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1.
Autism ; 26(7): 1656-1667, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36113122

RESUMO

LAY ABSTRACT: Experiencing stressful life events, such as a parent having had serious illness, parental divorce, bullying and victimization, is known to increase risk for mental health difficulties in neurotypical children. However, few studies have looked at whether stressful life events have a similar impact in autistic youth and if any individual characteristics may moderate the impact of said life events. In this study, we tested whether in autistic children aged 7-11 years, exposure to family-level stressful life events predicted later mental health symptoms (and vice versa). We also tested whether associations between stressful life events and mental health symptoms differed depending on the child's level of cognitive flexibility. We found stressful life events only predicted internalizing symptoms (such as anxiety and depression) in children with clinically significant difficulties in cognitive flexibility (as rated by their parents). Mental health symptoms did not predict future exposure to stressful life events. Results suggest that information about exposure to stressful life events and cognitive inflexibility may be helpful in identifying autistic children who may be at risk of developing anxiety and depression symptoms.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Adolescente , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Criança , Cognição , Humanos , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Saúde Mental
2.
Tijdschr Psychiatr ; 64(8): 490-493, 2022.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36117477

RESUMO

Background Mental illness is more common and has a less favorable course in people with a low socioeconomic position (SEP). Aim To clarify the concept of SEP and what mechanisms underlie socioeconomic differences in mental illness. Method Review of theoretical and empirical scientific research. Results For determining socioeconomic differences in mental illness, it matters whether one looks at educational level, occupational level, or income. Mechanisms of social causation and social selection play a role. Among other mechanisms, SEP contributes to mental illness through exposure to stressors, unfavorable living conditions, unhealthy behaviors, and social exclusion. Conversely, mental health problems can negatively influence SEP. Conclusion Researchers and practitioners should be aware that SEP is more than a background characteristic of a patient or a statistical control variable; over the life course there is a complex interaction between SEP and both the etiology and course of mental illness.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Psiquiatria , Humanos , Renda , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia
3.
Lancet Planet Health ; 6(9): e749-e759, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36087605

RESUMO

The EAT-Lancet Commission devised a sustainable reference diet with the aim of reducing the incidence of non-communicable diseases and mortality globally while improving food system sustainability. The extent to which the reference diet supports cognitive function across the life course, however, has not yet been evaluated. This Review assesses the evidence for diet supporting cognitive function from childhood into old age. A comprehensive but non-exhaustive literature search was done, synthesising studies that investigated the effect of whole foods on cognition in healthy, community-dwelling human participants. We found that the current evidence base is weak with mixed conclusions and multiple methodological caveats, which precludes strong conclusions pertaining to the suitability of dietary recommendations for each food group per age group. Long-term intervention and prospective cohort studies are needed to reduce this knowledge deficit. Revising dietary recommendations with the aim of maintaining an adequate nutrient intake to sustain healthy cognitive function across the life course could be worthwhile. This Review outlines recommendations for future work to help improve the current knowledge deficit regarding dietary intake and cognitive function across the life course and its implications for dietary guidelines such as the EAT-Lancet Commission.


Assuntos
Dieta , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Criança , Cognição , Humanos , Política Nutricional , Estudos Prospectivos
4.
Lancet Healthy Longev ; 3(9): e607-e616, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36102775

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A neuroimaging-based biomarker termed the brain age is thought to reflect variability in the brain's ageing process and predict longevity. Using Insight 46, a unique narrow-age birth cohort, we aimed to examine potential drivers and correlates of brain age. METHODS: Participants, born in a single week in 1946 in mainland Britain, have had 24 prospective waves of data collection to date, including MRI and amyloid PET imaging at approximately 70 years old. Using MRI data from a previously defined selection of this cohort, we derived brain-predicted age from an established machine-learning model (trained on 2001 healthy adults aged 18-90 years); subtracting this from chronological age (at time of assessment) gave the brain-predicted age difference (brain-PAD). We tested associations with data from early life, midlife, and late life, as well as rates of MRI-derived brain atrophy. FINDINGS: Between May 28, 2015, and Jan 10, 2018, 502 individuals were assessed as part of Insight 46. We included 456 participants (225 female), with a mean chronological age of 70·7 years (SD 0·7; range 69·2 to 71·9). The mean brain-predicted age was 67·9 years (8·2, 46·3 to 94·3). Female sex was associated with a 5·4-year (95% CI 4·1 to 6·8) younger brain-PAD than male sex. An increase in brain-PAD was associated with increased cardiovascular risk at age 36 years (ß=2·3 [95% CI 1·5 to 3·0]) and 69 years (ß=2·6 [1·9 to 3·3]); increased cerebrovascular disease burden (1·9 [1·3 to 2·6]); lower cognitive performance (-1·3 [-2·4 to -0·2]); and increased serum neurofilament light concentration (1·2 [0·6 to 1·9]). Higher brain-PAD was associated with future hippocampal atrophy over the subsequent 2 years (0·003 mL/year [0·000 to 0·006] per 5-year increment in brain-PAD). Early-life factors did not relate to brain-PAD. Combining 12 metrics in a hierarchical partitioning model explained 33% of the variance in brain-PAD. INTERPRETATION: Brain-PAD was associated with cardiovascular risk, and imaging and biochemical markers of neurodegeneration. These findings support brain-PAD as an integrative summary metric of brain health, reflecting multiple contributions to pathological brain ageing, and which might have prognostic utility. FUNDING: Alzheimer's Research UK, Medical Research Council Dementia Platforms UK, Selfridges Group Foundation, Wolfson Foundation, Wellcome Trust, Brain Research UK, Alzheimer's Association.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Adulto , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Atrofia/patologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
5.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(9): e35675, 2022 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36103220

RESUMO

A digital twin (DT), originally defined as a virtual representation of a physical asset, system, or process, is a new concept in health care. A DT in health care is not a single technology but a domain-adapted multimodal modeling approach incorporating the acquisition, management, analysis, prediction, and interpretation of data, aiming to improve medical decision-making. However, there are many challenges and barriers that must be overcome before a DT can be used in health care. In this viewpoint paper, we build on the current literature, address these challenges, and describe a dynamic DT in health care for optimizing individual patient health care journeys, specifically for women at risk for cardiovascular complications in the preconception and pregnancy periods and across the life course. We describe how we can commit multiple domains to developing this DT. With our cross-domain definition of the DT, we aim to define future goals, trade-offs, and methods that will guide the development of the dynamic DT and implementation strategies in health care.


Assuntos
Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Assistência ao Paciente , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Tecnologia
6.
Trials ; 23(1): 758, 2022 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36068565

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite the importance of intervention fidelity in interpreting the outcomes of complex public health interventions, there is a lack of both reporting fidelity trial protocols and uniformity. In evaluating complex, adaptable/pragmatic interventions in resource-strapped settings with systemic issues, unique challenges to intervention adherence and monitoring are introduced, increasing the importance of a fidelity protocol. We aim to describe the intervention fidelity and monitoring protocol for the Healthy Life Trajectories Initiative (HeLTI) South Africa, a complex four-phase intervention set in urban Soweto, starting preconceptionally and continuing through to pregnancy, infancy, and early childhood to improve the health of young women and reduce the intergenerational risk of obesity. METHODS: The HeLTI SA fidelity protocol was based on the NIH Behaviour Change Consortium (NIH BCC) Treatment Fidelity Framework, outlining the following components of intervention fidelity: study design, provider training, intervention delivery, intervention receipt, and intervention enactment. Context-specific fidelity challenges were identified. The intervention fidelity components and associated monitoring strategies were developed to align with HeLTI SA. Strategies for fidelity monitoring include, amongst others, qualitative process evaluation methods, reviewing observed and recorded intervention sessions, monitoring of activity logs, standardized training, and intervention session checklists. Possible challenges to fidelity and fidelity monitoring include high provider turnover, lack of qualification amongst providers, difficulty tracing participants for follow-up sessions, participant health literacy levels, and the need to prioritize participants' non-health-related challenges. Solutions proposed include adapting intervention delivery methods, recruitment methods, and provider training methods. DISCUSSION: The NIH BCC Treatment Fidelity Framework provided a solid foundation for reporting intervention fidelity across settings to improve intervention validity, ability to assess intervention effectiveness, and transparency. However, context-specific challenges to fidelity (monitoring) were identified, and transparency around such challenges and possible solutions in low- and middle-income settings could help foster solutions to improve adherence, reporting, and monitoring of intervention fidelity in this setting. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Pan African Clinical Trials Registry PACTR201903750173871 . Registered on 27 March 2019.


Assuntos
Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Projetos de Pesquisa , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Gravidez , Relatório de Pesquisa , África do Sul
8.
Soc Sci Res ; 107: 102772, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36058612

RESUMO

This article marks the occasion of Social Science Research's 50th anniversary by reflecting on the progress of sequence analysis (SA) since its introduction into the social sciences four decades ago, with focuses on the developments of SA thus far in the social sciences and on its potential future directions. The application of SA in the social sciences, especially in life course research, has mushroomed in the last decade and a half. Using a life course analogy, we examined the birth of SA in the social sciences and its childhood (the first wave), its adolescence and young adulthood (the second wave), and its future mature adulthood in the paper. The paper provides a summary of (1) the important SA research and the historical contexts in which SA was developed by Andrew Abbott, (2) a thorough review of the many methodological developments in visualization, complexity measures, dissimilarity measures, group analysis of dissimilarities, cluster analysis of dissimilarities, multidomain/multichannel SA, dyadic/polyadic SA, Markov chain SA, sequence life course analysis, sequence network analysis, SA in other social science research, and software for SA, and (3) reflections on some future directions of SA including how SA can benefit and inform theory-making in the social sciences, the methods currently being developed, and some remaining challenges facing SA for which we do not yet have any solutions. It is our hope that the reader will take up the challenges and help us improve and grow SA into maturity.


Assuntos
Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Ciências Sociais , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
9.
Addict Behav ; 135: 107454, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35964392

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Socioeconomic status (SES) at different stages of the life course impacts late-life health. However, whether SES across the life course impacts smoking cessation in late-life is not known. PURPOSE: Assess how life course SES impacts smoking cessation among older smokers. METHODS: We identified 5,124 smokers, 50 years and older, from the 1998 to 2018 waves of the Health and Retirement Study. The outcome was self-reported smoking cessation. The main exposure was life course SES, defined as: low child and low adult SES (persistent low); low child, high adult SES (upward mobility); high child, low adult SES (downward mobility); and high child, high adult SES (persistent high). A multilevel mixed-effect logistic model was used to examine how life course SES predicts smoking cessation at age 65 and over time, adjusted for covariates. RESULTS: Compared to those with persistent high SES, those with persistent low SES, upward and downward SES were more likely to be Hispanic or non-Hispanic Black. The adjusted results showed that at age 65, compared to those with persistent high SES, those with persistent low SES (OR= 0.69, 95 % CI = [0.51-0.92]), upward SES (OR= 0.49, [0.32-0.75]), and downward SES (OR= 0.55, [0.40-0.76]) were less likely to quit. However, as age increased, only those with downward or persistent low SES were significantly less likely to quit compared to those with persistent high SES. DISCUSSION: Social mobility of SES from childhood to adulthood significantly impacts smoking cessation. Both stages of the life course should be considered to understand smoking behaviors.


Assuntos
Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Adolescente , Idoso , Criança , Humanos , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Fumantes , Fumar/epidemiologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Classe Social , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Psychiatr Res ; 154: 300-306, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35970052

RESUMO

We aimed to determine how the properties of social networks relate to resilient-related status. This cross-sectional study used baseline data from the Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disease Etiology Research Center cohort and included 11,132 participants. Ego-centric social network size and intimacy were used to reflect social network properties. Resilient-related status was operationally defined based on the participant's response to the Life Experience Survey and the Back Depression Inventory Ⅱ. Participants were categorized into three groups: reference (no negative life event; no depression), resilient (with negative life event; but no depression), and depression (no/with negative life event; with depression). Multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate the association of social networks on the resilient-related status after adjusting for all covariates. Social network size was positively associated with the resilient group for both sex (male: OR = 1.01 [95% CI = 0.96 to 1.05], female: OR = 1.07 [95% CI = 1.03 to 1.11]), whereas intimacy showed a negative association (male: OR = 0.91 [95% CI = 0.82 to 1.01], female: OR = 0.84 [95% CI = 0.76 to 0.92]). Additionally, as each social network property increased, the likelihood of being categorized as belonging to the depression group decreased, regardless of age and sex.


Assuntos
Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Apoio Social , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Rede Social
12.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0271298, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35917337

RESUMO

Socioeconomic conditions across the life course may contribute to differences in multimorbidity and polypharmacy in old age. However, whether the risk of multimorbidity changes during ageing and whether life-course socioeconomic conditions are associated with polypharmacy remain unclear. We investigated whether disadvantaged childhood socioeconomic conditions (CSCs) predict increased odds of multimorbidity and polypharmacy in older adults, whether CSCs remain associated when adjusting for adulthood socioeconomic conditions (ACSs), and whether CSCs and ACSs are associated cumulatively over the life course. We used data for 31,432 participants (multimorbidity cohort, mean [SD] age 66·2[9] years), and 21,794 participants (polypharmacy cohort, mean age 69·0[8.9] years) from the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (age range 50-96 years). We used mixed-effects logistic regression to assess the associations of CSCs, ASCs, and a life-course socioeconomic conditions score (0-8; 8, most advantaged) with multimorbidity (≥2 chronic conditions) and polypharmacy (≥5 drugs taken daily). We found an association between CSCs and multimorbidity (reference: most disadvantaged; disadvantaged: odds ratio (OR) = 0·79, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·70-0·90; middle: OR = 0·60; 95%CI 0·53-0·68; advantaged: OR = 0·52, 95%CI 0·45-0·60, most advantaged: OR = 0·40, 95%CI 0·34-0·48) but not polypharmacy. This multimorbidity association was attenuated but remained significant after adjusting for ASCs. The life-course socioeconomic conditions score was associated with multimorbidity and polypharmacy. We did not find an association between CSCs, life-course socioeconomic conditions, and change in odds of multimorbidity and polypharmacy with ageing. Exposure to disadvantaged socioeconomic conditions in childhood or over the entire life-course could predict multimorbidity in older age.


Assuntos
Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Multimorbidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
13.
Matern Child Nutr ; 18(4): e13412, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35938776

RESUMO

Evidence on the individual-level drivers of dietary behaviours in deprived urban contexts in Africa is limited. Understanding how to best inform the development and delivery of interventions to promote healthy dietary behaviours is needed. As noncommunicable diseases account for over 40% of deaths in Ghana, the country has reached an advanced stage of nutrition transition. The aim of this study was to identify individual-level factors (biological, demographic, cognitive, practices) influencing dietary behaviours among adolescent girls and women at different stages of the reproductive life course in urban Ghana with the goal of building evidence to improve targeted interventions. Qualitative Photovoice interviews (n = 64) were conducted in two urban neighbourhoods in Accra and Ho with adolescent girls (13-14 years) and women of reproductive age (15-49 years). Data analysis was both theory- and data-driven to allow for emerging themes. Thirty-seven factors, across four domains within the individual-level, were identified as having an influence on dietary behaviours: biological (n = 5), demographic (n = 8), cognitions (n = 13) and practices (n = 11). Several factors emerged as facilitators or barriers to healthy eating, with income/wealth (demographic); nutrition knowledge/preferences/risk perception (cognitions); and cooking skills/eating at home/time constraints (practices) emerging most frequently. Pregnancy/lactating status (biological) influenced dietary behaviours mainly through medical advice, awareness and willingness to eat foods to support foetal/infant growth and development. Many of these factors were intertwined with the wider food environment, especially concerns about the cost of food and food safety, suggesting that interventions need to account for individual-level as well as wider environmental drivers of dietary behaviours.


Assuntos
Lactação , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Adolescente , Adulto , Dieta/psicologia , Dieta Saudável , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 14700, 2022 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36038622

RESUMO

The association between adversity and cognition varies according to the specific adversity, when the adversity was experienced, and the cognitive domains investigated. Disentangling the effect of adversity and the underlying mechanistic pathway is therefore difficult. The association between adversity (i.e., maltreatment) accumulated over the life course and cognitive flexibility, as well as two potential mediators (i.e., intra-individual variability in reaction time and depression) of this association, were investigated. Data stem from the baseline population of the UK Biobank study (N = 73,489, Mdnage = 56, SDage = 7.628, 55.740% of women). Cumulative life course adversity (specifically maltreatment) was measured with items based on the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTS-5) and items adapted from the British Crime Survey. Depression was assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Intra-individual variability in reaction time was measured with a reaction time test "snap game" and the Trail Making Test A and B were used as a measure of cognitive flexibility. A path analysis was performed on these data. Higher cumulative adverse experiences were associated with lower performance in cognitive flexibility (ß = .016, p < .001, 95% CI [0.009, 0.024]), and this effect was partly mediated by the level of depression (22.727% of the total effect of cumulative life course adversity on cognitive flexibility was mediated by depression (ß = .005, p < .001, 95% CI [0.004, 0.007])). No association between cumulative life course adverse experiences and intra-individual variability in reaction time was found, nor was any indirect association between cumulative life course adversity and performance in cognitive flexibility via intra-individual variability in reaction time. The association between cumulative life course adversity, depression, and performance in cognitive flexibility has been highlighted. In contrast, no indirect effect between cumulative life course adversity and performance in cognitive flexibility via intra-individual variability in reaction time was found, suggesting that it is not a potential mechanism underlying the association between cumulative life course adversity and executive function.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Saúde Mental , Adulto , Rotas de Resultados Adversos , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
15.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 144: 105876, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35939862

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Telomere length, a biomarker of cell division and cellular aging, has been associated with multiple chronic disease endpoints. Experienced trauma over the life course may contribute to telomere shortening via mechanisms of stress embodiment. However, it is unclear how patterns of co-occurring trauma during sensitive periods (e.g., early life) throughout the life course may influence telomere shortening. We examine the relationship between co-occurring early life trauma on adult telomere length and the extent to which adulthood trauma, socioeconomic position, and health and lifestyle factors may mediate this relationship. METHODS: We use data from a sample of participants in the Sister Study (N = 740, analytic sample: n = 602), a prospective cohort of U.S. self-identified females aged 35-74 years at enrollment (2003-2009) for whom leukocyte telomere length was measured in baseline blood samples. Participants reported their experience of 20 different types of trauma, from which we identified patterns of co-occurring early life trauma (before age 18) using latent class analysis. We estimated the direct and indirect effects of early life trauma on leukocyte telomere length using structural equation modeling, allowing for mediating adult pathways. RESULTS: Approximately 47 % of participants reported early life trauma. High early life trauma was associated with shorter telomere length compared to low early life trauma (ß = -0.11; 95 % CI: -0.22, -0.004) after adjusting for age and childhood socioeconomic position. The inverse association between early life trauma and adult leukocyte telomere length was largely attributable to the direct effect of early life trauma on telomere length (ß = -0.12; 95 %CI: -0.23, -0.01). Mediating indirect pathways via adult trauma, socioeconomic position, and health metrics did not substantively contribute the overall association. CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight the role of patterns of co-occurring early life trauma on shortened telomere length independent of adult pathways.


Assuntos
Encurtamento do Telômero , Telômero , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Leucócitos , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Estudos Prospectivos
16.
Indian J Dent Res ; 33(1): 105-109, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35946255

RESUMO

Objectives: The aim of the study was to assess the effect of life course factors on dental fear among adult dental patients attending out-reach clinics in a rural area of South India. The objectives were to measure dental fear and changes in socio-economic status during the life course among the study population and to know whether social mobility reduced/increased dental fear. Methods: Dental fear scale and life course data were collected from 403 respondents. The improvement status of individual life course criteria was categorised into "less/minimal", "stable", or "upwardly mobile". Results: The odds of dental fear in the group showing less or minimal upward social mobility was two times that of the stable group [p = 0.022; 95% confidence interval (C.I): 1.104-3.598], whereas the odds of dental fear in the group showing more or good upward social mobility were 4.5 times that of the stable group [p = 0.001; 95% C.I: 1.928-10.515] when adjusted for covariates, that is, participant age, gender, and education and past history of dental avoidance. Conclusion: Social mobility was found to be a risk indicator for dental fear. Dental services may have been affected even with increased standards of living because of psychological factors such as dental fear.


Assuntos
Ansiedade ao Tratamento Odontológico , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Adulto , Ansiedade ao Tratamento Odontológico/etiologia , Escolaridade , Humanos , Índia , Classe Social
17.
Longit Life Course Stud ; 13(3): 412-431, 2022 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35920619

RESUMO

Background: Life course trajectories of affective symptoms (depression and anxiety) are heterogenous. However, few studies have investigated the role of early life risk factors in the development of these trajectories. The present study aimed to: (1) derive latent trajectories of affective symptoms over a period of more than 50 years (ages 13-69), and (2) examine early life risk factors for associations with specific life course trajectories of affective symptoms. Method: Participants are from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development (NSHD) (n = 5,362). Affective symptoms were measured prospectively at ages 13, 15, 36, 43, 53, 60-64 and 69. A latent variable modelling framework was implemented to model longitudinal profiles of affective symptoms. Twenty-four prospectively measured early life predictors were tested for associations with different symptom profiles using multinomial logistic regression. Results: Four life course profiles of affective symptoms were identified: (1) absence of symptoms (66.6% of the sample); (2) adolescent symptoms with good adult outcome (15.2%); (3) adult symptoms only (with no symptoms in adolescence and late life) (12.9%); (4) symptoms in adolescence and mid adulthood (5.2%). Of the 24 early life predictors observed, only four were associated with life course trajectories, with small effect sizes observed. Conclusions: People differ in their life course trajectories of anxiety and depression symptoms and that these differences are not largely influenced by early life factors tested in this study.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36000147

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The population of older adults suffering from alcohol use disorder (AUD) is increasing worldwide. Recovery from AUD among older adults is a challenging process which can lead to amelioration in these individuals' physical, mental, familial and social domains. However, little is known about the life experiences of older adults who have recovered from AUD. METHOD: A qualitative-naturalistic approach was implemented. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 20 older adults, age 60 +, who had recovered from AUD for periods ranging from 1 to 9 years. RESULTS: Three main categories emerged from the content analysis: a) Regrets, self-forgiveness and a desire to remedy past wrongs; b) successful aging and eagerness to live; c) enduring challenges. These categories reflect the complex and multidimensional experiences of older adults who have recovered from AUD. CONCLUSION: Older adults who recover from AUD report experiencing successful aging. They are willing to engage in new ventures in late life, live actively and age healthfully. However, despite their positive outlook, older adults recovering from AUD are a vulnerable population, especially when they experience marginalization as post-AUD older adults. This underscores the need to reach out to this population and the host of challenges they face to provide supportive treatments and interventions from interdisciplinary professionals who can guide their recovery from AUD and help them flourish in late life.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Humanos , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida
19.
Am Nat ; 200(3): 373-382, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35977791

RESUMO

AbstractBecause parental care has a heritable basis, the benefits of receiving increased parental provisioning early in life are genetically linked to the costs of providing increased parental provisioning at adulthood. Reproductive strategies thus result in distinct cost-benefit syndromes across the life course that may shape individual health and aging trajectories. Here we used an artificial selection approach in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) to test how reproductive strategies affect telomere length, a biomarker of somatic state, at different life stages. We show that males but not females from lines selected for low maternal investment (i.e., developing in a relatively small egg) had shorter telomeres at birth. These patterns were still weakly present at the end of the juvenile growth period. In contrast, significantly shorter telomeres were found in reproductively active adult birds from the high-investment lines, suggesting that telomere attrition was accelerated in these individuals once they had become reproductively active. Our study shows that reproductive strategies differentially affect telomere dynamics across the life course, highlighting the role of cross-generational constraints in shaping individual aging trajectories.


Assuntos
Coturnix , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Adulto , Envelhecimento/genética , Animais , Coturnix/genética , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Reprodução , Telômero
20.
Metas enferm ; 25(6): 33-34, Jul-Ago, 2022. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-206880

RESUMO

Dicen que los niños tienen vínculos y lazos profundos con las abuelas maternas; dicen, incluso, que en algunas ocasiones heredan cierta carga genética de ellas y por eso pueden tener rasgos de carácter o físicos muy similares; la forma de ser, los gustos y el temperamento también pueden estar dentro de esa carga genética. En el caso de Ángel Valbuena Prats fueron muchas más cosas, es imposible entender dónde ha llegado, dónde se encuentra en la actualidad y su vínculo con la Enfermería vagando por tantos lugares, países, hospitales, servicios y equipos, sin explicar todos los retos a los que se enfrentó en la vida.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Enfermagem de Viagem , Enfermagem , Enfermeiros
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