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1.
Rev. Odontol. Araçatuba (Impr.) ; 42(2): 9-17, maio-ago. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1252898

RESUMO

As reabsorções radiculares são classificadas em interna e externa e um correto diagnóstico é fundamental para o sucesso no tratamento e é de suma importância que a resolução clínica seja feita precocemente para que se tenha um prognóstico clínico favorável. Reabsorção interna não é comum em dentes permanentes, e seu processo se caracteriza por um aumento do canal radicular de forma oval. O presente estudo teve como objetivos demonstrar e descrever através de um relato de prontuário o tratamento de reabsorção radicular interna de incisivos superiores permanentes. Através da seleção de uma paciente pela disciplina de Triagem da clínica odontológica do Centro Universitário da Serra Gaúcha, a qual apresentou alterações radiográficas compatíveis com reabsorção radicular interna inflamatória na região de dois incisivos superiores permanentes, com lesão periapical estabelecida em ambos, concluiu-se o tratamento para então gerar este estudo do tipo retrospectivo observacional. A reabsorção quando não tratada pode avançar e envolver estruturas além do tecido conjuntivo inflamado e a lesão pode avançar em direção apical. Após estabelecido o diagnóstico, iniciou-se os tratamentos endodônticos dos elementos utilizando hidróxido de cálcio como medicação intracanal, após as trocas de medicações as reabsorções foram controladas e então, as obturações dos canais foram realizadas, buscando um preenchimento adequado para o caso. A reabsorção radicular interna inflamatória causa danos irreversíveis, mas seu processo foi controlado através de terapia endodôntica. Este desempenho é considerado uma patologia, e pode comprometer qualquer extensão da raiz, é comum que os casos permaneçam assintomáticos, portanto, deve ser tratado o mais breve possível assim que descobertos para evitar sua progressão, e consequentemente danos maiores(AU)


Root resorption is classified as either internal or external, and a correct diagnosis is essential for successful treatment. Internal resorption is not common in permanent teeth, and its process is characterized by an enlarged oval root canal. The present study aims to demonstrate and describe, through a medical record, the treatment of internal root resorption of permanent upper incisors. A patient was selected from the Triage Course of the Dental Clinic (Centro Universitário da Serra Gaúcha) who presented radiographic changes associated with inflammatory internal root resorption in two permanente upper incisors, with a periapical lesion established in both and a treatment was then carried out in order to generate this retrospective observational study. Resorption when left untreated can progress and involve structures beyond the inflamed connective tissue and the lesion can advance in the apical direction. After the diagnosis was confirmed, endodontic treatments were initiated using calcium hydroxide as an intracanal medication. After changing the medication, the resorption was controlled and then the canal fillings were performed, seeking an adequate filling for the case. Inflammatory internal root resorption causes irreversible damage, but its process has been controlled through endodontic therapy. This performance is considered a pathology, and can compromise any extension of the root, it is common for the cases to remain asymptomatic, therefore, it should be treated as soon as it's discovered to prevent its progression, and consequently greater damage(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Tratamento do Canal Radicular , Reabsorção da Raiz , Reabsorção da Raiz/terapia , Incisivo , Hidróxido de Cálcio , Dentição Permanente , Dente não Vital , Cavidade Pulpar
2.
Rev. Odontol. Araçatuba (Impr.) ; 42(2): 24-29, maio-ago. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1252903

RESUMO

Na Odontologia, o tratamento adequado depende da condição clínica de cada paciente, do conhecimento do profissional e dos materiais empregados. As coroas com sistemas cerâmicos puros se apresentam como excelente alternativa restauradora, demonstrando potencial estético superior ao das coroas metalocerâmicas. Este presente estudo teve como objetivo, relatar um caso clínico onde se realizou uma reabilitação estética de dentes anteriores com coroas de cerâmica pura à base de dissilicato de lítio. O paciente apresentava falta de harmonia e estética entre os dentes anteriores 12,11,21 e 22, na qual foi planejado e executado a reabilitação com coroas E-max desses elementos, bem como a substituição das restaurações dos dentes inferiores anteriores, e também foi realizado a confecção de coroa E-max do dente 35. Concluímos que as reabilitações estéticas de dentes anteriores com coroas de sistemas cerâmicos puros à base de dissilicato de lítio se apresentam como uma excelente alternativa reabilitadora, na qual o tratamento multidisciplinar é um fator considerado essencial, possibilitando restabelecer a estética e a funcionalidade do sorriso do paciente, a fim de alcançar o êxito do tratamento reabilitador(AU)


In dentistry, the appropriate treatment depends on the clinical condition of each patient, the knowledge of the professional and the materials used. Crowns with pure ceramic systems are an excellent restorative alternative, demonstrating an aesthetic potential superior to that of metalloceramic crowns. This present study aimed to report a clinical case where an aesthetic rehabilitation of anterior teeth was performed with crowns of pure ceramic based on lithium disilicate. The patient had a lack of harmony and aesthetics between the anterior teeth 12,11,21 and 22, in which the rehabilitation with E-max crowns of these elements was planned and performed, as well as the replacement of the anterior lower teeth restorations, and was also made the E-max crown of tooth 35. We conclude that the aesthetic rehabilitation of anterior teeth with crowns of pure ceramic systems based on lithium disilicate is an excellent alternative for rehabilitation, in which multidisciplinary treatment is considered an essential factor, making it possible to restore the aesthetics and functionality of the patient's smile, in order to achieve the success of the rehabilitation treatment(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Cerâmica , Coroas , Reabilitação Bucal , Restauração Dentária Permanente , Estética Dentária , Restaurações Intracoronárias
3.
Rev. Odontol. Araçatuba (Impr.) ; 42(2): 30-34, maio-ago. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1252909

RESUMO

Dentre as principais consequências da fissura labial e/ou palatina não sindrômica (FL/ PNS) estão dificuldades com fonação e autoestima, a primeira uma questão funcional e a segunda um problema social derivado não raro de contextos de bullying que, dentre outros, podem levar o indivíduo à evasão escolar. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o atraso de escolaridade e a dificuldade de socialização de pacientes com FL/PNS quando comparados a uma população não afetada da mesma faixa etária de 7 a 20 anos, atendidos na Universidade José do Rosário Vellano ­UNIFENAS, campus de Alfenas. Os sujeitos foram agrupados em duas categorias de indivíduos, o grupo caso composto por indivíduos com FL/PNS em tratamento no Centro Pró-Sorriso da UNIFENAS; e o grupo controle composto por indivíduos sem FL/PNS em tratamento nas clínicas de Odontopediatria e Integrada da UNIFENAS. Os resultados demonstraram que a proporção de pacientes com FL/PNS atrasados na escola foi de quase 5 vezes maior que o número de pacientes sem fissuras (p<0,01). Constatou-se que a presença da FL/PNS pode ser o ponto de partida para outros contribuintes, com interferências psicológicas e/ou sociais, interferindo negativamente no processo de socialização (bullying) do paciente (p=0,0018). Portanto devem ser tratadas com abordagem multidisciplinar, incluindo diversos profissionais, dentre eles pedagogos, psicólogos e odontólogos(AU)


Among the main consequences of Non Syndromic Cleft Lip and Palate (NSCLP) are the difficulties with phonation and self estime, the first being a functional issue na the later being social that is derived from, not rarely, bullying contexts, that among other things, may lead na individual to school evasion. The objective of this study was to avaluate the levels of scholarity of patients with NSCLP when compared to a non affected population of the same age in individuals from 7 to 20 years old, attended the Pediatric and Integrated Pediatric Clinic of UNIFENAS, Alfenas campus. The subjects were grouped into two categories of individuals, the case group was composed of individuals with FL/PNS with treatment at the ProSmile center at UNIFENAS. The control group was composed of individuals without FL/PNS in treatment at the clinics of pediatric and integrated denistry at UNIFENAS. The results demonstrated the number of patients with FL/PNS that presented scholar delay were almost 5 times the number of patients that didn't present FL/PNS (p<0,01). The presence of NFL/PNS may be the starting point for other contributors with psychological and/or social interferences, interfering negatively with the socialization process (bullying) of the patient (p=0,0018). They should be treated with a multidisciplinary manner, including multiple professionals, among them pedagogues, psychologist and dentist(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Evasão Escolar , Fenda Labial , Fissura Palatina , Bullying , Fonação , Socialização
5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(6): e2110782, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34061203

RESUMO

Importance: Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 has the potential to significantly reduce transmission and COVID-19 morbidity and mortality. The relative importance of vaccination strategies and nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) is not well understood. Objective: To assess the association of simulated COVID-19 vaccine efficacy and coverage scenarios with and without NPIs with infections, hospitalizations, and deaths. Design, Setting, and Participants: An established agent-based decision analytical model was used to simulate COVID-19 transmission and progression from March 24, 2020, to September 23, 2021. The model simulated COVID-19 spread in North Carolina, a US state of 10.5 million people. A network of 1 017 720 agents was constructed from US Census data to represent the statewide population. Exposures: Scenarios of vaccine efficacy (50% and 90%), vaccine coverage (25%, 50%, and 75% at the end of a 6-month distribution period), and NPIs (reduced mobility, school closings, and use of face masks) maintained and removed during vaccine distribution. Main Outcomes and Measures: Risks of infection from the start of vaccine distribution and risk differences comparing scenarios. Outcome means and SDs were calculated across replications. Results: In the worst-case vaccination scenario (50% efficacy, 25% coverage), a mean (SD) of 2 231 134 (117 867) new infections occurred after vaccination began with NPIs removed, and a mean (SD) of 799 949 (60 279) new infections occurred with NPIs maintained during 11 months. In contrast, in the best-case scenario (90% efficacy, 75% coverage), a mean (SD) of 527 409 (40 637) new infections occurred with NPIs removed and a mean (SD) of 450 575 (32 716) new infections occurred with NPIs maintained. With NPIs removed, lower efficacy (50%) and higher coverage (75%) reduced infection risk by a greater magnitude than higher efficacy (90%) and lower coverage (25%) compared with the worst-case scenario (mean [SD] absolute risk reduction, 13% [1%] and 8% [1%], respectively). Conclusions and Relevance: Simulation outcomes suggest that removing NPIs while vaccines are distributed may result in substantial increases in infections, hospitalizations, and deaths. Furthermore, as NPIs are removed, higher vaccination coverage with less efficacious vaccines can contribute to a larger reduction in risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection compared with more efficacious vaccines at lower coverage. These findings highlight the need for well-resourced and coordinated efforts to achieve high vaccine coverage and continued adherence to NPIs before many prepandemic activities can be resumed.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/farmacologia , COVID-19 , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Vacinação em Massa , Cobertura Vacinal , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/transmissão , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Simulação por Computador , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Vacinação em Massa/organização & administração , Vacinação em Massa/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade , North Carolina/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , SARS-CoV-2 , Resultado do Tratamento , Cobertura Vacinal/organização & administração , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 513, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074248

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In resource-limited settings, sputum smear conversion is used to document treatment response. Many People living with HIV (PLHIV) are smear-negative at baseline. The Xpert MTB/RIF test can indirectly measure bacterial load through cycle threshold (ct) values. This study aimed to determine if baseline Xpert MTB/RIF could predict time to culture negativity in PLHIV with newly diagnosed TB. METHODS: A subset of 138 PLHIV from the 'SOUTH' study on outcomes related to TB and antiretroviral drug concentrations were included. Bacterial load was estimated by Mycobacterium Growth Indicator Tubes (MGIT) culture time-to-positivity (TTP) and Lowenstein Jensen (LJ) colony counts. Changes in TTP and colony counts were analyzed with Poisson Generalised Estimating Equations (GEE) and multilevel ordered logistic regression models, respectively, while time to culture negativity analysed with Cox proportional hazard models. ROC curves were used to explore the accuracy of the ct value in predicting culture negativity. RESULTS: A total of 81 patients (58.7%) were males, median age 34 (IQR 29  ̶ 40) years, median CD4 cell count of 180 (IQR 68  ̶ 345) cells/µL and 77.5% were ART naive. The median baseline ct value was 25.1 (IQR 21.0  ̶ 30.1). A unit Increase in the ct value was associated with a 5% (IRR = 1.05 95% CI 1.04  ̶ 1.06) and 3% (IRR = 1.03 95% CI 1.03  ̶ 1.04) increase in TTP at week 2 and 4 respectively. With LJ culture, a patient's colony grade was reduced by 0.86 times (0R = 0.86 95% CI 0.74  ̶ 0.97) at week 2 and 0.84 times (OR = 0.84 95% CI 0.79  ̶ 0.95 P = 0.002) at week 4 for every unit increase in the baseline ct value. There was a 3% higher likelihood of earlier conversion to negativity for every unit increase in the ct value. A ct cut point ≥28 best predicted culture negativity at week 4 with a sensitivity of 91. 7% & specificity 53.7% while a cut point ≥23 best predicted culture negativity at week 8. CONCLUSION: Baseline Xpert MTB/RIF ct values predict sputum conversion in PLHIV on anti-TB treatment. Surrogate biomarkers for sputum conversion in PLHIV are still a research priority.


Assuntos
Carga Bacteriana/métodos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Escarro/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Adulto , Antirretrovirais/sangue , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Razão de Chances , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Uganda/epidemiologia
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 512, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074249

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Migrants are a high priority group for TB control measures due to their high exposure to risk factors such as poverty and social vulnerability. The study aimed to identify factors associated with latent TB among international migrants living in four Brazilian state capitals. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in September and October 2020 in a sample of 903 international migrants living in four Brazilian state capitals: Boa Vista/RR (458), Manaus/AM (136), São Paulo/SP (257), and Curitiba/PR (52). Data were collected with a questionnaire consisting of open and closed questions on personal characteristics, information on TB, and use of preventive measures. Tuberculin skin test (TST) was performed, with reading after 72 h by trained nurses and using 5 mm induration as the positive cutoff. Chi-square test (X2) and Fisher's exact test, both two-tailed, were used to compare statistically significant levels of association between the migrants´ sociodemographic characteristics, vulnerability, and latent TB infection (LTBI). Binary logistic regression was applied to calculate odds ratios and respective 95% confidence intervals. For all the tests, type I error of 5% was defined as statistically significant (p < 0.05). RESULTS: Prevalence of LTBI among migrants was 46.1% in Manaus/AM, 33.3% in São Paulo/SP, 28.1% in Curitiba/PR, and 23.5% in Boa Vista/RR. Factors associated with latent infection were age, male gender, and brown or indigenous race. CONCLUSIONS: The study showed high prevalence of latent TB among international migrants.


Assuntos
Tuberculose Latente/epidemiologia , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Teste Tuberculínico/efeitos adversos
8.
BMC Med Genomics ; 14(1): 144, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074255

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transmission within families and multiple spike protein mutations have been associated with the rapid transmission of SARS-CoV-2. We aimed to: (1) describe full genome characterization of SARS-CoV-2 and correlate the sequences with epidemiological data within family clusters, and (2) conduct phylogenetic analysis of all samples from Yogyakarta and Central Java, Indonesia and other countries. METHODS: The study involved 17 patients with COVID-19, including two family clusters. We determined the full-genome sequences of SARS-CoV-2 using the Illumina MiSeq next-generation sequencer. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using a dataset of 142 full-genomes of SARS-CoV-2 from different regions. RESULTS: Ninety-four SNPs were detected throughout the open reading frame (ORF) of SARS-CoV-2 samples with 58% (54/94) of the nucleic acid changes resulting in amino acid mutations. About 94% (16/17) of the virus samples showed D614G on spike protein and 56% of these (9/16) showed other various amino acid mutations on this protein, including L5F, V83L, V213A, W258R, Q677H, and N811I. The virus samples from family cluster-1 (n = 3) belong to the same clade GH, in which two were collected from deceased patients, and the other from the survived patient. All samples from this family cluster revealed a combination of spike protein mutations of D614G and V213A. Virus samples from family cluster-2 (n = 3) also belonged to the clade GH and showed other spike protein mutations of L5F alongside the D614G mutation. CONCLUSIONS: Our study is the first comprehensive report associating the full-genome sequences of SARS-CoV-2 with the epidemiological data within family clusters. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the three viruses from family cluster-1 formed a monophyletic group, whereas viruses from family cluster-2 formed a polyphyletic group indicating there is the possibility of different sources of infection. This study highlights how the same spike protein mutations among members of the same family might show different disease outcomes.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , RNA Viral/genética , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/virologia , Criança , Família , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Filogenia , RNA Viral/química , SARS-CoV-2/classificação , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 514, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074256

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Talaromyces marneffei (TM) bloodstream infection is common in Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients with extreme immunodeficiency in Southeast Asia and South China, however, clinical case study on TM bloodstream infection is scarce. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical characteristics of TM bloodstream infection in hospitalized AIDS patients and determined the outcomes of hospitalization after diagnosis in our hospital over the past 5 years. METHODS: From January 2015 to July 2020, 87 cases of TM detected by blood culture in patients admitted to our center were collected. The admission complaints, blood cells, biochemistry, CD4 and CD8 cell counts and 1,3-ß-D-glucan (BDG), procalcitonin (PCT), CRP level on the day of blood culture test, and outcomes during hospitalization were analyzed. Logistic regression analysis was performed for the risk factors for poor prognosis (60 cases). Spearman correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlation between peripheral blood cells, albumin and the time required for TM turnaround in blood culture. The difference was statistically significant when the P value was < 0.05. RESULTS: A total of 87 patients were collected, with a median age of 34 years, a median hemoglobin of 94 g/L and CD4 count of 7/µl. The rate of TM bloodstream infection among all in-hospital patients increased from 0.99% in 2015 to 2.09% in 2020(half year). Patients with TM bloodstream infection with CD8 count < 200/µl had a 12.6-fold higher risk of poor prognosis than those with CD8 count > 200/µl (p = 0.04), and those with BDG < 100 pg/mL had a 34.9-fold higher risk of poor prognosis than those with BDG > 100 pg/mL (p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: TM bloodstream infection is becoming more common in advanced AIDS patients in endemic areas. For those patients with extremely low CD4 and CD8 cell counts below 200/µl is with an increased risk of poor prognosis.


Assuntos
Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/epidemiologia , Fungemia/epidemiologia , Micoses/epidemiologia , Talaromyces/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/diagnóstico , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Fungemia/diagnóstico , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Micoses/diagnóstico , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
11.
Afr J Reprod Health ; 25(s1): 13-25, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077141

RESUMO

The government in Saudi Arabia in 2016 declared the necessity to overcome the ancestral oil-based economy and move towards a more diversified model. One of the significant steps to achieve this goal is to empower Saudi women, who form half of the Saudi population, to actively contribute their much-needed talents and skills to the Saudi labour market. However, there is a scarcity of existing scales to measure women empowerment in Saudi Arabia. The objective of this study was to construct and validate a reliable novel scale for the empowerment of Saudi women employed in higher education institutions. A methodological study was conducted from January to April 2020 among Saudi women academic and administrative staff (n=160) working in the higher educational institutions located in the northwestern and southern regions of Saudi Arabia. The tool underwent content and face validity as well as factor analyses. Internal consistency was analyzed through Cronbach's alpha and Pearson correlation coefficient. The data analysis was conducted using IBM SPSS version 23. A Cronbach's alpha value of 0.94 was obtained in reliability analysis. The results showed that the total women empowerment scale had an exceptional internal consistency (>9). The three domains of the scale and total woman empowerment scale had a score close to 1, indicating a high Intraclass Correlation Coefficient, and showed a high similarity between values at the second and third measurements. Self-esteem and self-efficacy subscales were the most important indicators of women's' personal empowerment. Furthermore, a highly positive correlation (p <0.01) was found between the total domains of empowerment scale. A novel women empowerment tool was developed and validated in Saudi women working as academic and administrative staff. This can serve as a reliable tool to measure women's empowerment in higher education institutions. It will eventually enable the formulation of strategies that facilitate women's empowerment and pave the path for a strong foundation for the development of the country.


Assuntos
Empoderamento , Poder Psicológico , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adulto , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Arábia Saudita , Autoeficácia
12.
Afr J Reprod Health ; 25(s1): 26-35, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077142

RESUMO

Academic women in the Arab world, especially Saudi women, have numerous barriers inhibiting their leadership power at the workplace. The current study explores the perceived and real barriers to workplace empowerment among women at Saudi universities. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out at 15 Saudi governmental universities. A multistage cluster sampling technique was followed to select (5587 participants) The data collection started from the beginning of April to the beginning of September 2020. SPSS 23.0 was used to analyze data using descriptive statistics. Multiple linear regression was used to identify the real barriers to women empowerment at the workplace. The study showed that 52.1% of the study participants had moderate workplace empowerment, and only 10.2% have a low level. Regarding perceived barriers to workplace empowerment, 42.6% of the participants agree that male dominance was a barrier. Moreover, 36.2% of the participants agreed and strongly agree that the customs and traditions are a barrier to women empowerment at the workplace. Multiple linear regression showed that age, followed by years of experience (p <0.000), were the most significant demographic predictors of women empowerment at the workplace. Moreover, positive attitude, high self-esteem, and good knowledge (p <0.000) were considered other variables that positively predict women's empowerment at the workplace. The experience of gender-based violence (p <0.000) was a negative predictor of women empowerment at the workplace. The study concluded that around 62.3% of Saudi female academics and administrative staff have moderate or low workplace empowerment at Saudi Universities. Male dominance is perceived as the highest barrier.


Assuntos
Empoderamento , Autonomia Pessoal , Poder Psicológico , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Arábia Saudita , Universidades
13.
Afr J Reprod Health ; 25(s1): 36-49, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077143

RESUMO

Hearing loss affects many people worldwide, and it hinders speech, language, and social development. Consanguineous marriage is the most prevalent social custom that leads to an increased prevalence of congenital anomalies. Premarital Counseling and Genetic Screening (PMSGC) educational program is urgently needed to empower deaf and hard hearing girls. This study aimed to investigate the effect of educational intervention based on the empowerment model on deaf and hard hearing females' self-efficacy, knowledge, and attitude toward PMSGC. A Quasi-experimental research design was conducted on 64 deaf and hard hearing female students. The data collection instrument comprised four parts: basic data and personal/family history, PMSGC quiz, Likert attitude scale, and general self-efficacy scale. Data were collected from September to December 2020. The empowerment educational intervention was conducted in four sequential phases; needs assessment, planning, implementation, and evaluation. The intervention addressed the students' knowledge, attitudes and self-efficacy. The results showed that 76.6% of the study participants had consanguineous marriage between their parents, 64.1% had a history of hereditary deafness in first-degree relatives. There were statistically significant differences between the total knowledge, attitude, and self-efficacy before and after intervention (p <0.001). In detail, 76.6% of the participants had good knowledge after the intervention compared to only 12.5% before it. Besides, 81.3% of the study participants had a positive attitude toward PMSGC before the intervention compared to 95.3% after it. Self-efficacy was low (25.0%) or moderate (75%) before the intervention compared to moderate (45.3%) or high (42.2%) after the intervention. Educational intervention based on the empowerment model significantly increased the deaf and hard hearing population's self-efficacy, knowledge, and attitude toward PMSGC. The use of the empowerment model in health education should be encouraged and taught to the medical and paramedical students.


Assuntos
Surdez , Aconselhamento Genético , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Perda Auditiva , Pessoas com Deficiência Auditiva/psicologia , Exames Pré-Nupciais , Adulto , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Surdez/diagnóstico , Surdez/genética , Empoderamento , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Perda Auditiva/diagnóstico , Perda Auditiva/genética , Humanos , Autoeficácia , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Afr J Reprod Health ; 25(s1): 50-59, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077144

RESUMO

The KSA 2030 vision makes special reference to women's empowerment as an important strategy for Saudi community transformation. Studies related to women's empowerment, especially in the Saudi context, are still not enough and unclear. The current study explored the predictors of women empowerment knowledge and attitudes among Saudi academic and administrative staff. A cross-sectional study was conducted at 15 Saudi government-owned universities. A multistage cluster sampling technique was used to select 5587 participants during the period April to September 2020. The study instrument consisting of three main parts; basic demographic data, questionnaire assessed the knowledge regarding women's empowerment, and women empowerment attitude scale. The results showed good knowledge of empowerment among the women with 75.5% of the participants demonstrating good knowledge. The total women empowerment attitude was positive among 65.9% of the participants. The association between demographic data and women empowerment knowledge and attitude showed a significant association with marital status, residence, education, and occupation (p <0.05). Linear regression on marital status, education, residence, and occupation, are confirmed as significant predictors of women empowerment knowledge and attitude (p <0.05). Mother's education level is shown as a predictor for women empowerment attitude (p>0.005). Three-quarters of Saudi academic and administrative staff have a good women empowerment knowledge score, and more than two-thirds have a positive attitude. Demographic characteristics are important predictors for women empowerment knowledge and attitude. The results of this study will help decision-makers to design and implement goal-directed women empowerment programs.


Assuntos
Pessoal Administrativo/psicologia , Empoderamento , Docentes/psicologia , Poder Psicológico , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/psicologia , Adulto , Atitude , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Conhecimento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autonomia Pessoal , Arábia Saudita , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades
15.
Afr J Reprod Health ; 25(s1): 60-68, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077145

RESUMO

Women in Saudi Arabia constitute nearly 50% of the population, but their participation in economic and social activities are far below the kingdom's potential. According to the 2030 vision, women empowerment is an essential requirement for community transformation and development. The study aims to explore women empowerment among academic and administrative staff in Saudi Universities. A cross-sectional research design was conducted at 15 Saudi governmental universities. A multistage cluster sampling technique was followed to select 5587 participants. The data collection starts from April to September 2020. The current study results illustrate statistically significant differences between academic and administrative staff in the total women empowerment score and all of its dimensions (p <0.05). The majority of academic staff (84.4%) have high personal empowerment compared to 73.7% of the administrative staff. The study concluded that women empowerment is higher among academics compared to administrative staff in Saudi Universities.


Assuntos
Pessoal Administrativo/psicologia , Empoderamento , Docentes/psicologia , Poder Psicológico , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autonomia Pessoal , Arábia Saudita , Autoimagem , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades
16.
Afr J Reprod Health ; 25(s1): 69-78, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077146

RESUMO

The study aimed to explore the role of self-esteem and self-efficacy in women empowerment among academic and administrative staff at Saudi universities. A cross-sectional design was carried out at 15 governmental universities. A multistage cluster sampling technique was used to select 5587 participants. Multiple linear regression was used to analyze the predictive relation. Data collection included socio-demographic variables, Rosenberg self-esteem scale, general self-efficacy scale, and women empowerment scale. The results indicated that study participants' self-esteem was equally distributed between moderate (49.8%) and high (50.2%). Also, 66.9% of the participants had high self-efficacy, and 86.8% had high total women's empowerment. Regression coefficient showed that self-esteem (B=0.521, b=0.127, t=13.785 and p <0.001) and self-efficacy (B=2.388, b=0.702, t=76.049 and p <0.001) are important predictors of the total women empowerment. However, self-efficacy was observed to be the most dominant predictor (t=76.049). The total model summary shows that 73.4% of the women empowerment level can be predicted through self-esteem and self-efficacy. The study results can be used as a base to build women empowerment programs in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and help to achieve the 2030 KSA vision regarding women empowerment.


Assuntos
Empoderamento , Autoimagem , Autoeficácia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Arábia Saudita , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
17.
Appl Clin Inform ; 12(3): 507-517, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077972

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This article investigates the association between changes in electronic health record (EHR) use during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on the rate of burnout, stress, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anxiety among physician trainees (residents and fellows). METHODS: A total of 222 (of 1,375, 16.2%) physician trainees from an academic medical center responded to a Web-based survey. We compared the physician trainees who reported that their EHR use increased versus those whose EHR use stayed the same or decreased on outcomes related to depression, anxiety, stress, PTSD, and burnout using univariable and multivariable models. We examined whether self-reported exposure to COVID-19 patients moderated these relationships. RESULTS: Physician trainees who reported increased use of EHR had higher burnout (adjusted mean, 1.48 [95% confidence interval [CI] 1.24, 1.71] vs. 1.05 [95% CI 0.93, 1.17]; p = 0.001) and were more likely to exhibit symptoms of PTSD (adjusted mean = 15.09 [95% CI 9.12, 21.05] vs. 9.36 [95% CI 7.38, 11.28]; p = 0.035). Physician trainees reporting increased EHR use outside of work were more likely to experience depression (adjusted mean, 8.37 [95% CI 5.68, 11.05] vs. 5.50 [95% CI 4.28, 6.72]; p = 0.035). Among physician trainees with increased EHR use, those exposed to COVID-19 patients had significantly higher burnout (2.04, p < 0.001) and depression scores (14.13, p = 0.003). CONCLUSION: Increased EHR use was associated with higher burnout, depression, and PTSD outcomes among physician trainees. Although preliminary, these findings have implications for creating systemic changes to manage the wellness and well-being of trainees.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Educação Médica , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia
18.
BMC Emerg Med ; 21(1): 67, 2021 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34078273

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease highly contagious, is prevalent in all age and sex groups infecting the respiratory system. The present study seeks to investigate the epidemiology and effective factors in mortality of patients with COVID-19 in Ardabil province, northwestern Iran. METHODS: In a retrospective study, the hospitalized patients with laboratory-diagnosed COVID-19 between February to August 2020 were enrolled. The data registration portal was designated according to Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education guidelines. In this portal, demographic information, clinical presentation, laboratory and imaging data were registered for patients in all hospitals in the same format. The Hosmer-Lemeshow strategy was used for variable selection in a multiple model. RESULTS: Of the patients involved 2812(50.3%) were male and 150 (2.7%) had contact with a confirmed case of COVID-19 in the last 14 days. Pre-existing comorbidity was reported in 1310 (23.4%) patients. Of all patients, 477(8.5%) died due to COVID-19. the result of the multiple logistic regression model indicated that after adjusting for other factors, higher age (OR = 3.11), fever or chills (OR = 1.61), shortness of breath (OR = 1.82), fatigue (OR = 0.71), headache (OR = 0.64), runny nose (OR = 1.54), Skeletal muscle pain (OR = 1.53), hospitalization (OR = 5.66), and hospitalization in ICU (OR = 5.12) were associated with death. CONCLUSIONS: Hospitalization had the strongest effect on mortality followed by hospitalization in ICU, and higher age. This study showed that having some extra-pulmonary symptoms in contrast with pulmonary symptoms can predict as good prognostic factors.


Assuntos
COVID-19/mortalidade , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Fatores Etários , Idoso , COVID-19/terapia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 523, 2021 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082699

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vaginal candidiasis is frequent in women of reproductive age. Accurate identification Candida provides helpful information for successful therapy and epidemiology study; however, there are very limited data from the Vietnam have been reported. This study was performed to determine the prevalence, species distribution of yeast causing vaginal discharge and antifungal susceptibility patterns of Candida albicans among symptomatic non-pregnant women of reproductive age. METHODS: Vaginal discharge samples were collected from 462 women of reproductive age in Hanoi, Vietnam between Sep 2019 and Oct 2020. Vaginal swabs from these patients were examined by direct microscopic examination (10% KOH). CHROMagar™ Candida medium and Sabouraud dextrose agar supplemented with chloramphenicol (0.5 g/l) were used to isolate yeast, and species identification was performed using morphological tests and molecular tools (PCR and sequencing). Antifungal susceptibility testing was determined according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines (M27-A3 and M27-S4). RESULTS: The prevalence of vaginal yeast colonization in non-pregnant women was 51.3% of 462 participants. Nine different yeast species were identified. Among these isolates, C. albicans (51.37%) was the most frequent, followed by C. parapsilosis (25.88%), C. glabrata (11.37%), C. tropicalis (4.31%), C. krusei (3.92%), C. africana (1.57%), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (0.78%), C. nivariensis (1 isolates, 0.39%), and C. lusitaniae (1 isolates, 0.39%), respectively. Among C. albicans, all 46 isolates were 100% susceptible to micafungin, caspofungin, and miconazole. The susceptibility rates to amphotericine B, 5-flucytosine, fluconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole were 95.65, 91.30, 91.30, 82.61 and 86.95%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of VVC among symptomatic non-pregnant women of reproductive age in Vietnam was higher than many parts of the world. The high frequency of non-albicans Candida species, which were often more resistant to antifungal agents, was a notable feature. Resistance rates of vaginal C. albicans isolates to antifungal agents was low. Our findings suggest that continued surveillance of changes in species distribution and susceptibility to antifungals should be routinely screened and treated.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Candidíase Vulvovaginal/microbiologia , Descarga Vaginal/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Candida/classificação , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candida albicans/classificação , Candida albicans/isolamento & purificação , Candidíase Vulvovaginal/epidemiologia , Farmacorresistência Fúngica/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Descarga Vaginal/epidemiologia , Vietnã/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Ann Transplant ; 26: e931832, 2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34083502

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Kidney transplant services all over the world were severely impacted by the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. The optimum management of kidney transplant recipients with coronavirus disease 2019 remains uncertain. MATERIAL AND METHODS We conducted a multicenter cohort study of kidney transplant recipients with coronavirus disease 2019 infection in Saudi Arabia. Multivariable Cox regression analysis was used to study predictors of graft and patient outcomes at 28 days after coronavirus disease 2019 diagnosis. RESULTS We included 130 kidney transplant recipients, with a mean age of 48.7(±14.4) years. Fifty-nine patients were managed at home with daily follow-up utilizing a dedicated clinic, while 71 (54.6%) required hospital admission. Acute kidney injury occurred in 35 (26.9%) patients. Secondary infections occurred in 38 (29.2%) patients. SARS-CoV-2 antibodies testing was carried out in 84 patients, of whom 70 tested positive for IgG and/or IgM. Fourteen patients died (10.8%). A multivariable Cox regression analysis showed that age, creatinine at presentation, acute kidney injury, and use of azithromycin were significantly associated with worse patient survival. Graft loss was associated with requiring renal replacement therapy and development of secondary infections. CONCLUSIONS Despite kidney transplant recipients with coronavirus disease 2019 infection having higher rate of hospital admission and mortality compared to the general population, a significant number of them can be managed using a telemedicine clinic. Most kidney transplant patients seem to mount an antibody response following coronavirus disease 2019 infection, and it remains to be seen if they will have a similar response to the incoming vaccines.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/terapia , Falência Renal Crônica/cirurgia , Transplante de Rim , Adulto , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia de Substituição Renal , Arábia Saudita , Telemedicina , Eliminação de Partículas Virais
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