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1.
J Insect Sci ; 20(1)2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31916580

RESUMO

The western tree hole mosquito, Aedes sierrensis (Ludlow), is a common nuisance mosquito and vector of Dirofilaria immitis (Leidy), the etiologic agent of dog heartworm, in western North America. Here, we compare weekly mosquito collections made with Mosquito Magnet (MM) traps, Biogents Sentinel (BGS) traps, and Biogents Bowl (BGS Bowl) traps set in Salt Lake City, UT, from the start of June to mid-August 2017. We found the number of mosquitoes decreased with rainfall and temperature independently of trap type. The highest number of mosquitoes were caught by BGS traps baited with carbon dioxide (CO2) and BG lure, which collected 62% (n = 422) of all mosquitoes, followed by the MM at 31% (n = 213), and both the BGS and BG Bowl with BG lure had 3.5% (n = 24) each. Aedes sierrensis females were caught weekly at similar densities (mean ±â€…SD) in BGS with CO2 and lure (1.17 ±â€…2.93) and the MM (1.17 ±â€…2.66) traps during the study period. Given that BGS with CO2 and lure traps have several operational advantages over MM traps, including a quicker setup, smaller size, and lower cost, we consider BGS with CO2 and lure traps as the best suited surveillance tool to detect and remove Ae. sierrensis in the western United States and similar settings throughout North America.


Assuntos
Aedes , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Mosquitos Vetores , Vigilância da População/métodos , Animais , Dirofilaria immitis , Feminino , Masculino , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Dinâmica Populacional , Utah
2.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-CTDPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1049862

RESUMO

Recentemente o Brasil sofreu com diversas epidemias de diferentes arboviroses, acometendo milhares de pessoas. Devido a isso, as autoridades de saúde pública têm realizado estudos de novas estratégias de combate ao mosquito Aedes aegypti, visando diminuir o número de pessoas afetadas por essas doenças, tanto por medidas de controle da infestação, quanto por medidas que visam diminuir o contato homem-vetor. Esse estudo teve como objetivo analisar fêmeas de Aedes aegypti classificadas como estágio 1 de Sella e evidenciar sua importância como parâmetro de avaliação de estratégias de diminuição do contato homem-vetor. O método utilizado para investigar a proporção de fêmeas que se alimentaram de sangue humano foi o ensaio imunoenzimático (ELISA). As fêmeas de mosquitos processadas nesse estudo foram capturadas em 3 regiões distintas da cidade de Marília­SP. Os ensaios evidenciaram a importância do processamento de fêmeas em todos os graus de digestão sanguínea, pois mesmo as que visualmente não continham a presença de sangue em seu abdômen apresentaram alto percentual de positividade para sangue humano. Demonstra-se que a utilização da proporção de fêmeas alimentadas com sangue humano pode ser um índice interessante para avaliar estratégias protetivas de diminuição do contato homem-vetor.


Assuntos
Infecções por Arbovirus , Aedes , Culicidae
3.
Acta Trop ; 201: 105179, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539525

RESUMO

Natural products have proven to be an immeasurable source of bioactive compounds. The exceptional biodiversity encountered in Amazonia, alongside a rich entomofauna and frequent interactions with various herbivores is the crucible of a promising chemodiversity. This prompted us to search for novel botanical insecticides in French Guiana. As this French overseas department faces severe issues linked to insects, notably the strong incidence of vector-borne infectious diseases, we decided to focus our research on products able to control the mosquito Aedes aegypti. We tested 452 extracts obtained from 85 species originating from 36 botanical families and collected in contrasted environments against an Ae. aegypti laboratory strain susceptible to all insecticides, and a natural population resistant to both pyrethroid and organophosphate insecticides collected in Cayenne for the most active of them. Eight species (Maytenus oblongata Reissek, Celastraceae; Costus erythrothyrsus Loes., Costaceae; Humiria balsamifera Aubl., Humiriaceae; Sextonia rubra (Mez) van der Werff, Lauraceae; Piper hispidum Sw., Piperaceae; Laetia procera (Poepp.) Eichl., Salicaceae; Matayba arborescens (Aubl.) Radlk., Sapindaceae; and Cupania scrobitulata Rich., Sapindaceae) led to extracts exhibiting more than 50% larval mortality after 48 h of exposition at 100 µg/mL against the natural population and were considered active. Selectivity and phytochemistry of these extracts were therefore investigated and discussed, and some active compounds highlighted. Multivariate analysis highlighted that solvents, plant tissues, plant family and location had a significant effect on mortality while light, available resources and vegetation type did not. Through this case study we highlighted that plant defensive chemistry mechanisms are crucial while searching for novel insecticidal products.


Assuntos
Aedes , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Guiana Francesa , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Controle de Mosquitos
4.
J Insect Sci ; 19(6)2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765474

RESUMO

Increased concerns regarding the safety of many chemicals used as insecticides or repellents, together with the development of resistance by insects to various insecticides, have led to the search for new active natural ingredients. For what we believe is the first time, that is monitored the efficiency of neem oil (Azadirachta indica) as a repellent against adult Aedes albopictus directly in the field. To test the efficacy of repellency against adults, treatments were performed (5 ml/l) in six different locations. For each location, two closed gardens distance between them 200 m were chosen (one where the treatment was performed, consisting in spraying a mixture of water and Neem oil 5 g/l and one which was used as a control where only water with emulsifier was used). To monitor the treatment efficacy, six ovitraps were used (for each location three for the treated garden and three for the control garden). Data (n° mosquito eggs trapped in each ovitrap) were collected weekly for 6 mo (from May to October) for a total of 900 samplings. Daily temperature and daily rainfall were monitored throughout the trial. The treatment was most effective in June and July. Very high temperatures and high rainfall reduced the efficacy of neem oil over time.


Assuntos
Aedes , Glicerídeos , Repelentes de Insetos , Terpenos , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Chuva , Temperatura Ambiente
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 963, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718580

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colombia was the second most affected country during the American Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic, with over 109,000 reported cases. Despite the scale of the outbreak, limited genomic sequence data were available from Colombia. We sought to sequence additional samples and use genomic epidemiology to describe ZIKV dynamics in Colombia. METHODS: We sequenced ZIKV genomes directly from clinical diagnostic specimens and infected Aedes aegypti samples selected to cover the temporal and geographic breadth of the Colombian outbreak. We performed phylogeographic analysis of these genomes, along with other publicly-available ZIKV genomes from the Americas, to estimate the frequency and timing of ZIKV introductions to Colombia. RESULTS: We attempted PCR amplification on 184 samples; 19 samples amplified sufficiently to perform sequencing. Of these, 8 samples yielded sequences with at least 50% coverage. Our phylogeographic reconstruction indicates two separate introductions of ZIKV to Colombia, one of which was previously unrecognized. We find that ZIKV was first introduced to Colombia in February 2015 (95%CI: Jan 2015 - Apr 2015), corresponding to 5 to 8 months of cryptic ZIKV transmission prior to confirmation in September 2015. Despite the presence of multiple introductions, we find that the majority of Colombian ZIKV diversity descends from a single introduction. We find evidence for movement of ZIKV from Colombia into bordering countries, including Peru, Ecuador, Panama, and Venezuela. CONCLUSIONS: Similarly to genomic epidemiological studies of ZIKV dynamics in other countries, we find that ZIKV circulated cryptically in Colombia. More accurately dating when ZIKV was circulating refines our definition of the population at risk. Additionally, our finding that the majority of ZIKV transmission within Colombia was attributable to transmission between individuals, rather than repeated travel-related importations, indicates that improved detection and control might have succeeded in limiting the scale of the outbreak within Colombia.


Assuntos
Genoma Viral , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia , Zika virus/genética , Aedes/virologia , Animais , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Evolução Molecular , Variação Genética , Humanos , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Zika virus/classificação , Zika virus/isolamento & purificação , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/transmissão
6.
Zootaxa ; 4691(3): zootaxa.4691.3.9, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719397

RESUMO

A new species, Paraedes jambulingami, is described from Assam, northeastern India. The adult male and female are described in detail and an illustration of the male is provided. This species is easily distinguished from all known species of the genus Paraedes by the presence of broad silvery or golden scales on the paratergite and the outer arm of the basal mesal lobe of the male genitalia bearing a long, flattened blade-like seta. Dichotomous keys are provided for the identification of the adult females and males of the five species of the genus that are known to occur in India.


Assuntos
Aedes , Culicidae , Dípteros , Animais , Cor , Feminino , Genitália Masculina , Índia , Masculino
7.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 52(11): e8339, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721902

RESUMO

A progressive increase in the circulation of arboviruses in tropical countries has been observed, accounting for 700,000 yearly deaths in the world. The main objective of this article was to identify the presence of Zika (ZIKV), dengue (DENV), and Chikungunya (CHIKV) viruses in immature stages of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Household collections of immature phases of the vectors were carried out in the years 2015 and 2016. A total of 2902 dwellings were visited and the rate of infestation with larvae and pupae of Aedes mosquitoes was 283/1462 (19.4%) in March 2015 and 55/1440 (3.8%) in June 2015. In March 2015, 907 larvae/pupae were collected (583 or 64.3% of Ae. aegypti and 324 or 35.7% of Ae. albopictus) while in June 2015 there was a reduction in the number of immature forms found: 197 larvae/pupae (121 or 61.4% of Ae. aegypti and 76 or 38.6% of Ae. albopictus). This reduction was accompanied by a decrease in suspected human ZIKV cases from March to June 2015. The RT-qPCR performed in 18 pools identified that three (two of Ae. aegypti and one of Ae. albopictus) were positive for ZIKV, and none were positive for DENV or CHIKV. Our findings demonstrated that ZIKV was present in immature stages of insect vectors in the study region at least five months prior to the peak of ZIKV associated cases. Xenomonitoring of immature phases of the vectors may prove useful for predicting outbreaks.


Assuntos
Aedes/virologia , Vírus Chikungunya/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Dengue/isolamento & purificação , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Zika virus/isolamento & purificação , Aedes/classificação , Animais , Humanos , Mosquitos Vetores/classificação , RNA Viral/análise , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Estações do Ano , Infecção por Zika virus/transmissão
8.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 8(1): 1668-1678, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735122

RESUMO

Since its emergence in Yap Island in 2007, Zika virus (ZIKV) has affected all continents except Europe. Despite the hundreds of cases imported to European countries from ZIKV-infested regions, no local cases have been reported in localities where the ZIKV-competent mosquito Aedes albopictus is well established. Here we analysed the vector competence of European Aedes (aegypti and albopictus) mosquitoes to different genotypes of ZIKV. We demonstrate that Ae. albopictus from France was less susceptible to the Asian ZIKV than to the African ZIKV. Critically we show that effective crossing of anatomical barriers (midgut and salivary glands) after an infectious blood meal depends on a viral load threshold to trigger: (i) viral dissemination from the midgut to infect mosquito internal organs and (ii) viral transmission from the saliva to infect a vertebrate host. A viral load in body ≥4800 viral copies triggered dissemination and ≥12,000 viral copies set out transmission. Only 27.3% and 18.2% of Ae. albopictus Montpellier mosquitoes meet respectively these two criteria. Collectively, these compelling results stress the poor ability of Ae. albopictus to sustain a local transmission of ZIKV in Europe and provide a promising tool to evaluate the risk of ZIKV transmission in future outbreaks.


Assuntos
Aedes/fisiologia , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/transmissão , Zika virus/fisiologia , Aedes/genética , Aedes/virologia , Animais , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Carga Viral , Zika virus/genética , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 888, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651247

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreaks have occurred since October 2015. Because there is no effective treatment for ZIKV infection, developing an effective surveillance and warning system is currently a high priority to prevent ZIKV infection. Despite Aedes mosquitos having been known to spread ZIKV, the calculation approach is diverse, and only applied to local areas. This study used meteorological measurements to monitor ZIKV infection due to the high correlation between climate change and Aedes mosquitos and the convenience to obtain meteorological data from weather monitoring stations. METHODS: This study applied the Bayesian structured additive regression modeling approach to include spatial interactive terms with meteorological factors and a geospatial function in a zero-inflated Poisson model. The study area contained 32 administrative departments in Colombia from October 2015 to December 2017. Weekly ZIKV infection cases and daily meteorological measurements were collected. Mapping techniques were adopted to visualize spatial findings. A series of model selections determined the best combinations of meteorological factors in the same model. RESULTS: When multiple meteorological factors are considered in the same model, both total rainfall and average temperature can best assess the geographic disparities of ZIKV infection. Meanwhile, a 1-in. increase in rainfall is associated with an increase in the logarithm of relative risk (logRR) of ZIKV infection of at most 1.66 (95% credible interval [CI] = 1.09, 2.15) as well as a 1 °F increase in average temperature is significantly associated with at most 0.79 (95% CI = 0.12, 1.22) increase in the logRR of ZIKV. Moreover, after controlling rainfall and average temperature, an independent geospatial function in the model results in two departments with an excessive ZIKV risk which may be explained by unobserved factors other than total rainfall and average temperature. CONCLUSION: Our study found that meteorological factors are significantly associated with ZIKV infection across departments. The study determined both total rainfall and average temperature as the best meteorological factors to identify high risk departments of ZIKV infection. These findings can help governmental agencies monitor at risk areas according to meteorological measurements, and develop preventions in those at risk areas in priority.


Assuntos
Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Aedes/virologia , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Masculino , Conceitos Meteorológicos , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Chuva , Risco , Temperatura Ambiente
10.
Afr Health Sci ; 19(2): 2000-2007, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31656483

RESUMO

Background: In the last five decades, dengue has emerged as one of the most important infectious diseases, following a 30-fold increase in global incidence throughout tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. The actual numbers of dengue cases are under-reported and many cases are misclassified. Objectives: This article describes the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical features and management of dengue. It also explores the implications of infection with this flavivirus for Nigeria, and similar countries. Methods: The literature search for publications on dengue in West Africa was performed using PubMed, African Journals Online (AJOL), Google Scholar, Web of Science, databases and grey literature to identify all published papers regarding the topic. A snowballing strategy was adopted to identify additional publications. Results: Recent reports suggest that dengue is a growing public health problem in Nigeria, the magnitude of which needs to be more clearly defined. Nigeria, the most populous country in Africa has an abundance of the Aedes aegypti mosquito which is known to transmit dengue, Zika, as well as chikungunya (CHIKV) and West Nile viruses. Conclusion: This article provides practical suggestions for strengthening the dengue virus control programme in Nigeria. The Nigerian health system shares similarities with health systems in many other sub-Saharan countries. Therefore, the practical suggestions provided at the end of this review are likely to be applicable to many other African countries.


Assuntos
Aedes/virologia , Vírus da Dengue/isolamento & purificação , Dengue/prevenção & controle , Controle de Mosquitos , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Animais , Dengue/diagnóstico , Humanos , Nigéria
11.
J Insect Sci ; 19(5)2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606748

RESUMO

Dengue, yellow fever, and Zika are viruses transmitted by yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti [Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae)], to thousands of people each year. Mosquitoes transmit these viruses while consuming a blood meal that is required for oogenesis. Iron, an essential nutrient from the blood meal, is required for egg development. Mosquitoes receive a high iron load in the meal; although iron can be toxic, these animals have developed mechanisms for dealing with this load. Our previous research has shown iron from the blood meal is absorbed in the gut and transported by ferritin, the main iron transport and storage protein, to the ovaries. We now report the distribution of iron and ferritin in ovarian tissues before blood feeding and 24 and 72 h post-blood meal. Ovarian iron is observed in specific locations. Timing post-blood feeding influences the location and distribution of the ferritin heavy-chain homolog, light-chain homolog 1, and light-chain homolog 2 in ovaries. Understanding iron deposition in ovarian tissues is important to the potential use of interference in iron metabolism as a vector control strategy for reducing mosquito fecundity, decreasing mosquito populations, and thereby reducing transmission rates of vector-borne diseases.


Assuntos
Aedes/metabolismo , Ferritinas/metabolismo , Ferro/metabolismo , Ovário/metabolismo , Animais , Sangue/metabolismo , Feminino , Ferritinas/química , Suínos
12.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 84, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576944

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the infestation of the municipalities of São Paulo by the vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, characterize seasonality and analyze average temperatures and larval densities. METHODS: We used maps with information on the infestation of municipalities between 1986 and 2015. The analysis of larval density of the species by the Wilcoxon test used the Breteau index values for Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus obtained from the Superintendency for Endemic Diseases Control database. In the seasonal description, arithmetic means of each vector were calculated by month and year. Mean temperature analyses were presented on maps with color gradients. RESULTS: The state of São Paulo is currently almost totally infested, with co-occurrence of species in 93.64% of the municipalities. The seasonality analysis showed the first quarter as the most favorable period for larval abundance. The increase of mean temperatures in geographical areas coincided with the temporal trajectory of Ae. aegypti territorial expansion. The mean larval density found was higher for Ae. aegypti than for Ae. albopictus (p = 0.00). CONCLUSIONS: Initially, these Culicidae occupied distinct and opposing areas. Over time, however, co-occurrence showed how great their capacity for adaptation is, even in the face of different social and urban conjunctures. The increase of the mean temperature contributed to Ae. Aegypti 's geographic expansion, as well as to the clearly seasonal profile of both species. In general, larval infestation by Ae. aegypti prevailed, which evidenced its competitive superiority. These data provide a better understanding of the dynamics of arboviral transmission in the state of São Paulo and can be used in vector surveillance and control.


Assuntos
Aedes , Arbovirus , Mosquitos Vetores , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cidades/epidemiologia , Densidade Demográfica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estações do Ano , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Temperatura Ambiente , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 474, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610804

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The global spread of mosquito-borne diseases (MBD) has presented increasing challenges to public health. The transmission of MBD is mainly attributable to the biting behaviors of female mosquitoes. However, the ecological pattern of hourly host-seeking behavior in Aedes albopictus and its association with climatic variables are still not well understood, especially for a precise requirement for establishing an effective risk prediction system of MBD transmission. METHODS: Mosquito samples and data on mosquito hourly density and site-specific climatic variables, including temperature, relative humidity, illuminance and wind speed, were collected simultaneously in urban outdoor environments in Guangzhou during 2016-2018. Kernel regression models were used to assess the temporal patterns of hourly host-seeking behavior in mosquito populations, and negative binomial regression models in the Bayesian framework were used to investigate the associations of host-seeking behavior with climatic variables. RESULTS: Aedes albopictus was abundant, constituting 82% (5569/6790) of the total collected mosquitoes. Host-seeking behavior in Ae. albopictus varied across time and was significantly influenced by climatic variables. The predicted hourly mosquito densities showed non-linear relationships with temperature and illuminance, whereas density increased with relative humidity but generally decreased with wind speed. The range of temperature estimates for female biting was 16.4-37.1 °C, peaking at 26.5 °C (95% credible interval: 25.3-28.1). During the favorable periods, biting behavior of female Ae. albopictus was estimated to occur frequently all day long, presenting a bimodal distribution with peaks within 2-3 h around both dawn and dusk (05:00-08:00 h and 16:00-19:00 h). Moreover, a short-term association in hourly density between the females and males was found. CONCLUSIONS: Our field-based modeling study reveals that hourly host-seeking behavior of Ae. albopictus exhibits a complex pattern, with hourly variation constrained significantly by climatic variables. These findings lay a foundation for improving MBD risk assessments as well as practical strategies for vector control. For instances of all-day-long frequent female biting during the favorable periods in Guangzhou, effective integrated mosquito control measures must be taken throughout the day and night.


Assuntos
Aedes/fisiologia , Clima , Comportamento de Busca por Hospedeiro/fisiologia , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , /prevenção & controle , Aedes/genética , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Distribuição Binomial , China/epidemiologia , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Umidade , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/epidemiologia , Luz , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/enzimologia , Controle de Mosquitos , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Densidade Demográfica , Chuva , Análise de Regressão , Estações do Ano , Temperatura Ambiente , Fatores de Tempo , Vento
14.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 477, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610813

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) is an important worldwide invasive species and can be a locally important vector of chikungunya, dengue and, potentially, Zika. This species is native to Southeast Asia where populations thrive in both temperate and tropical climates. A better understanding of the population structure of Ae. albopictus in Lao PDR is very important in order to support the implementation of strategies for diseases prevention and vector control. In the present study, we investigated the genetic variability of Ae. albopictus across a north-south transect in Lao PDR. METHODS: We used variability in a 1337-bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1), to assess the population structure of Ae. albopictus in Lao PDR. For context, we also examined variability at the same genetic locus in samples of Ae. albopictus from Thailand, China, Taiwan, Japan, Singapore, Italy and the USA. RESULTS: We observed very high levels of genetic polymorphism with 46 novel haplotypes in Ae. albopictus from 9 localities in Lao PDR and Thailand populations. Significant differences were observed between the Luangnamtha population and other locations in Lao PDR. However, we found no evidence of isolation by distance. There was overall little genetic structure indicating ongoing and frequent gene flow among populations or a recent population expansion. Indeed, the neutrality test supported population expansion in Laotian Ae. albopictus and mismatch distribution analyses showed a lack of low frequency alleles, a pattern often seen in bottlenecked populations. When samples from Lao PDR were analyzed together with samples from Thailand, China, Taiwan, Japan, Singapore, Italy and the USA, phylogenetic network and Bayesian cluster analysis showed that most populations from tropical/subtropical regions are more genetically related to each other, than populations from temperate regions. Similarly, most populations from temperate regions are more genetically related to each other, than those from tropical/subtropical regions. CONCLUSIONS: Aedes albopictus in Lao PDR are genetically related to populations from tropical/subtropical regions (i.e. Thailand, Singapore, and California and Texas in the USA). The extensive gene flow among locations in Lao PDR indicates that local control is undermined by repeated introductions from untreated sites.


Assuntos
Aedes/fisiologia , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Aedes/classificação , Aedes/genética , Aedes/virologia , Algoritmos , Animais , Ásia Sudeste , Teorema de Bayes , Análise por Conglomerados , DNA/química , DNA/isolamento & purificação , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Extremo Oriente , Feminino , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Haplótipos , Itália , Laos , Mitocôndrias/enzimologia , Controle de Mosquitos , Mosquitos Vetores/classificação , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Clima Tropical , Estados Unidos
15.
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 11(5): 1333-1339, out.-dez. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1022140

RESUMO

Objective: The study's purpose has been to identify the actions to fight the dengue fever vector, and also the way that patients bearing the symptoms have being handled. Methods: This research describes the semiological and pathophysiological aspects of dengue fever through the perception of health professionals, who assisted the patients bearing the symptoms of this disease. Furthermore, this study addresses the perception of endemic diseases combat agents and community health agents regarding the efficiency of vector control measures. Results: The health professionals are working according to the World Health Organization recommendations. The majority of the population contributes to the mosquito breeding sites elimination. The elevated number of closed properties and houses with difficult access has been the greatest obstacle to control the vector. Conclusion: These services need to be aware of the disease trends in order to quickly detect changes in its profile and guide control actions


Objetivo: Identificar as ações adotadas de combate ao vetor e as formas de manejo dos pacientes com sinais e sintomas de alarme para dengue grave. Métodos: Estudo que descreve, na percepção dos profissionais de saúde que atenderam pacientes com suspeita de dengue, os aspectos semiológicos e fisiopatológicos da doença. Apresenta a percepção dos Agentes de Combate a Endemias e Agentes Comunitários de Saúde sobre a eficiência das medidas de controle do vetor. Resultados: Os profissionais de saúde procedem o cuidado conforme orientações da Organização Mundial da Saúde. A maior parte da população contribui com a eliminação dos criadouros do mosquito. Imóveis fechados e o difícil acesso têm sido os principais desafios para o controle do vetor. Conclusão: Esses serviços precisam estar atentos às tendências dessa doença para rapidamente conseguir detectar mudanças em seu perfil e orientar ações de controle


Objetivo: Identificar la satisfacción de los pacientes seguidos en un ambulatorio de Educación para la Salud y evaluar el efecto de las variables antecedentes sobre el nivel de satisfacción de los pacientes. Método: Se trata de un estudio transversal realizado en un ambulatorio la Educación para la Salud. La muestra estuvo constituida por todos los pacientes cardíacos en el ambulatorio (17 pacientes). La satisfacción del paciente se evaluó a través del Instrumento de Satisfacción del Paciente (ISP). Resultados: Todos los pacientes informaron un alto nivel de satisfacción. Los dominios con los puntajes más altos y más bajos fueron el profesional y el educacional, respectivamente. No hubo correlación significativa entre los niveles de satisfacción con cualquiera de las variables antecedentes. Conclusión: Pacientes informaron un alto nivel de satisfacción y no hubo correlación significativa entre variables y los niveles de satisfacción


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação do Paciente , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Doenças Endêmicas/prevenção & controle , Dengue/prevenção & controle , Aedes/patogenicidade , Monitoramento Epidemiológico
16.
Acta Trop ; 200: 105171, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521623

RESUMO

The ability of Aedes albopictus Skuse to transmit several pathogens to humans makes it a very important mosquito with public health significance. Ecofriendly products as alternatives to synthetic chemicals for the control of mosquito vectors are needed. Therefore, the larvicidal and repellent effects of two nontoxic chemicals, butyl anthranilate (BA) and ethyl anthranilate (EA), at different concentrations were compared in A. albopictus. The repellency persistence of BA and three commercial mosquito repellent products (Liushen repellent spray, DKB Korean, Raid repellent spray) against A. albopictus was compared. The results showed that 0.1% concentrations of BA and EA solutions were highly toxic to A. albopictus larvae, and the mortality rate was >90% after 4 h of treatment. We found that BA was more repellent than EA, and at 0.1% BA and 1% EA, and the repellency rates were 53.62% and 38.47%, respectively. Overall, 5% BA presented a significantly longer repellency time than the three commercial repellent products against female A. albopictus. These results indicate that BA has significant larvicidal and repellent effects and can be exploited further for the development of ecofriendly alternatives to existing toxic chemicals currently used for mosquito control.


Assuntos
Aedes/efeitos dos fármacos , Repelentes de Insetos/farmacologia , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Mosquitos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , ortoaminobenzoatos/farmacologia , Animais , Feminino , Humanos
17.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 74: e675, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508718

RESUMO

The present study aimed to review literature on studies of dengue cases conducted over 30 years in the state of Ceará.Between November 2015 and January 2016, articles published in Portuguese and English in 7 databases were searched using keywords and a Boolean operator. A total of 191 articles were identified in the databases; 133 were excluded according to the exclusion criteria, and 58 were included in the study.Of the 58 articles analyzed, 6 reported data from Brazil; including the Northeast region and the state of Ceará; 41 reported data for only the city of Fortaleza; 7 reported data for the state of Ceará; 4 reported data for cities in the interior of the state; and 3 included only children. The studies adopted different approaches and focused on different aspects of the disease. Study outcomes included the identification of serological, epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory characteristics; potential larvicides and biological predators of mosquitoes; potential antiviral agents; vector density characteristics; and educational dengue prevention and control strategies. Additionally, one vaccine trial was included.Although studies on dengue in the state of Ceará are scarce, they are encompassing, including several lines of research, and the number of studies and reports on dengue in the state of Ceará continues to increase.


Assuntos
Aedes/classificação , Dengue/epidemiologia , Doenças Endêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Aedes/fisiologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Dengue/prevenção & controle , Dengue/transmissão , Doenças Endêmicas/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Comportamento Predatório , Projetos de Pesquisa , Especificidade da Espécie
18.
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad ; 31(3): 474-475, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535534

RESUMO

First Chikungunya outbreak occurred in Karachi, Pakistan in 2016. Chikungunya is transmitted by the Aedes mosquito which is also transmits Dengue fever. The first Dengue fever outbreak of Pakistan also occurred in Karachi in 1994. In the past 23 years the disease has spread to all parts of the country. This is comprehensible as there is a lot of travelling between Karachi and other parts of the country which increases the chances of spread of the virus. Based on the precedent of Dengue fever in Pakistan, if appropriate preventive measures are not taken to control Chikungunya, it will only be a matter of time before it hits other parts of the country. At the same time International Health Regulations has to be practiced with all its zest to avoid introduction of diseases like Zika virus and yellow fever, which are also transmitted by Aedes.


Assuntos
Febre de Chikungunya/epidemiologia , Febre de Chikungunya/transmissão , Dengue/epidemiologia , Epidemias , Aedes , Animais , Febre de Chikungunya/prevenção & controle , Vetores de Doenças , Humanos , Paquistão/epidemiologia
19.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 15(9): e1007355, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545790

RESUMO

Yellow fever is a vector-borne disease endemic in tropical regions of Africa, where 90% of the global burden occurs, and Latin America. It is notoriously under-reported with uncertainty arising from a complex transmission cycle including a sylvatic reservoir and non-specific symptom set. Resulting estimates of burden, particularly in Africa, are highly uncertain. We examine two established models of yellow fever transmission within a Bayesian model averaging framework in order to assess the relative evidence for each model's assumptions and to highlight possible data gaps. Our models assume contrasting scenarios of the yellow fever transmission cycle in Africa. The first takes the force of infection in each province to be static across the observation period; this is synonymous with a constant infection pressure from the sylvatic reservoir. The second model assumes the majority of transmission results from the urban cycle; in this case, the force of infection is dynamic and defined through a fixed value of R0 in each province. Both models are coupled to a generalised linear model of yellow fever occurrence which uses environmental covariates to allow us to estimate transmission intensity in areas where data is sparse. We compare these contrasting descriptions of transmission through a Bayesian framework and trans-dimensional Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling in order to assess each model's evidence given the range of uncertainty in parameter values. The resulting estimates allow us to produce Bayesian model averaged predictions of yellow fever burden across the African endemic region. We find strong support for the static force of infection model which suggests a higher proportion of yellow fever transmission occurs as a result of infection from an external source such as the sylvatic reservoir. However, the model comparison highlights key data gaps in serological surveys across the African endemic region. As such, conclusions concerning the most prevalent transmission routes for yellow fever will be limited by the sparsity of data which is particularly evident in the areas with highest predicted transmission intensity. Our model and estimation approach provides a robust framework for model comparison and predicting yellow fever burden in Africa. However, key data gaps increase uncertainty surrounding estimates of model parameters and evidence. As more mathematical models are developed to address new research questions, it is increasingly important to compare them with established modelling approaches to highlight uncertainty in structures and data.


Assuntos
Modelos Biológicos , Febre Amarela/transmissão , Aedes/virologia , África , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Biologia Computacional , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Febre Amarela/epidemiologia , Vírus da Febre Amarela
20.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(9): e0007266, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545819

RESUMO

Long term surveillance of vectors and arboviruses is an integral aspect of disease prevention and control systems in countries affected by increasing risk. Yet, little effort has been made to adjust space-time risk estimation by integrating disease case counts with vector surveillance data, which may result in inaccurate risk projection when several vector species are present, and when little is known about their likely role in local transmission. Here, we integrate 13 years of dengue case surveillance and associated Aedes occurrence data across 462 localities in 63 districts to estimate the risk of infection in the Republic of Panama. Our exploratory space-time modelling approach detected the presence of five clusters, which varied by duration, relative risk, and spatial extent after incorporating vector species as covariates. The Ae. aegypti model contained the highest number of districts with more dengue cases than would be expected given baseline population levels, followed by the model accounting for both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. This implies that arbovirus case surveillance coupled with entomological surveillance can affect cluster detection and risk estimation, potentially improving efforts to understand outbreak dynamics at national scales.


Assuntos
Aedes/fisiologia , Vírus da Dengue/fisiologia , Dengue/epidemiologia , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Aedes/classificação , Aedes/virologia , Animais , Dengue/transmissão , Dengue/virologia , Vírus da Dengue/genética , Vírus da Dengue/isolamento & purificação , Monitoramento Ambiental , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Humanos , Mosquitos Vetores/classificação , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Panamá/epidemiologia
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