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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246230, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339369

RESUMO

Abstract Dengue fever vectored by the mosquito Aedes aegypti is one of the most rapidly spreading insect-borne diseases. Current reliance of dengue vector control is mostly on chemical insecticides. Growing insecticide resistance in the primary mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, limits the effectiveness of vector control through chemical insecticides. These chemical insecticides also have negative environmental impacts on animals, plants and human health. Myco-biocontrol agents are naturally occurring organisms and are found to be less damaging to the environment as compared to chemical insecticides. In the present study, entomopathogenic potential of local strains of fungi isolated from soil was assessed for the control of dengue vector. Local fungal isolates presents better alternative to introducing a foreign biocontrol strain, as they may be better adapted to environmental conditions of the area to survive and may have more entomopathogenic efficacy against target organism. Larvicidal efficacy of Fusarium equiseti and Fusarium proliferatum was evaluated against Aedes aegypti. Local strains of F. equiseti (MK371718) and F. proliferatum (MK371715) were isolated from the soil of Changa Manga Forest, Pakistan by using insect bait method. Larvicidal activity of two Fusarium spp. was tested against forth instar larvae of A. aegypti in the laboratory, using concentrations 105, 106, 107 and 108 conidia /ml. LC50 values for F. equiseti after 24h, 48h, 72h and 96h of exposure were recorded as 3.8x 108, 2.9x107, 2.0x107, and 7.1x106 conidia /ml respectively while LC50 values for F. proliferatum were recorded as 1.21x108, 9.6x107, 4.2x107, 2.6x107 conidia /ml respectively after 24h, 48h, 72h and 96h of exposure. The results indicate that among two fungal strains F. equiseti was found to be more effective in terms of its larvicidal activity than F. proliferatum against larvae of A. aegypti.


Resumo A dengue transmitida pelo mosquito Aedes aegypti é uma das doenças transmitidas por insetos de propagação mais rápida. A dependência atual do controle do vetor da dengue é principalmente de inseticidas químicos. O aumento da resistência a inseticidas no principal vetor do mosquito, Aedes aegypti, limita a eficácia do controle do vetor por meio de inseticidas químicos. Esses inseticidas químicos também têm impactos ambientais negativos sobre os animais, plantas e saúde humana. Os agentes de micobiocontrole são organismos que ocorrem naturalmente e são menos prejudiciais ao meio ambiente em comparação com os inseticidas químicos. No presente estudo, avaliou-se o potencial entomopatogênico de cepas locais de fungos isolados do solo para o controle do vetor da dengue. Isolados de fungos locais apresentam melhor alternativa para a introdução de uma cepa de biocontrole estrangeira, pois podem ser mais bem adaptados às condições ambientais da área para sobreviver e podem ter maior eficácia entomopatogênica contra o organismo-alvo. A eficácia larvicida de Fusarium equiseti e Fusarium proliferatum foi avaliada contra Aedes aegypti. Cepas locais de F. equiseti (MK371718) e F. proliferatum (MK371715) foram isoladas do solo de Changa Manga Forest, Paquistão, usando o método de isca para insetos. Atividade larvicida de dois Fusarium spp. foi testado contra larvas de quarto ínstar de A. aegypti em laboratório, nas concentrações 105, 106, 107 e 108 conídios / ml. Os valores de LC50 para F. equiseti após 24 h, 48 h, 72 h e 96 h de exposição foram registrados como 3,8x 108, 2,9x107, 2,0x107 e 7,1x106 conídios / ml, respectivamente, enquanto os valores de LC50 para F. proliferatum foram registrados como 1,21x108, 9,6 x107, 4,2x107, 2,6x107 conídios / ml, respectivamente, após 24 h, 48 h, 72 h e 96 h de exposição. Os resultados indicam que entre duas cepas de fungos F. equiseti se mostrou mais eficaz em termos de atividade larvicida do que F. proliferatum contra larvas de A. aegypti.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Aedes , Fusarium , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Paquistão , Solo , Extratos Vegetais , Florestas , Mosquitos Vetores , Larva
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247539, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278542

RESUMO

Abstract Numerous studies have investigated the chemical composition and biological activities of essential oils from different Citrus species fruit peel, leaves and flowers. This paper aims to investigate the chemical composition, larvicidal and antileishmanial activities of essential oil from Citrus reticulata fruit peel (CR-EO). CR-EO was obtained by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus and its chemical composition was analyzed by GC-MS and GC-FID. Limonene (85.7%), ɣ-terpinene (6.7%) and myrcene (2.1%) were identified as its major components. CR-EO showed high activity against promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis (IC50 = 8.23 µg/mL). CR-EO also exhibited high larvicidal activity against third instar Aedes aegypti larvae at a lethal concentration (LC50 = 58.35 µg/mL) and 100% mortality at 150 µg/mL. This study suggests, for the first time, the potential use of CR-EO against this important mosquito-borne viral disease caused by the genus Aedes.


Resumo Numerosos estudos têm investigado a composição química e as atividades biológicas de óleos essenciais extraídos de cascas dos frutos, folhas e flores de diferentes espécies de Citrus. Este trabalho tem como objetivo investigar a composição química e as atividades larvicida e leishmanicida in vitro do óleo essencial das cascas dos frutos de Citrus reticulata (CR-EO). CR-EO foi obtido pela técnica de extração em aparelho Clevenger e sua composição química foi determinada por CG-EM e CG-DIC. Limoneno (85,7%), ɣ-terpineno (6,7%) and mirceno (2,1%) foram identificados como os constituintes majoritários. CR-EO mostrou alta atividade contra as formas promastigota de Leishmania amazonensis (CI50 = 8,23 µg/mL). CR-EO também exibiu alta atividade larvicida contra as larvas do terceiro estágio do Aedes aegypti com concentração letal (CL50 = 58,35 µg/mL) e mortalidade de 100% em 150 µg/mL. Este estudo sugere, pela primeira vez, o uso potencial de CR-EO contra esta importante doença viral transmitida por mosquitos do gênero Aedes.


Assuntos
Animais , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Citrus , Aedes , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Frutas , Larva
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244647, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278527

RESUMO

Abstract The essential oil of citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus) has several biological activities, among them the insect repellent action. Some studies showed that cinnamic acid esters can be applied as natural pesticides, insecticides and fungicides. In this context, the objective of the present work was to evaluate the production of esters from citronella essential oil with cinnamic acid via enzymatic esterification. Besides, the essential oil toxicity before and after esterification against Artemia salina and larvicidal action on Aedes aegypti was investigated. Esters were produced using cinnamic acid as the acylating agent and citronella essential oil (3:1) in heptane and 15 wt% NS 88011 enzyme as biocatalysts, at 70 °C and 150 rpm. Conversion rates of citronellyl and geranyl cinnamates were 58.7 and 69.0% for NS 88011, respectively. For the toxicity to Artemia salina LC50 results of 5.29 μg mL-1 were obtained for the essential oil and 4.36 μg mL-1 for the esterified oils obtained with NS 88011. In the insecticidal activity against Aedes aegypti larvae, was obtained LC50 of 111.84 μg mL-1 for the essential oil of citronella and 86.30 μg mL-1 for the esterified oils obtained with the enzyme NS 88011, indicating high toxicity of the esters. The results demonstrated that the evaluated samples present potential of application as bioinsecticide.


Resumo O óleo essencial de citronela (Cymbopogon winterianus) possui diversas atividades biológicas, entre elas a ação repelente a insetos. Alguns estudos mostraram que os ésteres do ácido cinâmico podem ser aplicados como pesticidas naturais, inseticidas e fungicidas. Nesse contexto, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a produção de ésteres a partir do óleo essencial de citronela com ácido cinâmico via esterificação enzimática. Além disso, foi investigada a toxicidade do óleo essencial antes e após a esterificação contra Artemia salina e a ação larvicida sobre Aedes aegypti. Os ésteres foram produzidos utilizando ácido cinâmico como agente acilante e óleo essencial de citronela (3: 1) em heptano e 15% em peso da enzima NS 88011 como biocatalisadores, a 70 ° C e 150 rpm. As taxas de conversão de cinamatos de citronelil e geranil foram 58,7 e 69,0% para NS 88011, respectivamente. Para a toxicidade sobre Artemia salina foram obtidos CL50 de 5,29 μg mL-1 para o óleo essencial e 4,36 μg mL-1 para os óleos esterificados com NS 88011. Na atividade inseticida contra larvas de Aedes aegypti, obteve-se CL50 de 111,84 μg mL-1 para o óleo essencial de citronela e 86,30 μg mL-1 para os óleos esterificados com a enzima NS 88011, indicando alta toxicidade dos ésteres. Os resultados demonstraram que as amostras avaliadas apresentam potencial de aplicação como bioinseticida.


Assuntos
Animais , Óleos Voláteis/toxicidade , Aedes , Cymbopogon , Repelentes de Insetos , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Esterificação , Larva
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15638, 2022 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36130984

RESUMO

The female Aedes aegypti mosquito is a vector of many human diseases such as yellow fever, dengue, and Zika. Transmission of these viruses occurs when an infected female mosquito locates a suitable human host, alights, and blood feeds. Aedes aegypti use human-emitted odors, as well as heat and visual cues, for host location. However, none of the previously identified human-produced compounds induce significant orientation and landing on a human host. Here we show that female yellow fever mosquitoes orient to and land on a mixture of compounds identified from human skin rubbings. Using odor collection, extraction, a two-choice, bioassay-guided fractionation, and chemical analysis, we identified mixtures of 2-ketoglutaric acid and L-lactic acid as landing attractants for female Ae. aegypti. The mixture of pyruvic acid and L-lactic acid were also found to be weakly attractive. Using ratio-response assays, we found that the attraction and alighting behaviors of the mosquitoes were directly related to the ratio of these compounds presented on the surface of the glass assay beads, suggesting that these compounds could mediate landing on a human host even at sub-nanogram dosages. The newly identified compounds fill a gap in our knowledge of odor-mediated attraction of Ae. aegypti and may lead to the development of new attractant-based mosquito control tactics.


Assuntos
Aedes , Febre Amarela , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Ácidos Cetoglutáricos , Ácido Láctico , Mosquitos Vetores , Odorantes , Ácido Pirúvico
5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15751, 2022 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36130985

RESUMO

Aedes koreicus is an invasive mosquito species which has been introduced into several European countries. Compared to other invasive Aedes mosquitoes, little is known of its biology and ecology. To determine Ae. koreicus' vectorial capacity, it is essential to establish its feeding patterns and level of anthropophagy. We report on the blood-feeding patterns of Ae. koreicus, examining the blood meal origin of engorged females and evaluating the influence of different biotic and abiotic factors on feeding behavior. Mosquitoes were collected in 23 sites in northern Italy by manual aspiration and BG-sentinel traps; host availability was estimated by survey. The source of blood meals was identified using a nested PCR and by targeting and sequencing the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene. In total, 352 Ae. koreicus engorged females were collected between 2013 and 2020 and host blood meals were determined from 299 blood-fed mosquitoes (84.9%). Eleven host species were identified, with the highest prevalences being observed among roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) (N = 189, 63.2%) and humans (N = 46, 15.4%). Blood meals were mostly taken from roe deer in forested sites and from humans in urban areas, suggesting that this species can feed on different hosts according to local abundance. Two blood meals were identified from avian hosts and one from lizard. Ae. koreicus' mammalophilic feeding pattern suggests that it may be a potential vector of pathogens establishing transmission cycles among mammals, whereas its role as a bridge vector between mammals and birds could be negligible.


Assuntos
Aedes , Cervos , Aedes/genética , Animais , Aves , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons , Europa (Continente) , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Espécies Introduzidas , Mosquitos Vetores/genética
6.
SAR QSAR Environ Res ; 33(9): 729-751, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36106833

RESUMO

Spraying repellents on clothing limits toxicity and allergy problems that can occur when the repellents are directly applied to skin. This also allows the use of higher doses to ensure longer lasting effects. As the number of repellents available on the market is limited, it is necessary to propose new ones, especially by using in silico methods that reduce costs and time. In this context SAR models were built from a dataset of 2027 chemicals for which repellent activity on clothing was measured against Aedes aegypti. The interest of using either the ECFP or MACCS fingerprints as input neurons of a three-layer perceptron was evaluated. Transformation of MACCS bit strings into disjunctive tables led to interesting results. Models obtained with both types of fingerprints were compared to a model including physicochemical and topological descriptors.


Assuntos
Aedes , Repelentes de Insetos , Animais , Vestuário , Redes Neurais de Computação , Relação Quantitativa Estrutura-Atividade
7.
Vopr Virusol ; 67(4): 341-450, 2022 Sep 12.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36097715

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Yellow fever (YF) remains one of the most common natural focal infectious diseases in the world. In connection with the increasing tourist flow to countries endemic for YF, the discovery of stable populations of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus which are the main vectors of the yellow fever virus (YFV), in the southern regions of Russia, and the fact that in medical institutions in our country it is possible to obtain a live attenuated vaccine against YF, but there is no way to evaluate the effectiveness of vaccination, the question arises of the development and implementation of diagnostic kits for detecting antibodies (AB) to the pathogen by enzyme immunoassay (ELISA).The aim of this study was to develop a method for detecting specific IgG antibodies to the E protein of YFV by ELISA and assessing its diagnostic characteristics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A specific cDNA was synthesized by reverse transcription on an RNA template of YFV isolated on a cell culture of Aedes albopictus clone C6/36, and a fragment of the genome coding the YFV E protein was amplified and subsequently cloned into the plasmid pET160 (Thermo Fisher Scientific, USA). The resulting gene fragment was used as a DNA template to obtain a recombinant analog of the third domain of the YFV E protein in Escherichia coli cells (BL-21(DE3)). Next, the immunogenicity of the obtained antigen was evaluated and the analysis conditions were optimized. RESULTS: The optimal conditions for the production of the obtained recombinant E protein of YFV were determined, its specificity was confirmed by immunological methods (Western blot and ELISA), sorption buffers and blocking solutions were selected, and sensitivity and specificity of detection of antibodies to YFV using the recombinant antigen were assessed. CONCLUSION: A method for the detection of specific IgG antibodies to the YFV E protein by ELISA was developed. This diagnostic kit can be used both to study the protective properties of the YF vaccine and to detect imported cases of infection in non-endemic areas.


Assuntos
Aedes , Flaviviridae , Flavivirus , Febre Amarela , Animais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Imunoglobulina G , Mosquitos Vetores , Vacinas Atenuadas , Febre Amarela/diagnóstico , Vírus da Febre Amarela/genética
8.
Pak J Biol Sci ; 25(9): 816-821, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36098083

RESUMO

<b>Background and Objective:</b> Dengue cases have increased while the spread is getting broader worldwide. Temephos has been frequently used to control the larvae of the <i>Aedes aegypti</i> L., the primary vector of dengue. The intensive use of this larvicide has given rise to resistance. This study aims to determine the susceptibility status of <i>Ae. aegypti</i> to temephos and examine the two mutations (F290V and F455W) that possibly occur in the <i>Ace-1</i> gene of <i>Ae. aegypti</i> from Salido Sub-District, IV Jurai District, Pesisir Selatan Regency. <b>Materials and Methods:</b> The susceptibility test was performed referring to a standard method of the World Health Organization, followed by a molecular test (polymerase chain reaction) and sequencing. <b>Results:</b> The results showed that the larvae of <i>Ae. aegypti</i> have been tolerant to temephos (0.012 mg L<sup></sup><sup>1</sup>) with a percentage of larval mortality of 91.67%. The sequencing analysis in the <i>Ace-1</i> gene revealed the absence of F290V and F455W mutation in temephos-resistant <i>Ae. aegypti</i>, but a point mutation was detected at codon 506. This mutation shifts the ACA codon to ACT, but still codes for the same amino acid, threonine. <b>Conclusion:</b> Our study indicates the presence of other resistance mechanisms in the major dengue vector of the Salido District. Implementation of the alternative population control strategy is required to prevent the temephos resistance further.


Assuntos
Aedes , Dengue , Inseticidas , Aedes/genética , Animais , Indonésia , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Larva/genética , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Mutação , Temefós
9.
J Vis Exp ; (186)2022 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36094286

RESUMO

As a vital vector of dengue fever, yellow fever, and other mosquito-borne diseases, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) can be broadly distributed worldwide and cause a severe threat to public health. To date, considering the fast-emerging insecticide resistance in the mosquito, the development of new botanical insecticides to control and reduce Ae. albopictus is urgent and crucial. Therefore, to investigate the decoction effect of the plant C. abrotanoides L. on mosquito larvae killing, we detected the mortality of larvae after treatment with different concentrations (60 mg/mL, 120 mg/mL, and 180 mg/mL) of decoction within a series of time points (12 h, 24 h, 36 h, and 48 h). We found that 24 h with 180 mg/mL C. abrotanoides L. decoction treatment killed 92.35% of mosquitoes relative to the control treatment. Meanwhile, 36 h with 120 mg/mL could also kill more than 90% of mosquitoes. Furthermore, Carassius auratus populations were exposed to 120 mg/mL C. abrotanoides L. decoction for 36 h and were not dead. The mortality evaluation indicated that this concentration is not a harmful level of ecological environmental pollution. This study provides a possible plant candidate that could be used for designing plant-derived insecticides. Additionally, these methods can be altered and applied to other mosquito species.


Assuntos
Aedes , Asteraceae , Inseticidas , Animais , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Larva , Mosquitos Vetores
10.
Parasite ; 29: 42, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36111976

RESUMO

Control of invasive species relies partly on permanent surveillance at international points of entry. We report the exceptional trapping of one adult mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) in the port of Marseille, France, in July 2018, during a routine survey conducted according to International Health Regulations. Morphological and molecular identification classified the specimen as a female Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L.), vector of many arboviruses, absent from Europe and the Mediterranean rim since the 1950s. A world reference panel of approximately 23,000 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms determined that the mosquito originated from Cameroon, west Africa. Cross-reference of this geographic location with boats traveling from Central Africa to Marseille during the trapping period suggests that the mosquito travelled within an identified merchant ship, a vehicles carrier connecting Douala, Cameroon to Marseille, France. This ship left Douala on June 25, 2018 and arrived 20 days later in Marseille on July 15. The mosquito was captured 350 m away from the dock. The interception of a propagule of an invasive species is a rare event that must be considered a priority to prevent its successful establishment.


Title: Un alien à Marseille : enquêtes sur un seul moustique Aedes aegypti vraisemblablement introduit par un navire marchand de l'Afrique tropicale vers l'Europe. Abstract: La lutte contre les espèces invasives repose en partie sur une surveillance permanente aux points d'entrée internationaux. Nous rapportons ici le piégeage exceptionnel d'un moustique adulte (Diptera: Culicidae) dans le port de Marseille, France, en juillet 2018, au cours d'une enquête de routine menée selon les recommandations du Règlement Sanitaire International. L'identification morphologique et moléculaire a désigné ce spécimen comme étant une femelle d'Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L.), vecteur de nombreux arbovirus, absent d'Europe et du pourtour Méditerranéen depuis les années 1950. Une base de référence mondiale du polymorphisme des nucléotides individuels pour ~23 000 génomes complets a permis de déterminer que ce moustique était originaire du Cameroun. Le croisement de cette information de localisation géographique avec celle de la circulation des bateaux entre l'Afrique Centrale et Marseille au cours de la période de piégeage suggère que le moustique a voyagé à l'intérieur d'un navire de commerce identifié, un transporteur de véhicules reliant Douala (Cameroun) à Marseille (France). Ce navire a quitté Douala le 25 juin 2018 pour arriver à Marseille 20 jours plus tard, le 15 juillet 2018. Le moustique a été capturé à 350 mètres du dock. L'interception d'un propagule d'une espèce invasive est un évènement rare qui doit être considéré de façon prioritaire afin d'empêcher la réussite de son installation.


Assuntos
Aedes , Aedes/genética , Animais , Camarões , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Espécies Introduzidas , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Navios
11.
Bull Math Biol ; 84(11): 121, 2022 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36112293

RESUMO

Due to the role of cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), releasing Wolbachia-infected male mosquitoes into the wild becomes a very promising strategy to suppress the wild mosquito population. When developing a mosquito suppression strategy, our main concerns are how often, and in what amount, should Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes be released under different CI intensity conditions, so that the suppression is most effective and cost efficient. In this paper, we propose a mosquito population suppression model that incorporates suppression and self-recovery under different CI intensity conditions. We adopt the new modeling idea that only sexually active Wolbachia-infected male mosquitoes are considered in the model and assume the releases of Wolbachia-infected male mosquitoes are impulsive and periodic with period T. We particularly study the case where the release period is greater than the sexual lifespan of the Wolbachia-infected male mosquitoes. We define the CI intensity threshold, mosquito release thresholds, and the release period threshold to characterize the model dynamics. The global and local asymptotic stability of the origin and the existence and stability of T-periodic solutions are investigated. Our findings provide useful guidance in designing practical release strategies to control wild mosquitoes.


Assuntos
Aedes , Wolbachia , Animais , Masculino , Conceitos Matemáticos , Modelos Biológicos
12.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 187: 105209, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36127073

RESUMO

Insecticide resistance monitoring is essential in assessing the efficacy of vector control measures. However, gold standard PCR-based molecular analyses for insecticide resistance detection are often hindered by time-consuming sample processing, as well as considerable infrastructure and resourcing requirements. In this study, we combined a novel one-step sample preparation reagent with a rapid isothermal molecular test that detects a knock down resistance (kdr) mutation (F1534C) that enables pyrethroid resistance in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. We trialled the rapid F1534C pyrethroid resistance test using insecticide resistant Ae. aegypti mosquito bodies and compared results to a conventional, allele-specific quantitative PCR (AS-qPCR) coupled with melt curve genotyping in corresponding mosquito heads. From a strain of Ae. aegypti established from an insecticide resistant population in Merida, Mexico (n = 27), all the mosquito bodies (n = 27) tested positive with the rapid F1534C test regardless of whether they were homozygous or heterozygous. To assess diagnostic test specificity, we confirmed that F1534 was not detected in laboratory-reared, fully susceptible Ae. aegypti mosquito bodies (n = 28) using the rapid F1534C test or the conventional AS-qPCR melt curve analysis. All corresponding mosquito heads (n = 28) were homozygous wild-type FF1534. The rapid F1534C test thus demonstrated 100% diagnostic sensitivity (95% CI: 87.23% to 100%) and 100% diagnostic specificity (95% CI: 87.66% to 100.00%) for detection of the F1534C pyrethroid resistant single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in both heterozygous and homozygous Ae. aegypti. In the collection of mutant mosquitoes from Mexico, CC1534 homozygous mutants occurred at a frequency of 74.1% (n = 20) and FC heterozygous mutants at a frequency of 25.9% (n = 7). The rapid F1534C test significantly reduced the sample processing and testing time from approximately 6 h for the AS-qPCR melt curve analysis to only 25 min. These results demonstrate significant potential for our approach to resistance testing as a field-based, low-resource, rapid alternative to time-consuming and expensive laboratory-based detection.


Assuntos
Aedes , Inseticidas , Piretrinas , Aedes/genética , Animais , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Mutação , Piretrinas/farmacologia , Recombinases/genética
13.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 315, 2022 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36068549

RESUMO

Aedes koreicus is an invasive alien mosquito species native to Asia now introduced in several European countries, including northern Italy. In this temperate region, mosquito populations survive cold winter temperatures thanks to diapausing eggs or adults, depending on the species. In its native area, Ae. koreicus was reported to overwinter in the egg stage, but to the best of our knowledge, it is not confirmed whether overwintering eggs are actually diapausing or only in a quiescence stage, i.e., they might hatch as soon as external conditions are favorable. Based on previous laboratory studies, we established a diapausing Ae. koreicus colony, maintained at 21 °C with a photoperiod of 12L:12D. Females were allowed to lay eggs, which were consequently placed in water at different time intervals after oviposition, from 30 days to 5 months. We found that diapausing eggs younger than 3 months have a poor hatching rate, while after about 100 days we observed that almost all eggs hatched. Our findings highlight that water immersion alone did not lead to the hatching of eggs, as age was found to be a significantly important factor. We thus confirm effective diapause, occurring at the egg stage, for Ae. koreicus in a recently invaded area. Moreover, our quantification of diapause duration and hatching success might help in better designing future experiments and improving modeling efforts.


Assuntos
Aedes , Diapausa , Animais , Feminino , Espécies Introduzidas , Oviposição , Água
14.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(9): e0010701, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36074773

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The surveillance of vector mosquitoes is essential for prevention and control of mosquito-borne diseases. In this study, we developed an internet-based vector mosquito monitor, MS-300, and evaluated its efficiency for the capture of the important vector mosquitoes, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus, in laboratory and field trials. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The linear sizes of adult Ae. albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus were measured and an infrared window was designed based on these data. A device to specifically attract these two species and automatically transmit the number of captured mosquitoes to the internet was developed. The efficiency of the device in capturing the two species was tested in laboratory, semi-field and open field trials. The efficiency results for MS-300 for catching and identifying Ae. albopictus in laboratory mosquito-net cages were 98.5% and 99.3%, and 95.8% and 98.6%, respectively, for Cx. quinquefasciatus. In a wire-gauze screened house in semi-field trials, the efficiencies of MS-300 baited with a lure in catching Ae. albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus were 54.2% and 51.3%, respectively, which were significantly higher than 4% and 4.2% without the lure. The real-time monitoring data revealed two daily activity peaks for Ae. albopictus (8:00-10:00 and 17:00-19:00), and one peak for Cx. quinquefasciatus (20:00-24:00). During a 98-day surveillance trial in the field, totals of 1,118 Ae. albopictus and 2,302 Cx. quinquefasciatus were captured by MS-300. There is a close correlation between the number of captured mosquitoes and the temperature in the field, and a positive correlation in the species composition of the captured samples among the mosquitoes using MS-300, BioGents Sentinel traps and human landing catches. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The data support the conclusion that MS-300 can specifically and efficiently capture Ae. albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus, and monitor their density automatically in real-time. Therefore, MS-300 has potential for use as a surveillance tool for prevention and control of vector mosquitoes.


Assuntos
Aedes , Culex , Animais , Vetores de Doenças , Humanos , Mosquitos Vetores
16.
Eur J Histochem ; 66(4)2022 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36128772

RESUMO

Autofluorescence (AF) in mosquitoes is currently poorly explored, despite its great potential as a marker of body structures and biological functions. Here, for the first time AF in larval heads of two mosquitoes of key public health importance, Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens, is studied using fluorescence imaging and spectrofluorometry, similarly to a label-free histochemical approach. In generally conserved distribution patterns, AF shows differences between mouth brushes and antennae of the two species. The blue AF ascribable to resilin at the antennal bases, more extended in Cx. pipiens, suggests a potential need to support different antennal movements. The AF spectra larger in Cx. pipiens indicate a variability in material composition and properties likely relatable to mosquito biology, including diverse feeding and locomotion behaviours with implications for vector control.


Assuntos
Aedes , Culex , Animais , Larva , Mosquitos Vetores
17.
Ann Ist Super Sanita ; 58(3): 162-165, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36128963

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Aedes japonicus japonicus and Aedes koreicus are two invasive mosquitoes recently reported in various parts of Europe, including areas very close to Piedmont where, since 2012, specific tools have been implemented to allow the early detection of invasive mosquitoes, through the surveillance of the main points of entry. RESULTS: Thanks to the regional surveillance system, Ae. j. japonicus was intercepted in Piedmont for the first time in 2019, in the northernmost part of the region and now it is reported in six provinces. Ae. koreicus was intercepted for the first time in 2012 in three provinces. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The spread of these two invasive mosquitoes in Europe is still ongoing. Where Aedes albopictus is abundant, probably their presence goes undetected, therefore, it is crucial to begin surveillance early in the season. Due to their competence for several arboviruses and tolerance to the cold temperatures Ae. j. japonicus and Ae. koreicus represent a further concern for Public Health. A longer seasonal period for surveillance and response to mosquito-borne diseases, as well as a shift up of these activities to previously uncovered altitudes are indeed needed.


Assuntos
Aedes , Aedes/fisiologia , Animais , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Espécies Introduzidas , Itália , Estações do Ano
18.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(9): e0010743, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36070318

RESUMO

Mosquito saliva proteins modulate the human immune and hemostatic systems and control mosquito-borne pathogenic infections. One mechanism through which mosquito proteins may influence host immunity and hemostasis is their interactions with key human receptor proteins that may act as receptors for or coordinate attacks against invading pathogens. Here, using pull-down assays and proteomics-based mass spectrometry, we identified 11 Ae. aegypti salivary gland proteins (SGPs) (e.g., apyrase, Ae. aegypti venom allergen-1 [AaVA-1], neutrophil stimulating protein 1 [NeSt1], and D7 proteins), that interact with one or more of five human receptor proteins (cluster of differentiation 4 [CD4], CD14, CD86, dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin [DC-SIGN], and Toll-like receptor 4 [TLR4]). We focused on CD4- and DC-SIGN-interacting proteins and confirmed that CD4 directly interacts with AaVA-1, D7, and NeST1 recombinant proteins and that AaVA-1 showed a moderate interaction with DC-SIGN using ELISA. Bacteria responsive protein 1 (AgBR1), an Ae. aegypti saliva protein reported to enhance ZIKV infection in humans but that was not identified in our pull-down assay moderately interacts with CD4 in the ELISA assay. Functionally, we showed that AaVA-1 and NeST1 proteins promoted activation of CD4+ T cells. We propose the possible impact of these interactions and effects on mosquito-borne viral infections such as dengue, Zika, and chikungunya viruses. Overall, this study provides key insight into the vector-host (protein-protein) interaction network and suggests roles for these interactions in mosquito-borne viral infections.


Assuntos
Aedes , Flavivirus , Hemostáticos , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Alérgenos , Animais , Apirase , Humanos , Molécula 3 de Adesão Intercelular/metabolismo , Mosquitos Vetores , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo
19.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(9): e1010329, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36074777

RESUMO

Efficient virus replication in Aedes vector mosquitoes is essential for the transmission of arboviral diseases such as dengue virus (DENV) in human populations. Like in vertebrates, virus-host protein-protein interactions are essential for viral replication and immune evasion in the mosquito vector. Here, 79 mosquito host proteins interacting with DENV non-structural proteins NS1 and NS5 were identified by label-free mass spectrometry, followed by a functional screening. We confirmed interactions with host factors previously observed in mammals, such as the oligosaccharyltransferase complex, and we identified protein-protein interactions that seem to be specific for mosquitoes. Among the interactors, the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) binding protein Loquacious (Loqs), an RNA interference (RNAi) cofactor, was found to be essential for efficient replication of DENV and Zika virus (ZIKV) in mosquito cells. Loqs did not affect viral RNA stability or translation of a DENV replicon and its proviral activity was independent of its RNAi regulatory activity. Interestingly, Loqs colocalized with DENV dsRNA replication intermediates in infected cells and directly interacted with high affinity with DENV RNA in the 3' untranslated region in vitro (KD = 48-62 nM). Our study provides an interactome for DENV NS1 and NS5 and identifies Loqs as a key proviral host factor in mosquitoes. We propose that DENV hijacks a factor of the RNAi mechanism for replication of its own RNA.


Assuntos
Aedes , Arbovírus , Vírus da Dengue , Dengue , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , Animais , Arbovírus/genética , Vírus da Dengue/genética , Humanos , Mamíferos , Mosquitos Vetores , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/metabolismo , Replicação Viral/genética , Zika virus/genética
20.
J Vector Borne Dis ; 59(2): 139-144, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36124479

RESUMO

Malaysia Mosquito Autocidal Trap (MyMAT) is a green technology Aedes mosquito trap that does not use harmful chemical substances. This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of MyMAT in reducing dengue cases and relating the cases to rainfall. An experimental field study was conducted for 42 weeks at Pangsapuri Nilam Sari, Shah Alam, Selangor. A total of 624 MyMAT was allocated at four blocks: inside each apartment and outside at the corridors in each level. Mosquito and rainfall data were collected weekly using MyMAT and a mobile rain gauge, respectively. The dengue cases data was retrieved from the e-dengue system obtained from the Malaysia Ministry of Health. The findings showed that MyMAT could catch 97% of Aedes mosquitoes and reduced dengue cases on average of 78%, indicating MyMAT is a reliable Aedes mosquito trap. Interestingly the findings also revealed a significant relationship between dengue cases, the number of Aedes mosquitoes, and rainfall. This week notified dengue cases increased when last two weeks mosquitoes increased due to previous two weeks rainfall increment. Thus indicating an indirect but significant relationship between this week notified dengue cases with the last four weeks rainfall. These relationships can be used in establishing a dengue outbreak forecasting model, which can act as an early warning system.


Assuntos
Aedes , Dengue , Animais , Dengue/epidemiologia , Dengue/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças , Malásia/epidemiologia , Chuva
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