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1.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 122(2): e202310144, abr. 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1537966

RESUMO

El dengue es una enfermedad viral transmitida por la picadura del mosquito Aedes aegypti. El comportamiento del dengue en Argentina es epidémico; la mayoría de los casos se observan en los meses de mayor temperatura. Hasta la semana epidemiológica (SE) 20/2023, se registraron en Argentina 106 672 casos; se vieron afectadas 18 de las 24 provincias que conforman el país. Dentro de los principales grupos de riesgo, se incluyen los menores de 2 años. Reconocer los signos, síntomas e identificar los factores de riesgo es fundamental para el manejo de casos con mayor riesgo de gravedad. Presentamos el caso de una paciente de 32 días de vida que se internó por síndrome febril sin foco, con diagnósticos diferenciales de meningitis viral y sepsis, evolucionó con leucocitosis, plaquetopenia, hipoalbuminemia, asociado a exantema y edemas. Se llegó al diagnóstico de dengue por la clínica, epidemiologia e IgM positiva.


Dengue fever is a viral disease transmitted by the Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. In Argentina, dengue fever is an epidemic disease; most cases are reported during the hot months.Until epidemiological week (EW) 20/2023, 106 672 cases were reported across 18 of the 24 provinces of Argentina. Children younger than 2 years are among the main groups at risk. Recognizing signs and symptoms and identifying risk factors is fundamental for the management of cases at a higher risk of severity. Here we describe the case of a 32-day-old female patient who was hospitalized due to febrile syndrome without a source, who had a differential diagnosis of viral meningitis and sepsis and progressed to leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia, hypoalbuminemia in association with rash and edema. The diagnosis of dengue fever was established based on clinical, epidemiological, and positive IgM data.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Feminino , Lactente , Aedes , Dengue/complicações , Dengue/diagnóstico , Dengue/epidemiologia , Argentina , Fatores de Risco , Diagnóstico Diferencial
2.
BMC Genomics ; 25(1): 353, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594632

RESUMO

Mosquitoes are prolific vectors of human pathogens, therefore a clear and accurate understanding of the organization of their antimicrobial defenses is crucial for informing the development of transmission control strategies. The canonical infection response in insects, as described in the insect model Drosophila melanogaster, is pathogen type-dependent, with distinct stereotypical responses to Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive bacteria/fungi mediated by the activation of the Imd and Toll pathways, respectively. To determine whether this pathogen-specific discrimination is shared by mosquitoes, we used RNAseq to capture the genome-wide transcriptional response of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae (s.l.) to systemic infection with Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, yeasts, and filamentous fungi, as well as challenge with heat-killed Gram-negative, Gram-positive, and fungal pathogens. From the resulting data, we found that Ae. aegypti and An. gambiae both mount a core response to all categories of infection, and this response is highly conserved between the two species with respect to both function and orthology. When we compared the transcriptomes of mosquitoes infected with different types of bacteria, we observed that the intensity of the transcriptional response was correlated with both the virulence and growth rate of the infecting pathogen. Exhaustive comparisons of the transcriptomes of Gram-negative-challenged versus Gram-positive-challenged mosquitoes yielded no difference in either species. In Ae. aegypti, however, we identified transcriptional signatures specific to bacterial infection and to fungal infection. The bacterial infection response was dominated by the expression of defensins and cecropins, while the fungal infection response included the disproportionate upregulation of an uncharacterized family of glycine-rich proteins. These signatures were also observed in Ae. aegypti challenged with heat-killed bacteria and fungi, indicating that this species can discriminate between molecular patterns that are specific to bacteria and to fungi.


Assuntos
Aedes , Infecções Bacterianas , Micoses , Animais , Humanos , Drosophila melanogaster , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Aedes/genética , Aedes/microbiologia , Bactérias , Fungos/genética
3.
Proc Biol Sci ; 291(2021): 20240429, 2024 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38628128

RESUMO

The global expansion of Aedes albopictus has stimulated the development of environmentally friendly methods aiming to control disease transmission through the suppression of natural vector populations. Sterile male release programmes are currently being deployed worldwide, and are challenged by the availability of an efficient sex separation which can be achieved mechanically at the pupal stage and/or by artificial intelligence at the adult stage, or through genetic sexing, which allows separating males and females at an early development stage. In this study, we combined the genetic sexing strain previously established based on the linkage of dieldrin resistance to the male locus with a Wolbachia transinfected line. For this, we introduced either the wPip-I or the wPip-IV strain from Culex pipiens in an asymbiotic Wolbachia-free Ae. albopictus line. We then measured the penetrance of cytoplasmic incompatibility and life-history traits of both transinfected lines, selected the wPip-IV line and combined it with the genetic sexing strain. Population suppression experiments demonstrated a 90% reduction in population size and a 50% decrease in hatching rate. Presented results showed that such a combination has a high potential in terms of vector control but also highlighted associated fitness costs, which should be reduced before large-scale field assay.


Assuntos
Aedes , Culex , Wolbachia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Wolbachia/genética , Inteligência Artificial , Aedes/genética
4.
PLoS Pathog ; 20(4): e1011975, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38557892

RESUMO

Arboviruses can emerge rapidly and cause explosive epidemics of severe disease. Some of the most epidemiologically important arboviruses, including dengue virus (DENV), Zika virus (ZIKV), Chikungunya (CHIKV) and yellow fever virus (YFV), are transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, most notably Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. After a mosquito blood feeds on an infected host, virus enters the midgut and infects the midgut epithelium. The virus must then overcome a series of barriers before reaching the mosquito saliva and being transmitted to a new host. The virus must escape from the midgut (known as the midgut escape barrier; MEB), which is thought to be mediated by transient changes in the permeability of the midgut-surrounding basal lamina layer (BL) following blood feeding. Here, we present a mathematical model of the within-mosquito population dynamics of DENV (as a model system for mosquito-borne viruses more generally) that includes the interaction of the midgut and BL which can account for the MEB. Our results indicate a dose-dependency of midgut establishment of infection as well as rate of escape from the midgut: collectively, these suggest that the extrinsic incubation period (EIP)-the time taken for DENV virus to be transmissible after infection-is shortened when mosquitoes imbibe more virus. Additionally, our experimental data indicate that multiple blood feeding events, which more closely mimic mosquito-feeding behavior in the wild, can hasten the course of infections, and our model predicts that this effect is sensitive to the amount of virus imbibed. Our model indicates that mutations to the virus which impact its replication rate in the midgut could lead to even shorter EIPs when double-feeding occurs. Mechanistic models of within-vector viral infection dynamics provide a quantitative understanding of infection dynamics and could be used to evaluate novel interventions that target the mosquito stages of the infection.


Assuntos
Aedes , Vírus da Dengue , Dengue , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Animais , Trato Gastrointestinal , Mosquitos Vetores
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(16): e2317978121, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38593069

RESUMO

Mosquito-borne flaviviruses such as dengue (DENV) and Zika (ZIKV) cause hundreds of millions of infections annually. The single-stranded RNA genome of flaviviruses is translated into a polyprotein, which is cleaved equally into individual functional proteins. While structural proteins are packaged into progeny virions and released, most of the nonstructural proteins remain intracellular and could become cytotoxic if accumulated over time. However, the mechanism by which nonstructural proteins are maintained at the levels optimal for cellular fitness and viral replication remains unknown. Here, we identified that the ubiquitin E3 ligase HRD1 is essential for flaviviruses infections in both mammalian hosts and mosquitoes. HRD1 directly interacts with flavivirus NS4A and ubiquitylates a conserved lysine residue for ER-associated degradation. This mechanism avoids excessive accumulation of NS4A, which otherwise interrupts the expression of processed flavivirus proteins in the ER. Furthermore, a small-molecule inhibitor of HRD1 named LS-102 effectively interrupts DENV2 infection in both mice and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, and significantly disturbs DENV transmission from the infected hosts to mosquitoes owing to reduced viremia. Taken together, this study demonstrates that flaviviruses have evolved a sophisticated mechanism to exploit the ubiquitination system to balance the homeostasis of viral proteins for their own advantage and provides a potential therapeutic target to interrupt flavivirus infection and transmission.


Assuntos
Aedes , Infecções por Flavivirus , Flavivirus , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Animais , Camundongos , Flavivirus/genética , Zika virus/genética , Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Ligases/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Mamíferos
6.
Parasit Vectors ; 17(1): 177, 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575981

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vertical transmission (VT) of arboviruses (arthropod-borne viruses) can serve as an essential link in the transmission cycle during adverse environmental conditions. The extent of VT among mosquito-borne arboviruses can vary significantly among different virus families and even among different viruses within the same genus. For example, orthobunyaviruses exhibit a higher VT rate than orthoflaviviruses and alphaviruses. Mosquitoes are also the natural hosts of a large number of insect-specific viruses (ISV) that belong to several virus families, including Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae. Cell fusing agent virus (CFAV), an insect-specific orthoflavivirus, displays higher VT rates than other dual-host orthoflaviviruses, such as Zika and dengue viruses. High VT rates require establishment of stabilized infections in the germinal tissues of female vectors. To delve deeper into understanding the mechanisms governing these differences in VT rates and the establishment of stabilized infections, the ovary infection patterns and VT of Zika virus (ZIKV) and CFAV were compared. METHODS: Laboratory colonized Aedes aegypti females were infected with either ZIKV or CFAV by intrathoracic injection. Ovary infection patterns were monitored by in situ hybridization using virus-specific probes, and VT was determined by detecting the presence of the virus among the progeny, using a reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. RESULTS: Both ZIKV and CFAV infect mosquito ovaries after intrathoracic injection. Infections then become widespread following a non-infectious blood meal. VT rates of ZIKV are similar to previously reported results (3.33%). CFAV, on the contrary transmits vertically very rarely. VT was not observed in the first gonotrophic cycle following intrathoracic injection, and only rarely in the second gonotrophic cycle. VT of CFAV is mosquito population independent, since similar results were obtained with Aedes aegypti collected from two different geographic locations. CONCLUSIONS: Although CFAV infects mosquito ovaries, the occurrence of VT remains infrequent in artificially infected Ae. aegypti, despite the observation of high VT rates in field-collected mosquitoes. These results suggest that infections of insect-specific viruses are stabilized in mosquitoes by some as yet unidentified mechanisms.


Assuntos
Aedes , Arbovírus , Vírus de Insetos , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Feminino , Animais , Mosquitos Vetores
7.
J Proteome Res ; 23(4): 1471-1487, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38576391

RESUMO

In arthropods, hemolymph carries immune cells and solubilizes and transports nutrients, hormones, and other molecules that are involved in diverse physiological processes including immunity, metabolism, and reproduction. However, despite such physiological importance, little is known about its composition. We applied mass spectrometry-based label-free quantification approaches to study the proteome of hemolymph perfused from sugar-fed female and male Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. A total of 1403 proteins were identified, out of which 447 of them were predicted to be extracellular. In both sexes, almost half of these extracellular proteins were predicted to be involved in defense/immune response, and their relative abundances (based on their intensity-based absolute quantification, iBAQ) were 37.9 and 33.2%, respectively. Interestingly, among them, 102 serine proteases/serine protease-homologues were identified, with almost half of them containing CLIP regulatory domains. Moreover, proteins belonging to families classically described as chemoreceptors, such as odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) and chemosensory proteins (CSPs), were also highly abundant in the hemolymph of both sexes. Our data provide a comprehensive catalogue of A. aegypti hemolymph basal protein content, revealing numerous unexplored targets for future research on mosquito physiology and disease transmission. It also provides a reference for future studies on the effect of blood meal and infection on hemolymph composition.


Assuntos
Aedes , Humanos , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Aedes/metabolismo , Açúcares/metabolismo , Hemolinfa/metabolismo , Proteômica , Carboidratos
9.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 200: 105809, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582581

RESUMO

Culex quinquefasciatus is the main vector of lymphatic filariasis in Brazil, which present resistance to commercial insecticides. Nowadays, essential oils (EOs) exhibiting larvicidal activity, such as those derived from Piper alatipetiolatum, provide a promising alternative for vector control, including Culex species. This study aimed to investigate the larvicidal activity and the oxidative stress indicators of the EO from P. alatipetiolatum in Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae. The EO was extracted from P. alatipetiolatum leaves using the hydrodistillation method, resulting in a yield of 7.2 ± 0.1%, analysed by gas chromatography coupled with spectrometry and gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization detector (GC-MS and GC-FID), and evaluated against Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae. Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species (RONS), Catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and Thiol levels were used as oxidative stress indicators. Analysis by CG-MS and CG-FID revealed that the main compound in the EO was the oxygenated sesquiterpene ishwarone, constituting 78.6% of the composition. Furthermore, the EO exhibited larvicidal activity, ranging from 26 to 100%, with an LC50 of 4.53 µg/mL and LC90 of 15.37 µg/mL. This activity was accompanied by a significant increase in RONS production, alterations in CAT, GST, AChE activity, and thiol levels compared to the control groups (p < 0.05). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing the larvicidal activity and oxidative stress induced by the EO from P. alatipetiolatum against Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae. Therefore, we propose that this EO shows promise as larvicidal agent for the effective control of Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae.


Assuntos
Aedes , Culex , Culicidae , Inseticidas , Óleos Voláteis , Piper , Animais , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/química , Larva , Acetilcolinesterase , Mosquitos Vetores , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Inseticidas/química , Compostos de Sulfidrila/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta
10.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 200: 105811, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582583

RESUMO

Aedes albopictus can transmit several lethal arboviruses. This mosquito has become a sever public health threat due to its rapidly changing global distribution. Chitin, which is the major component of the cuticle and peritrophic membrane (PM), is crucial for the growth and development of insect. microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in the posttranscriptional level regulation of gene expression, thereby influencing many biological processes in insects. In this study, an attempt was made to evaluate the role of miR-306-5p in regulating chitin metabolism in Ae. albopictus pupae. Overexpression of miR-306-5p resulted in a significantly reduced survival rate in pupae and an increased malformation rate in adults. Both in vivo and in vitro evidence confirmed the presence of the competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) regulatory axis (linc8338-miR-306-5p-XM_019678125.2). RNAi of linc8338 and XM_019678125.2 had effects on pupae similar to those of miR-306-5p. The highest expression level of miR-306-5p was found in the midgut, and alteration in the expression of miR-306-5p, XM_019678125.2 and linc8338 induced increased transcript levels of chitin synthase 2 (AaCHS2) and decreased chitinase 10 (AaCht10); as well as increased thickness of the midgut and enlarged midgut epithelial cells. The results of this study highlight the potential of miR-306-5p as a prospective target in mosquito control and confirm that the ceRNA mechanism is involved in chitin metabolism. These findings will provide a basis for further studies to uncover the molecular mechanisms through which ncRNAs regulate chitin metabolism.


Assuntos
Aedes , MicroRNAs , Animais , Pupa/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Aedes/metabolismo , Quitina
11.
J Neurol Sci ; 459: 122955, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38593523

RESUMO

Chikungunya fever is an arboviral illness caused by chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and transmitted by the bite of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. It is an RNA virus belonging to the genus Alphavirus and family Togaviridae. We present a case series of three patients with chikungunya illness developing para/post-infectious myeloradiculoneuropathy.These patients developed neurological symptoms in the form of bilateral lower limb weakness with sensory and bowel involvement after the recovery from the initial acute episode of chikungunya fever. Clinical examination findings suggested myeloradiculoneuropathy with normal Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Spine, with the nerve conduction study showing sensorimotor axonal polyneuropathy. All the patients were treated with 1 g of methylprednisolone once a day for five days, and case 2 was given intravenous immunoglobulin also. In the follow-up, cases 1 and 2 showed complete recovery without recurrence, and case 3 did not show improvement at one month.


Assuntos
Aedes , Febre de Chikungunya , Vírus Chikungunya , Animais , Humanos , Febre de Chikungunya/complicações , Febre de Chikungunya/diagnóstico por imagem , Febre de Chikungunya/tratamento farmacológico , Insetos Vetores , Vírus Chikungunya/genética
12.
Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom ; 38(12): e9739, 2024 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38605205

RESUMO

RATIONALE: 4,7-Dichloroquinoline (DCQ) represents a group of synthetic molecules inspired by natural products with important roles in biological and biomedical areas. This work aimed to characterize DCQ and its derivatives by high-resolution electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS), supported by theoretical calculations. Biological assays were carried out with DCQ and its derivatives to determine LC50 values against Aedes aegypti larvae. METHODS: Five DCQ derivatives were synthesized by using previously described protocols. ESI-MS/MS analyses were carried out with a quadrupole/time-of-flight and ion-trap instrument. The proposed gas-phase protonation sites and fragmentation were supported by density functional theory calculations. The larvicidal tests were performed with the Ae. aegypti Rockefeller strain, and the LC50 values were determined by employing five test concentrations. Larval mortality was determined after treatment for 48 h. RESULTS: DCQ bromides or aldehydes (C-3 or C-8 positions), as well as the trimethylsilyl derivative (C-3 position), were prepared. Detailed ESI-MS/MS data revealed heteroatom elimination through an exception to the even-electron rule, to originate open-shell species. Computational studies were used to define the protonation sites and fragmentation pathways. High activity of DCQ and its derivatives against Ae. aegypti larvae was demonstrated. CONCLUSION: Our results provided a well-founded characterization of the fragmentation reactions of DCQ and its derivatives, which can be useful for complementary studies of the development of a larvicidal product against Ae. aegypti.


Assuntos
Aedes , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Animais , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Larva
13.
Euro Surveill ; 29(14)2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38577804

RESUMO

In February 2023, German public health authorities reported two dengue cases (one confirmed, one probable) and four possible cases who travelled to Ibiza, Spain, in late summer/autumn 2022; the infection was probably acquired through mosquito bites. Case 1 visited Ibiza over 1 week in late August with two familial companions; all three developed symptoms the day after returning home. Only Case 1 was tested; dengue virus (DENV) infection was confirmed by presence of NS1 antigen and IgM antibodies. Case 2 travelled to Ibiza with two familial companions for 1 week in early October, and stayed in the same town as Case 1. Case 2 showed symptoms on the day of return, and the familial companions 1 day before and 3 days after return; Case 2 tested positive for DENV IgM. The most probable source case had symptom onset in mid-August, and travelled to a dengue-endemic country prior to a stay in the same municipality of Ibiza for 20 days, until the end of August. Dengue diagnosis was probable based on positive DENV IgM. Aedes albopictus, a competent vector for dengue, has been present in Ibiza since 2014. This is the first report of a local dengue transmission event on Ibiza.


Assuntos
Aedes , Vírus da Dengue , Dengue , Animais , Humanos , Dengue/diagnóstico , Dengue/epidemiologia , Vírus da Dengue/genética , Espanha/epidemiologia , Mosquitos Vetores , Surtos de Doenças , Imunoglobulina M
14.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 4: CD015636, 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38597256

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dengue is a global health problem of high significance, with 3.9 billion people at risk of infection. The geographic expansion of dengue virus (DENV) infection has resulted in increased frequency and severity of the disease, and the number of deaths has increased in recent years. Wolbachia,an intracellular bacterial endosymbiont, has been under investigation for several years as a novel dengue-control strategy. Some dengue vectors (Aedes mosquitoes) can be transinfected with specific strains of Wolbachia, which decreases their fitness (ability to survive and mate) and their ability to reproduce, inhibiting the replication of dengue. Both laboratory and field studies have demonstrated the potential effect of Wolbachia deployments on reducing dengue transmission, and modelling studies have suggested that this may be a self-sustaining strategy for dengue prevention, although long-term effects are yet to be elucidated. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of Wolbachia-carrying Aedes speciesdeployments (specifically wMel-, wMelPop-, and wAlbB- strains of Wolbachia) for preventing dengue virus infection. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, four other databases, and two trial registries up to 24 January 2024. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), including cluster-randomized controlled trials (cRCTs), conducted in dengue endemic or epidemic-prone settings were eligible. We sought studies that investigated the impact of Wolbachia-carrying Aedes deployments on epidemiological or entomological dengue-related outcomes, utilizing either the population replacement or population suppression strategy. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently selected eligible studies, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias using the Cochrane RoB 2 tool. We used odds ratios (OR) with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) as the effect measure for dichotomous outcomes. For count/rate outcomes, we planned to use the rate ratio with 95% CI as the effect measure. We used adjusted measures of effect for cRCTs. We assessed the certainty of evidence using GRADE. MAIN RESULTS: One completed cRCT met our inclusion criteria, and we identified two further ongoing cRCTs. The included trial was conducted in an urban setting in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. It utilized a nested test-negative study design, whereby all participants aged three to 45 years who presented at healthcare centres with a fever were enrolled in the study provided they had resided in the study area for the previous 10 nights. The trial showed that wMel-Wolbachia infected Ae aegypti deployments probably reduce the odds of contracting virologically confirmed dengue by 77% (OR 0.23, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.35; 1 trial, 6306 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). The cluster-level prevalence of wMel Wolbachia-carrying mosquitoes remained high over two years in the intervention arm of the trial, reported as 95.8% (interquartile range 91.5 to 97.8) across 27 months in clusters receiving wMel-Wolbachia Ae aegypti deployments, but there were no reliable comparative data for this outcome. Other primary outcomes were the incidence of virologically confirmed dengue, the prevalence of dengue ribonucleic acid in the mosquito population, and mosquito density, but there were no data for these outcomes. Additionally, there were no data on adverse events. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The included trial demonstrates the potential significant impact of wMel-Wolbachia-carrying Ae aegypti mosquitoes on preventing dengue infection in an endemic setting, and supports evidence reported in non-randomized and uncontrolled studies. Further trials across a greater diversity of settings are required to confirm whether these findings apply to other locations and country settings, and greater reporting of acceptability and cost are important.


Assuntos
Aedes , Vírus da Dengue , Dengue , Wolbachia , Animais , Humanos , Aedes/microbiologia , Mosquitos Vetores/microbiologia , Dengue/prevenção & controle
15.
Viral Immunol ; 37(3): 167-175, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38574259

RESUMO

Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging flavivirus associated with several neurological diseases such as Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults and microcephaly in newborn children. Its distribution and mode of transmission (via Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes) collectively cause ZIKV to be a serious concern for global health. High genetic homology of flaviviruses and shared ecology is a hurdle for accurate detection. Distinguishing infections caused by different viruses based on serological recognition can be misleading as many anti-flavivirus monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) discovered to date are highly cross-reactive, especially those against the envelope (E) protein. To provide more specific research tools, we produced ZIKV E directed hybridoma cell lines and characterized two highly ZIKV-specific mAb clones (mAbs A11 and A42) against several members of the Flavivirus genus. Epitope mapping of mAb A11 revealed glycan loop specificity in Domain I of the ZIKV E protein. The development of two highly specific mAbs targeting the surface fusion protein of ZIKV presents a significant advancement in research capabilities as these can be employed as essential tools to enhance our understanding of ZIKV identification on infected cells ex vivo or in culture.


Assuntos
Aedes , Flavivirus , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Animais , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Proteínas do Envelope Viral , Anticorpos Monoclonais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais
16.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 18(4): e0012053, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38557981

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mosquito-borne arboviruses are expanding their territory and elevating their infection prevalence due to the rapid climate change, urbanization, and increased international travel and global trade. Various significant arboviruses, including the dengue virus, Zika virus, Chikungunya virus, and yellow fever virus, are all reliant on the same primary vector, Aedes aegypti. Consequently, the occurrence of arbovirus coinfection in mosquitoes is anticipated. Arbovirus coinfection in mosquitoes has two patterns: simultaneous and sequential. Numerous studies have demonstrated that simultaneous coinfection of arboviruses in mosquitoes is unlikely to exert mutual developmental influence on these viruses. However, the viruses' interplay within a mosquito after the sequential coinfection seems intricated and not well understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted experiments aimed at examining the phenomenon of arbovirus sequential coinfection in both mosquito cell line (C6/36) and A. aegypti, specifically focusing on dengue virus (DENV, serotype 2) and Zika virus (ZIKV). We firstly observed that DENV and ZIKV can sequentially infect mosquito C6/36 cell line, but the replication level of the subsequently infected ZIKV was significantly suppressed. Similarly, A. aegypti mosquitoes can be sequentially coinfected by these two arboviruses, regardless of the order of virus exposure. However, the replication, dissemination, and the transmission potential of the secondary virus were significantly inhibited. We preliminarily explored the underlying mechanisms, revealing that arbovirus-infected mosquitoes exhibited activated innate immunity, disrupted lipid metabolism, and enhanced RNAi pathway, leading to reduced susceptibility to the secondary arbovirus infections. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggest that, in contrast to simultaneous arbovirus coinfection in mosquitoes that can promote the transmission and co-circulation of these viruses, sequential coinfection appears to have limited influence on arbovirus transmission dynamics. However, it is important to note that more experimental investigations are needed to refine and expand upon this conclusion.


Assuntos
Aedes , Arbovírus , Coinfecção , Vírus da Dengue , Dengue , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Animais , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Mosquitos Vetores , Dengue/epidemiologia
17.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 14: 1360438, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38562961

RESUMO

Background: The Philippines bears health and economic burden caused by high dengue cases annually. Presently, the Philippines still lack an effective and sustainable vector management. The use of Wolbachia, a maternally transmitted bacterium, that mitigate arbovirus transmission has been recommended. Cytoplasmic incompatibility and viral blocking, two characteristics that make Wolbachia suitable for vector control, depend on infection prevalence and density. There are no current Wolbachia release programs in the Philippines, and studies regarding the safety of this intervention. Here, we screened for Wolbachia in Aedes aegypti collected from Metropolitan Manila, Philippines. We designed location-specific primers for qPCR to test whether this improved Wolbachia detection in Ae. aegypti. We explored if host sex and Wolbachia strain could be potential factors affecting Wolbachia density. Methods: Ae. aegypti mosquitoes (n=429) were screened for natural Wolbachia by taqman qPCR using location-specific Wolbachia surface protein primers (wspAAML) and known 16S rRNA primers. Samples positive for wspAAML (n=267) were processed for Sanger sequencing. We constructed a phylogenetic tree using IQ-TREE 2 to further characterize Wolbachia present in the Philippine Ae. aegypti. We then compared Wolbachia densities between Wolbachia groups and host sex. Statistical analyses were done using GraphPad Prism 9.0. Results: Wolbachia prevalence for 16S rRNA (40%) and wspAAML (62%) markers were high. Wolbachia relative densities for 16S rRNA ranged from -3.84 to 2.71 and wspAAML from -4.02 to 1.81. Densities were higher in male than female mosquitoes. Wolbachia strains detected in Ae. aegypti clustered into supergroup B. Some 54% (123/226) of these sequences clustered under a group referred to here as "wAegML," that belongs to the supergroup B, which had a significantly lower density than wAegB/wAlbB, and wAlbA strains. Conclusion: Location-specific primers improved detection of natural Wolbachia in Ae. aegypti and allowed for relative quantification. Wolbachia density is relatively low, and differed between host sexes and Wolbachia strains. An economical way of confirming sporadic or transient Wolbachia in Ae. aegypti is necessary while considering host sex and bacterial strain.


Assuntos
Aedes , Wolbachia , Animais , Humanos , Aedes/microbiologia , Wolbachia/genética , Filipinas , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Mosquitos Vetores , Filogenia
18.
Parasit Vectors ; 17(1): 171, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38566239

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identification of mosquitoes greatly relies on morphological specification. Since some species cannot be distinguished reliably by morphological methods, it is important to incorporate molecular techniques into the diagnostic pipeline. DNA barcoding using Sanger sequencing is currently widely used for identification of mosquito species. However, this method does not allow detection of multiple species in one sample, which would be important when analysing mosquito eggs. Detection of container breeding Aedes is typically performed by collecting eggs using ovitraps. These traps consist of a black container filled with water and a wooden spatula inserted for oviposition support. Aedes mosquitoes of different species might lay single or multiple eggs on the spatula. In contrast to Sanger sequencing of specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products, multiplex PCR protocols targeting specific species of interest can be of advantage for detection of multiple species in the same sample. METHODS: For this purpose, we adapted a previously published PCR protocol for simultaneous detection of four different Aedes species that are relevant for Austrian monitoring programmes, as they can be found in ovitraps: Aedes albopictus, Aedes japonicus, Aedes koreicus, and Aedes geniculatus. For evaluation of the multiplex PCR protocol, we analysed 2271 ovitrap mosquito samples from the years 2021 and 2022, which were collected within the scope of an Austrian nationwide monitoring programme. We compared the results of the multiplex PCR to the results of DNA barcoding. RESULTS: Of 2271 samples, the multiplex PCR could identify 1990 samples, while species determination using DNA barcoding of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene was possible in 1722 samples. The multiplex PCR showed a mixture of different species in 47 samples, which could not be detected with DNA barcoding. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, identification of Aedes species in ovitrap samples was more successful when using the multiplex PCR protocol as opposed to the DNA barcoding protocol. Additionally, the multiplex PCR allowed us to detect multiple species in the same sample, while those species might have been missed when using DNA barcoding with Sanger sequencing alone. Therefore, we propose that the multiplex PCR protocol is highly suitable and of great advantage when analysing mosquito eggs from ovitraps.


Assuntos
Aedes , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Feminino , Animais , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Óvulo , Aedes/genética , Mosquitos Vetores/genética
19.
BMC Genomics ; 25(1): 336, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570743

RESUMO

The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is a global invasive species, notorious for its role in transmitting dangerous human arboviruses such as dengue and Chikungunya. Although hematophagous behavior is repulsive, it is an effective strategy for mosquitoes like Aedes albopictus to transmit viruses, posing a significant risk to human health. However, the fragmented nature of the Ae. albopictus genome assembly has been a significant challenge, hindering in-depth biological and genetic studies of this mosquito. In this research, we have harnessed a variety of technologies and implemented a novel strategy to create a significantly improved genome assembly for Ae. albopictus, designated as AealbF3. This assembly boasts a completeness rate of up to 98.1%, and the duplication rate has been minimized to 1.2%. Furthermore, the fragmented contigs or scaffolds of AealbF3 have been organized into three distinct chromosomes, an arrangement corroborated through syntenic plot analysis, which compared the genetic structure of Ae. albopictus with that of Ae. aegypti. Additionally, the study has revealed a phylogenetic relationship suggesting that the PGANT3 gene is implicated in the hematophagous behavior of Ae. albopictus. This involvement was preliminarily substantiated through RNA interference (RNAi) techniques and behavioral experiment. In summary, the AealbF3 genome assembly will facilitate new biological insights and intervention strategies for combating this formidable vector of disease. The innovative assembly process employed in this study could also serve as a valuable template for the assembly of genomes in other insects characterized by high levels of heterozygosity.


Assuntos
Aedes , Mosquitos Vetores , Animais , Humanos , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Filogenia , Comportamento Alimentar
20.
J Insect Sci ; 24(2)2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38501855

RESUMO

For many mosquito species, the females must obtain vertebrate blood to complete a gonotrophic cycle. These blood meals are frequently supplemented by feeding on sugary plant nectar, which sustains energy reserves needed for flight, mating, and overall fitness. Our understanding of mosquito nectar foraging behaviors is mostly limited to laboratory experiments and direct field observations, with little research into natural mosquito-host plant relationships done in North America. In this study, we collected nectar-fed female mosquitoes over a 2-year period in Manitoba, Canada, and amplified a fragment of the chloroplast rbcL gene to identify the plant species fed upon. We found that mosquitoes foraged from diverse plant families (e.g., grasses, trees, ornamentals, and legumes), but preferred certain species, most notably soybean and Kentucky blue grass. Moreover, there appeared to be some associations between plant feeding preferences and mosquito species, date of collection, landscape, and geographical region. Overall, this study implemented DNA barcoding to identify nectar sources forage by mosquitoes in the Canadian Prairies.


Assuntos
Aedes , Culex , Culicidae , Feminino , Animais , Culicidae/genética , Néctar de Plantas , Comportamento Alimentar , Canadá , Suplementos Nutricionais , Mosquitos Vetores
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