AF after noncardiac surgery. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). Secondary outcomes included subsequent documented AF, all-cause mortality, and cardiovascular mortality. Results: The median age of the 452 matched patients was 75 years (IQR, 67-82 years) and 51.8% of patients were men. Patients with postoperative AF had significantly higher CHA2DS2-VASc scores than those in the no AF group (median, 4 [IQR, 2-5] vs 3 [IQR, 2-5]; P < .001). Over a median follow-up of 5.4 years (IQR, 1.4-9.2 years), there were 71 ischemic strokes or TIAs, 266 subsequent documented AF episodes, and 571 deaths, of which 172 were cardiovascular related. Patients with postoperative AF exhibited a statistically significantly higher risk of ischemic stroke or TIA (incidence rate, 18.9 vs 10.0 per 1000 person-years; absolute risk difference [RD] at 5 years, 4.7%; 95% CI, 1.0%-8.4%; HR, 2.69; 95% CI, 1.35-5.37) compared with those with no AF. Patients with postoperative AF had statistically significantly higher risks of subsequent documented AF (incidence rate 136.4 vs 21.6 per 1000 person-years; absolute RD at 5 years, 39.3%; 95% CI, 33.6%-45.0%; HR, 7.94; 95% CI, 4.85-12.98), and all-cause death (incidence rate, 133.2 vs 86.8 per 1000 person-years; absolute RD at 5 years, 9.4%; 95% CI, 4.9%-13.7%; HR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.32-2.09). No significant difference in the risk of cardiovascular death was observed for patients with and without postoperative AF (incidence rate, 42.5 vs 25.0 per 1000 person-years; absolute RD at 5 years, 6.2%; 95% CI, 2.2%-10.4%; HR, 1.51; 95% CI, 0.97-2.34). Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients undergoing noncardiac surgery, new-onset postoperative AF compared with no AF was associated with a significant increased risk of stroke or TIA. However, the implications of these findings for the management of postoperative AF, such as the need for anticoagulation therapy, require investigation in randomized trials.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/epidemiologia , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Risco , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
15.
Arch Cardiovasc Dis ; 113(8-9): 525-533, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) can be used to detect the presence of left atrial thrombus and left atrial spontaneous echocardiographic contrast (LASEC). AIM: To evaluate the prognostic value of TTE and TOE in predicting stroke and all-cause death at 5-year follow-up in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). METHODS: This study included patients hospitalised with electrocardiography-diagnosed NVAF in Saint-Antoine University Hospital, Paris, between July 1998 and December 2011, who underwent TTE and TOE evaluation within 24hours of admission. Cox proportional-hazards models were used to identify predictors of the composite outcome (stroke or all-cause death). RESULTS: During 5 years of follow-up, stroke/death occurred in 185/903 patients (20.5%). By multivariable analysis, independent predictors of stroke/death were CHA2DS2-VASc score (hazard ratio [HR] 1.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.25-1.47; P<0.001), left atrial area>20 cm2 (HR 1.59, 95% CI 1.08-2.35; P=0.018), moderate LASEC (HR 1.72, 95% CI 1.13-2.62; P=0.012) and severe LASEC (HR 2.04, 95% CI 1.16-3.58; P=0.013). Independent protective predictors were dyslipidaemia (HR 0.60, 95% CI 0.43-0.83; P=0.002) and discharge prescription of anti-arrhythmics (HR 0.59, 95% CI 0.40-0.87; P=0.008). Adding LASEC to the CHA2DS2-VASc score modestly improved predictive accuracy and risk classification, with a C index of 0.71 vs. 0.69 (P=0.004). CONCLUSIONS: In this retrospective monocentric study, the presence of moderate/severe LASEC was an independent predictor of stroke/death at 5-year follow-up in patients with NVAF. The inclusion of LASEC in stroke risk scores could modestly improve risk stratification.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico por imagem , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana , Átrios do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antiarrítmicos/uso terapêutico , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrilação Atrial/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Tempo
16.
J Neurol Sci ; 417: 117085, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871412

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to grow all over the world. Several studies have been performed, focusing on understanding the acute respiratory syndrome and treatment strategies. However, there is growing evidence indicating neurological manifestations occur in patients with COVID-19. Similarly, the other coronaviruses (CoV) epidemics; severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-1) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV) have been associated with neurological complications. METHODS: This systematic review serves to summarize available information regarding the potential effects of different types of CoV on the nervous system and describes the range of clinical neurological complications that have been reported thus far in COVID-19. RESULTS: Two hundred and twenty-five studies on CoV infections associated neurological manifestations in human were reviewed. Of those, 208 articles were pertinent to COVID-19. The most common neurological complaints in COVID-19 were anosmia, ageusia, and headache, but more serious complications, such as stroke, impairment of consciousness, seizures, and encephalopathy, have also been reported. CONCLUSION: There are several similarities between neurological complications after SARS-CoV-1, MERS-CoV and COVID-19, however, the scope of the epidemics and number of patients are very different. Reports on the neurological complications after and during COVID-19 are growing on a daily basis. Accordingly, comprehensive knowledge of these complications will help health care providers to be attentive to these complications and diagnose and treat them timely.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/etiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Transtornos da Consciência/etiologia , Doenças dos Nervos Cranianos/etiologia , Encefalite Viral/etiologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Doenças Musculares/etiologia , Neuroimagem , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/etiologia , Convulsões/etiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia
17.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD001081, 2020 09 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32918282

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stroke is the third leading cause of death and the most common cause of long-term disability. Severe narrowing (stenosis) of the carotid artery is an important cause of stroke. Surgical treatment (carotid endarterectomy) may reduce the risk of stroke, but carries a risk of operative complications. This is an update of a Cochrane Review, originally published in 1999, and most recently updated in 2017. OBJECTIVES: To determine the balance of benefit versus risk of endarterectomy plus best medical management compared with best medical management alone, in people with a recent symptomatic carotid stenosis (i.e. transient ischaemic attack (TIA) or non-disabling stroke). SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE Ovid, Embase Ovid, Web of Science Core Collection, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) portal to October 2019. We also reviewed the reference lists of all relevant studies and abstract books from research proceedings. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing carotid artery surgery plus best medical treatment with best medical treatment alone.  DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently selected studies, assessed risk of bias, and extracted the data. We assessed the results and the quality of the evidence of the primary and secondary outcomes by the GRADE method, which classifies the quality of evidence as high, moderate, low, or very low. MAIN RESULTS: We included three trials involving 6343 participants. The trials differed in the methods of measuring carotid stenosis and in the definition of stroke. Using the primary electronic data files, we pooled and analysed individual patient data on 6092 participants (35,000 patient-years of follow-up), after reassessing the carotid angiograms and outcomes from all three trials, and redefining outcome events where necessary, to achieve comparability. Surgery increased the five-year risk of any stroke or operative death in participants with less than 30% stenosis (risk ratio (RR) 1.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.99 to 1.56; 2 studies, 1746 participants; high-quality evidence). Surgery decreased the five-year risk of any stroke or operative death in participants with 30% to 49% stenosis (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.79 to 1.19; 2 studies, 1429 participants; high-quality evidence), was of benefit in participants with 50% to 69% stenosis (RR 0.77, 95% CI 0.63 to 0.94; 3 studies, 1549 participants; moderate-quality evidence), and was highly beneficial in participants with 70% to 99% stenosis without near-occlusion (RR 0.53, 95% CI 0.42 to 0.67; 3 studies, 1095 participants; moderate-quality evidence). However, surgery decreased the five-year risk of any stroke or operative death in participants with near-occlusions (RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.59 to 1.53; 2 studies, 271 participants; moderate-quality evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Carotid endarterectomy reduced the risk of recurrent stroke for people with significant stenosis. Endarterectomy might be of some benefit for participants with 50% to 69% symptomatic stenosis (moderate-quality evidence) and highly beneficial for those with 70% to 99% stenosis (moderate-quality evidence).


Assuntos
Estenose das Carótidas/cirurgia , Endarterectomia das Carótidas , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Estenose das Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose das Carótidas/patologia , Endarterectomia das Carótidas/efeitos adversos , Endarterectomia das Carótidas/mortalidade , Endarterectomia das Carótidas/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/etiologia , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Acta Med Indones ; 52(2): 177-178, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778633

RESUMO

Neurological complications from novel coronavirus is becoming more common. These patients usually have primary pulmonary problem of acute lung injury. Presentation in the form of encephalitis, meningitis, Guillain-Barre syndrome and seizures are noted. It is also noted that SARS-CoV-2 has predilection for brain stem leading to patient not feeling extensive pulmonary injury. Here we share another neurological presentation.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Hipóxia Encefálica , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Feminino , Parada Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Parada Cardíaca/etiologia , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Hipóxia Encefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipóxia Encefálica/etiologia , Conforto do Paciente/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(30): e21321, 2020 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791726

RESUMO

The CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores were initially developed to assess the risk of stroke or systemic embolism in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Recently, these two scoring systems have been demonstrated to predict long- and short-term cardiovascular (CV) outcomes in many patient cohorts. However, to the best of our knowledge, their prognostic value has not been fully elucidated in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). This study aimed to investigate the association of CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores with CV outcomes in such patients.We included a total of 915 ACS patients undergoing PCI in this study. CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores were calculated from data collected before discharge. The primary endpoint was defined as a composite of major adverse CV events (MACE) including overall death, nonfatal stroke, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) and unplanned repeat revascularization. We assessed MACE's relationship to CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores using Cox proportional-hazard regression analyses.Mean follow-up duration was 918 days. MACE occurred in 167 (18.3%) patients. A higher CHADS2 score was associated with reduced event-free survival (EFS) from MACE (logrank test, P = .007) with differences potentiated if stratified by CHA2DS2-VASc score (logrank test, P < .001). Univariate analysis showed that both CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores were good predictors of MACE. In the multivariate Cox proportional-hazard regression analysis, CHA2DS2-VASc score (hazard ratio [HR], 1.15; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.27; P = .007) remained a useful predictor of MACE; however, CHADS2 score was no longer associated with increased risk of MACE. C-statistics for CHA2DS2-VASc score, GRACE (Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events) hospital discharge risk score (GRACE Score) and SYNTAX (Synergy between PCI with TAXUS and Cardiac Surgery) Score II (SS II) in predicting MACE were 0.614, 0.598, and 0.609, respectively.CHA2DS2-VASc score was an independent and significant predictor of MACE in ACS patients undergoing PCI, and its discriminatory performance was not inferior to those of GRACE Score and SS II.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/terapia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Alta do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Assistência ao Convalescente , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Embolia/epidemiologia , Embolia/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Alta do Paciente/tendências , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Projetos de Pesquisa , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(30): e21366, 2020 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791743

RESUMO

The utility of endovascular thrombectomy for acute occlusion of the distal intracranial artery (A2/A3/M2/M3/P2/P3) is unclear, and aspiration and stent thrombectomy are associated with risk of bleeding. We analyzed patients with acute occlusion of the distal intracranial artery to assess the safety and efficacy of microcatheter-based tirofiban infusion.We retrospectively reviewed data of the endovascular thrombectomy registry of our center between January 2018 and June 2019. Patients with distal intracranial artery occlusion who underwent endovascular thrombectomy with microcatheter-based infusion of tirofiban were recruited.Of 13 patients included, 1 presented with anterior cerebral artery occlusion, 2 with posterior cerebral artery occlusion, 2 with posterior inferior cerebellar artery occlusion, and 7 with middle cerebral artery M2 occlusion. The mean National Institute of Health Stroke scale score was 10.1 (3-19). Three patients (23.1%) underwent bridging treatment of intravenous thrombolysis with recombinant plasminogen activator and endovascular thrombectomy. The arithmetic mean onset-to-recanalization time was 696.3 minutes (140-1440) and average operating time was 47.1 minutes (30-80). After treatment, 10 patients (76.9%) underwent revascularization. No operative complications were observed in any case. All patients underwent angiography and were reviewed 7 to 14 days after surgery. Imaging revealed significant improvements in recanalization compared with the immediate postoperative period, with no reoccurrence of occlusion. The mean modified Rankin scale score at the 3-month follow-up was 0.54 (0-2).Microcatheter-based infusion of bolus-dose tirofiban can result in safe and effective recanalization of acute occlusion of the distal artery in the case of a relatively light thrombotic load.


Assuntos
Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Doenças Arteriais Intracranianas/terapia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Terapia Trombolítica/métodos , Tirofibana/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Feminino , Humanos , Doenças Arteriais Intracranianas/complicações , Doenças Arteriais Intracranianas/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia
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