Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 915.277
Filtrar
1.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 13(1): 1-7, ene.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-201543

RESUMO

Sexual double standard (SDS) involves evaluating the same sexual behaviors in men and women using different criteria. The support for man-favorable SDS is related to sexual aggression and sexual victimization. Yet to date, studies have not examined the prevalence of SDS adherence. This study aims to identify the prevalence per gender and age of the Spanish population who adheres to the SDS typologies (man-favorable, woman-favorable, egalitarian, ambivalent) by considering sexual freedom and sexual shyness areas. A sample of 2,002 Spanish heterosexual adults (50% men, 50% women), distributed into four age groups (18-25, 26-35, 36-55 and over 55 years old), answered the Sexual Double Standard Scale. The results showed differences in the prevalence of SDS typologies by gender and age. By gender, a higher prevalence of the man-favorable typology was observed in men and a higher prevalence of the egalitarian typology and the woman-favorable typology was observed in women. By age groups, significant differences in man-favorable and woman-favorable typologies were found in both men and women. Based on the evidence of four adherence to SDS typologies, it is recommended studying the relation of these typologies with sexual aggression/victimization to design more efficient programs for prevention and intervention of sexual violence


El doble estándar sexual (DES) consiste en evaluar los mismos comportamientos sexuales en hombres y mujeres usando diferentes criterios. El apoyo al DES favorable al hombre está relacionado con la agresión y la victimización sexual. Sin embargo, hasta la fecha, los estudios no han examinado la prevalencia de la adhesión al DES. Este estudio pretende identificar la prevalencia por género y edad de la población española que se adhiere a las tipologías de DES (favorable al hombre, favorable a la mujer, igualitaria, ambivalente) considerando los ámbitos de la libertad sexual y del recato sexual. Una muestra de 2.002 adultos heterosexuales españoles (50% hombres, 50% mujeres), distribuidos en cuatro grupos de edad (18-25, 26-35, 36-55 y más de 55 años), respondió a la Sexual Double Standard Scale. Los resultados mostraron diferencias en la prevalencia de las tipologías de DES por género y edad. Por género se observó una mayor prevalencia de la tipología favorable al hombre en los hombres y una mayor prevalencia de la tipología igualitaria y la tipología favorable a la mujer en las mujeres. Por grupos de edad se encontraron diferencias significativas en las tipologías favorable al hombre y favorable a la mujer, tanto en hombres como en mujeres. De acuerdo con la evidencia de las cuatro tipologías de adhesión al DES, se recomienda estudiar la relación de estas tipologías con la agresión/victimización sexual para diseñar programas más eficientes de prevención de la violencia sexual e intervención en la misma


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Sexualidade/psicologia , Estereotipagem de Gênero , 57445 , Identidade de Gênero , Biotipologia , Sexismo/psicologia , Feminismo , Androcentrismo , Poder Psicológico , Empoderamento para a Saúde/psicologia
2.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 13(1): 9-19, ene.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-201544

RESUMO

Cognitive Credibility Assessment (CCA) is a verbal lie detection tool consisting of several interview techniques. These techniques have been examined separately but never together. Reflecting the dynamic nature of CCA we combined several of the techniques (free recall followed by a model statement, followed by a reverse order instruction, and followed by a sketch instruction). We examined the new information provided after each stage of the interview and also compared the information provided in the initial recall with the information provided after the entire interview. A total of 47 truth tellers and 47 lie tellers went on a mission. Truth tellers were asked to report their mission truthfully, whereas lie tellers were requested to lie about several aspects of the mission. We measured the total units of information (total details) provided in the interview and the number of complications reported. The results indicate that the pre-registered hypothesis (Hypothesis 1) was supported for complications. Truth tellers reported more complications than lie tellers in each stage of the interview and the difference was more pronounced after the entire interview than after the free recall. As a conclusion, CCA was an effective lie detection method when complications were taken into account


La evaluación cognitiva de la credibilidad (ECC) es una herramienta verbal de detección de mentiras que incluye varias técnicas de entrevista. Dichas técnicas se han examinado por separado pero nunca juntas. Para reflejar el carácter dinámico de la ECC combinamos varias de las técnicas (recuerdo libre seguido de una declaración tipo, seguido de una instrucción de recuerdo en orden inverso, y de una instrucción para que hagan un sketch -esquema- durante la narración del evento). Analizamos la información nueva proporcionada tras cada etapa de la entrevista y también comparamos la información procedente del recuerdo inicial con la aportada por toda la entrevista. Un total de 47 sujetos que decían la verdad y 47 que mentían fueron enviados a una misión. A los participantes de la condición de testimonio verdadero se les pidió que informaran de su misión de modo veraz, mientras que los de la condición de mentira se les solicitó que mintieran sobre distintos aspectos de la misión. Se midió el total de unidades de información (detalles totales) de la entrevista y el número de complicaciones de las que se informaba. Los resultados mostraron que los participantes de la condición de verdad informaban de más detalles y complicaciones (hipótesis 1) en cada fase de la entrevista siendo las mayores diferencias tras la entrevista global que tras el recuerdo libre. En conclusión, la categoría complicaciones de la ECC es eficaz en la detección de la mentira


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Entrevista Psicológica/métodos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Revelação da Verdade , Detecção de Mentiras/psicologia , Cognição/classificação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Rememoração Mental/classificação , Estudo de Prova de Conceito
3.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 13(1): 21-28, ene.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-201545

RESUMO

Employees in the healthcare sector are the professionals who are the most exposed to violence. The severity of its consequences makes it necessary to inquire into its effects and associated factors. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between violence toward nursing staff and job satisfaction, and to find out the mediating role of social support in this relationship. The sample was made up of 1,357 nurses aged 22 to 58, who were administered the Negative Acts Questionnaire, Healthcare-Workers Aggressive Behaviour Scale-Users, Brief Perceived Social Support Questionnaire, and Overall Job Satisfaction. The results showed that violence and bullying by coworkers, users, family members, or other people accompanying the patient had a direct negative effect on internal and external job satisfaction, and this effect was mediated by perceived social support. These outcomes suggest the need to stimulate a firm healthcare support network to improve nurses' job satisfaction by buffering the adverse effects of workplace violence


Los trabajadores del sector sanitario son los más expuestos a situaciones de violencia laboral. La gravedad de sus consecuencias hace necesario indagar en sus efectos y los factores asociados. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue analizar la relación entre la violencia hacia el personal de enfermería y la satisfacción laboral, así como establecer el papel mediador del apoyo social en esta relación. La muestra estuvo formada por 1,357 profesionales de enfermería de entre 22 y 58 años, a quienes se les administró el Negative Acts Questionnaire, la Healthcare-Workers Aggressive Behaviour Scale-Users, el Brief Perceived Social Support Questionnaire y la Overall Job Satisfaction. Los resultados mostraron que la violencia y acoso por parte de compañeros, usuarios y acompañantes o familiares ejercía un efecto directo negativo sobre la satisfacción laboral interna y externa, siendo este efecto mediado por el apoyo social percibido. Estos resultados muestran la necesidad de estimular una red de apoyo firme en el sector sanitario para mejorar la satisfacción con el trabajo entre los profesionales de enfermería, amortiguando los efectos adversos de la violencia laboral


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Violência no Trabalho/psicologia , Exposição à Violência/psicologia , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Condições de Trabalho , Satisfação no Emprego , Apoio Social , Equipe de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos
4.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 13(1): 29-36, ene.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-201546

RESUMO

Drugs are sold on both dark web services and on social media, but research investigating these drug purchases online is still emerging. The aim of this study is to analyze risk factors associated with buying drugs online. Utilizing theories of criminology and addiction research, it was hypothesized that social bonds, low levels of self-control, and poor mental health are associated with buying drugs online. Additionally, it was predicted that purchases of drugs online would mediate the relationship between low self-control and regular drug use. Participants of this nationwide study were 15 to 25 years old living in the United States (N = 1,212) and Spain (N = 1,212). Measures of impulsivity, a sense of mastery, social belonging, psychological distress, excessive behaviors (drinking, gambling and internet use) were utilized to predict purchasing drugs online. Two percent of the U.S. and Spanish respondents reported buying drugs online with 77% of them utilizing social media services to buy drugs. Results from multinomial logistic regression, penalized maximum-likelihood logistic regression, and binary mediation regression models indicated that buying drugs online was associated with lower self-control, higher psychological distress, and excessive gambling behavior and excessive Internet use. Having online friends was not a risk factor, but having strong social bonds with offline friends served as a protective factor. Additionally, buying drugs online mediated the relationship between low self-control and regular use of drugs. Results indicate that more focus should be placed on mainstream social media services as sources of drug acquisition as online drug buyers have multiple self-control and mental health problems


Las drogas se venden en páginas web oscuras y en las redes sociales, aunque la investigación de estas adquisiciones online está aún en sus comienzos. Este estudio tiene como objetivo examinar los factores de riesgo vinculados a la compra de drogas online. De acuerdo con las teorías de la criminología y la investigación sobre adicciones, se planteó la hipótesis de que los vínculos sociales, el bajo nivel de autocontrol y los problemas de salud mental están relacionados con la compra online de drogas. Además, se postuló que la adquisición online de drogas estaría mediada por la relación entre el bajo autocontrol y el consumo frecuente de drogas. Participaron en el estudio un total de 2,424 jóvenes residentes en Estados Unidos (N = 1,212) y en España (N = 1,212), que fueron evaluados en impulsividad, sensación de dominio, pertenencia social, malestar psicológico, comportamientos abusivos (bebida, juego y utilización de internet) , con el objetivo de predecir la compra online de drogas. El 2% de los participantes de EE UU y España dijeron que compraban drogas online, de los cuales el 77% utilizaba servicios de redes sociales para tal fin. Los resultados de una regresión logística multinomial, regresión logística de máxima verosimilitud penalizada y modelos de regresión de mediación binaria mostraron que la adquisición online de drogas se relaciona con un menor autocontrol y un mayor malestar emocional y abuso del juego, y del uso de internet. El hecho de tener amigos por internet no constituía un factor de riesgo y tener vínculos sociales estrechos con amigos fuera de internet constituía un factor protector. A su vez, la compra online de drogas es un factor que media la relación entre bajo autocontrol y uso habitual de drogas. Los resultados sugieren que debería prestarse mayor atención a las redes sociales como medio habitual de adquisición de drogas, dado que los compradores online de drogas tienen múltiples problemas de salud mental y autocontrol


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Tráfico de Drogas/tendências , Comércio Eletrônico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Rede Social , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Controle de Medicamentos e Entorpecentes/tendências
5.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(6)2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34099443

RESUMO

Sarcoidosis is an autoimmune multisystem granulomatous disorder of unknown aetiology, which mainly affects the adults in the age group of 20-39 years. The disease can affect any organ in the body but mainly presents as bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy, pulmonary infiltrates, cutaneous lesions, ocular manifestations and arthropathy. Lofgren's syndrome is an uncommon initial presentation of sarcoidosis which is recognised by the classical triad of acute arthritis, erythema nodosum and bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy. We describe a newly diagnosed case of sarcoidosis who presented as Lofgren's syndrome. Acute sarcoid arthritis should be kept as one of the differential diagnoses for patients presenting with acute arthritis and skin lesions; and chest X-ray should be considered to rule out bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy in these patients. Early suspicion and identification of classical clinical features are essential to establish early diagnosis.


Assuntos
Artrite , Eritema Nodoso , Exantema , Sarcoidose , Adulto , Artrite/diagnóstico , Artrite/etiologia , Eritema Nodoso/diagnóstico , Exantema/etiologia , Humanos , Sarcoidose/complicações , Sarcoidose/diagnóstico , Síndrome , Adulto Jovem
6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3455, 2021 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34103517

RESUMO

Limited data exist on SARS-CoV-2 infection rates across sectors and occupations, hindering our ability to make rational policy, including vaccination prioritization, to protect workers and limit SARS-CoV-2 spread. Here, we present results from our SEROCoV-WORK + study, a serosurvey of workers recruited after the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Geneva, Switzerland. We tested workers (May 18-September 18, 2020) from 16 sectors and 32 occupations for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies. Of 10,513 participants, 1026 (9.8%) tested positive. The seropositivity rate ranged from 4.2% in the media sector to 14.3% in the nursing home sector. We found considerable within-sector variability: nursing home (0%-31.4%), homecare (3.9%-12.6%), healthcare (0%-23.5%), public administration (2.6%-24.6%), and public security (0%-16.7%). Seropositivity rates also varied across occupations, from 15.0% among kitchen staff and 14.4% among nurses, to 5.4% among domestic care workers and 2.8% among journalists. Our findings show that seropositivity rates varied widely across sectors, between facilities within sectors, and across occupations, reflecting a higher exposure in certain sectors and occupations.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Tamanho da Amostra , Suíça/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 241, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34104289

RESUMO

Ganglioneuromas are benign slow-growing lesions that arise from sympathetic ganglion cells. They are usually found incidentally. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), provides only an unspecified diagnosis and it has to be confirmed by pathologic studies. Complete surgical excision is believed to be the curative treatment for symptomatic lesions. In the literature, the pelvic location reported is exceptional. We report a case of laparoscopic assisted excision of a retrorectal presacral ganglioneuroma for 22-year-old female patient.


Assuntos
Ganglioneuroma/cirurgia , Laparoscopia , Neoplasias Retais/cirurgia , Feminino , Ganglioneuroma/diagnóstico por imagem , Ganglioneuroma/patologia , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Neoplasias Retais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Ultrassonografia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 247, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34104295

RESUMO

Introduction: a significant proportion of pregnancy related deaths result from delay in decision to seek care and this often stems from failure to identify obstetric danger signs earlier. Early identification of these danger signs will therefore reduce maternal mortality. However, studies on obstetric danger signs awareness are lacking in Cameroon. The objective of this study was to assess the determinants of obstetric danger signs awareness of women at immediate postpartum period. This will inform ANC providers´ practice. Methods: between June and September 2019, women who delivered at the Buea Regional Hospital were interviewed within 24 hours following their delivery using a researcher-administered questionnaire that covered socio-demographic and obstetric variables. Data were entered into EpiData and analysis done using SPSS 16 and OpenEpi. Statistical significance was set at p-value < 0.05. Results: of the 532 participants, majority (230/532: 43.2%) were those aged 26-35; danger signs awareness rate was 73.3%. There was a statistically significant relation between age and awareness of obstetric danger signs which showed that older women were more aware than their younger counterparts (p=0.00). Other statistically significant determinants of danger sign awareness included occupation, level of education, parity, trimester of onset of antenatal visits and the number of visits before delivery (p<0.05). Multiparity (370/490: 75.5%) and grand multiparity (14/22: 63.6%) were more likely to be aware of obstetric danger signs than primiparous women (6/20: 30%). Similarly, those who started antenatal visits earlier (first or second trimester) and those who attended more visits were more likely to be aware of obstetric danger signs than their counterparts who started later or had lesser antenatal visits before delivery. The most reported danger signs were severe vaginal bleed (71.4%), fever (62.0%) and reduced fetal movement. Conclusion: conclusively, more focus should be placed on the sensitisation about obstetric danger signs when in contact with primiparous and younger parturient during ANC visits.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/epidemiologia , Período Pós-Parto , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Camarões , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Mortalidade Materna , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paridade , Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
9.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 249, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34104297

RESUMO

Introduction: blood donation (BD) is affected by several factors, among which people's knowledge and attitude are the key determinants. However, the level of knowledge and attitude towards BD in Ethiopia is not yet well studied. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the level and factors associated with knowledge and attitude towards blood donation among health science college students in Southwest Ethiopia. Methods: a cross-sectional study was conducted among 394 health science students from June 1st to 15th 2019. The data were collected using a structured self-administered questionnaire. The data were entered using EPI-data version 4.2.0.0 and analyzed using SPSS version 20. The correlation analysis was done to determine the association between the knowledge sum score and the attitude sum score. A binary logistic regression analysis was done to determine the association between the dependent and independent variables. Results: the proportions of good knowledge and positive attitude towards BD were 69.3%, 95% CI (64.8%-73.4%) and 58.1%, 95% CI (52.3%-63.0%) respectively. The study also found that age ≥23 years (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.67, 95% CI (1.04-2.67)), having a father with primary and secondary school and above (AOR=2.24, 95% CI (1.20-4.17) and AOR=2.26, 95% CI (1.26-4.06) respectively) and ever donated blood (AOR=3.64, 95%CI (2.26-5.85)) were factors associated with good knowledge of blood donation. Being a rural resident (AOR=1.59, 95% CI (1.01-2.40)) and graduating class student (AOR=0.56, 95% CI (0.34-0.96)) were factors associated with a positive attitude towards blood donation. The knowledge-related questions´ sum score value was positively correlated with the attitude-related questions' sum score value (r=0.30, P<0.001). Conclusion: the knowledge and attitude towards BD among the study population are a substantial deficiency. Therefore, more effort is needed to increase the level of knowledge and attitude towards BD by inculcating short training courses for these groups of population in the existing curriculum.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 257, 2021.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34104305

RESUMO

Orofacial clefts are common congenital malformations. Tessier's classification system is the most widely used; it consists of 30 variants including median mandibular clefts (Tessier's cleft No. 30). They can be isolated or associated with cleft of the lower lip, tongue or more rarely, of the sternum. They are very rare, less than 70 cases (all types taken together) have been reported in the literature. We here report an exceptional case of mandibular and sternal cleft with literature review.


Assuntos
Mandíbula/anormalidades , Anormalidades Musculoesqueléticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Esterno/anormalidades , Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Mandíbula/diagnóstico por imagem , Mandíbula/cirurgia , Esterno/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
11.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 258, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34104306

RESUMO

Introduction: there is an increased vulnerability for the development of common mental disorders during the peripartum period as evidenced in depressive disorder. Methods: a cross sectional study was used to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with depression among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic (ANC) at Bugando Medical Centre (BMC), a tertiary level hospital in Mwanza Tanzania. A total of 380 pregnant women were recruited and interviewed by using Edinburg Postnatal Depression Scale. The sample size was randomly selected from the clinic. Results: the mean age of the participants was 30.35 years, with minimum and maximum age of 20 years and 47 years respectively with 89.74% of the participants being married. Almost half of the participants, 53.68% were on the third trimester, with about two-third of the participants, 76.84% reports to have planned for their current pregnancies. The overall prevalence of depression was 15% with middle age of the partner (31-40 years), been married, high level of education, partner and family support were found to be statistically protective for depression while polygamy and partner violence were statistically risk factor for depression. Conclusion: the results showed high prevalence of antepartum depression which emphasizes the importance of earlier screening, detection and intervention to reduce the burden of morbidity and disability.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Casamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Prevalência , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , Tanzânia , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Adulto Jovem
12.
Evol Psychol ; 19(2): 14747049211021524, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112018

RESUMO

Prior research has indicated that disease threat and disgust are associated with harsher moral condemnation. We investigated the role of a specific, highly salient health concern, namely the spread of the coronavirus, and associated COVID-19 disease, on moral disapproval. We hypothesized that individuals who report greater subjective worry about COVID-19 would be more sensitive to moral transgressions. Across three studies (N = 913), conducted March-May 2020 as the pandemic started to unfold in the United States, we found that individuals who were worried about contracting the infectious disease made harsher moral judgments than those who were relatively less worried. This effect was not restricted to transgressions involving purity, but extended to transgressions involving harm, fairness, authority, and loyalty, and remained when controlling for political orientation. Furthermore, for Studies 1 and 2 the effect also was robust when taking into account the contamination subscale of the Disgust Scale-Revised. These findings add to the growing literature that concrete threats to health can play a role in abstract moral considerations, supporting the notion that judgments of wrongdoing are not based on rational thought alone.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , COVID-19 , Asco , Princípios Morais , Percepção Social , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Teoria Psicológica , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
13.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 21(1): 256, 2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112149

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the necessity of cycloplegia for epidemiological studies of refraction in Chinese young adults (aged 17-22 years) with dark irises, and to compare the cycloplegic effects of 1% cyclopentolate and 0.5% tropicamide in them. METHODS: A total of 300 young adults (108 males and 192 females) aged 17 to 22 years (mean 19.03 ± 1.01) were recruited from Tianjin Medical University from November 2019 to January 2020. Participants were randomly divided into two groups. In the cyclopentolate group, two drops of 1% cyclopentolate eye drop were administrated (one drop every 5 min), followed by autorefraction and subjective refraction 30 to 45 min later. In the tropicamide group, four drops of 1% Mydrin P (Tropicamide 0.5%, phenylephrine HCl 0.5%) eye drop were given (one drop every 5 min), followed by autorefraction and subjective refraction 20 to 30 min later. The participants and the examiners were masked to the medication. Distance visual acuity, intraocular pressure (IOP), non-cycloplegic and cycloplegic autorefraction (Topcon KR-800, Topcon Co. Tokyo, Japan), non-cycloplegic and cycloplegic subjective refraction and ocular biometry (Lenstar LS-900) were performed. RESULTS: The values of spherical equivalent (SE) and sphere component were significantly different before and after cycloplegia in the cyclopentolate group and the tropicamide group (p < 0.05). The mean difference between noncycloplegic and cycloplegic autorefraction SE was 0.39 D (±0.66 D) in the cyclopentolate group and 0.39 D (±0.34 D) in the tropicamide group. There was no significant difference in the change of SE and sphere component after cycloplegia between the cyclopentolate group and the tropicamide group (p > 0.05). In each group, no significant difference was found between autorefraction and subjective refraction after cycloplegia (p > 0.05). We also found that more positive or less negative cycloplegic refraction was associated with the higher difference in SE in each group. CONCLUSIONS: Cycloplegic refractions were generally more positive or less negative than non-cycloplegic refractions. It is necessary to perform cycloplegia for Chinese young adults with dark irises to obtain accurate refractive errors. We suggest that cycloplegic autorefraction using tropicamide may be considered as a reliable method for epidemiological studies of refraction in Chinese young adults with dark irises. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was registered on September 7, 2019 (Registration number: ChiCTR1900025774 ).


Assuntos
Ciclopentolato , Erros de Refração , China , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Midriáticos , Refração Ocular , Erros de Refração/diagnóstico , Erros de Refração/tratamento farmacológico , Tóquio , Tropicamida , Adulto Jovem
14.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 568, 2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34107950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The epidemiology and cost of surgical care delivery in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs) is poorly understood. This study characterizes the cost of surgical care, rate of catastrophic medical expenditure and medical impoverishment, and impact of surgical hospitalization on patients' households at Soroti Regional Referral Hospital (SRRH), Uganda. METHODS: We prospectively collected demographic, clinical, and cost data from all surgical inpatients and caregivers at SRRH between February 2018 and January 2019. We conducted and thematically analyzed qualitative interviews to discern the impact of hospitalization on patients' households. We employed the chi-square, t-test, ANOVA, and Bonferroni tests and built regression models to identify predictors of societal cost of surgical care. Out of pocket spending (OOPS) and catastrophic expenses were determined. RESULTS: We encountered 546 patients, mostly male (62%) peasant farmers (42%), at a median age of 22 years; and 615 caregivers, typically married (87%), female (69%), at a median age of 35 years. Femur fractures (20.4%), soft tissue infections (12.3%), and non-femur fractures (11.9%) were commonest. The total societal cost of surgical care was USD 147,378 with femur fractures (USD 47,879), intestinal obstruction (USD 18,737) and non-femur fractures (USD 10,212) as the leading contributors. Procedures (40%) and supplies (12%) were the largest components of societal cost. About 29% of patients suffered catastrophic expenses and 31% were medically impoverished. CONCLUSION: Despite free care, surgical conditions cause catastrophic expenses and impoverishment in Uganda. Femur fracture is the most expensive surgical condition due to prolonged hospitalization associated with traction immobilization and lack of treatment modalities with shorter hospitalization.


Assuntos
Características da Família , Gastos em Saúde , Adulto , Feminino , Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pobreza , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Front Public Health ; 9: 660229, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34095064

RESUMO

Aim: Adolescence is a time of transition from childhood to adulthood, when young people go through a number of vital physical and psychological developments. It is surprising yet unfortunate that the number of teenage suicide deaths and teenage infections of gonorrhea have increased over the years, becoming serious public health concerns in Taiwan. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an education course on teenagers' understanding of adolescence and their attitudes toward life, sex, gender equality, and mental health. Material and Methods: Participants were comprised of Taiwanese students in Grades 5 to 9 who completed a Life-Sex-Emotions course, titled "Sailing through Adolescence." The effect of the course was measured using pre- and post-test scores on the Perception Index of Life-Sex-Emotions Education (PILSEE) instrument. Qualitative data included subjective responses to questions before and after the course. Data were collected between September 2017 and June 2020. Results: A total of 10,506 completed questionnaires were collected. The mean PILSEE pretest scores for each subscale ranged from 8.71 to 13.37 (SD = 1.499-1.99); posttest subscale scores ranged from 9.30 to 13.95 (SD range = 1.490-2.288). The mean overall pretest score was 86.86 (SD = 10.83); the mean posttest score was 92.62 (SD = 10.30). The paired t-test demonstrated that post-test scores were significantly higher than pretest scores (t = 55.46; p < 0.01). Qualitative feedback indicated that the course improved students' self-esteem, their understanding adolescence, and awareness of influences of the media. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that an educational course about life, sex, and emotions during adolescence can be an effective intervention to help teenagers understand the impact of adolescence on attitudes toward life, sex, mental health, and gender equality.


Assuntos
Emoções , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Percepção , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
JAMA ; 325(22): 2285-2293, 2021 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34100870

RESUMO

Importance: Seasonal influenza vaccination in pregnancy can reduce influenza illness among pregnant women and newborns. Evidence is limited on whether seasonal influenza vaccination in pregnancy is associated with adverse childhood health outcomes. Objective: To assess the association between maternal influenza vaccination during pregnancy and early childhood health outcomes. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study, using a birth registry linked with health administrative data. All live births in Nova Scotia, Canada, between October 1, 2010, and March 31, 2014, were included, with follow-up until March 31, 2016. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) with 95% confidence intervals were estimated while controlling for maternal medical history and other potential confounders using inverse probability of treatment weighting. Exposures: Seasonal influenza vaccination during pregnancy. Main Outcomes and Measures: Childhood outcomes studied were immune-related (eg, asthma, infections), non-immune-related (eg, neoplasms, sensory impairment), and nonspecific (eg, urgent or inpatient health care utilization), measured from emergency department and hospitalization databases. Results: Among 28 255 children (49% female, 92% born at ≥37 weeks' gestation), 10 227 (36.2%) were born to women who received seasonal influenza vaccination during pregnancy. During a mean follow-up of 3.6 years, there was no significant association between maternal influenza vaccination and childhood asthma (incidence rate, 3.0 vs 2.5 per 1000 person-years; difference, 0.53 per 1000 person-years [95% CI, -0.15 to 1.21]; adjusted HR, 1.22 [95% CI, 0.94 to 1.59]), neoplasms (0.32 vs 0.26 per 1000 person-years; difference, 0.06 per 1000 person-years [95% CI, -0.16 to 0.28]; adjusted HR, 1.26 [95% CI, 0.57 to 2.78]), or sensory impairment (0.80 vs 0.97 per 1000 person-years; difference, -0.17 per 1000 person-years [95% CI, -0.54 to 0.21]; adjusted HR, 0.82 [95% CI, 0.49 to 1.37]). Maternal influenza vaccination in pregnancy was not significantly associated with infections in early childhood (incidence rate, 184.6 vs 179.1 per 1000 person-years; difference, 5.44 per 1000 person-years [95% CI, 0.01 to 10.9]; adjusted IRR, 1.07 [95% CI, 0.99 to 1.15]) or with urgent and inpatient health services utilization (511.7 vs 477.8 per 1000 person-years; difference, 33.9 per 1000 person-years [95% CI, 24.9 to 42.9]; adjusted IRR, 1.05 [95% CI, 0.99 to 1.16]). Conclusions and Relevance: In this population-based cohort study with mean follow-up duration of 3.6 years, maternal influenza vaccination during pregnancy was not significantly associated with an increased risk of adverse early childhood health outcomes.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Influenza/efeitos adversos , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Asma/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Intervalos de Confiança , Feminino , Seguimentos , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Infecções/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Nascido Vivo/epidemiologia , Masculino , Idade Materna , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Nova Escócia/epidemiologia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Gravidez , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estações do Ano , Transtornos das Sensações/epidemiologia , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
18.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252478, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34101734

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gas exchange in COVID-19 pneumonia is impaired and vessel obstruction has been suspected to cause ventilation-perfusion mismatch. Dual-energy CT (DECT) can depict pulmonary perfusion by regional assessment of iodine uptake. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was the analysis of pulmonary perfusion using dual-energy CT in a cohort of 27 consecutive patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia. METHOD: We retrospectively analyzed pulmonary perfusion with DECT in 27 consecutive patients (mean age 57 years, range 21-73; 19 men and 8 women) with severe COVID-19 pneumonia. Iodine uptake (IU) in regions-of-interest placed into normally aerated lung, ground-glass opacifications (GGO) and consolidations was measured using a dedicated postprocessing software. Vessel enlargement (VE) within opacifications and presence of pulmonary embolism (PE) was assessed by subjective analysis. Linear mixed models were used for statistical analyses. RESULTS: Compared to normally aerated lung 106/151 (70.2%) opacifications without upstream PE demonstrated an increased IU, 9/151 (6.0%) an equal IU and 36/151 (23.8%) a decreased IU. The estimated mean iodine uptake (EMIU) in opacifications without upstream PE (GGO 1.77 mg/mL; 95%-CI: 1.52-2.02; p = 0.011, consolidations 1.82 mg/mL; 95%-CI: 1.56-2.08, p = 0.006) was significantly higher compared to normal lung (1.22 mg/mL; 95%-CI: 0.95-1.49). In case of upstream PE, EMIU of opacifications (combined GGO and consolidations) was significantly decreased compared to normal lung (0.52 mg/mL; 95%-CI: -0.07-1.12; p = 0.043). The presence of VE in opacifications correlated significantly with iodine uptake (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: DECT revealed the opacifications in a subset of patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia to be perfused non-uniformly with some being hypo- and others being hyperperfused. Mean iodine uptake in opacifications (both ground-glass and consolidation) was higher compared to normally aerated lung except for areas with upstream pulmonary embolism. Vessel enlargement correlated with iodine uptake: In summary, in a cohort of 27 consecutive patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia, dual-energy CT demonstrated a wide range of iodine uptake in pulmonary ground-glass opacifications and consolidations as a surrogate marker for hypo- and hyperperfusion compared to normally aerated lung. Applying DECT to determine which pathophysiology is predominant might help to tailor therapy to the individual patient´s needs.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto , Idoso , Meios de Contraste/química , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/irrigação sanguínea , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252356, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34101746

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preliminary empirical data indicates a substantial impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on well-being and mental health. Individuals with minoritized sexual and gender identities are at a higher risk of experiencing such negative changes in their well-being. The objective of this study was to compare levels of well-being among cis-heterosexual individuals and individuals with minoritized sexual and gender identities during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Using data obtained in a cross-sectional online survey between April 20 to July 20, 2020 (N = 2332), we compared levels of well-being (WHO-5) across subgroups (cis-individuals with minoritized sexual identities, individuals with minoritized gender identities and cis-heterosexual individuals) applying univariate (two-sample t-test) and multivariate analysis (multivariate linear regression). RESULTS: Results indicate overall lower levels of well-being as well as lower levels of well-being in minoritized sexual or gender identities compared to cis-heterosexual individuals. Further, multivariate analyses revealed that living in urban communities as well as being in a relationship were positively associated with higher levels of well-being. Furthermore, a moderation analysis showed that being in a relationship reduces the difference between groups in terms of well-being. CONCLUSION: Access to mental healthcare for individuals with minoritized sexual and gender identities as well as access to gender-affirming resources should be strengthened during COVID-19 pandemic. Healthcare services with low barriers of access such as telehealth and online peer support groups should be made available, especially for vulnerable groups.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Identidade de Gênero , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Telemedicina/métodos , Adulto Jovem
20.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252664, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34101757

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In late 2019, a new coronavirus disease known as COVID-19 (novel coronavirus disease 2019) was identified. As there is no any drug to treat this pandemic, the healthcare professionals are disproportionately at higher risk. The mental health outcome is expected to be high. Anxiety is expected to have a significant impact on health professionals, especially among those who work without adequate resources for self-protection. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this research was to assess self-reported anxiety symptoms and associated factors among Ethiopian healthcare professionals in the early stages of the pandemic. METHODS: We have conducted an online cross-sectional study to collect information from healthcare professionals in Ethiopia during the early stage of the outbreak from April 7, 2020 to May 19, 2020. GAD-7 was used for measurement of anxiety. We have used a cut of point of 10 and above to report anxiety symptoms. We have used Google Forms for online data collection and SPSS-22 for analysis. To determine associated factors for anxiety, a binary logistic regression model was used. Variables with p-value < 0.2 during the bivariable binary logistic regression were exported for further analysis in the multivariable binary logistic regression. Finally, variables with p-value <0.05 were considered as significantly associated with the outcomes. RESULTS: Three hundred and eighty-eight healthcare professionals filled the online questionnaire; Majority (71.1%) were males. Significant number of respondents (78.9%) reported lack of adequate personal protective equipment (PPE) at the work place. The prevalence of anxiety was 26.8%. Being female (AOR: 1.88; 95% C.I:1.11, 3.19), visiting/treating 30-150 patients per day (AOR: 3.44; 95% C.I:1.51, 7.84), those employed at private healthcare institutions (AOR: 2.40; 95% C.I:1.17, 4.90), who do not believe that COVID-19 is preventable (AOR: 2.04; 95% C.I:1.04, 4.03) and those who reported lack of PPE (AOR: 1.98; 95% C.I:1.04, 3.79) were more likely to be anxious. CONCLUSIONS: The anxiety prevalence among healthcare professionals in Ethiopia during early stage of COVID-19 pandemic was high. This study shows that lack of preventive equipment, being female, contact with many patients, low self-efficacy and working in private health facilities were risk factors for anxiety. Anxiety prevention among health professionals during COVID-19 pandemic requires a holistic approach including provision of sufficient PPE, improving self-efficacy and addressing problems both at public and private institutions and focusing more on female health professionals.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , COVID-19/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Pandemias , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Prevalência , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Local de Trabalho , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...