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1.
Acta Neurochir Suppl ; 127: 179-183, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407082

RESUMO

From 2013 to 2017, at the Burdenko Institute of Neurosurgery, intra-arterial verapamil for treatment of cerebral vasospasm following intracranial hemorrhage after aneurysm rupture was administered to 35 patients (total 75 procedures). The age is from 8 to 77 years. All ruptured aneurysms were treated: in 26 cases with open approach-clipping-and in 9 cases with endovascular occlusion. The procedure was carried out from 0 to 11 days after the operation. Severity of spasm was assessed by angiography and TCDU. Efficacy of the administration was assessed by TCDU 1 h after the procedure and by clinical evaluation of the patient's condition. The dose of verapamil was 15-50 mg (on average 40 mg) per procedure/per carotid pool and depended on the data of TCDU and clinical and radiological picture. The procedure was performed repeatedly (1-5 times) according to the indications and depending on the patient's condition, with an interval of 24 h. The procedure was effective as a preventive measure for care of patients in the initial stage of cerebral ischemia and was ineffective with a formed focus of ischemia. Endovascular administration of verapamil for treatment of cerebral vasospasm is a safe technique which positively affects the overall recovery of such patients.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Roto , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea , Vasodilatadores , Vasoespasmo Intracraniano , Verapamil , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/tratamento farmacológico , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/prevenção & controle , Resultado do Tratamento , Vasodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Vasoespasmo Intracraniano/tratamento farmacológico , Verapamil/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
2.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 18: eAO4739, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553355

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To use magnetic resonance imaging to assess the prevalence of foot and ankle ligament injuries and fractures associated with ankle sprain and not diagnosed by x-ray. METHODS: We included 180 consecutive patients with a history of ankle sprain, assessed at a primary care service in a 12-month period. Magnetic resonance imaging findings were recorded and described. RESULTS: Approximately 92% of patients had some type of injury shown on the magnetic resonance imaging. We found 379 ligament injuries, 9 osteochondral injuries, 19 tendinous injuries and 51 fractures. Only 14 magnetic resonance imaging tests (7.8%) did not show any sort of injury. We observed a positive relation between injuries of the lateral complex, syndesmosis and medial ligaments. However, there was a negative correlation between ankle ligament injuries and midfoot injuries. CONCLUSION: There was a high rate of injuries secondary to ankle sprains. We found correlation between lateral ligament injuries and syndesmosis and deltoid injuries. We did not observe a relation between deltoid and syndesmosis injuries or between lateral ligamentous and subtalar injuries. Similarly, no relation was found between ankle and midfoot injuries.


Assuntos
Traumatismos do Tornozelo/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Traumatismos do Tornozelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cartilagem Articular/lesões , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Ligamentos Laterais do Tornozelo/lesões , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
3.
Toxicol Lett ; 318: 92-98, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678399

RESUMO

Sulfur mustard (SM) is a vesicant chemical warfare agent. Recent studies reported alleged use of SM by non-state actors in Syria and Iraq. It has been shown that SM induced immunological and hematological complications. The aim of this study was to determine acute toxic effects of SM exposure on hematological parameters. Blood samples from a group of Syrian exposed to SM in 2016 were taken daily during the follow-up of the patients in intensive care unit. Initial leukocytosis was observed in all patients (100%) on the first 48 h after exposure. Following leukocytosis, isolated lymphopenia was observed in all patients (100%) between 2nd and 4th days. A decrease in hemoglobin level was noted in five patients (62.5%) between 4th and 5th days. Thrombocytopenia was observed in 75% of patients between 4th and 6th days for mild cases and between 9th and 11th days for severe cases. Three patients (37.5%) developed distinct leucopenia/neutropenia on 11th and 12th days. It was observed that human exposure to high dose of SM has direct toxic effect on hematological cells and bone marrow. New strategies on treatment of SM-induced myelosuppression could reduce the effects of hematological complications and could increase the survival rate in these patients.


Assuntos
Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Terrorismo Químico , Substâncias para a Guerra Química/envenenamento , Leucocitose/induzido quimicamente , Leucopenia/induzido quimicamente , Linfopenia/induzido quimicamente , Gás de Mostarda/envenenamento , Trombocitopenia/induzido quimicamente , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Medula Óssea/patologia , Feminino , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Leucocitose/sangue , Leucocitose/patologia , Leucopenia/sangue , Leucopenia/patologia , Linfopenia/sangue , Linfopenia/patologia , Masculino , Síria , Trombocitopenia/sangue , Trombocitopenia/patologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Belo Horizonte; s.n; 20192803. 59 p. ilus, tab.
Tese em Português | Coleciona SUS | ID: biblio-1016793

RESUMO

Introdução: As avaliações usando tecnologia estão presentes nas escolas em vários países, e seu uso se popularizou nas últimas duas décadas, sendo utilizadas no exame para licença médica nos Estados Unidos desde 1999. O potencial que as avaliações aprimoradas por tecnologia trazem para o mundo acadêmico foi o que motivou a realização deste estudo, e o conhecimento advindo de uma conferência específica sobre essas tecnologias trouxe o incentivo para persistir nessa linha de pesquisa. Método: Este estudo tem por objetivo comparar o estresse, a satisfação e o desempenho dos acadêmicos durante o primeiro semestre de 2018, ao realizarem provas escritas convencionais e provas no computador na disciplina de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia do curso de Medicina da Universidade José do Rosário Vellano, campus Alfenas. Foram avaliadas as turmas do décimo segundo período e sétimo período, totalizando uma amostra de 135 alunos. Tratou-se de um estudo experimental randomizado em que os alunos foram divididos em dois grupos para as avaliações e foram-lhes aplicados questionários pré-definidos e presenciais. Antes da prova, foram entregues aos alunos perguntas específicas para avaliar o estresse envolvido em sua realização. Ao término da prova, foram aplicadas as questões que avaliaram a satisfação com o tipo de prova realizada. Foram ainda registradas as notas obtidas nos dois tipos de avaliação. Cada aluno fez uma avaliação escrita convencional e uma avaliação via computador. Resultados: Os acadêmicos avaliados demonstraram maior estresse e menor satisfação com a prova no computador, comparando-a com a prova escrita convencional. O tipo de prova não esteve associado ao desempenho acadêmico. Conclusão: A falta de familiaridade e treinamento com a metodologia, antes da aplicação das avaliações, causou aumento no estresse nos acadêmicos envolvidos no presente estudo, o que interferiu na satisfação, ao fazer a prova usando tecnologia, embora não tenha havido diferença nos escores de desempenho. As informações coletadas serão utilizadas para reestruturação do formato dos testes oferecidos no departamento de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia da UNIFENAS, campus Alfenas, com o intuito de aprimorar a avaliação teórica que se realiza na Universidade.


Introduction: Evaluations using technology are present in schools in several countries and have become popular in the last two decades and have been used in the United States medical license examination since 1999. The potential that improved technology assessments bring to the academic world motivated the carrying out of this study, and the knowledge from a specific conference on these technologies brought the incentive to persist in this research line. Method: This study aims to compare the stress, satisfaction and performance of academics during the first semester of 2018, when conducting conventional written tests and computer tests in the course of Gynecology and Obstetrics of the medical program of the University of José do Rosário Vellano, Alfenas campus, a total sample of 135 students. It was a randomized experimental study in which the students were divided for the evaluations and pre-defined and class-based questionnaires were applied. Prior to the test, specific questions were given to students to assess the stress involved in their achievement. At the end of the test, the questions were answered to evaluate the satisfaction with the type of the test they took. Each student did a conventional written assessment and a computer assessment. Results: The evaluated students showed greater stress and less satisfaction with the computer-based test compared to the conventional written test, although there was no statistical difference in performance when comparing both. Conclusion: Lack of familiarity and training with the methodology prior to test application resulted an increase in students' stress in the present study, which interfered in the satisfaction with the test using technology, even though there was no difference in the performance scores. The collected information will be used to restructure the format of the tests offered in the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics of UNIFENAS, Campus Alfenas, in order to improve the theoretical evaluation performed at the University.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Educação Médica , Estudantes de Medicina , Computadores , Avaliação Educacional , Desempenho Acadêmico
5.
Acta colomb. psicol ; 22(2): 70-98, July-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019277

RESUMO

Abstract Resources are distributed unequally depending on the social status (SS) of people. Researchers have often used experiments to explain the role of SS in economic decisions. However, the diverse ways of inducing SS has produced contradictory results. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of SS on the distribution of monetary resources in students aged 18 to 25 years from Córdoba (Argentina). Three experiments using mixed factorial designs were conducted. Different ways of inducing SS and the effect on decisions in different games were examined. In Experiment 1, the effect of two SS induction techniques on the decisions of the Ultimatum Game (UG) and Dictator Game (DG) was compared. In Experiment 2, the effect of SS on the same games, including Social Value Orientation (SVO) and Subjective Social Status (SSS) as covariates was analyzed. In Experiment 3, the role of SS, SVO and SSS in the DG and the Dictator Game Taking (DGT) was examined. In the three experiments, it was not found that SS had any effect on the decisions of the games. However, more rejection and negative valence was observed (Exp. 1: p < .001, n 2 p =.72; Exp. 2: p < .001, n 2 p = .65) for unfair offers than for fair ones (Exp. 2: p < .001). Also, pro-social individuals made fairer offers in the DG (Exp. 2: p < .05) and participants offered more money in the DGT than in the DG (Exp. 3: p = .01). Those findings showed that the effect of SS on behavioral responses is not robust, which highlights the need to obtain new experimental evidence to investigate its role in those decisions.


Resumo Os recursos são normalmente distribuídos de maneira desigual em função do status social (SS) das pessoas, razão pela qual diversos pesquisadores utilizam experimentos para explicar o papel do SS nas decisões econômicas. No entanto, as diversas formas de induzir o SS geraram resultados contraditórios. No presente trabalho, investigou-se o efeito do SS na distribuição dos recursos monetários em estudantes de 18 a 25 anos da cidade de Córdoba, na Argentina, por meio de três experimentos com desenhos experimentais mistos. Especificamente, foram avaliadas diferentes técnicas para manipular o SS e seu efeito nas decisões econômicas: no Experimento 1 comparou-se o efeito de duas técnicas de manipulação do SS nas decisões do Jogo do Ultimato (JU) e do Ditador (JD); no Experimento 2 analisou-se o efeito do SS nos mesmos jogos, incluindo a orientação de valores sociais (SVO) e o status social subjetivo (SES) como covariáveis e, no Experimento 3, indagou-se o papel do SS, da SVO e do SES no JD e no Ditador de Tomar (do inglês, Dictator Taking Game). Nos três experimentos observou-se que o SS não teve efeito nas decisões dos jogos. Não obstante, evidenciou-se maior rejeição (Exp. 1: p < .001, n 2 p = .72; Exp. 2: p < .001, n 2 p = .65) e valência negativa para as ofertas injustas do que para as justas (Exp. 2: p < .001). Além disso, descobriu-se que quanto maior a pró-socialidade, maior a quantidade ofertada no JD (Exp. 2: p < .05) e que no JDT se oferece mais dinheiro do que no JD (Exp. 3: p = .01). Os resultados observados evidenciam que o efeito do SS nas respostas comportamentais não é robusto, por isso se destaca a importância de continuar investigando seu papel em tais decisões.


Resumen Los recursos son usualmente distribuidos de manera inequitativa en función del estatus social (ES) de las personas, razón por la cual diversos investigadores utilizan experimentos para explicar el rol del ES en las decisiones económicas; sin embargo, las diversas formas de inducir el ES han generado resultados contradictorios. En el presente trabajo se investigó el efecto del ES en la distribución de los recursos monetarios en estudiantes de 18 a 25 años de la ciudad de Córdoba, Argentina, por medio de tres experimentos con diseños experimentales mixtos. Específicamente, se evaluaron distintas técnicas para manipular el ES y su efecto en las decisiones económicas: en el Experimento 1 se comparó el efecto de dos técnicas de manipulación del ES en las decisiones del Juego del Ultimátum (JU) y del Dictador (JD); en el Experimento 2 se analizó el efecto del ES en los mismos juegos, incluyendo la orientación de valores sociales (SVO) y el estatus social subjetivo (SES) como covariables; y en el Experimento 3 se indagó el rol del ES, de la SVO y del ESS en el JD y en el Dictador de Tomar (JDT). En los tres experimentos se observó que el ES no tuvo efecto en las decisiones de los juegos. No obstante, se evidenció mayor rechazo (Exp. 1: p < .001, n 2 p = .72; Exp. 2: p < .001, n 2 p = .65) y valencia negativa para las ofertas injustas que para las justas (Exp. 2: p < .001). Además, se encontró que a mayor prosocialidad, mayor cantidad ofertada en el JD (Exp. 2: p < .05), y que en el JDT se ofrece más dinero que en el JD (Exp. 3: p = .01). Los resultados observados evidencian que el efecto del ES en las respuestas comportamentales no es robusto, por lo que se destaca la importancia de continuar investigando su rol en dichas decisiones.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Constituição e Estatutos , Jogos Recreativos , Hierarquia Social
6.
Acta colomb. psicol ; 22(2): 99-124, July-Dec. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019278

RESUMO

Abstract The objective of this study was to establish the relationship between dysfunctional parenting styles and empathy in Nursing, Human Medicine and Psychology students. The study's sample consisted of 599 students, from both genders, and from different cycles of their university studies. Their ages ranged between 21 and 25 years. To assess them, the Dysfunctional Parenting Styles Scale by Parker, et al. (1979) was used, previously adapted to Peruvian population. The participants were also evaluated with the Personal and Professional Empathy Scale designed by Yaraskavitch (2009), and completed a socio-demographic data sheet created ad hoc. General results showed no significant relationships between the dysfunctional parenting styles and empathy total scores. In contrast, considering the father figure, an inverse relationship between the authoritarian-controlling dysfunctional parenting style and the personal and professional cognitive empathy was found, while the indifference - negligence dysfunctional parenting style was inversely associated with the emotive personal empathy. As to the mother figure, there is a significant and direct relationship between authoritarian-controlling dysfunctional parenting style and personal and professional emotive empathy. It was also found that regarding gender, women have higher levels of empathy. With respect to professional degree courses, Nursing students have a higher level of empathy than Medicine and Psychology students, while Medicine students have more dysfunctional parenting styles than the Nursing and Psychology groups. Finally, students that had taken personal development courses showed a higher level of empathy.


Resumo O presente estudo teve como objetivo estabelecer a relação entre os estilos parentais disfuncionais e a empatia em estudantes universitários de Lima, além de comparações de acordo com a carreira profissional (Enfermagem, Medicina Humana e Psicologia). A amostra foi composta por 599 estudantes de ambos os sexos, com idades entre 21 e 25 anos, a quem foi aplicada a Escala de Estilos Parentais Disfuncionais -de Parker et a. (1979)-, a Escala de Empatia Pessoal e Profissional -desenhada por Yaraskavitch et al. (2009)-, ambas adaptadas para os fins do estudo, e uma ficha sociodemográfica elaborada pelos autores. Os resultados mostram uma relação não significativa entre as pontuações totais de estilos parentais disfuncionais e de empatia, mas obteve-se uma relação inversa entre a subescala de estilo disfuncional paterno "autoritário-controlador" com as dimensões "empatia pessoal cognitiva" e "empatia profissional cognitiva", e uma relação direta entre a subescala de estilo disfuncional materno com as dimensões "empatia pessoal emotiva" e "empatia profissional emotiva". Além disso, com respeito ao gênero, as mulheres apresentaram maior nível de empatia e, de acordo com o curso, os estudantes de Enfermaria apresentaram maiores níveis de empatia, enquanto os de Medicina mostraram mais estilos parentais disfuncionais. Finalmente, os estudantes que fizeram cursos de desenvolvimento pessoal em sua formação profissional apresentaram maior nível de empatia.


Resumen El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo establecer la relación entre los estilos parentales disfuncionales y la empatía en estudiantes universitarios de Lima, además de comparaciones según su carrera profesional (Enfermería, Medicina Humana y Psicología). La muestra estuvo compuesta por 599 estudiantes de ambos sexos, con edades entre los 21 y 25 años, a quienes se les aplicó la Escala de Estilos Parentales Disfuncionales -de Parker et al. (1979)-, la Escala de Empatía Personal y Profesional -diseñada por Yaraskavitch et al. (2009)-, ambas adaptadas para los fines del estudio, y una ficha sociodemográfica elaborada por los autores. Los resultados muestran una relación no significativa entre los puntajes totales de estilos parentales disfuncionales y de empatía, aunque se obtuvo una relación inversa entre la subescala de estilo disfuncional paterno "autoritario-controlador" con las dimensiones "empatía personal cognitiva" y "empatía profesional cognitiva", y una relación directa entre la subescala de estilo disfuncional materno con las dimensiones "empatía personal emotiva" y "empatía profesional emotiva"; además de que, respecto al género, las mujeres presentaron mayor nivel de empatía, y, según carrera, los estudiantes de Enfermería presentaron mayores niveles de empatía, mientras que los de Medicina mostraron más estilos parentales disfuncionales. Finalmente, los estudiantes que llevaron a cabo cursos de desarrollo personal en su formación profesional presentaron un mayor nivel de empatía.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Empatia , Ciências da Saúde , Relações Familiares
7.
Acta colomb. psicol ; 22(2): 125-147, July-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019279

RESUMO

Abstract The objective of the present study was to analyze whether there are differences between men and women in terms of the influence of personality dimensions on academic procrastination. Participants were 986 students aged between 16 and 40 years (69.8 % women, Mage = 20.81 years), students of different professional careers from two universities located in Lima. The Academic Procrastination Scale (APS) and the Big Five Inventory-15P (BFI-15P) were the instruments administered. An invariance analysis of a structural regression model that indicates the influence of personality on academic procrastination was implemented. The results show that personality explains a significant percentage of the variability of the dimensions of academic procrastination. However, the influence of two dimensions, consciousness and neuroticism, is greater in women. The theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed, as well as the need to strengthen curricular plans aimed at enhancing resources and reducing those aspects that could negatively affect the academic behavior of the student.


Resumo O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar a existência de diferenças entre homens e mulheres com respeito à influência das dimensões de personalidade sobre a procrastinação acadêmica em 986 alunos de 16 a 40 anos (69,8 % mulheres; Midade = 20,81 anos) de diferentes carreiras profissionais de duas universidades localizadas em Lima. Para isso, administrou-se a Escala de Procrastinação Acadêmica (EPA) e o Big Five Inventory-15P (BFI-15P) e implementou-se uma análise de invariância de um modelo de regressão estrutural. Os resultados mostraram que a personalidade explica uma porcentagem significativa da variabilidade das dimensões da procrastinação acadêmica e que a influência das dimensões responsabilidade e neuroticismo foi maior nas mulheres. São discutidas as implicâncias teóricas e práticas das descobertas, bem como a necessidade de fortalecer planos curriculares orientados para potencializar recursos e reduzir os aspectos que poderiam afetar negativamente a conduta acadêmica do estudante.


Resumen El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la existencia de diferencias entre hombres y mujeres en cuanto a la influencia de las dimensiones de personalidad sobre la procrastinación académica en 986 alumnos de entre 16 y 40 años (69.8 % mujeres; Medad = 20.81 años) de distintas carreras profesionales de dos universidades ubicadas en Lima. Para esto, se administró la Escala de Procrastinación Académica (EPA) y el Big Five Inventory-15P (BFI-15P), y se implementó un análisis de invarianza de un modelo regresión estructural. Los resultados mostraron que la personalidad explica un porcentaje significativo de la variabilidad de las dimensiones de la procrastinación académica, y que la influencia de las dimensiones responsabilidad y neuroticismo fue mayor en las mujeres. Se discuten las implicancias teóricas y prácticas de los hallazgos, así como la necesidad de fortalecer planes curriculares orientados a potenciar recursos y reducir los aspectos que podrían afectar negativamente la conducta académica del estudiante.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Personalidade , Procrastinação
8.
Acta colomb. psicol ; 22(2): 148-177, July-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019280

RESUMO

Abstract The objective of the present study was to design, validate and obtain the reliability of the Maternal Attitudes Towards Overweight and Childhood Obesity Scale. The validation of this instrument was carried out in four stages: a) Study 1: Exploratory, with N= 95 mothers and grandmothers aged 20 to 46 years (M age = 32.43, SD = 7.9) which used the semantic networks technique to inquire about the psychological meaning of overweight and obesity; b) Study 2: Content Validity, where 33 items were written and the content validity was obtained through five judges; c) Study 3: First Validation, which included 346 mothers aged 18 to 62 (M age = 33.08, SD = 6.8) with preschool children; 11 items were obtained distributed in three factors denominated: negative attitude (α = .72), meaning (α = .63) and importance (α = .56), with α = .77 of the total scale and an explained variance of 54.50%; d) Study 4: Second Validation, in which 369 mothers and grandmothers (3 %) aged between17 and 63 years (M age = 32.43, SD = 7.9) participated. The final scale was two-dimensional, composed of 11 items with an α =.85 and an explained variance of 46%, which evaluates the negative attitudes perceived towards obesity and its consequences.


Resumo O objetivo do presente estudo foi desenhar e validar a Escala de atitudes maternas com respeito ao sobrepeso e à obesidade infantil. Em particular, a validação consistiu de quatro etapas: (a) um estudo exploratório (Estudo 1) com 95 mães e avós de 20 a 46 anos (M idade = 32.43, DP = 7.9), no qual se utilizou a técnica de redes semânticas para conhecer o significado psicológico do sobrepeso e da obesidade; (b) um estudo de validade de conteúdo (Estudo 2), no qual 33 reativos foram escritos e a validade de conteúdo foi obtida por meio do conceito de cinco juizes; (c) um estudo para uma primeira validação (Estudo 3) com 346 mães de 18 a 62 anos (M idade = 33.08, DP = 6.8) com filhos em idade pré-escolar, com a qual foram obtidos 11 reativos distribuidos em três fatores, denominados atitude negativa (α = .72), significado (α = .63) e importância (α = .56), com um α = .77 na escala total e uma variância explicada de 54,50%, e (d) um estudo para uma segunda validação (Estudo 4), no qual participaram 369 mães e avós (3 %) de 17 a 63 anos (M idade = 32.43, DE = 7.9). Como resultado, a escala foi bidimensional, composta por 11 reativos, com um α = .85 e uma variância explicada de 46%, que avalia as atitudes negativas percebidas com respeito à obesidade e suas consequências.


Resumen El objetivo del presente estudio fue diseñar y validar la escala de actitudes maternas hacia el sobrepeso y la obesidad infantil. En particular, la validación consistió en cuatro etapas: (a) un estudio exploratorio (Estudio 1) con 95 madres y abuelas de 20 a 46 años (M edad = 32.43, DE = 7.9), en el que se utilizó la técnica de redes semánticas para conocer el significado psicológico del sobrepeso y la obesidad; (b) un estudio de validez de contenido (Estudio 2), en el que se redactaron 33 reactivos, y la validez de contenido se obtuvo mediante el concepto de cinco jueces; (c) un estudio para una primera validación (Estudio 3) con 346 madres de 18 a 62 años (M edad = 33.08, DE = 6.8), con hijos en edad preescolar, con el cual se obtuvieron 11 reactivos distribuidos en tres factores, denominados actitud negativa (α = .72), significado (α = .63) e importancia (α = .56), con un α = .77 en la escala total y una varianza explicada del 54.50 %; y (d) un estudio para una segunda validación (Estudio 4), en el que participaron 369 madres y abuelas (3 %) de 17 a 63 años (M edad = 32.43, DE = 7.9). Como resultado, la escala fue bidimensional, compuesta por 11 reactivos, con un α = .85 y una varianza explicada del 46 %, que evalúa las actitudes negativas percibidas hacia la obesidad y las consecuencias de esta.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Sobrepeso , Mães , Obesidade
9.
Acta colomb. psicol ; 22(2): 178-193, July-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019281

RESUMO

Abstract Developing programs to prevent alcohol consumption whose impact goes beyond cultural borders represents a challenge since it is necessary to recognize cultural differences that determine consumption. This cross-cultural comparative study was aimed to find the differences in beliefs related to alcohol consumption in a non-randomized stratified sample of 1602 educated teenage men and women and youth (870 Chileans and 732 Colombians) with ages between 14 and 25 years. The instruments used were the Belief Questionnaire Regarding Alcohol Consumption and the Audit Consumption Test. The ANOVA statistic was used to compare the means between countries. Results indicated that Colombians have higher consumption triggers, higher perception of risk and vulnerability, and the highest perception of perceived benefits of consumption. On the other hand, Chileans present significantly greater beliefs regarding the consumption barriers with lower averages in all factors. However, in both populations the averages found indicate moderate and high risk.


Resumo O desenvolvimento de programas de prevenção do consumo de álcool cujo impacto sobrepasse fronteiras culturais representa um desafio importante devido ao fato de que é preciso reconhecer as diferenças culturais determinantes do consumo. O presente estudo comparativo transcultural teve como objetivo conhecer as diferenças nas crenças relacionadas com o consumo de álcool em uma amostra estratificada não aleatorizada de 1602 adolescentes e jovens (870 chilenos e 732 colombianos), homens e mulheres escolarizados com idades entre 14 e 25 anos. Para isso, fez-se uso do Cuestionario de Creencias Referidas al Consumo de Alcohol e o teste AUDIT de consumo. Para comparar as médias entre países, utilizou-se o estatístico ANOVA. Os resultados indicaram que os colombianos têm mais altos gatilhos de consumo, maior percepção de risco e vulnerabilidade, e percepção mais alta de benefícios percebidos com o consumo. Por sua vez, os chilenos apresentaram crenças significativamente maiores com respeito às barreiras de consumo, com menores médias em todos os fatores. Em ambas as populações, as médias reportadas indicaram um risco moderado e alto para o consumo de álcool.


Resumen El desarrollo de programas de prevención del consumo de alcohol cuyo impacto sobrepase fronteras culturales representa un reto importante debido a que se hace necesario reconocer las diferencias culturales determinantes del consumo. El presente estudio comparativo transcultural tuvo como objetivo conocer las diferencias en las creencias relacionadas con el consumo de alcohol en una muestra estratificada no aleatorizada de 1602 adolescentes y jóvenes (870 chilenos y 732 colombianos), hombres y mujeres escolarizados con edades entre los 14 y los 25 años. Para esto, se hizo uso del Cuestionario de Creencias Referidas al Consumo de Alcohol y el test AUDIT de consumo. Para comparar las medias entre países se utilizó el estadístico ANOVA. Los resultados indicaron que los colombianos tienen más altas claves disparadoras de consumo, mayor percepción de riesgo y vulnerabilidad, y percepción más alta de beneficios percibidos con el consumo. Por su parte, los chilenos presentaron creencias significativamente mayores respecto a las barreras de consumo, con menores promedios en todos los factores. En ambas poblaciones las medias reportadas indicaron un riesgo moderado y alto para el consumo de alcohol.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Alcoolismo , Adulto Jovem
10.
Acta colomb. psicol ; 22(2): 194-217, July-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019282

RESUMO

Abstract The purpose of this study was to analyze the divergences in perception of parental practices, positive behavior and problems between parents and children. The participants, parents and adolescents, collaborated voluntarily and were examined in the following dyads: 248 fathers-sons, 241fathers-daughters, 237 mothers-sons, and 241 mothers-daughters. The psychometric instruments used were the Strengths and Difficulties Scale and the Parental Practices Scale for mothers and fathers. To achieve the main objective, correlation analysis, path analysis and differences of means with related samples were performed. The results showed correlations, from moderate to low, between parental practices, problems and prosocial behavior. In addition, different predictive factors of the children's behaviors were obtained, according to the sex of the parents and the parental practices they implemented. Finally, there were divergences between reports of parental practices, prosocial behavior and problems between parents and their children. Therefore, it is concluded that parental behavior is oriented according to the sexual role of their children, which involves social desirability.


Resumo O presente estudo teve como finalidade analisar as divergências na percepção das práticas parentais, no comportamento positivo e nas problemáticas entre pais e filhos. Os participantes, pais e adolescentes, colaboraram de maneira voluntária e foram avaliados nas seguintes díades: 248 pais-filhos, 241 pais-filhas, 237 mães-filhos e 241 mães-filhas. Os instrumentos utilizados foram a Escala de Capacidades e Dificuldades e a Escala de Práticas Parentais para mães e pais. Para alcançar o objetivo principal, realizaram-se análises de correlação, análises de caminhos e diferenças de médias com amostras relacionadas. Os resultados mostraram correlações - de moderadas a baixas - entre as práticas parentais, os problemas e a conduta pró-social, além de diferentes fatores preditivos das condutas dos filhos a partir do gênero dos pais e das práticas parentais exercidas. Houve divergências entre os relatórios de práticas parentais, conduta pró-social e problemas entre os pais e seus filhos. Conclui-se que a conduta parental é orientada de acordo com o gênero dos filhos, o que implica certa desejabilidade social relacionada com seu papel como homens ou como mulheres.


Resumen El presente estudio tuvo como finalidad analizar las divergencias en la percepción de las prácticas parentales, el comportamiento positivo y las problemáticas entre padres e hijos. Los participantes, padres y adolescentes, colaboraron de manera voluntaria y se evaluaron en las siguientes díadas: 248 padres-hijos, 241 padres-hijas, 237 madres-hijos, y 241 madres-hijas. Los instrumentos utilizados fueron la Escala de Capacidades y Dificultades y la Escala de Prácticas Parentales para madres y padres. Para lograr el objetivo principal se realizaron análisis de correlación, análisis de senderos y diferencias de medias con muestras relacionadas. Los resultados mostraron correlaciones -de moderadas a bajas- entre las prácticas parentales, los problemas y la conducta prosocial, además de diferentes factores predictores de las conductas de los hijos a partir del sexo de los padres y las prácticas parentales ejercidas. Se presentaron divergencias entre los reportes de prácticas parentales, conducta prosocial y problemas entre los padres y sus hijos. Se concluye que la conducta parental se orienta según el sexo de los hijos, lo cual implica cierta deseabilidad social relacionada con su rol como hombres o como mujeres.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Relações Pais-Filho , Comportamento , Família , Comunicação
11.
Acta colomb. psicol ; 22(2): 218-240, July-Dec. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019283

RESUMO

Abstract Greater social engagement is commonly associated with more efficient cognitive processing, as it improves cognitive reserve. The aim of this research is to assess the relationship between social engagement (in the dimensions of social contact, support and conflict) and certain cognitive skills (cognitive flexibility, planning, verbal fluency, processing speed, and verbal comprehension) in young college students. This cross-sectional rank correlation study was carried out in a sample of 49 college students. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient showed relationship between: social contact and verbal fluency (r = -.299, p = .037); social support and planning (r = .368, p = .009); and social conflict and processing speed (r = .306, p = .032). The results outline a measurable relationship between social engagement and certain cognitive skills, even when said results are not entirely conclusive. Thus, the need for more detailed studies on these processes becomes clear.


Resumo A literatura científica indica que um maior compromisso social está relacionado com um pensamento cognitivo mais eficiente, devido ao fato de que tal compromisso aumenta a reserva cognitiva. Levando isso em consideração, o objetivo da presente pesquisa foi identificar a relação existente entre o compromisso social (em suas dimensões de contato, apoio e conflito social) e alguns processos cognitivos (como flexibilidade mental, planejamento, fluidez verbal, velocidade de processamento e compreensão verbal) em jovens universitários. Para tanto, realizou-se um estudo correlacional com um desenho transversal em uma amostra de 49 estudantes. A análise de correlação de Spearman revelou correlações entre contato social e fluidez verbal (r = -.299, p = .037), apoio social e planejamento (r = .368, p = .009) e conflito social e velocidade de processamento (r = .306, p = .032). Esses resultados constituem uma associação entre o compromisso social e algumas funções cognitivas. Apesar dos resultados não serem completamente conclusivos, fica clara a necessidade de um estudo mais detalhado desses processos.


Resumen La literatura científica indica que un mayor compromiso social se relaciona con un procesamiento cognitivo más eficiente, debido a que dicho compromiso incrementa la reserva cognitiva. Teniendo esto en cuenta, el objetivo de la presente investigación fue identificar la relación existente entre el compromiso social (en sus dimensiones de contacto, apoyo y conflicto social) y algunos procesos cognitivos (como flexibilidad mental, planeación, fluidez verbal, velocidad de procesamiento y comprensión verbal) en jóvenes universitarios. Para esto, se realizó un estudio correlacional con un diseño transversal en una muestra de 49 estudiantes. El análisis de correlación de Spearman reveló correlaciones entre contacto social y fluidez verbal (r = -.299, p = .037), apoyo social y planeación (r = .368, p = .009), y conflicto social y velocidad de procesamiento (r = .306, p = .032). Estos resultados perfilan una asociación entre el compromiso social y algunas funciones cognitivas. A pesar de que los resultados no son del todo concluyentes, queda claro que se necesita de un estudio más detallado de estos procesos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Psicologia Social , Cognição , Relações Interpessoais
12.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 11(2): 61-69, jul.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-183600

RESUMO

Psychological intimate partner violence (IPV) is the most prevalent form of IPV and is often thought to precede physical IPV. However, psychological IPV often occurs independently of other forms of IPV, and it can often emerge during routine relationship interactions. Using data from imprisoned male offenders we investigate the effect of hostile and benevolent sexist attitudes on psychological IPV and the hypothesized mediating role of positive attitudes toward IPV and this effect when accounting for broader risk factors at the levels of community (social disorder), family-of-origin (conflictive climate in family of origin), and personality (antisocial personality traits) variables. The sample involved 196 male inmates of the Penitentiary Center of Villabona (Asturias, Spain). Structural equation models result showed significant total, direct and indirect effect of hostile sexism on psychological IPV, but not of benevolent sexism. When individual, family-of-origin, and community variables were considered, however, hostile sexism showed only an indirect effect on psychological IPV via positive attitudes toward abuse. These results are discussed in light of the debate of the role of sexist attitudes in the psychological IPV explanation when broader models are considered


La violencia de pareja (VP) psicológica es la forma más prevalente de VP y habitualmente suele preceder a la VP física. Sin embargo, la VP psicológica ocurre a menudo independientemente de otras formas de VP y puede darse en interacciones rutinarias con la pareja. Utilizando datos de hombres recluidos en prisión, hemos investigado el efecto del sexismo hostil y benevolente sobre la VP psicológica, así como el rol mediador de las actitudes positivas hacia el abuso de la pareja. Hemos investigado también ese efecto cuando están presentes otros factores de riesgo de VP psicológica señalados en la literatura reciente están presentes: comunidad (desorden social), familia de origen (clima conflictivo en la familia de origen) y factores individuales (rasgos de personalidad antisocial). Participaron en el estudio 196 hombres internos en el Centro Penitenciario de Villabona (Asturias, España). Los resultados de los modelos de ecuaciones estructurales estimados indican un efecto total, directo e indirecto significativo del sexismo hostil sobre la VP psicológica, pero no del sexismo benevolente. Cuando las variables de la comunidad, la familia de origen y factores individuales se incorporaron al modelo únicamente el efecto indirecto del sexismo hostil a través de las actitudes positivas hacia el abuso siguió siendo significativo. Los resultados se discuten en relación con el debate sobre el rol de las actitudes sexistas sobre la VP psicológica en el marco de modelos más generales de violencia


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Sexismo/psicologia , Agressão/psicologia , Repressão Psicológica , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Esgotamento Psicológico/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Violência contra a Mulher , Conflito (Psicologia) , Homicídio/psicologia
13.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 11(2): 71-79, jul.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-183601

RESUMO

Priority given to investigating the onset and maintenance of criminal behavior in the past is currently giving way to a new focus on the process of criminal desistance. Early narratives of future desistance are the first step in this process and, although they do not assure withdrawal from crime, they are the beginning of the personal change that precedes a progressive desistance from criminal activity. This study analyzes early desistance narratives of offenders still in prison and whether these narratives differed depending on their personal, criminal, and social characteristics. Participants were 44 imprisoned male offenders, aged between 20 and 50 years old at different stages of their sentence and in three different prison regimes. They were interviewed using Cid and Martí's protocol and their accounts were accordingly coded in three categories: early narratives towards a non-criminal identity, perceived self-efficacy to desist from crime, and will to desist. The results show that participants' early desistance narratives vary depending on their personal, criminal, and social variables. Results on the periods of sentence completion and prison regimes are discussed in terms of how prisons could contribute to enhancing the narratives of desistance from crime


La prioridad otorgada en el pasado a la investigación sobre el inicio y mantenimiento de la conducta delictiva está dando paso actualmente al análisis del proceso de desistimiento delictivo. Las narrativas tempranas del desistimiento futuro son el primer paso en este proceso y, aunque no aseguran dicho desistimiento, son el comienzo del cambio personal que precede al abandono progresivo de la actividad delictiva. Este estudio analiza las narrativas tempranas de desistimiento de delincuentes aún en prisión y si estas narrativas difieren según sus características personales, delictivas y sociales. Los participantes fueron 44 varones encarcelados, con edades comprendidas entre los 20 y los 50 años, en diferentes fases de su sentencia y en tres grados penitenciarios distintos. Fueron entrevistados utilizando el protocolo de Cid y Martí y sus relatos fueron codificados en tres categorías: narrativas tempranas sobre una identidad no delictiva, autoeficacia percibida para desistir del delito y voluntad para desistir. Los resultados muestran que las narrativas tempranas de desistimiento de los participantes difieren según sus características personales, delictivas y sociales. Los resultados relativos a la fase de la sentencia y a los grados penitenciarios se discuten en términos de cómo las prisiones pueden contribuir a potenciar las narrativas de desistimiento delictivo


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Comportamento Criminoso , Criminosos/psicologia , Autoeficácia , Terapia Narrativa/métodos , Avaliação de Eficácia-Efetividade de Intervenções , Psicologia Criminal/métodos
14.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 11(2): 93-97, jul.-dic. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-183603

RESUMO

Intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators were categorized based on whether they were generally violent (GV) or family only violent (FO) using self-report or arrest records. Classification criteria to assess recidivism in perpetrators of IPV were evaluated herein to determine the incremental validity of using a perpetrator's criminal history in addition to their self-report information for categorization purposes. The concordance rates for categorizing subtypes of male perpetrators were compared for two methods, namely, self-report versus criminal history data. Categorizations were made based on self-reported history of violence and federal criminal records separately. Between measures consistency was defined as whether or not the self-report categorizations matched federal criminal record categorizations. It was hypothesized that self-report would not be sufficient as the sole method of categorizing male perpetrators, and the use of criminal history data would add to the validity of the categorization system. Self-reports of aggression were higher than criminal records of aggression. Using data sources together may yield the best outcomes for offenders and society. Implications are discussed


Se clasificaron los varones que ejercen violencia en las relaciones de pareja (VP) en función de si eran violentos en general (VG) o solo en el entorno familiar (VF), empleando registros de autoinformes o de arrestos. Se analizaron los criterios de clasificación para evaluar la reincidencia de los infractores de VP con el fin de determinar la validez incremental del uso de los antecedentes penales del infractor, además de la información procedente de su autoinforme para la clasificación. Se compararon los índices de concordancia para categorizar los subtipos de infractores masculinos para dos métodos: los datos procedentes de autoinforme y los de antecedentes penales. La categorización se basó en la historia de violencia autoinformada y en los antecedentes penales por separado. La congruencia entre medidas se definió como la coincidencia o discrepancia de la categorización de autoinforme con la categorización de antecedentes penales. Se planteó la hipótesis de que el autoinforme no bastaba como único método para clasificar a los infractores masculinos y que el uso de datos procedentes de antecedentes penales aumentaba la validez del sistema de categorización. Hubo más autoinformes sobre agresión que antecedentes penales de agresión. El uso conjunto de ambos podría tener mejores resultados, tanto para los delincuentes como para la sociedad. Se discuten las implicaciones de estos resultados


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Violência de Gênero/classificação , Criminosos/psicologia , Agressão/classificação , Comportamento Perigoso , Violência contra a Mulher , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi ; 58(11): 796-802, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665853

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and prognostic factors in core binding factor (CBF) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) under current therapy modalities, therefore optimizing the treatment strategies. Methods: Standard cytological and immune methods including next generation sequencing (NGS) were used for risk stratification. Complete remission (CR) rate, disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were assessed by multivariate Logistic and Cox regression models in a total of 206 adults (aged 16-65 years) with CBF-AML, including 152 AML patients with t(8;21) and 54 with inv(16). Results: The CR rate of inv(16) patients after first course was 54/54(100%), significantly higher than that of t(8;21) patients [127/147(86.4%), P=0.005]. The fusion transcript level and KIT mutation were independent factors related to CR rate in t(8;21) patients (P=0.044 and 0.027; respectively). DFS and OS in inv(16) patients tended to be more superior than that in t(8;21) patients (P=0.066 for DFS; P=0.306 for OS; respectively). Multivariate Cox identified negative expression of CD(19) and female gender the independent predictors of inferior DFS in t(8;21) patients (P=0.000 for CD(19); P=0.006 for sex; respectively). Analysis of combining CD(19) with gender indicated that females/CD(1)(9-)subpopulation had significantly poor DFS than did males/CD(19)(+) ones (Bonferroni-P<0.000 01). The number of mutations in each patient, FLT3-ITD and additional karyotype abnormalities did not affect CR rate and DFS (all P>0.05). Conclusions: Patients with inv(16) have better induction response than those with t(8;21). High level of fusion transcripts and positive KIT mutation are associated with low CR rate in t(8;21) patients. Negative CD(19) expression and female gender are independent predictors of inferior DFS in t(8;21) patients.


Assuntos
Fatores de Ligação ao Core , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Indução de Remissão , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Fatores de Ligação ao Core/genética , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/mortalidade , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol ; 38(2): 165-172, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679279

RESUMO

Donor blood is usually screened for some risk factors, such as hepatitis, HIV, and malarial parasites, but it is not routinely screened for heavy metals although their adverse effects on the human body have been proved by a number of studies. In this study, an attempt was made to determine the effect of smoking on concentration of cadmium, nickel, and lead in donor blood. A semistructured questionnaire was prepared and given to participants. It showed that 79% (two groups: 65 smokers and 65 nonsmokers) smoked at least one cigarette per day. Collected blood samples were then subjected to atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). In comparing blood levels between smoking and nonsmoking participants, we noted a high positive correlation between lead and nickel concentrations. There were statistically significant correlations between cadmium, lead, and nickel concentrations in the blood of smokers and nonsmokers. Moreover, because a substantial percentage of blood donors may be smokers and blood donation does not always meet demand, it would be difficult to completely exclude smokers from donating blood. Our findings indicate the need to screen for heavy metals when transfusing blood to the elderly, neonates, and infants, and to avoid transfusion of blood and blood products if levels are in the toxic range.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Cádmio/sangue , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Chumbo/sangue , Níquel/sangue , Fumar/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
17.
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi ; 57(11): 857-862, 2019 Nov 02.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665840

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the clinical characteristics of patients with PCDH19-female limited epilepsy (PCDH19-FE). Methods: The clinical data of 60 female epilepsy patients with PCDH19 gene heterozygous variations at the Department of Pediatrics, Peking University First Hospital from October 2007 to December 2018 were collected and analyzed retrospectively, their clinical manifestations, accessory examination and follow-up treatment were summarized. Results: Data of a total of 60 cases of PCDH19-FE were collected. The seizure onset occurred between 4 and 42 months of age (median: 11 months of age). Focal seizures occurred in 47 patients (78%), generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) occurred in 30 patients (50%), and other rare types of seizures included atypical absence, myoclonic, clonic, tonic, and atonic seizures. Two or more seizures types existed in 24 patients (40%), and seven patients (12%) had attacks of status epilepticus. Sensitivity to fever was observed in 47 out of them (78%) and clustering of seizures as found in all patients. During the interictal phase, focal discharges were monitored in 22 cases (22/45, 49%), multifocal discharges in 12 cases (12/45, 27%), widely discharging in 2 cases (4%), and both focal and widely discharging in 9 cases (20%). Clinical seizures were detected in 30 patients during the electroencephalogram (EEG) recording, including focal seizures in 22 cases, GTCS seizures in 8 cases, tonic seizure in three cases, myoclonic seizure followed by GTCS in one case, and two types of seizures in four cases. Before seizure onset, 57 patients had normal development and three patients had delayed language development. After seizure onset, varied degrees of intelligence disability were present in 38 cases (63%), language delay in 36 cases (60%), and gait instability in 10 cases (17%). Autistic features occurred in 17 cases (28%); and other behavioral problems like learning difficulties, personality, or emotional disorders existed in 33 cases (55%). Age at last follow-up ranged from one year and 3 months to 22 years and 3 months of age, 17 patients (28%) were seizure-free for more than 2 years (5 to 22 years at the last follow-up). The efficiency of antiepileptic drugs were 65% (33/51) in sodium valproate, 63% (27/43) in levetiracetam and 59% (20/34) in topiramate. Conclusions: The clinical features of PCDH19-FE are characterized by clustering of seizures, focal seizures in most cases, sensitivity to fever mostly, focal discharges principally in EEG, varied degrees of intellectual disability or movement disorder, combined with autism spectrum disorders in partial and high efficiency in sodium valproate or levetiracetam treatment.


Assuntos
Caderinas/genética , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/genética , Epilepsia/genética , Convulsões/genética , Adolescente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Eletroencefalografia , Epilepsia/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Mutação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Convulsões/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(43): 967-973, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671083

RESUMO

Among the 47,600 opioid-involved overdose deaths in the United States in 2017, 59.8% (28,466) involved synthetic opioids (1). Since 2013, synthetic opioids, particularly illicitly manufactured fentanyl (IMF), including fentanyl analogs, have been fueling the U.S. overdose epidemic (1,2). Although initially mixed with heroin, IMF is increasingly being found in supplies of cocaine, methamphetamine, and counterfeit prescription pills, which increases the number of populations at risk for an opioid-involved overdose (3,4). With the proliferation of IMF, opioid-involved overdose deaths have increased among minority populations including non-Hispanic blacks (blacks) and Hispanics, groups that have historically had low opioid-involved overdose death rates (5). In addition, metropolitan areas have experienced sharp increases in drug and opioid-involved overdose deaths since 2013 (6,7). This study analyzed changes in overdose death rates involving any opioid and synthetic opioids among persons aged ≥18 years during 2015-2017, by age and race/ethnicity across metropolitan areas. Nearly all racial/ethnic groups and age groups experienced increases in opioid-involved and synthetic opioid-involved overdose death rates, particularly blacks aged 45-54 years (from 19.3 to 41.9 per 100,000) and 55-64 years (from 21.8 to 42.7) in large central metro areas and non-Hispanic whites (whites) aged 25-34 years (from 36.9 to 58.3) in large fringe metro areas. Comprehensive and culturally tailored interventions are needed to address the rise in drug overdose deaths in all populations, including prevention strategies that address the risk factors for substance use across each racial/ethnic group, public health messaging to increase awareness about synthetic opioids in the drug supply, expansion of naloxone distribution for overdose reversal, and increased access to medication-assisted treatment.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/envenenamento , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Overdose de Drogas/etnologia , Overdose de Drogas/mortalidade , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicamentos Sintéticos/envenenamento , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(43): 985-989, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671085

RESUMO

CDC, the Food and Drug Administration, state and local health departments, and other public health and clinical stakeholders are investigating a national outbreak of electronic-cigarette (e-cigarette), or vaping, product use-associated lung injury (EVALI) (1). As of October 22, 2019, 49 states, the District of Columbia (DC), and the U.S. Virgin Islands have reported 1,604 cases of EVALI to CDC, including 34 (2.1%) EVALI-associated deaths in 24 states. Based on data collected as of October 15, 2019, this report updates data on patient characteristics and substances used in e-cigarette, or vaping, products (2) and describes characteristics of EVALI-associated deaths. The median age of EVALI patients who survived was 23 years, and the median age of EVALI patients who died was 45 years. Among 867 (54%) EVALI patients with available data on use of specific e-cigarette, or vaping, products in the 3 months preceding symptom onset, 86% reported any use of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-containing products, 64% reported any use of nicotine-containing products, and 52% reported use of both. Exclusive use of THC-containing products was reported by 34% of patients and exclusive use of nicotine-containing products by 11%, and for 2% of patients, no use of either THC- or nicotine-containing products was reported. Among 19 EVALI patients who died and for whom substance use data were available, 84% reported any use of THC-containing products, including 63% who reported exclusive use of THC-containing products; 37% reported any use of nicotine-containing products, including 16% who reported exclusive use of nicotine-containing products. To date, no single compound or ingredient used in e-cigarette, or vaping, products has emerged as the cause of EVALI, and there might be more than one cause. Because most patients reported using THC-containing products before symptom onset, CDC recommends that persons should not use e-cigarette, or vaping, products that contain THC. In addition, because the specific compound or ingredient causing lung injury is not yet known, and while the investigation continues, persons should consider refraining from the use of all e-cigarette, or vaping, products.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Lesão Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Vaping/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.) , Dronabinol/toxicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Lesão Pulmonar/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(44): e17807, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689864

RESUMO

To explore a comparable method to Gd-contrast enhancement in the preoperative evaluation of anal fistula to evaluate its morphology changes.Forty-six patients with anal fistula were enrolled. Each patient acquired a 3.0T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) routine sequence, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) sequence and fat suppression T1 weighted imaging (FS T1WI) contrast enhancement (CE) scanning. To record the morphology performances of the internal orifice and the fistulas on the transverse images of fat suppression T2 weighted imaging (FS T2WI), DWI, FS T2WI combined with DWI, FS T1WI Gd-CE, with the standard of the surgical pathology results. Two observers evaluated images in consensus. The conspicuity and the diagnostic performance rate were compared between the 4 imaging data sets.The consistencies of interobservers about the conspicuity scores and the diagnostic performance rates of the internal orifice and the fistula were good. The conspicuity of the internal orifice was higher for the set of FS T2WI, FS T2WI+DWI, and FS T1WI+CE than DWI. The diagnostic performance rate of the internal orifice was higher for the set of FS T2WI, FS T2WI+DWI, and FS T1WI+CE than DWI. The conspicuity of the fistula was higher for the set of FS T2WI+DWI and FS T1WI+CE than FS T2WI or DWI. There were no significantly differences between the 4 sets of FS T2WI, DWI, FS T2WI+DWI, and FS T1WI+CE in the diagnostic performance rate of the fistula.The set of FS T2WI combined with DWI was comparable to FS T1WI CE in evaluation of anal fistula morphology changes.


Assuntos
Meios de Contraste , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Gadolínio , Fístula Retal/diagnóstico por imagem , Fístula Retal/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Adulto Jovem
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