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1.
ACS Macro Lett ; 12(1): 79-85, 2023 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36595222

RESUMO

The synthesis of poly(N-allyl acrylamide) (PNAllAm) as a platform for the preparation of functional hydrogels is described. The PNAllAm was synthesized via organocatalyzed amidation of poly(methyl acrylate) (PMA) with allylamine and characterized by 1H NMR spectroscopy, size exclusion chromatography (SEC), and turbidimetry, which allowed an estimation of the lower critical solution temperature of ∼26 °C in water. The PNAllAm was then used to make functional hydrogels via photoinitiated thiol-ene chemistry, where dithiothreitol (DTT) was used to cross-link the polymer chains. In addition, mercaptoethanol (ME) was added as a functional thiol to modulate the hydrogel properties. A decrease of the volume-phase transition temperature of the resulting hydrogels was observed with increasing ME content. Altogether this work introduces a straightforward way for the preparation of PNAllAm from PMA and demonstrates its value as a reactive polymer platform for the generation of functional hydrogels.


Assuntos
Acrilamida , Hidrogéis , Polímeros/química , Temperatura , Compostos de Sulfidrila
2.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 171: 113548, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36502997

RESUMO

The potential mechanism for the protective effect of Ganoderma atrum (G. atrum) polysaccharide (PSG-1) on acrylamide (AA) induced intestinal damage in mice was explored. Results showed that PSG-1 pretreatment prevented AA-induced injury by decreasing intestinal permeability and serum D-lactate acid (D-Lac) levels and increasing the number of small intestinal goblet cells and IgA secreting cells. In addition, PSG-1 pretreatment effectively reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) level and raised superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione (GSH) activities in the intestine. Furthermore, PSG-1 administration decreased the levels of pro-inflammatory factors including IL-1ß, TNF-α, and IL-6, while the anti-inflammatory factor IL-10 was elevated. Meanwhile, PSG-1 could increase the performance of tight junction (TJ) proteins such as Occludin, Claudin-1 and ZO-1. Moreover, according to the isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) and Western blot results, PSG-1 could reduce AA-induced intestinal injury through TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathway. Overall, the present study suggested that PSG-1 protected intestinal permeability and barrier function in mice via reducing inflammation and oxidative stress, and effectively prevented AA-induced intestinal injury in mice.


Assuntos
Ganoderma , NF-kappa B , Camundongos , Animais , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/metabolismo , Acrilamida , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo
3.
Food Chem ; 408: 135235, 2023 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36549166

RESUMO

This study unveiled the effect of the suspected precursors of acrylamide (asparagine, glutamine) combined/separated with different formulations of glucose, fructose, and sucrose. To better understand the interaction between acrylamide precursors, cooking technique (deep vs air frying), and temperature (170 °C vs 190 °C), seven potato models from starch, sugars, amino acids, water and hydrocolloids (alginate and agar) were formulated. In line with previous findings, the present results showed that asparagine, glucose and fructose played an important role in acrylamide formation in these synthetic potato models. Furthermore, glutamine and sodium alginate might have an inhibitory effect on acrylamide formation. A significant impact of frying technique was also revealed. On the other hand, GC-FID analysis detected acrylamide in only these three models, (glucose-fructose, sucrose and asparagine-glucose/fructose/sucrose models > LOD 333.33 µg.kg-1).


Assuntos
Aminoácidos , Solanum tuberosum , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Acrilamida/análise , Asparagina/química , Glutamina , Solanum tuberosum/química , Açúcares/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Culinária/métodos , Frutose/metabolismo , Sacarose/metabolismo , Temperatura Alta
4.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 227: 241-251, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36539172

RESUMO

In this paper, a kind of superabsorbent resin (SAR) with superior quality for hygiene products was developed using Fructus Aurantii Immaturus pectin (FAIP) from Citrus aurantium L.. FAIP-g-AM/AMPS SAR was established by free radical graft co-polymerization with FAIP as skeleton structure, N, N'-Methylene-bis (acrylamide) (MBA) as the cross-linker. Meanwhile, the functional monomers of acrylamide (AM) and 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid (AMPS) were introduced. The structure and morphology of FAIP-g-AM/AMPS were characterized by FTIR, 13C NMR, XRD, SEM and TG-DSC analysis. The results confirmed that the AFIP-g-AM/AMPS SAR was successfully prepared, which exhibited a three-dimensional (3D) network structure and an excellent thermal stability. The absorption and retention capacity of FAIP-g-AM/AMPS was comparable to or even better than commercial diapers and sanitary napkins. Significantly, FAIP-g-AM/AMPS itself exhibited excellent antibacterial and safety. FAIP-g-AM/AMPS has an inhibition ratio of 97.1 % for Escherichia coli (E. coli) and 98.5 % for Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), and was non-irritating and non-allergic to the skin. In addition, FAIP-g-AM/AMPS presented amazing biodegradability and a weight loss reached 37.1 % after 30 days by soil burial test. The research provides a safe and high-performance SAR, which expected to be used in hygiene products such as baby diapers, adult incontinence pads and sanitary napkins.


Assuntos
Pectinas , Staphylococcus aureus , Pectinas/farmacologia , Escherichia coli , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Acrilamidas/química , Cloreto de Sódio , Acrilamida
5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 249: 114413, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36516620

RESUMO

Acrylamide (AA) is widely contaminated in environment and diet. However, the association of AA and sex hormones has rarely been investigated, especially in adolescents, a period of particular susceptibility to sex hormone disruption. In this study, survey-weighted multivariate linear regression models were conducted to determine the association between AA Hb biomarkers [HbAA and glycidamide (HbGA)] and sex hormones [total testosterone (TT) and estradiol (E2)] in a total of 3268 subjects from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2013-2016 waves. Additionally, adult and pubertal mice were treated with AA to assess the effect of AA on sex hormones and to explore the potential mechanisms. Among all the subjects, significant negative patterns for HbGA and sex hormones were identified only in youths (6-19 years old), with the lowest ß being - 0.53 (95% CI: -0.80 to -0.26) for TT in males and - 0.58 (95% CI: -0.93 to -0.23) for E2 in females. Stratified analysis further revealed significant negative associations between HbGA and sex hormones in adolescents, with the lowest ß being - 0.58 (95% CI: -1.02 to -0.14) for TT in males and - 0.54 (95% CI: -1.03 to -0.04) for E2 in females, while there were no significant differences between children or late adolescents. In mice, the levels of TT and E2 were dramatically reduced in AA-treated pubertal mice but not in adult mice. AA disturbed the expression of genes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, induced apoptosis of hypothalamus-produced gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons in the hypothalamus and reduced serum and hypothalamic GnRH levels in pubertal mice. Our study indicates AA could reduce TT and E2 levels by injuring GnRH neurons and disrupting the HPG axis in puberty, which manifested as severe endocrine disruption on adolescents. Our findings reinforce the idea that adolescence is a vulnerable stage in AA-induced sex hormone disruption.


Assuntos
Acrilamida , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais , Masculino , Feminino , Animais , Camundongos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Acrilamida/toxicidade , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina , Estradiol , Testosterona
6.
Food Res Int ; 162(Pt A): 111936, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36461280

RESUMO

Acrylamide has received worldwide attention due to its existence in commonly consumed foods. L-asparaginase reduces acrylamide formation in foods by hydrolyzing available L-asparagine. Herein, L-asparaginase (Ps-ASNase II) of Pseudomonas sp. PCH182 was expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli), purified, and evaluated for acrylamide reduction in food samples. The monomeric 37 kDa Ps-ASNase II protein was purified to homogeneity with a 70 % yield. The enzyme was active at a wide pH range (5.0-11.0) and temperature (10-80 °C) with optimum activity at 45 °C in 50 mM Tris-HCl (pH 8.5) after 10 min. The Km and Vmax for L-asparagine were 0.52 ± 0.06 mM and 42.55 ± 4.0 U/mg, respectively. Also, the half-life and Kd value of the enzyme at 37 °C was 458 min and 1.51 × 10-3/min, suggesting its higher stability. Consistently, the enzyme retained 62 % residual activity after 60 days of storage at 4 °C. The Ps-ASNase II enzyme (5 U/mL) treatment of raw potato chips resulted in 90 % asparagine hydrolysis exhibiting high efficiency. Ps-ASNase II (5 U/mL) treated potato chips significantly reduced acrylamide content by 73 % at 37 °C within 24 min compared to untreated controls. Collectively, these findings verified Ps-ASNase's effectiveness and capability to lower acrylamide formation in fried potato chips without altering the food product's nutritional profile.


Assuntos
Acrilamida , Asparaginase , Asparaginase/genética , Asparagina , Pseudomonas , Escherichia coli/genética
7.
Neurotox Res ; 40(6): 2016-2026, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36550222

RESUMO

Acrylamide (AM) is a potent neurotoxin and carcinogen that is mainly formed by the Maillard reaction of asparagine with starch at high temperatures. However, the toxicity mechanism underlying AM has not been investigated from a proteomic perspective, and the regulation of protein expression by AM remains poorly understood. This research was the first to utilize proteomics to explore the mechanism of AM exposure-induced neuroinflammation. Target proteins were obtained by differential protein analysis, functional annotation, and enrichment analysis of proteomics. Then, molecular biology methods, including Western blot, qPCR, and immunofluorescence, were used to verify the results and explore possible mechanisms. We identified 100 key differential metabolites by proteomic analysis, which was involved in the occurrence of various biological functions. Among them, the KEGG pathway enrichment analysis showed that the differential proteins were enriched in the P53 pathway, sulfur metabolism pathway, and ferroptosis. Finally, the differential target protein we locked was LARP7. Molecular biological verification found that AM exposure inhibited the expression of LARP7 and induced the burst of inflammation, while SRT1720 agonist treatment showed no effect on LARP7, but significant changes in inflammatory factors and NF-κB. Taken together, these findings suggested that AM may activate NF-κB to induce neuroinflammation by inhibiting the LARP7-SIRT1 pathway. And our study provided a direction for AM-induced neurotoxicity through proteomics and multiple biological analysis methods.


Assuntos
NF-kappa B , Sirtuína 1 , Humanos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Doenças Neuroinflamatórias , Microglia , Acrilamida/toxicidade , Acrilamida/metabolismo , Proteômica , Ribonucleoproteínas/metabolismo , Ribonucleoproteínas/farmacologia
8.
J Phys Chem B ; 126(51): 10933-10947, 2022 12 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36520675

RESUMO

It is known that oxygen (O2) stops radical polymerization (RP). Here, it was found that the reaction turn-off occurs abruptly at a threshold concentration of O2, [O2]t, for both free RP and reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer polymerization (RAFT). In some reactions, there was a spontaneous re-start of conversion. Three cases were investigated: RP of (i) acrylamide (Am) and (ii) sodium styrene sulfonate (SS) and (iii) Am RAFT polymerization. A controlled flow of O2 into the reactor was employed. An abrupt turn-off was observed in all cases, where polymerization stops sharply at [O2]t and remains stopped when [O2] > [O2]t. In (i), Am acts as a catalytic radical-transfer agent during conversion plateau, eliminating excess [O2], and polymerization spontaneously resumes at [O2]t. In no reaction, the initiator alone was capable of eliminating O2. N2 purge was needed to re-start reactions (ii) and (iii). For (i) and (ii), while [O2] < [O2]t, O2 acts a chain termination agent, reducing the molecular weight (Mw) and reduced viscosity (RV). O2 acts as an inhibitor for [O2] > [O2]t in all cases. The radical-transfer rates from Am* and SS* to O2 are >10,000× higher than the initial chain propagation step rates for Am and SS, which causes [O2]t at very low [O2].


Assuntos
Acrilamida , Estireno , Polimerização , Radicais Livres , Peso Molecular
9.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 94(suppl 3): e20201882, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36477225

RESUMO

Acrylamide is a compound that occurs with high temperature during food processing and causes oxidative damage. Recently, the importance of antioxidative components is increasing to prevent oxidative damage. Lactoferrin is an antioxidant protein mainly found in milk. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the dose-dependent protective effects of lactoferrin on oxidative damage caused by acrylamide. In this study, HepG2 cell lines were treated with lactoferrin doses (0, 25, 50, 100µM) and half maximal inhibitory concentration of acrylamide. After 24 hours malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase levels were measured. Acrylamide significantly increased malondialdehyde levels in HepG2 cells compared to the control group; however, catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductace significantly reduced. On the other hand, added lactoferrin doses (50-100µM) significantly reduced lipid peroxidation levels. Besides, it was found that glutathione reductase, catalase and superoxide dismutase levels significantly increased. As a result, the protective effect of lactoferrin against the oxidative damage caused by acrylamide in HepG2 cells was determined. This effect is thought to be due to the antioxidant capacity of lactoferrin. In this context, it is recommended that more studies are carried out on the mechanism of action of lactoferrin on oxidative stress caused by acrylamide.


Assuntos
Acrilamida , Estresse Oxidativo , Acrilamida/toxicidade , Glutationa Redutase
10.
Molecules ; 27(23)2022 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36500312

RESUMO

Thermal processing of certain foods implies the formation of acrylamide, which has been proven to provoke adverse effects on human health. Thus, several strategies to mitigate it have been developed. One of them could be the application of organosulfur compounds obtained from natural sources to react with the acrylamide, forming non-toxic adducts. A DFT study of the acrylamide reaction with the organosulfur model compounds L-cysteine and L-glutathione by Michael addition and a free radical pathway complemented by a kinetic study of these model molecules has been applied. The kinetic evaluation results demonstrate that the L-glutathione reaction exhibited a higher rate constant than the other studied compound.


Assuntos
Acrilamida , Cisteína , Humanos , Acrilamida/metabolismo , Cisteína/metabolismo , Glutationa
11.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 22017, 2022 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36539477

RESUMO

Novel polyelectrolytic hybrid membranes are prepared by blending carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC)-polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-acrylamide (AA). Succinic acid and chlorosulfonic acid (CSA) are employed as crosslinkers and modifiers, respectively. Additionally, carboxylated carbon nanotube (CCNT) and sulfonated activated carbon (SAC) as fillers are used to attain appropriate chemical and mechanical stability for use as polyelectrolyte membranes (PEM). CMC, PVA, and AA are mixed and treated with CSA, CCNT, and SAC in different concentrations. First, CMC/PVA/AA solution is modified using CSA to produce a sulfonated polymeric matrix. Second, a different amount of CCNT or SAC was added as a filler to enhance the ion exchange capacity (IEC), ionic conductivity, and chemical stability. Third, the solution is cast as polyelectrolytic membranes. Chemical interactions between CMC, PVA, AA and other membrane components were confirmed using various characterization techniques such as Raman scattering spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR). Furthermore, mechanical strength, methanol uptake, gel fraction, ion exchange capacity (IEC), proton conductivity (PC), chemical and thermal stability were determined as functions of varied membrane modification components. Results reveal that the increase of CSA, CCNT and SAC is leading to increase the IEC values reaching 1.54 mmol/g for (CMC/PVA-4% CSA), 1.74 mmol/g for (CMC/PVA-4%CSA-2%CCNT) and 2.31 mmol/g for (CMC/PVA-4% CSA-2% SAC) comparing to 0.11 mmol/g for non-modified CMC/PVA/AA membrane. Sequentially, the proton conductivity value is changed from 1 × 10-3 S/cm in non-modified CMC/PVA/AA membrane to 0.082 S/cm for (CMC/PVA-4% CSA), 0.0984 S/cm for (CMC/PVA-4%CSA-2%CCNT) and 0.1050 S/cm for (CMC/PVA-4% CSA-2% SAC). Such results enhance the potential feasibility of modified CMC/PVA/AA hybrid as polyelectrolytic membranes.


Assuntos
Acrilamida , Álcool de Polivinil , Álcool de Polivinil/química , Polieletrólitos , Carboximetilcelulose Sódica/química , Prótons , Alcanossulfonatos
12.
J Toxicol Sci ; 47(11): 467-482, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36328537

RESUMO

Acrylamide (AA) is a neurotoxicant that causes synaptic impairment in distal axons. We previously found that developmental exposure to AA decreased proliferation of late-stage neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in the hippocampal neurogenesis of the dentate gyrus (DG) in rats. To investigate whether hippocampal neurogenesis is similarly affected by AA exposure in a general toxicity study, AA was administered to 7-week-old male rats via oral gavage at dosages of 0, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg for 28 days. In the subgranular zone (SGZ) and granule cell layer, AA decreased the densities of doublecortin-positive (+) cells and TOAD-64/Ulip/CRMP protein 4b+ cells per SGZ length. In addition, AA decreased the neurite length of doublecortin+ cells and downregulated genes related to neurite outgrowth (Ncam2 and Nrep) and neurotrophic factor (Bdnf and Ntrk2) in the DG. These results suggest that AA exposure for 28 days decreases type-3 NPCs and immature granule cells in neurogenesis of granule cell lineages involving the impairment of neurite outgrowth in young-adult rats. In the DG hilus, AA increased the density of cholinergic receptor nicotinic beta 2 subunit+ cells. AA also downregulated Reln related to the control of neuronal migration by interneurons in the DG. Furthermore, AA decreased the density of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)+ astrocytes in the DG hilus and downregulated Gfap and the genes of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (Cspg4 and Pdgfra). Thus, AA decreased granule cell lineage subpopulations in the late-stage differentiation of hippocampal neurogenesis after young-adult stage exposure, exhibiting a pattern similar to the developmental exposure.


Assuntos
Acrilamida , Células-Tronco Neurais , Ratos , Masculino , Animais , Acrilamida/toxicidade , Apoptose , Neurogênese , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Crescimento Neuronal , Proteínas do Domínio Duplacortina
13.
J Chem Phys ; 157(18): 185101, 2022 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36379777

RESUMO

The main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2 is an essential enzyme for the replication of the virus causing the COVID-19 pandemic. Because there is no known homologue in humans, it has been proposed as a primary target for antiviral drug development. Here, we explore the potential of five acrylamide-based molecules as possible covalent inhibitors, leading to target MPro by docking, followed by polarizable molecular dynamics (MD) and quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) calculations. All calculations involving a classical potential were calculated with the AMOEBABIO18 polarizable force field, while electronic structure calculations were performed within the framework of density functional theory. Selected docking poses for each of the five compounds were used for MD simulations, which suggest only one of the tested leads remains bound in a catalytically active orientation. The QM/MM results for the covalent attachment of the promising lead to the catalytic serine suggest that this process is thermodynamically feasible but kinetically unlikely. Overall, our results are consistent with the low labeling percentages determined experimentally and may be useful for further development of acrylamide-based leads.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Pandemias , Proteases 3C de Coronavírus , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Acrilamida , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteases/química , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/química , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo , Cisteína Endopeptidases/química , Cisteína Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular
14.
Soft Matter ; 18(45): 8647-8655, 2022 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36349658

RESUMO

Jack bean urease, the first nickel metalloenzyme, and crystallized enzymes have historical significance due to their several applications in the biomedical and other fields. For the first time, cross-linker free pH-responsive hydrogel-urease bioconjugates have been reported. Without the use of divinyl benzene or divinyl acrylamide derivatives, urease was immobilized inside the hydrogel matrix and various grades of bioconjugates were synthesized. The hydrogel-urease bioconjugate exhibits excellent swelling-deswelling and pH-responsive characteristics without affecting the urease enzyme. The pH-responsive bioconjugates were characterized by FT-IR, powder XRD, SEM, TGA, and UV-vis spectroscopy. Urea hydrolysis and enzyme affinity have been investigated at pH 4, pH 7, and pH 11 using bioconjugates and free urease. At basic pH, BCs showed excellent enzyme activity. In summary, this technique is effective for stabilizing biomacromolecules at different pHs for a variety of real applications.


Assuntos
Ureia , Urease , Urease/química , Ureia/química , Hidrólise , Hidrogéis/química , Acrilamida , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Enzimas Imobilizadas/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
15.
Molecules ; 27(21)2022 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364343

RESUMO

Acrylamide is classified as a toxic and a prospective carcinogen to humans, and it is formed during thermal process via Maillard reaction. In order to find innovative ways to diminish acrylamide formation in potato chips, several extracts of agricultural wastes including potato peels, olive leaves, lemon peels and pomegranate peels extracts were examined as a soaking pre-treatment before frying step. Total phenolic, total flavonoids, antioxidant activity, and the reduction in sugar and asparagine contents were additionally performed. Proximate composition of these wastes was found to be markedly higher in fat, carbohydrate and ash contents. Lemon peels and potato peels showed almost similar phenolic content (162 ± 0.93 and 157 ± 0.88 mg GAE /g, respectively) and exhibited strong ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activities than the other wastes. The reduction percentage of reducing sugars and asparagine after soaking treatment ranged from 28.70 to 39.57% and from 22.71 to 29.55%, respectively. HPLC results showed higher level of acrylamide formation in control sample (104.94 mg/kg) and by using the wastes extracts of lemon peels, potato peels, olive leaves, and pomegranate peels succeeded to mitigate acrylamide level by 86.11%, 69.66%, 34.03%, and 11.08%, respectively. Thus, it can be concluded that the soaking of potato slices in the tested wastes extracts as antioxidant as pre-treatment before frying reduces the formation of acrylamide and in this way, the risks connected to acrylamide consumption could be regulated and managed.


Assuntos
Acrilamida , Solanum tuberosum , Humanos , Acrilamida/química , Antioxidantes , Resíduos Industriais , Asparagina , Culinária/métodos , Carcinógenos , Estudos Prospectivos , Temperatura Alta , Solanum tuberosum/química , Carboidratos , Extratos Vegetais
16.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18648, 2022 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36333451

RESUMO

Acrylamide is used in the industry and can be a by-product of high-temperature food processing which has toxic potential in various tissues, and titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2NPs) are widely used in toothpaste, sweets, food perseveration, chewing gum and medicines. Consequently, humans are daily exposed to large amounts of acrylamide and TiO2NPs mainly through food intake. However, limited studies are available on the effect of simultaneously intake of acrylamide and TiO2NPs on the integrity of genomic DNA and the induction of apoptosis in brain tissues. Therefore, this study estimated the influence of acrylamide coadministration on TiO2NPs induced genomic instability and oxidative stress in the brain tissues of mice. To achieve this, mice were orally administrated acrylamide (3 mg/kg b.w) or/and TiO2NPs (5 mg/kg b.w) for two successive weeks (5 days per week). The comet assay results showed that concurrent oral administration of acrylamide and TiO2NPs strongly induced single- and double stranded DNA breaks, and that the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was also highly elevated within neural cells after simultaneous oral intake of acrylamide and TiO2NPs compared to those observed after administration of acrylamide or/TiO2NPs alone. Moreover, oral co-administration of acrylamide with TiO2NPs increased apoptotic DNA damage to neurons by upregulating the expression levels of P53, TNF-α, IL-6 and Presenillin-1 genes compared to groups administered TiO2NPs. Therefore, from these results, the present study concluded that coadministration of acrylamide renders TiO2NPs more genotoxic and motivates apoptotic DNA damage and oxidative stress induced by TiO2NPs in brain cells, and thus it is recommended to avoid concurrent oral acrylamide administration with TiO2NPs.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Nanopartículas , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Acrilamida/toxicidade , Titânio/farmacologia , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Dano ao DNA , Apoptose , Estresse Oxidativo , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade
17.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 170: 113498, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36328216

RESUMO

The ubiquitous occurrence of acrylamide in various thermal processing food products poses a potential health risk for the public. An accurate exposure assessment is crucial to the risk evaluation of acrylamide. Machine learning emerging as a powerful computational tool for prediction was employed to establish the association between internal exposure and dietary exposure to acrylamide among a Chinese cohort of middle-aged and elderly population (n = 1,272). Five machine learning regression models were constructed and compared to predict the daily dietary acrylamide exposure based on urinary biomarkers including N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoylethyl)-L-cysteine (AAMA), N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoylethyl)-L-cysteine-sulfoxide (AAMA-sul), N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl)-L-cysteine (GAMA), and N-acetyl-S-(1-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl)-L-cysteine (iso-GAMA). Other important covariates such as age, gender, physical activities, and total energy intake were also considered as predictors in the models. Average dietary intake of acrylamide among Chinese elderly participants was 8.9 µg/day, while average urinary contents of AAMA, AAMA-sul, GAMA, and iso-GAMA were 52.2, 19.1, 4.4, and 1.7 nmol/g Ucr (urine creatinine), respectively. Support vector regression (SVR) model showed the best prediction performance with a R of 0.415, followed by light gradient boosting machine (LightGBM) model (R = 0.396), adjusted multiple linear regression (MLR) model (R = 0.378), neural networks (NN) model (R = 0.365), MLR model (R = 0.363), and extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost) model (R = 0.337). The present study firstly correlated dietary exposure with internal exposure to acrylamide among Chinese elderly population, providing an innovative perspective for the exposure assessment of acrylamide.


Assuntos
Acrilamida , Exposição Dietética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Humanos , Idoso , Acrilamida/toxicidade , Acetilcisteína/urina , Biomarcadores/urina , Aprendizado de Máquina
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361394

RESUMO

Excessive consumption of highly processed foods, such as chips, crisps, biscuits and coffee, exposes the human to different doses of acrylamide. This chemical compound has a multidirectional, adverse effect on human and animal health, including the central and peripheral nervous systems. In this study, we examined the effect of different doses of acrylamide on the enteric nervous system (ENS) of the porcine jejunum. Namely, we took into account the quantitative changes of neurons located in the jejunum wall expressing substance P (SP), galanin (GAL), a neuronal form of nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART). The obtained results indicate that acrylamide causes a statistically significant increase in the number of neurons immunoreactive to SP, GAL, VAChT and CART in all types of examined enteric plexuses and a significant drop in the population of nNOS-positive enteric neurons. Changes were significantly greater in the case of a high dose of acrylamide intoxication. Our results indicate that acrylamide is not indifferent to ENS neurons. A 28-day intoxication with this substance caused marked changes in the chemical coding of ENS neurons in the porcine jejunum.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Entérico , Jejuno , Humanos , Suínos , Animais , Feminino , Acrilamida/toxicidade , Sistema Nervoso Entérico/fisiologia , Intestino Delgado , Neurônios , Sus scrofa
19.
Food Res Int ; 161: 111820, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36192957

RESUMO

Acrylamide bioaccessibility during and after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of cereal and potato-based foods was monitored. Isolated vs combined meals were evaluated with the aim of investigating acrylamide-food matrix interactions. The meals considered were breakfast cereals, biscuits, patatas a lo pobre (patatas-pobre) and French fries for isolated foods; breakfast cereals with yoghurt, biscuits with milk, patatas-pobre with scrambled eggs and French fries with meat steak for combined foods. The non-bioaccessible fraction of acrylamide tended to decrease during the digestion process in all the systems. However, the final bioaccessible acrylamide was affected by the food matrix composition (fibre, protein, sugars and lipids). The digestion of breakfast cereals, biscuits with milk, patatas-pobre and patatas-pobre with scrambled eggs led to acrylamide bioaccessibility below the initial content of the contaminant in the meals. In absolute values, the combined consumption of biscuits and milk significantly reduced the bioaccessible acrylamide compared with isolated biscuits (from 212 to 122 ng; p < 0.05). The presence of protein sources (egg or meat steak) in the potato-based products significantly decreased the acrylamide bioaccessibility, which was more prominent in the French fries-meat steak system (from 2100 to 1698 ng; p < 0.05). These findings establish the importance of considering complete meals and not only isolated foods as well as the study of the non-bioaccessible fractions for a better understanding of acrylamide bioaccessibility, its recovery and interactions during gastrointestinal digestion.


Assuntos
Acrilamida , Solanum tuberosum , Acrilamida/análise , Digestão , Grão Comestível/química , Lipídeos , Açúcares
20.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 30(3): 179-184, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36239366

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Acrylamide (AA) is considered one of the contaminants that occur in heat-processed agri-food products, which through diet can increase the risk of developing cancer for consumers of all age groups. METHODS: This review analysed the level of acrylamide of the most important heat-processed agri-food products that contribute to the dietary exposure of the population of different European countries and the assessment of health risks related to the presence of AA in food. RESULTS: The results of monitoring AA concentrations in agri-food products, reported individually by researchers or projects such as CONTAM in 2015 and the UK Food Standard Agency in 2017, show that some products exceeding the recently set European reference level are reported as such for specific values - mean UB/RLs in µg.kg-1: French fries (550/500), coffee dry (523/400), coffee substitutes (1,499/500, 400), processed cereal-based baby foods (76/40), potato crisps and snacks (2,214/750), breakfast cereals (744/300), biscuits and crackers (637/350, 400), and coffee substitutes (1,897/500). Average values (µg/kg body weight per day) of exposure to AA from food for different age groups (EFSA) are estimated at 0.4-1.9, but in different European countries, as reported by several studies (including Romania), are between 1.4 and 3.4. CONCLUSION: Starting from the genotoxic and carcinogenic potential of acrylamide, it is important to regularly monitor the presence of acrylamide and its levels in food and to investigate the food pattern of the population to detect the share of foods at risk of exposure.


Assuntos
Acrilamida , Exposição Dietética , Acrilamida/análise , Carcinógenos , Exposição Dietética/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Temperatura Alta , Humanos
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