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1.
Aerosp Med Hum Perform ; 95(5): 254-258, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38715275

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although an unintended aircraft landing on water (referred to as ditching) is a rare event, the potential for occupant injury/fatality increases immediately following the event due to adverse conditions. However, to date, few studies have addressed the subject. Herein, ditching events and post-ditching survival were investigated.METHODS: Ditchings (1982-2022) in the United States were identified from the National Transportation Safety Board database. Occupant injury severity, aircraft type, pilot experience, flight conditions, and number of occupants were extracted. Poisson distribution, the Chi-squared test (2-tailed), Mann-Whitney U test, and Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance were employed.RESULTS: A total of 96 ditchings were identified. A systematic survey was hampered by the lack of a standardized reporting matrix in the reports. In total, 77 reports were included in the analysis. Across all ditchings, 128 of 169 (76%) occupants survived ditching and were rescued. Importantly, the initial ditching event was survived by 95% of all occupants. However, 32 (19%) occupants died post-ditching by drowning (21/32 cases) or for undetermined reasons. Considering probability per ditching event, in 26 (34%) of all ditchings, one or more occupants was/were fatally injured.DISCUSSION: Initial survival of the emergency ditching is high. Drowning was the leading cause of death after ditching and reduced the overall survival to 76%. Further investigation is needed to identify risk factors for fatal outcomes and/or improve probability of survival after ditching.Schick VC, Boyd DD, Hippler C, Hinkelbein J. Survival after ditching in motorized aircraft, 1989-2022. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2024; 95(5):254-258.


Assuntos
Acidentes Aeronáuticos , Aeronaves , Humanos , Acidentes Aeronáuticos/mortalidade , Acidentes Aeronáuticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Afogamento/mortalidade , Masculino , Bases de Dados Factuais , Pilotos/estatística & dados numéricos
2.
Environ Health ; 23(1): 46, 2024 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38702725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to transportation noise is related to cardio-metabolic diseases, with more recent evidence also showing associations with diabetes mellitus (DM) incidence. This study aimed to evaluate the association between transportation noise and DM mortality within the Swiss National Cohort. METHODS: During 15 years of follow-up (2001-2015; 4.14 million adults), over 72,000 DM deaths were accrued. Source-specific noise was calculated at residential locations, considering moving history. Multi-exposure, time-varying Cox regression was used to derive hazard ratios (HR, and 95%-confidence intervals). Models included road traffic, railway and aircraft noise, air pollution, and individual and area-level covariates including socio-economic position. Analyses included exposure-response modelling, effect modification, and a subset analysis around airports. The main findings were integrated into meta-analyses with published studies on mortality and incidence (separately and combined). RESULTS: HRs were 1.06 (1.05, 1.07), 1.02 (1.01, 1.03) and 1.01 (0.99, 1.02) per 10 dB day evening-night level (Lden) road traffic, railway and aircraft noise, respectively (adjusted model, including NO2). Splines suggested a threshold for road traffic noise (~ 46 dB Lden, well below the 53 dB Lden WHO guideline level), but not railway noise. Substituting for PM2.5, or including deaths with type 1 DM hardly changed the associations. HRs were higher for males compared to females, and in younger compared to older adults. Focusing only on type 1 DM showed an independent association with road traffic noise. Meta-analysis was only possible for road traffic noise in relation to mortality (1.08 [0.99, 1.18] per 10 dB, n = 4), with the point estimate broadly similar to that for incidence (1.07 [1.05, 1.09] per 10 dB, n = 10). Combining incidence and mortality studies indicated positive associations for each source, strongest for road traffic noise (1.07 [1.05, 1.08], 1.02 [1.01, 1.03], and 1.02 [1.00, 1.03] per 10 dB road traffic [n = 14], railway [n = 5] and aircraft noise [n = 5], respectively). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides new evidence that transportation noise is associated with diabetes mortality. With the growing evidence and large disease burden, DM should be viewed as an important outcome in the noise and health discussion.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Exposição Ambiental , Ruído dos Transportes , Ruído dos Transportes/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Suíça/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/mortalidade , Masculino , Feminino , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Idoso , Aeronaves
3.
Sensors (Basel) ; 24(9)2024 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38732940

RESUMO

Future airspace is expected to become more congested with additional in-service cargo and commercial flights. Pilots will face additional burdens in such an environment, given the increasing number of factors that they must simultaneously consider while completing their work activities. Therefore, care and attention must be paid to the mental workload (MWL) experienced by operating pilots. If left unaddressed, a state of mental overload could affect the pilot's ability to complete his or her work activities in a safe and correct manner. This study examines the impact of two different cockpit display interfaces (CDIs), the Steam Gauge panel and the G1000 Glass panel, on novice pilots' MWL and situational awareness (SA) in a flight simulator-based setting. A combination of objective (EEG and HRV) and subjective (NASA-TLX) assessments is used to assess novice pilots' cognitive states during this study. Our results indicate that the gauge design of the CDI affects novice pilots' SA and MWL, with the G1000 Glass panel being more effective in reducing the MWL and improving SA compared with the Steam Gauge panel. The results of this study have implications for the design of future flight deck interfaces and the training of future pilots.


Assuntos
Conscientização , Pilotos , Carga de Trabalho , Humanos , Carga de Trabalho/psicologia , Pilotos/psicologia , Masculino , Conscientização/fisiologia , Adulto , Aeronaves , Aviação , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Feminino , Adulto Jovem
4.
Sci Eng Ethics ; 30(2): 14, 2024 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38605283

RESUMO

Two Boeing 737-MAX passenger planes crashed in October 2018 and March 2019, suspending all 737-MAX aircraft. The crashes put Boeing's corporate practices and culture under the spotlight. The main objective of this paper is to use the case of Boeing to highlight the importance of efficient employee grievance redressal mechanisms and an independent external regulator. The methodology adopted is a qualitative analysis of statements of various whistleblowers and Boeing and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) stakeholders. It suggests that employee feedback flowing up the chain of command should be more flexible and dealt with more seriousness. It recommends that companies adopt a cooling-off period or a lifetime restriction for employees who have gone through the revolving door between regulators and the industry. The Boeing 737-MAX case, which emphasizes the ethical obligations of the job, can offer value to engineers, engineering educators, managers, ombudsmen, and human resource professionals.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Reivindicações Trabalhistas , Humanos , Aeronaves , Organizações , Indústrias
5.
Radiat Environ Biophys ; 63(2): 263-269, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38668870

RESUMO

This work investigates the impact on cosmic ray exposures to aircrew due to changing flight routes operated in the context of the recent conflict between Ukraine and the Russian Federation. All analyses were done based on Paris-Tokyo and Tokyo-Paris flights taken as examples, and differences in radiation exposures were quantified by comparing the situation before and after the beginning of the conflict. Regarding space weather scenarios, a quiet solar period and an extreme solar event (ground level enhancement (GLE) 5) were considered in the study. Analyses showed that the new Paris-Tokyo flight route established after the beginning of the conflict results in a smaller radiation dose to aircrew than that operated before the conflict, particularly during solar events. In contrast, for Tokyo-Paris flights the new high-latitude route crossing the Atlantic Ocean and North America increases the dose significantly (+ 50% in the worst case). Although this analysis is limited only to flights connecting Paris and Tokyo, it allowed for an evaluation of the consequences of new routes (particularly polar ones) on ambient dose equivalent values.


Assuntos
Radiação Cósmica , Ucrânia , Federação Russa , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Aeronaves , Conflitos Armados , Doses de Radiação , Monitoramento de Radiação
6.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 15(1): 2337509, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38626195

RESUMO

Background: Previous research has indicated that continuous exposure to disaster-related information through social media can lead to vicarious trauma. However, scholars have recognized the need for further in-depth research into the underlying mechanisms influencing this relationship.Objective: The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact mechanism of social media usage on vicarious traumatization in users and analyze the roles of recommendation systems and peer communication.Methods: This study was conducted with college students in China, focusing on the context of the MU5735 aircraft flight accident in China in which 123 passengers and 9 crew members died. Data were collected through an online questionnaire. The partial least square structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) method was used to test the data and model.Results: This study obtained valid responses from 1317 participants. The study findings revealed a significant positive correlation between social media usage(ß = 0.180,P < .001), recommendation systems usage (ß = 0.172, P < .001), peer communication (ß = 0.303, P < .001), and the development of vicarious traumatization. Recommendation systems usage (specific indirect effect = 0.063, P < .001) and peer communication (specific indirect effect = 0.138, P < .001) mediated the relationship between social media use and vicarious trauma. Additionally, the impact of peer communication on vicarious trauma was found to be higher compared to the effects of continuous social media use and recommendation system use.Conclusion: The study found that the use of social media to obtain information about accidents, the frequent pushing of accident information by recommender systems, and the frequent discussion of accidents among peers during unexpected accidents contribute to vicarious traumatization. The study suggests that users' reduced retrieval of accident information via social media, as well as reduced peer-to-peer discussions about accidents, and social media platforms' adjustment of recommender system algorithm rules to reduce accident information pushes, may help reduce the likelihood of users experiencing vicarious traumatization.


Social media usage significantly affected college users to develop vicarious traumatization.Recommendation systems usage and peer communication significantly affected the development of vicarious traumatization.Recommendation systems usage and peer communication mediated the relationship of social media usage and vicarious traumatization.


Assuntos
Fadiga de Compaixão , Mídias Sociais , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Comunicação , Aeronaves
7.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med ; 32(1): 29, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38627817

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Helicopter Emergency Medical Services (HEMS) provide rapid and specialized care to critically ill or injured patients. Norwegian HEMS in Central Norway serves an important role in pre-hospital emergency medical care. To grade the severity of patients, HEMS uses the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics' (NACA) severity score. The objective of this study was to describe the short- and long term mortality overall and in each NACA-group for patients transported by HEMS Trondheim using linkage of HEMS and hospital data. METHODS: The study used a retrospective cohort design, aligning with the STROBE recommendations. Patient data from Trondheim HEMS between 01.01.2017 and 31.12.2019 was linked to mortality data from a hospital database and analyzed. Kaplan Meier plots and cumulative mortality rates were calculated for each NACA group at day one, day 30, and one year and three years after the incident. RESULTS: Trondheim HEMS responded to 2224 alarms in the included time period, with 1431 patients meeting inclusion criteria for the study. Overall mortality rates at respective time points were 10.1% at day one, 13.4% at 30 days, 18.5% at one year, and 22.3% at three years. The one-year cumulative mortality rates for each NACA group were as follows: 0% for NACA 1 and 2, 2.9% for NACA 3, 10.1% for NACA 4, 24.7% for NACA 5 and 49.5% for NACA 6. Statistical analysis with a global log-rank test indicated a significant difference in survival outcomes among the groups (p < 2⋅10- 16). CONCLUSION: Among patients transported by Trondheim HEMS, we observed an incremental rise in mortality rates with increasing NACA scores. The study further suggests that a one-year follow-up may be sufficient for future investigations into HEMS outcomes.


Assuntos
Resgate Aéreo , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Aeronaves , Noruega/epidemiologia
8.
Environ Sci Technol ; 58(15): 6575-6585, 2024 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38564483

RESUMO

Wide-area aerial methods provide comprehensive screening of methane emissions from oil and gas (O & G) facilities in production basins. Emission detections ("plumes") from these studies are also frequently scaled to the basin level, but little is known regarding the uncertainties during scaling. This study analyzed an aircraft field study in the Denver-Julesburg basin to quantify how often plumes identified maintenance events, using a geospatial inventory of 12,629 O & G facilities. Study partners (7 midstream and production operators) provided the timing and location of 5910 maintenance events during the 6 week study period. Results indicated three substantial uncertainties with potential bias that were unaddressed in prior studies. First, plumes often detect maintenance events, which are large, short-duration, and poorly estimated by aircraft methods: 9.2 to 46% (38 to 52%) of plumes on production were likely known maintenance events. Second, plumes on midstream facilities were both infrequent and unpredictable, calling into question whether these estimates were representative of midstream emissions. Finally, 4 plumes attributed to O & G (19% of emissions detected by aircraft) were not aligned with any O & G location, indicating that the emissions had drifted downwind of some source. It is unclear how accurately aircraft methods estimate this type of plume; in this study, it had material impact on emission estimates. While aircraft surveys remain a powerful tool for identifying methane emissions on O & G facilities, this study indicates that additional data inputs, e.g., detailed GIS data, a more nuanced analysis of emission persistence and frequency, and improved sampling strategies are required to accurately scale plume estimates to basin emissions.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Aeronaves , Metano/análise , Gás Natural/análise
9.
BMC Vet Res ; 20(1): 158, 2024 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38671444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies on equine air transport practices and consequences are scarce. This prospective study aimed to describe horse and air journey details and practices, document how horse behavior and health changed during the air transport phases, quantify the occurrence of welfare issues, and identify possible associations between horse and journey details, air transport practices, and welfare issues. RESULTS: Data were collected from before departure to five days after arrival on 118/597 horses traveling on 32 commercial air journeys on different routes, varying in duration and conditions. Most horses were middle-aged warmblood females, 26% of which were pregnant, and being moved by air for sales. Before flying, most were quarantined (median: 18; IQR: 9-53 days), and their fitness for travel was certified by veterinarians. At the departure airports, external temperatures varied from - 6 °C to 33 °C, and horses were loaded by experienced flight grooms (median: 35; IQR: 15-40 years) into jet stalls (three-horse: 87%, two-horse: 13%). During the flights, horses were regularly watered (water intake median: 14 L) and fed ad libitum (feed consumption median: 8 kg). At the arrival airport, horses were unloaded from the jet stalls, and external temperatures ranged from - 5 °C to 32 °C. Then, all horses were transported to arrival quarantine by road. Air transport phases affected horses' health status and behavior; increased heart and respiratory rates and behaviors, such as pawing, head tossing, and vocalization, were mainly identified at departure and arrival. Horse interaction, nasal discharge, increased capillary refill time (CRT), and abnormal demeanor were observed more often one hour before landing while resting and normal capillary refill time were more often displayed five days after arrival (all P < 0.01). One hour before landing, horses with bad temperament and horses of unknown temperament were more likely to develop nasal discharge when transported in winter and autumn (P < 0.001). The likelihood of an increased CRT was associated with shorter flights in horses of unknown travel experience (P < 0.001). Ten horses were injured, and 11 developed pleuropneumonias (i.e., shipping fever). CONCLUSIONS: Air transport is a complex procedure with several different phases affecting horse health and behavior. Therefore, experienced staff should carefully manage each horse before, during, and after air journeys to minimize welfare hazards.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Meios de Transporte , Animais , Cavalos/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Aeronaves , Gravidez
10.
Biomolecules ; 14(4)2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38672497

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In military flight operations, during flights, fighter pilots constantly work under hyperoxic breathing conditions with supplemental oxygen in varying hypobaric environments. These conditions are suspected to cause oxidative stress to neuronal organ tissues. For civilian flight operations, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) also recommends supplemental oxygen for flying under hypobaric conditions equivalent to higher than 3048 m altitude, and has made it mandatory for conditions equivalent to more than 3657 m altitude. AIM: We hypothesized that hypobaric-hyperoxic civilian commercial and private flight conditions with supplemental oxygen in a flight simulation in a hypobaric chamber at 2500 m and 4500 m equivalent altitude would cause significant oxidative stress in healthy individuals. METHODS: Twelve healthy, COVID-19-vaccinated (third portion of vaccination 15 months before study onset) subjects (six male, six female, mean age 35.7 years) from a larger cohort were selected to perform a 3 h flight simulation in a hypobaric chamber with increasing supplemental oxygen levels (35%, 50%, 60%, and 100% fraction of inspired oxygen, FiO2, via venturi valve-equipped face mask), switching back and forth between simulated altitudes of 2500 m and 4500 m. Arterial blood pressure and oxygen saturation were constantly measured via radial catheter and blood samples for blood gases taken from the catheter at each altitude and oxygen level. Additional blood samples from the arterial catheter at baseline and 60% oxygen at both altitudes were centrifuged inside the chamber and the serum was frozen instantly at -21 °C for later analysis of the oxidative stress markers malondialdehyde low-density lipoprotein (M-LDL) and glutathione-peroxidase 1 (GPX1) via the ELISA test. RESULTS: Eleven subjects finished the study without adverse events. Whereas the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) levels increased in the mean with increasing oxygen levels from baseline 96.2 mm mercury (mmHg) to 160.9 mmHg at 2500 m altitude and 60% FiO2 and 113.2 mmHg at 4500 m altitude and 60% FiO2, there was no significant increase in both oxidative markers from baseline to 60% FiO2 at these simulated altitudes. Some individuals had a slight increase, whereas some showed no increase at all or even a slight decrease. A moderate correlation (Pearson correlation coefficient 0.55) existed between subject age and glutathione peroxidase levels at 60% FiO2 at 4500 m altitude. CONCLUSION: Supplemental oxygen of 60% FiO2 in a flight simulation, compared to flying in cabin pressure levels equivalent to 2500 m-4500 m altitude, does not lead to a significant increase or decrease in the oxidative stress markers M-LDL and GPX1 in the serum of arterial blood.


Assuntos
Altitude , Estresse Oxidativo , Oxigênio , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Oxigênio/metabolismo , COVID-19 , Hiperóxia/sangue , Aeronaves , Oxigenoterapia Hiperbárica
11.
BMC Emerg Med ; 24(1): 60, 2024 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38614978

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent research has indicated that sex is an important determinant of emergency medical response in patients with possible serious injuries. Men were found to receive more advanced prehospital treatment and more helicopter transportation and trauma centre destinations and were more often received by an activated trauma team, even when adjusted for injury mechanism. Emergency medical dispatchers choose initial resources when serious injury is suspected after a call to the emergency medical communication centre. This study aimed to assess how dispatchers evaluate primary responses in trauma victims, with a special focus on the sex of the victim. METHODS: Emergency medical dispatchers were interviewed using focus groups and a semistructured interview guide developed specifically for this study. Two vignettes describing typical and realistic injury scenarios were discussed. Verbatim transcripts of the conversations were analysed via systematic text condensation. The findings were reported in accordance with the Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Studies (COREQ) checklist. RESULTS: The analysis resulted in the main category "Tailoring the right response to the patient", supported by three categories "Get an overview of location and scene safety", "Patient condition" and "Injury mechanism and special concerns". The informants consistently maintained that sex was not a relevant variable when deciding emergency medical response during dispatch and claimed that they rarely knew the sex of the patient before a response was implemented. Some of the participants also raised the question of whether the Norwegian trauma criteria reliably detect serious injury in women. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that the emergency medical response is largely based on the national trauma criteria and that sex is of little or no importance during dispatch. The observed sex differences in the emergency medical response seems to be caused by other factors during the emergency medical response phase.


Assuntos
Operador de Emergência Médica , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Grupos Focais , Aeronaves , Lista de Checagem
12.
Environ Sci Technol ; 58(16): 6934-6944, 2024 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38651174

RESUMO

Stratospheric aerosol injection (SAI) is proposed as a means of reducing global warming and climate change impacts. Similar to aerosol enhancements produced by volcanic eruptions, introducing particles into the stratosphere would reflect sunlight and reduce the level of warming. However, uncertainties remain about the roles of nucleation mechanisms, ionized molecules, impurities (unevaporated residuals of injected precursors), and ambient conditions in the generation of SAI particles optimally sized to reflect sunlight. Here, we use a kinetic ion-mediated and homogeneous nucleation model to study the formation of H2SO4 particles in aircraft exhaust plumes with direct injection of H2SO4 vapor. We find that under the conditions that produce particles of desired sizes (diameter ∼200-300 nm), nucleation occurs in the nascent (t < 0.01 s), hot (T = 360-445 K), and dry (RH = 0.01-0.1%) plume and is predominantly unary. Nucleation on chemiions occurs first, followed by neutral new particle formation, which converts most of the injected H2SO4 vapor to particles. Coagulation in the aging and diluting plumes governs the subsequent evolution to a narrow (σg = 1.3) particle size distribution. Scavenging by exhaust soot is negligible, but scavenging by acid impurities or incomplete H2SO4 evaporation in the hot exhaust plume and enhanced background aerosols can matter. This research highlights the need to obtain laboratory and/or real-world experiment data to verify the model prediction.


Assuntos
Aerossóis , Aeronaves , Tamanho da Partícula , Emissões de Veículos , Atmosfera/química , Poluentes Atmosféricos/química
13.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 24(1): 140, 2024 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38609864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is preferentially treated by prompt endovascular coiling, which is not available in Guadeloupe. Subsequently, patients are transferred to Paris, France mainland, by commercial airplane (6751 km flight) after being managed according to guidelines. This study describes the characteristics, management and outcomes related to these patients. METHODS: Retrospective observational cohort study of 148 patients admitted in intensive care unit for a suspected aSAH and transferred by airplane over a 10-year period (2010-2019). RESULTS: The median [interquartile range] age was 53 [45-64] years and 61% were female. On admission, Glasgow coma scale was 15 [13-15], World Federation of Neurological Surgeons (WFNS) grading scale was 1 [1-3] and Fisher scale was 4 [2-4]. External ventricular drainage and mechanical ventilation were performed prior to the flight respectively in 42% and 47% of patients. One-year mortality was 16% over the study period. By COX logistic regression analysis, acute hydrocephalus (hazard ratio [HR] 2.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.98-5.58) prior to airplane transfer, WFNS grading scale on admission (HR 1.53, 95% CI 1.16-2.02) and age (OR 1.03, 95% 1.00-1.07) were associated with one-year mortality. CONCLUSION: When necessary, transatlantic air transfer of patients with suspected aSAH after management according to local guidelines seems feasible and safe.


Assuntos
Hemorragia Subaracnóidea , Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/cirurgia , Aeronaves , Drenagem , França
14.
Neurol Clin ; 42(2): 521-542, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575264

RESUMO

Headaches attributed to disorders of homeostasis include those different headache types associated with metabolic and systemic diseases. These are headache disorders occurring in temporal relation to a disorder of homeostasis including hypoxia, high altitude, airplane travel, diving, sleep apnea, dialysis, autonomic dysreflexia, hypothyroidism, fasting, cardiac cephalalgia, hypertension and other hypertensive disorders like pheochromocytoma, hypertensive crisis, and encephalopathy, as well as preeclampsia or eclampsia. The proposed mechanism behind the causation of these headache subtypes including diagnostic criteria, evaluation, treatment, and overall management will be discussed.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias , Crise Hipertensiva , Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , Cefaleia/etiologia , Cefaleia/terapia , Cefaleia/diagnóstico , Homeostase , Aeronaves , Encefalopatias/complicações
15.
JMIR Hum Factors ; 11: e51587, 2024 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38687589

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of drones in the health care sector is increasingly being discussed against the background of the aging population and the growing shortage of skilled workers. In particular, the use of drones to provide medication in rural areas could bring advantages for the care of people with and without a need for care. However, there are hardly any data available that focus on the interaction between humans and drones. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to disclose and analyze factors associated with user acceptance of drone-based medication delivery to derive practice-relevant guidance points for participatory technology development (for apps and drones). METHODS: A controlled mixed methods study was conducted that supports the technical development process of an app design for drone-assisted drug delivery based on a participatory research design. For the quantitative analysis, established and standardized survey instruments to capture technology acceptance, such as the System Usability Scale; Technology Usage Inventory (TUI); and the Motivation, Engagement, and Thriving in User Experience model, were used. To avoid possible biasing effects from a continuous user development (eg, response shifts and learning effects), an ad hoc group was formed at each of the 3 iterative development steps and was subsequently compared with the consisting core group, which went through all 3 iterations. RESULTS: The study found a positive correlation between the usability of a pharmacy drone app and participants' willingness to use it (r=0.833). Participants' perception of usefulness positively influenced their willingness to use the app (r=0.487; TUI). Skepticism had a negative impact on perceived usability and willingness to use it (r=-0.542; System Usability Scale and r=-0.446; TUI). The study found that usefulness, skepticism, and curiosity explained most of the intention to use the app (F3,17=21.12; P<.001; R2=0.788; adjusted R2=0.751). The core group showed higher ratings on the intention to use the pharmacy drone app than the ad hoc groups. Results of the 2-tailed t tests showed a higher rating on usability for the third iteration of the core group compared with the first iteration. CONCLUSIONS: With the help of the participatory design, important aspects of acceptance could be revealed by the people involved in relation to drone-assisted drug delivery. For example, the length of time spent using the technology is an important factor for the intention to use the app. Technology-specific factors such as user-friendliness or curiosity are directly related to the use acceptance of the drone app. Results of this study showed that the more participants perceived their own competence in handling the app, the more they were willing to use the technology and the more they rated the app as usable.


Assuntos
Aeronaves , Sistemas de Medicação , Aplicativos Móveis , Design Centrado no Usuário , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Appl Ergon ; 118: 104288, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38636348

RESUMO

Humans working in modern work systems are increasingly required to supervise task automation. We examined whether manual aircraft conflict detection skill predicted participants' ability to respond to conflict detection automation failures in simulated air traffic control. In a conflict discrimination task (to assess manual skill), participants determined whether pairs of aircraft were in conflict or not by judging their relative-arrival time at common intersection points. Then in a simulated air traffic control task, participants supervised automation which either partially or fully detected and resolved conflicts on their behalf. Automation supervision required participants to detect when automation may have failed and effectively intervene. When automation failed, participants who had better manual conflict detection skill were faster and more accurate to intervene. However, a substantial proportion of variance in failure intervention was not explained by manual conflict detection skill, potentially reflecting that future research should consider other cognitive skills underlying automation supervision.


Assuntos
Automação , Aviação , Sistemas Homem-Máquina , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Aeronaves , Seleção de Pessoal/métodos
17.
Arch Cardiol Mex ; 94(1): 65-70, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38507322

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) systems of care have reduced inter-hospital transfer times and facilitated timely reperfusion goals. Helicopters may be an option when land transportation is not feasible; however, the safety of air transport in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a factor to consider. OBJETIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety of helicopter transport for patients with ACS. METHODS: Prospective, observational, and descriptive study including patients diagnosed with ACS within the STEMI network of a metropolitan city transferred by helicopter to a large cardiovascular center to undergo percutaneous coronary intervention. The primary outcome of the study was the incidence of air-travel-related complications defined as IV dislodgement, hypoxia, arrhythmia, angina, anxiety, bleeding, and hypothermia. Secondary outcomes included the individual components of the primary outcome. RESULTS: A total of 106 patients were included in the study; the mean age was 54 years and 84.9% were male. The most frequent diagnosis was STEMI after successful fibrinolysis (51.8%), followed by STEMI with failed fibrinolysis (23.7%) and non-reperfused STEMI (9.4%). Five patients (4.7%) developed at least one complication: IV dislodgement (1.8%) and hypoxemia (1.8%) in two patients and an episode of angina during flight (0.9%). A flight altitude of > 10,000 ft was not associated with complications. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that helicopter transportation is safe in patients undergoing acute coronary syndrome, despite the altitude of a metropolitan area.


ANTECEDENTES: Los sistemas de atención de IAMCEST han reducido los tiempos de transferencia interhospitalaria y han facilitado las metas de reperfusión oportuna. Los helicópteros pueden ser una opción cuando el transporte terrestre no es factible; sin embargo, la seguridad del transporte aéreo en pacientes con síndrome coronario agudo (SICA) es un factor a considerar. OBJETIVOS: Evaluar la seguridad del transporte en helicóptero para pacientes con SICA. MÉTODOS: Estudio prospectivo, observacional, descriptivo. Se incluyeron pacientes con diagnóstico de SICA dentro de la red IAMCEST en metrópolis extensa, trasladados en helicóptero a un centro cardiovascular. El resultado primario del estudio fue la incidencia de complicaciones relacionadas con los viajes aéreos definidas cómo desalojo de catéter intravenoso, hipoxia, arritmia, angina, ansiedad, sangrado e hipotermia. RESULTADOS: Total de 106 pacientes; la edad media fue de 54 años y 84,9% eran hombres. La altitud media de vuelo fue de 10,100 pies y la distancia media de vuelo fue de 50,0 km. El diagnóstico más frecuente fue IAMCEST tras fibrinolisis exitosa (51,8%), seguido de IAMCEST con fibrinolisis fallida (23,7%). Cinco pacientes (4,7%) desarrollaron una complicación: desalojo IV (1,8%) e hipoxemia (1,8%) en dos pacientes y un episodio de angina durante el vuelo (0,9%). Una altitud de vuelo mayor de 10,000 pies no se asoció a complicaciones. CONCLUSIONES: Los resultados de este estudio sugieren que el transporte en helicóptero es seguro en pacientes con SICA, incluso en altitudes > 10,000 pies.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda , Infarto do Miocárdio , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feminino , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/terapia , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/etiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Viagem , Doença Relacionada a Viagens , Aeronaves , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Angina Pectoris/etiologia
18.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 36(3): 225-230, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38538348

RESUMO

To address the lagging status of aviation medical rescue in China compared to developed countries, the focus is on critical weaknesses such as the inadequate aviation rescue communication network and communication technology. The team has established an efficient network among rescue helicopters, emergency centers, and hospitals using 5G technology, achieving millisecond-level speed and real-time data transmission. The Professional Committee of Emergency Resuscitation and Disaster Medicine of Chinese Medical Doctor Association integrated emergency experts, medical institutions, and emergency rescue teams to jointly draft Chinese expert consensus on 5G+ helicopter aviation medical rescue (2024 edition). The consensus recommends the widespread application of 5G technology in aviation medical rescue, utilizing 5G technology for warning and dispatch during the initiation of aviation medical rescue, and using 5G technology for real-time transmission of vital signs and high-definition videos to emergency centers and receiving hospitals during rescue operations and flight. Successful cases fully demonstrate the potential of 5G technology in aviation medical rescue. The consensus aims to standardize and guide 5G+ helicopter medical rescue, ultimately achieving the goal of patients being "admitted upon boarding".


Assuntos
Resgate Aéreo , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Humanos , Consenso , Aeronaves , China
19.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med ; 32(1): 21, 2024 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38500142

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recently, the Norwegian Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) has developed a procedure for a special type of static rope rescue operation, referred to as the offset technique. In this technique, the helicopter is offset from the accident site, and the HEMS technical crew member uses an offset throw line to gain access to the scene. Today, there is little practical experience of such operations, and a need has been identified for more knowledge on the potential hazards encountered during this type of operation. Such knowledge is of importance for further development of the procedure for the offset technique. OBJECTIVE: To identify potential hazards for helicopter rescue operations using the static rope offset technique and, thereby, to improve the procedure for such operations. This may lead to improved safety for patients and crew members during offset rescue operations. METHOD: A Safe Job Analysis was used to identify the hazards of offset rescue operations. Such operations are divided into tasks and sub-tasks. For each sub-task, we identified potential hazards and suggested ways of preventing these. RESULTS: Through the Safe Job Analysis, we suggest some changes in the existing procedure for the offset technique, to make it more robust against potential hazards. CONCLUSION: We have demonstrated the value of Safe Job Analysis for improving the static rope offset evacuation procedure. Our analysis has led to some changes in the procedure for offset rescue operations. This is the importance of having two throw lines and focusing on "why" in the procedure.


Assuntos
Resgate Aéreo , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Humanos , Aeronaves , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/métodos , Noruega
20.
Air Med J ; 43(2): 124-132, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38490775

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) is widely used for prehospital and interfacility transport, but there is a paucity of HEMS outcomes data from studies using randomized controlled trial designs. In the absence of robust randomized controlled trial evidence, judgments regarding HEMS potential benefit must be informed by observational data. Within the study design set of observational analyses, the natural experiment (NE) is notable for its high potential methodologic quality; NE designs are occasionally denoted "quasi-experimental." The aim of this study is to examine all NE outcomes studies in the HEMS literature and to discern what lessons can be learned from these potentially high-quality observational data. METHODS: HEMS NE studies were identified during the development of a new HEMS Outcomes Assessment Research Database (HOARD). HOARD was constructed using a broad-ranging search of published and gray literature resources (eg, PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar) that used variations of the terms "helicopter EMS," "air ambulance," and "air medical transport." Among the 221 studies ultimately included in HOARD, 16 NE publications describing 13 sets of observational data comprising myriad diagnostic groups were identified. Of these 16 HEMS NEs, 4 HEMS NE studies assessing trauma outcomes were used in a meta-analysis. A meta-analysis was also performed of 4 HEMS NE studies. RESULTS: Although the disparity of studies (in terms of both case mix and end points) precluded the generation of a pooled effect estimate of an adjusted mortality benefit of HEMs versus ground emergency medical services, HEMS was found to be associated with outcomes improvement in 8 of the 13 cohorts. CONCLUSION: The weight of the NE evidence supports a conclusion of some form of HEMS-mediated outcomes improvement in a variety of patient types. Meta-analysis of 4 HEMS NE studies assessing trauma outcomes generated a model with acceptable heterogeneity (I2 = 43%, Q test: P = .16), which significantly (P < .01) favored HEMS use with a pooled HEMS survival odd ratio estimate of 1.66 (95% confidence interval, 1.23-2.22).


Assuntos
Resgate Aéreo , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Humanos , Aeronaves , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Bases de Dados Factuais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto
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