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1.
Klin Lab Diagn ; 64(8): 507-512, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479609

RESUMO

The purpose of the work is to determine the spectrum, quantity and frequency of occurrence of microorganisms in the oral fluid and large intestine in healthy young men under changes of living conditions. A survey was conducted of 14 nonresident young men, students of the 1st and 2nd courses, studying at Tver State Medical University, which included questions about the place of birth, living conditions, the presence of chronic diseases and the frequency of their exacerbations over the past year, water and food regimes, physical exertion, the presence of bad habits and emotional stress, etc. The oral fluid and feces were examined to determine the spectrum and amount of microbiota of the upper and lower parts of the gastrointestinal tract. As the result of the survey, it was found that the living conditions of all young men significantly worsened among second-year students than freshmen. It was revealed that colon microbiota in sophomores characterized by less diverse than those of first-year, despite of a marked increase in the number of opportunistic pathogens (Stаphylocоccus spp., Strерtocoсcus spp., Clоstridium spp., Васillus spp., Кlebsiеlla spp.) over resident microbes. It was found the decrease in the number and frequency of occurrence of all microbial representatives in the oral microbiota of 2nd year students in comparison with first-year. It was proved that the deterioration of living conditions of nonresident students led to the increase in the number of second-year students with dysbiotic changes in the intestinal microbiota from 86% to 100%, mainly due to the increase in the number of persons with dysbiosis of II and III degree.


Assuntos
Intestino Grosso/microbiologia , Microbiota , Boca/microbiologia , Disbiose , Fezes , Humanos , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Masculino , Características de Residência
2.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 27: e3169, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Português, Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432922

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop a web software prototype to support retirement planning. METHOD: This is a methodological research, applied and based on the principles of prototyping model, which followed the steps of communication, planning, prototype creation, functional tests and consolidation of web software version 1. RESULTS: The functions of the web software prototype were defined from a flowchart and scope. In the creation stage, the screens that integrated the prototype, composed by interview, were projected from the filling of the Retirement Resources Inventory, screen of access to support planning materials, including lectures, scientific texts, and technical materials, retirement news screen, experiences screen, which allow users to post retirement expectations and comment on other users' posts. After performing tests, the prototype was made available at www.aposentarsecomsaude.com.br . CONCLUSION: the web software prototype consists of an interactive environment in which the user feels active in the reflection process about the retirement along the different screens. With clear language and expressions that are easily understood by the public, they are applicable to users of different professional profiles.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Aposentadoria , Desenho de Programas de Computador , Brasil , Instrução por Computador , Humanos , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Motivação , Sistemas On-Line , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
3.
An. psicol ; 35(2): 105-203, mayo 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-181689

RESUMO

Antecedentes: la escala de Experiencias Vitales Tempranas (ELES) evalúa el recuerdo de la amenaza y subordinación percibidas durante la infancia en las relaciones familiares partiendo de la teoría del rango social. Se propone adaptar al español dicha escala y comprobar su estructura factorial mediante una validación cruzada y explorar sus propiedades psicométricas. Método: participaron 960 sujetos (863 de población general y 97 pacientes). Resultados: los datos confirman la estructura factorial de la versión inicial de Gilbert, Cheung, Grandfield, Campey, y Irons (2003), obteniendo tres factores: sumisión, amenaza, y desvalorización, explicando un 66.31% de la varianza. La versión española de la escala ELES resultó estar compuesta por el mismo número de ítems que la original y mostró índices adecuados de validez, consistencia interna, fiabilidad retest, fiabilidad compuesta e invarianza por género. Conclusiones: la escala de Experiencias Vitales Tempranas (ELES) puede ser de utilidad para evaluar las experiencias vitales tempranas, estudiar la relación entre dichas experiencias en diferentes manifestaciones psicopatológicas y establecer posibles modelos explicativos


Background: The Early Life Experiences Scale (ELES) evaluates the memory of threat and subordination perceived in childhood family relationships based on social rank theory. This scale was adapted to Spanish, its factor structure was tested by cross-validation, and its psychometric properties were explored. Method: 960 subjects participated (863 subjects from the general population and 97 patients). Results: Data confirm the factor structure of the original version by Authors (2003), obtaining a similar model with three factors: submission, threat, and devaluation, which explained 66.31% of the variance. The Spanish version of the ELES was comprised of the same number of items as in the original study and showed adequate indices of validity, internal consistency, retest and combined reliability. Conclusions: The Early Life Experiences Scale (ELES) can be a useful measure for evaluating early life experiences. Its application may be very relevant in studying the relationship between these experiences and psychopathological manifestations in constructing explanatory models


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Experiências Adversas da Infância , Trauma Psicológico/psicologia , Psicometria/instrumentação , Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Relações Pais-Filho , Vergonha , Culpa , Medo , Punição/psicologia
4.
Enferm. foco (Brasília) ; 10(2): 64-69, abr. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1015984

RESUMO

Objetivo: conhecer a experiência dos familiares no convívio de crianças com TEA. Metodologia: pesquisa qualitativa, realizada através de Grupo Focal com familiares de oito crianças com diagnóstico de TEA. A coleta de dados ocorreu no mês de setembro de 2016, através de questões norteadoras discutidas no grupo. Os relatos foram gravados em áudios e transcrito pelos autores. A análise foi realizada a partir da Análise de Conteúdo. Resultados: A partir da análise dos dados surgiram três categorias: 'a descoberta do autismo'; 'experiências dos familiares após o diagnóstico de autismo' e 'atendimento em saúde da criança com autismo'. Conclusão: o autismo é um transtorno que causa muitas adaptações e mudanças na vida dos familiares envolvidos, surgindo a necessidade do apoio dos profissionais de saúde no suporte dos cuidados prestado a estas crianças. (AU)


Objective: to know the experience of family members living with children with ASD. Methodology: qualitative research, carried out through a Focal Group with relatives of eight children diagnosed with ASD. Data collection occurred in September 2016, through guiding questions discussed in the group. The reports were recorded in audios and transcribed by the authors. The analysis was made from the Content Analysis. Results: From the analysis of the data emerged three categories: 'the discovery of autism'; 'Family experiences after the diagnosis of autism' and 'health care of the child with autism'. Conclusion: autism is a disorder that causes many adaptations and changes in the lives of the family members involved, resulting in the need of the support of the health professionals in the support of the care provided to these children. (AU)


Objetivo: conocer la experiencia de los familiares en la convivencia de niños con TEA. Metodología: investigación cualitativa, realizada a través de Grupo Focal con familiares de ocho niños con diagnóstico de TEA. La recolección de datos ocurrió en el mes de septiembre de 2016, a través de cuestiones orientadoras discutidas en el grupo. Los relatos fueron grabados en audios y transcrito por los autores. El análisis fue realizado a partir de la Análisis de Contenido. Resultados: A partir del análisis de los datos surgieron tres categorías: 'el descubrimiento del autismo'; "Experiencias de los familiares después del diagnóstico de autismo" y "atención en salud del niño con autismo". Conclusión: el autismo es un trastorno que causa muchas adaptaciones y cambios en la vida de los familiares involucrados, surgiendo a la necesidad del apoyo de los profesionales de salud en el soporte de los cuidados prestados a estos niños. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Transtorno Autístico , Enfermagem , Relações Familiares , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida
5.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 72(suppl 1): 341-345, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30942382

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to reflect on the everyday life in nursing work based on Michel de Certeau's theorization. RESULTS: everyday life in nursing work is permeated by tactics of subjects who practice the place. Their movements escape standards, protocols and rules, re-signifying the cultural system defined beforehand. There is a practice proper to professionals who (re)invent the care based on their intentions and pressures. Patients/users also move, create their own itinerary and, similarly to professionals, use strategies to achieve specific results in the therapeutic process. CONCLUSION: to think on the everyday life in nursing work as an object of research requires to consider the care (re)invention in every act in health care. We need to dive into the invisible dimension of the uncontrollable tactics of subjects that re-signify the social system.


Assuntos
Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Cuidados de Enfermagem/métodos , Difusão de Inovações , Humanos , Cuidados de Enfermagem/tendências , Teoria Social
6.
San Salvador; s.n; abr. 2019. 66 p. graf, tab.
Tese em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1007217

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Determinar los estresores laborales presentes en el personal de enfermería de los servicios de hospitalización de medicina interna, cirugía hombres y cirugía mujeres del Hospital Nacional Zacamil "Dr. Juan José Fernández", municipio de Mejicanos, El Salvador. Marzo, 2019. DISEÑO metodológico: Estudio descriptivo, corte transversal. Población 36 profesionales de enfermería de medicina interna, cirugía mujeres y hombres, del Hospital Nacional Zacamil. Para la recolección de datos se utilizó la versión española del instrumento "The Nursing Stress Scale" (NSS), que valora siete factores físicos, el ambiente psicológico y dos relacionados con el ambiente social en el hospital a través de la entrevista a cada participante. El procesamiento de la información se hizo en Excel 2013, se utilizaron pruebas estadísticas de correlación para asociar el estrés y los datos sociolaborales. RESULTADOS: La mayoría del personal fue del género femenino, entre 31 y 40 años de edad, en las áreas hospitalarias, predominando los que tienen de 1 a 10 años de trabajar y en su mayoría personal técnico. 52,8% de la población refirió que la muerte de un paciente frecuentemente le generaba estrés, con un 55,6% dijo que no tener tiempo para apoyo emocional [frecuentemente les generaba estrés, el 52,8% mencionó que frecuentemente le genera estrés cuando el medico no está presente y el paciente se está muriendo. Los estresores laborales no estuvieron relacionados de forma significativa con los datos sociolaborales como la antigüedad laboral ni el servicio al que pertenecían los colaboradores (p >0.05) CONCLUSIONES: de los 36 profesionales la mayoría frecuentemente en los factores muerte y sufrimiento, carga laboral hubo estrés, mientras que en otros factores alguna vez, Los estresores no estuvieron correlación con los datos socio laborales de los trabajadores


Assuntos
Humanos , Esgotamento Profissional , Estresse Ocupacional , Medicina Interna , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem , Saúde Pública , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Estudos Transversais
7.
Matern Child Health J ; 23(6): 811-820, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31006084

RESUMO

Objectives Research on adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) has provided a valuable framework for understanding associations between childhood maltreatment and family dysfunction and later poor health outcomes. However, increasing research suggests the number and types of childhood adversities measured warrants further examination. This study examines ACE exposure among adults who experienced homelessness in childhood, another type of childhood adversity. Methods This cross-sectional, descriptive study used the 2016 South Carolina (SC) Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey and additional ACE modules to examine ACE exposure among SC adults and childhood homelessness. Standard descriptive statistics were calculated for each variable. Bivariate analysis compared types and number of ACEs by childhood homeless status. All analyses used survey sampling weights that accounted for the BRFSS sampling strategy. Results Data from 7490 respondents were weighted for analyses. Among the 215 respondents who reported homelessness in childhood, 68.1% reported experiencing four or more ACEs. In contrast, only 16.3% of respondents who reported no homelessness in childhood reported experiencing four or more ACEs. The percent of respondents was significantly higher for each of 11 ACEs among those who reported childhood homelessness, compared to those who did not. Conclusions for Practice Adults who reported homelessness in childhood also reported significantly greater exposure to higher numbers and types of ACEs than adults reporting no childhood homelessness. Study findings can be important in informing additional indicators important to the assessment of ACEs and to program developers or organizations that provide housing assistance to at-risk families and children.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Experiências Adversas da Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência Doméstica/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoas em Situação de Rua , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Idoso , Sistema de Vigilância de Fator de Risco Comportamental , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Violência Doméstica/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Problemas Sociais , South Carolina/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
8.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 33(4): 360-370, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30985165

RESUMO

Cross-sectional studies have shown that both stressors and personality vulnerability are risk factors for adolescent problematic Internet use (PIU). However, little is known about how both categories of factors in combination may contribute to the longitudinal development of PIU among adolescents. The aims of this study were to document the developmental pattern of PIU among adolescents and to examine how stressful life events and the Big Five personality traits jointly affect the development of PIU. We tested three competing models: the additive, diathesis-stress, and social push models. A total of 1,365 adolescents participated in a 3-year longitudinal study. Hierarchical linear modeling indicated that PIU among adolescents increased over the 3-year period. After controlling for demographics and the Big Five personality traits, stressful life events (a time-varying predictor) were positively correlated with the initial level of, and the rate of change in, PIU. After controlling for demographics and stressful life events, four of the time-invariant Big Five personality dimensions had a significant effect on the initial level of PIU. Low Agreeableness, low Conscientiousness, high Openness, and high Neuroticism were positively associated with high initial PIU. In addition, Extraversion was negatively associated with and Conscientiousness was positively associated with the rate of change in PIU. The interaction effect between the personality and stressors was not significant. Therefore, the data provided support for the additive model, indicating that stressful life events and personality dimensions each make a unique contribution to PIU and that both should be considered in the prevention of adolescent PIU. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Modelos Psicológicos , Personalidade , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
9.
Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being ; 14(1): 1595958, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30935287

RESUMO

This study aims to demonstrate a comprehensive understanding of the life experience of victims of medical accidents after medical accidents and medical litigations. A single victim of a medical accident participated in the study. Six upper categories were derived as the results: "frustration and anger toward medical accident occurrence," "desolated struggle for medical litigation," "distrust of medical litigation related legal profession," "accepting myself with a disability caused by a medical accident," "a life with far more unexpected challenges as an athlete with disabilities," and "find new meaning after the medical accident." The participant was experiencing physical and psychological distress in the process of accepting the medical accident and the disability. In addition, the participant was exposed to the secondary psychological distress from the medical profession, lawyer, and legal profession in the peculiar situation of medical litigation, and to the third psychological distress in life living as a disabled person.


Assuntos
Acidentes , Atitude , Pessoas com Deficiência/psicologia , Jurisprudência , Erros Médicos/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Atletas , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Advogados , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Pesquisa Qualitativa
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30965549

RESUMO

Most studies into the role of religiousness in relation to depression severity have mainly found an inverse relationship between greater religiousness and lower levels of depressive symptoms. There is reason to assume that religiousness has a buffering effect on the relationship between stressful life events and depressive symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of religiousness in moderating the impact of stressors on depressive symptoms. n = 348 patients with either a depressive episode or adjustment disorder were assessed at referral to the liaison psychiatry services in three Dublin hospitals and n = 132 patients were followed up six months later. We assessed depressive symptoms, life events, social support, and religiosity, and used hierarchical and multiple linear regression for data analysis. The interaction of organised religious activity and the amount of life events was significant (ß = -0.19, p = 0.001) in the cross-sectional prediction of depressive symptoms while non-organised religious activity (ß = -0.23, p = 0.001) and intrinsic religiousness (ß = -0.15, p = 0.033) interacted significantly with life events in the longitudinal analysis. This study demonstrated that various dimensions of religiousness buffered the impact of life events on outcome.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Adaptação/diagnóstico , Depressão/diagnóstico , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Religião , Adaptação Psicológica , Transtornos de Adaptação/psicologia , Transtornos de Adaptação/terapia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/psicologia , Depressão/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Apoio Social
11.
Behav Ther ; 50(3): 531-543, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31030871

RESUMO

Both reward sensitivity and impulsivity are related to the development and course of bipolar spectrum disorders (BSDs) and have been implicated in other disorders and negative functional outcomes such as substance abuse, obesity, suicidal behaviors, and risk-taking. Furthermore, according to the transactional component of the Behavioral Approach System (BAS)/reward hypersensitivity theory of BSDs, people with reward hypersensitivity should experience more BAS-relevant events, and thus, are more vulnerable to mood symptoms and episodes via stress generation. Impulsivity may exacerbate stress generation in individuals at risk for BSDs based on exhibiting reward hypersensitivity. The current study examined whether impulsivity explained the generation of stress and subsequent mood symptoms beyond what is explained by reward sensitivity alone. Participants were 131 Moderate BAS and 216 High BAS sensitivity adolescents (M = 18.43 years, SD = 1.40), who completed baseline measures of reward sensitivity and impulsivity, as well as follow-up measures of life events and mood symptoms. Results from linear regression analyses indicated that higher baseline impulsivity predicted behavior-dependent, but not behavior-independent, life events. Furthermore, path analyses suggested that the effect of BAS group on depression symptoms at next follow-up was partly explained via the indirect effect of impulsivity and negative behavior-dependent life events. We did not find these effects for behavior-independent or positive-dependent events or for prediction of hypomanic symptoms. The findings suggest that impulsivity may account for stress generation of negative events that precede depression.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Comportamento Impulsivo , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Recompensa , Adolescente , Afeto/fisiologia , Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico , Transtorno Bipolar/epidemiologia , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo/fisiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Autoimagem
12.
Reprod Health ; 16(1): 28, 2019 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30832700

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There have been few studies to examine antenatal predictors of incident postnatal depression, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The aim of this study was to investigate antenatal predictors of incident and persistent maternal depression in a rural Ethiopian community in order to inform development of antenatal interventions. METHOD: A population-based prospective study was conducted in Sodo district, south central Ethiopia. A locally validated version of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was used to assess antenatal (second and third trimesters) and postnatal (4-12 weeks after childbirth) depressive symptoms, with a PHQ-9 cut-off of five or more indicating high depressive symptoms. Poisson regression with robust standard errors was used to identify independent predictors of persistence and incidence of postnatal depressive symptoms from a range of antenatal, clinical and psychosocial risk factors. RESULT: Out of 1311 women recruited antenatally, 1240 (356 with and 884 without antenatal depressive symptoms) were followed up in the postnatal period. Among 356 women with antenatal depressive symptoms, the elevated symptoms persisted into postnatal period in 138 women (38.8%). Out of 884 women without antenatal depressive symptoms, 136 (15.4%) experienced incident elevated depressive symptoms postnatally. The prevalence of high postnatal depressive symptoms in the follow-up sample was 274 (22.1%). Higher intimate partner violence scores in pregnancy were significantly associated with greater risk of incident depressive symptoms [adjusted Risk Ratio (aRR) = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.12]. Each 1-point increment in baseline PHQ-9 score predicted an increased risk of incidence of postnatal depressive symptoms (aRR = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.15, 1.45). There was no association between self-reported pregnancy complications, medical conditions or experience of threatening life events with either incidence or persistence of depressive symptoms. CONCLUSION: Psychological and social interventions to address intimate partner violence during pregnancy may be the most important priorities, able to address both incident and persistent depression.


Assuntos
Depressão Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Complicações na Gravidez , Adulto , Depressão Pós-Parto/psicologia , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , População Rural
13.
Rev Infirm ; 68(247): 24-25, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30910113

RESUMO

Anorexia is a pathology which causes major suffering in those affected by it. Patients and their immediate circle are stakeholders in the care process. Talking about one's hospitalisation and difficult life experience means sharing one's own humanity and passing on the message that eating disorders are not a fatality.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa , Anorexia Nervosa/psicologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida
14.
Eur J Oncol Nurs ; 39: 1-9, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30850132

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The young child's experiences of living with cancer are crucial to providing evidence based care. This study explores and describes experiences of everyday life of young children with cancer, over a three year period from diagnosis. METHOD: This is a longitudinal, inductive interview study with young children with cancer, and their parents. Interviews from shortly after diagnosis, six and 12 months after diagnosis have been reanalysed. Interviews with the same children and their parents from 18 to 36 months after diagnosis have been analysed for the first time in the present paper. A longitudinal temporal analysis at category level for five synchronic data sets forms the basis for the results. RESULTS: The child living with cancer over a three year period is described as a child apart, striving to live an everyday life. This description is built on three categories: I want to be a child like any other, I need security and control and I feel lonely and left out. Young children with cancer actively strive to understand their illness, participate in care and live an ordinary everyday life- but with ongoing feelings of social isolation and loneliness. CONCLUSIONS: Young children with cancer need access to and ongoing contact with peers and preschool. A structured follow-up throughout the cancer trajectory and not just during active treatment, is necessary. A child-centred philosophy of care would guide the child towards attainment of health and wellbeing.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/psicologia , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Solidão , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pais , Qualidade de Vida , Isolamento Social
15.
Nurs Philos ; 20(2): e12241, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30912876

RESUMO

The practice of nursing involves ongoing interactions between nurses' and clients' lived bodies. Despite this, several scholars have suggested that the "lived body" (Merleau-Ponty, 1962) has not been given its due place in nursing practice, education or research (Draper, J Adv Nurs, 70, 2014, 2235). With the advent of electronic health records and increased use of technology, face-to-face assessment and embodied understanding of clients' lived bodies may be on the decline. Furthermore, staffing levels may not afford the time nurses need to be as "present" with their clients in embodied ways. The failure to attend to the lived body may contribute to missed opportunities for care and decreased quality of life for both clients and healthcare practitioners. In this paper, we undertake an analysis of selected aspects of the work of Maurice Merleau-Ponty. The aim is to advance understanding of the affordances this work may offer to enhancing client-nurse interactions within the practice of nursing. Merleau-Ponty's notions of embodiment, intersubjectivity and intercorporeality as articulated in his seminal texts The Phenomenology of Perception (New York, NY: Routledge, 2012) and The Visible and the Invisible (Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 1968) are examined. These three constructs are discussed as they relate to the lived body in client-nurse interactions in nursing practice and education. Finally, implications of how attention to "the lived body" could shape interactions and have the potential to foster increased quality of life of clients and nurses are considered.


Assuntos
Relações Enfermeiro-Paciente , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Corpo Humano , Humanos , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Filosofia
16.
Rev. enferm. UFPE on line ; 13(3): 587-593, mar. 2019.
Artigo em Português | BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1015496

RESUMO

Objetivo: compreender a vivência dos cuidadores de crianças com gastrostomia. Método: trata-se de um estudo qualitativo, descritivo, exploratório, com 15 cuidadoras. Coletaram-se os dados no por meio de uma entrevista semiestruturada. Realizou-se, para a interpretação dos achados, a Análise de Conteúdo, resultando em três categorias temáticas: cuidados cotidianos dos cuidadores de crianças com gastrostomia; desafios dos cuidadores no cuidado da criança com gastrostomia e experiências vivenciadas pelos cuidadores de crianças com gastrostomia. Resultados: evidenciou-se, pelos resultados, que as principais dificuldades encontradas pelas cuidadoras foram o medo e o manejo do cateter. Relataram-se, também, vantagens após o uso do cateter, tais como a redução das internações e a melhoria da qualidade de vida, confirmando a importância do papel educativo e assistencial do profissional de saúde, entre eles, o enfermeiro, para a efetivação desse processo. Conclusão: possibilitou-se, pelo estudo, compreender a vivência dessas cuidadoras, identificando as dificuldades e os caminhos percorridos para o enfrentamento das situações cotidianas.(AU)


Objective: to understand the experience of caregivers of children with gastrostomy. Method: this is a qualitative, descriptive, exploratory study with 15 caregivers. The data were collected in a semi-structured interview. The content analysis was performed for the interpretation of the findings, resulting in three thematic categories: daily care of the caregivers of children with gastrostomy; challenges of caregivers in the care of the child with gastrostomy and experiences experienced by the caregivers of children with gastrostomy. Results: it was evidenced, through the results, that the main difficulties encountered by caregivers were fear and catheter management. Advantages after catheter use were also reported, such as the reduction of hospitalizations and the improvement of quality of life, confirming the importance of the educational and care role of the health professional, among them, the nurse, for the effectiveness of this process. Conclusion: it was possible, through the study, to understand the experience of these caregivers, identifying the difficulties and the paths covered to face everyday situations.(AU)


Objetivo: comprender la vivencia de los cuidadores de niños con gastrostomía. Método: se trata de un estudio cualitativo, descriptivo, exploratorio, con 15 cuidadoras. Se recogieron los datos en el marco de una entrevista semiestructurada. Se realizó, para la interpretación de los hallazgos, el Análisis de Contenido, resultando en tres categorías temáticas: cuidados cotidianos de los cuidadores de niños con gastrostomía; desafíos de los cuidadores en el cuidado del niño con gastrostomía y experiencias vivenciadas por los cuidadores de niños con gastrostomía. Resultados: se evidenció, por los resultados, que las principales dificultades encontradas por las cuidadoras fueron el miedo y el manejo del catéter. Se reportaron también ventajas después del uso del catéter, tales como la reducción de las internaciones y la mejora de la calidad de vida, confirmando la importancia del papel educativo y asistencial del profesional de salud, entre ellos, el enfermero, para la efectividad de ese proceso. Conclusión: se posibilitó, por el estudio, comprender la vivencia de esas cuidadoras, identificando las dificultades y los caminos recorridos para el enfrentamiento de las situaciones cotidianas.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Enfermagem Pediátrica , Gastrostomia , Saúde da Criança , Cuidadores , Cateteres , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Pesquisa Qualitativa
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30893850

RESUMO

Nature-based activities have been used as therapeutic interventions for those experiencing stress and mental ill health. This study investigates whether group walks could be a nature-based intervention to foster resilience, by buffering the effects of recent stressful life events on mental health. An observational research design with propensity score-matched samples compared the mental health of individuals who did (Nature Group Walkers, n = 1081) or did not (Non-Group Walkers, n = 435) attend nature group walks. A sub-sample of Frequent Nature Group Walkers (at least once per week, n = 631) was also investigated. Data were analyzed using multiple regression with an interaction term. All analyses were controlled for age, gender, and recent physical activity. Results showed that neither nature group walking, nor doing this frequently, moderated the effects of stressful life events on mental health. Using a main effects model, the positive associations of group walks in nature were at a greater magnitude than the negative associations of stressful life events on depression, positive affect, and mental well-being, suggesting an 'undoing' effect of nature group walks. Group walking schemes in natural environments may be an important public health promotion intervention for mental health.


Assuntos
Exercício , Estresse Psicológico , Caminhada/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Humanos , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
J Affect Disord ; 249: 307-314, 2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30797123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prolonged grief disorder (PGD) is a new disorder included in the WHO International Classification of Diseases 11th version (ICD-11). This study is the first to use these new ICD-11 PGD guidelines to examine prevalence rates, predictors of PGD and disorder co-occurrence with other stress-related disorders in a survey of 544 bereaved Israelis. METHODS: Descriptive statistics, correlation, linear regression and mediation analysis examined the validity of the ICD-11 diagnostic algorithm. RESULTS: Prevalence of PGD in the Israeli population sample is low (2%). The prevalence rate of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was 7.2% and for adjustment disorder (AjD) was 17.8%. A significant positive correlation found between scores on these measures indicates concurrent validity. Mediation analysis found that symptoms of PGD were predicted by serious life events, and significantly mediated by symptoms of PTSD and AjD. A regression analysis found significant predictors of PGD symptom severity, including socio-demographic and person-specific predictors. LIMITATIONS: This study did not assess the index-death of the grief questionnaire. No conclusions could be made regarding the relationship between the type of loss and grief severity. Furthermore, the time since loss (time criterion) was not assessed. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to examine prevalence rates of ICD-11 PGD in a population-based survey. The mediation relationship between serious life events, AjD, PTSD and PGD supports a vulnerability model of stress related disorders whereby the number of stressful life events may predict symptoms of stress related disorders.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Adaptação/complicações , Luto , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/complicações , Transtornos de Adaptação/epidemiologia , Adulto , Algoritmos , Feminino , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Prevalência , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia
19.
J Affect Disord ; 248: 139-146, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30731281

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Up to 10-15% of women experience high levels of depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Since these levels of symptoms can vary greatly over time, the current study investigated the existence of possible longitudinal trajectories of depressive symptoms during pregnancy, and aimed to identify factors associated with these trajectories. METHODS: Depressive symptoms were assessed prospectively at each trimester in 1832 women, using the Edinburgh (Postnatal) Depression Scale (E(P)DS). Growth mixture modeling was used to identify trajectories of depressive symptoms during pregnancy. RESULTS: Three trajectories of depressive symptoms (E(P)DS scores) were identified: low stable (class 1, reference group, 83%), decreasing (class 2, 7%), and increasing (class 3, 10%). Classes 2 and 3 had significantly higher mean E(P)DS scores (7-13 throughout pregnancy) compared to the reference group (stable; E(P)DS <4). Factors associated with trajectories 2 and 3 included previous depressive episodes, life events during pregnancy, and unplanned pregnancy. Notably, the only factor distinguishing classes 2 and 3 was the perception of partner involvement experienced by women during their pregnancies. Class 2 (with decreasing E(P)DS scores) reported high partner involvement, while class 3 (with increasing E(P)DS scores) reported poor partner involvement throughout pregnancy. LIMITATIONS: Depressive symptoms were assessed by self-report rather than a diagnostic interview. The participants were more often both highly educated and of Caucasian ethnicity compared to the general Dutch population. CONCLUSIONS: Poor partner involvement was associated with increasing depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Health professionals should focus on partner involvement during pregnancy in order to identify women who are potentially vulnerable for perinatal depression.


Assuntos
Depressão/psicologia , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia , Trimestres da Gravidez/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Gravidez , Gravidez não Planejada , Estudos Prospectivos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Gastroenterology ; 156(8): 2190-2197.e10, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30772341

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: We performed a population-based study to determine whether there was an increased risk of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) in persons with critical events at birth and within 1 year of age. METHODS: We collected data from the University of Manitoba IBD Epidemiology Database, which contains records on all Manitobans diagnosed with IBD from 1984 through 2010 and matched controls. From 1970 individuals' records can be linked with those of their mothers, so we were able to identify siblings. All health care visits or hospitalizations during the neonatal and postnatal periods were available from 1970 through 2010. We collected data on infections, gastrointestinal illnesses, failure to thrive, and hospital readmission in the first year of life and sociodemographic factors at birth. From 1979, data were available on gestational age, Apgar score, neonatal admission to the intensive care unit, and birth weight. We compared incident rate of infections, gastrointestinal illnesses, and failure to thrive between IBD cases and matched controls as well as between IBD cases and siblings. RESULTS: Data on 825 IBD cases and 5999 matched controls were available from 1979. Maternal diagnosis of IBD was the greatest risk factor for IBD in offspring (odds ratio [OR], 4.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.08-6.67). When we assessed neonatal events, only being in the highest vs lowest socioeconomic quintile increased risk for later development of IBD (OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.01-1.79). For events within the first year of life, being in the highest socioeconomic quintile at birth and infections (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.09-1.79) increased risk for developing IBD at any age. Infection in the first year of life was associated with diagnosis of IBD before age 10 years (OR, 3.06; 95% CI, 1.07-8.78) and before age 20 years (OR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.18-2.24). Risk for IBD was not affected by gastrointestinal infections, gastrointestinal disease, or abdominal pain in the first year of life. CONCLUSIONS: In a population-based study, we found infection within the first year of life to be associated with a diagnosis of IBD. This might be due to use of antibiotics or a physiologic defect at a critical age for gut microbiome development.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal/epidemiologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/epidemiologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/etiologia , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idade de Início , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Intervalos de Confiança , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
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