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1.
Integr Zool ; 15(1): 79-86, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31305022

RESUMO

Following significant developments in technology, alternative devices have been applied in fieldwork for animal and plant surveys. Thermal-image acquisition cameras installed on unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have been used in animal surveys in the wilderness. This article demonstrates an example of how UAVs can be used in high mountainous regions, presenting a case study on the Sichuan snub-nosed monkey with a detection rate of 65.19% for positive individual identification. It also presents a model that can prospectively predict population size for a given animal species, which is based on combined initial work using UAVs and traditional surveys on the ground. A great potential advantage of UAVs is significantly shortening survey procedures, particularly for areas with high mountains and plateaus, such as the Himalayas, the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, Hengduan Mountains, the Yunnan-Gui Plateau and Qinling Mountains in China, where carrying out a traditional survey is extremely difficult, so that species and population surveys, particularly for critically endangered animals, are largely absent. This lack of data has impacted the management of endangered animals as well as the formulation and amendment of conservation strategies.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Colobinae/fisiologia , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/métodos , Aeronaves , Animais , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Densidade Demográfica , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/instrumentação
2.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(23): 13898-13905, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713420

RESUMO

Airplane sanitary facilities are shared by an international audience. We hypothesized the corresponding sewage to be an extraordinary source of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) and resistance genes (ARG) in terms of diversity and quantity. Accordingly, we analyzed ARG and ARB in airplane-borne sewage using complementary approaches: metagenomics, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and cultivation. For the purpose of comparison, we also quantified ARG and ARB in the inlets of municipal treatment plants with and without connection to airports. As expected, airplane sewage contained an extraordinarily rich set of mobile ARG, and the relative abundances of genes were mostly increased compared to typical raw sewage of municipal origin. Moreover, combined resistance against third-generation cephalosporins, fluorochinolones, and aminoglycosides was unusually common (28.9%) among Escherichia coli isolated from airplane sewage. This percentage exceeds the one reported for German clinical isolates by a factor of 8. Our findings suggest that airplane-borne sewage can effectively contribute to the fast and global spread of antibiotic resistance.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Esgotos , Aeronaves , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Genes Bacterianos
3.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med ; 27(1): 89, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578145

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Making ethically sound treatment limitations in prehospital care is a complex topic. Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) physicians were surveyed on their experiences with limitations of care orders in the prehospital setting, including situations where they are dispatched to healthcare facilities or nursing homes. METHODS: A nationwide multicentre study was conducted among all HEMS physicians in Finland in 2017 using a questionnaire with closed five-point Likert-scale questions and open questions. The Ethics Committee of the Tampere University Hospital approved the study protocol (R15048). RESULTS: Fifty-nine (88%) physicians responded. Their median age was 43 (IQR 38-47) and median medical working experience was 15 (IQR 10-20) years. All respondents made limitation of care orders and 39% made them often. Three fourths (75%) of the physicians were often dispatched to healthcare facilities and nursing homes and the majority (93%) regularly met patients who should have already had a valid limitation of care order. Every other physician (49%) had sometimes decided not to implement a medically justifiable limitation of care order because they wanted to avoid conflicts with the patient and/or the next of kin and/or other healthcare staff. Limitation of care order practices varied between the respondents, but neither age nor working experience explained these differences in answers. Most physicians (85%) stated that limitations of care orders are part of their work and 81% did not find them especially burdensome. The most challenging patient groups for treatment limitations were the under-aged patients, the severely disabled patients and the patients in healthcare facilities or residing in nursing homes. CONCLUSION: Making limitation of care orders is an important but often invisible part of a HEMS physician's work. HEMS physicians expressed that patients in long-term care were often without limitations of care orders in situations where an order would have been ethically in accordance with the patient's best interests.


Assuntos
Resgate Aéreo , Aeronaves , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/métodos , Médicos/normas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Finlândia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
4.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(21): 12865-12872, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578862

RESUMO

Business aviation is a relatively small but steadily growing and little investigated emission source. Regarding emissions, aircraft turbine engines rated at and below 26.7 kN thrust are certified only for visible smoke and are excluded from the nonvolatile particulate matter (nvPM) standard. Here, we report nvPM emission characteristics of a widely used small turbofan engine determined in a ground test of a Dassault Falcon 900EX business jet. These are the first reported nvPM emissions of a small in-production turbofan engine determined with a standardized measurement system used for emissions certification of large turbofan engines. The ground-level measurements together with a detailed engine performance model were used to predict emissions at cruising altitudes. The measured nvPM emission characteristics strongly depended on engine thrust. The geometric mean diameter increased from 17 nm at idle to 45 nm at take-off. The nvPM emission indices peaked at low thrust levels (7 and 40% take-off thrust in terms of nvPM number and mass, respectively). A comparison with a commercial airliner shows that a business jet may produce higher nvPM emissions from flight missions as well as from landing and take-off operations. This study will aid the development of emission inventories for small aircraft turbine engines and future emission standards.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Material Particulado , Aeronaves , Altitude , Emissões de Veículos
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546974

RESUMO

Noise legislation in Austria does not provide an assessment of the cumulative effect of noise from different sources. The desire of citizens for a total noise assessment is getting stronger. Within the pilot project "Gesamtlärmbetrachtung" (Total Noise Investigation) Innsbruck, data from 1031 face-to-face interviews were correlated with exposure data from road, rail and air traffic noise. The interviews were selected in clusters according to the exposure combinations of these three sources. In addition to exposure-response relationships, it has also been found that the annoyance response to air and rail traffic noise is independent of the background noise from road traffic. The total noise annoyance response shows a cumulative effect in each source considered. From the source specific exposure-response relationships, a total noise assessment model based on the annoyance equivalents model was developed. This model is more suitable than the dominant source model and thus also considerable for legal application.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Ruído dos Transportes/efeitos adversos , Ruído dos Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Adulto , Aeronaves , Animais , Áustria , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ruído , Projetos Piloto , Ferrovias
6.
Nature ; 573(7775): 495, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551556

Assuntos
Aeronaves
7.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(18)2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489950

RESUMO

Modern Public Safety Networks (PSNs) are assisted by Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to provide a resilient communication paradigm during catastrophic events. In this context, we propose a distributed user-centric risk-aware resource management framework in UAV-assisted PSNs supported by both a static UAV and a mobile UAV. The mobile UAV is entitled to a larger portion of the available spectrum due to its capability and flexibility to re-position itself, and therefore establish better communication channel conditions to the users, compared to the static UAV. However, the potential over-exploitation of the mobile UAV-based communication by the users may lead to the mobile UAV's failure to serve the users due to the increased levels of interference, consequently introducing risk in the user decisions. To capture this uncertainty, we follow the principles of Prospect Theory and design a user's prospect-theoretic utility function that reflects user's risk-aware behavior regarding its transmission power investment to the static and/or mobile UAV-based communication option. A non-cooperative game among the users is formulated, where each user determines its power investment strategy to the two available communication choices in order to maximize its expected prospect-theoretic utility. The existence and uniqueness of a Pure Nash Equilibrium (PNE) is proven and the convergence of the users' strategies to it is shown. An iterative distributed and low-complexity algorithm is introduced to determine the PNE. The performance of the proposed user-centric risk-aware resource management framework in terms of users' achievable data rate and spectrum utilization, is achieved via modeling and simulation. Furthermore, its superiority and benefits are demonstrated, by comparing its performance against other existing approaches with regards to UAV selection and spectrum utilization.


Assuntos
Aeronaves , Segurança , Algoritmos , Conscientização , Humanos
8.
Med Sci Monit ; 25: 6547-6553, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473759

RESUMO

BACKGROUND A stroke is a serious life-threatening emergency that requires immediate intervention in an appropriate therapeutic center. The aim of this study was to analyze the time of medical procedures at the scene and changes in the state of stroke patients during transport by HEMS in Poland. The presented research is the first nationwide study covering such a large group of stroke patients, for whom aerial support was used in the therapeutic process. MATERIAL AND METHODS A retrospective cross-sectional study of 48553 missions performed by Polish Medical Air Rescue (PMAR) during the 5-year study period resulted in 3906 stroke patients who, after medical rescue operations by HEMS crew, were transported by helicopters to hospitals. RESULTS Helicopters in 3475 (88.97%) cases were utilized as a support for Ground Emergency Medical Service (GEMS). The maximum duration of HEMS operation from activation to patient transfer to the hospital did not exceed 108 min and the median was 60 min. Over 87% of patients with HEMS reported stroke symptoms and arrived at the medical center with the possibility of implementing thrombolytic therapy. The factor that affected the deterioration of patients' condition was the drawing out of the extent of time spent by the crew at the scene. CONCLUSIONS The use of HEMS in Poland in the case of patients with stroke symptoms ensures fast and professional assistance at the site of the medical emergency as well as safe transport to specialized centers, shortening the time of proper treatment implementation.


Assuntos
Aeronaves , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Feminino , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia , Análise de Regressão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
9.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(16)2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398917

RESUMO

Intelligent automation and trusted autonomy are being introduced in aerospace cyber-physical systems to support diverse tasks including data processing, decision-making, information sharing and mission execution. Due to the increasing level of integration/collaboration between humans and automation in these tasks, the operational performance of closed-loop human-machine systems can be enhanced when the machine monitors the operator's cognitive states and adapts to them in order to maximise the effectiveness of the Human-Machine Interfaces and Interactions (HMI2). Technological developments have led to neurophysiological observations becoming a reliable methodology to evaluate the human operator's states using a variety of wearable and remote sensors. The adoption of sensor networks can be seen as an evolution of this approach, as there are notable advantages if these sensors collect and exchange data in real-time, while their operation is controlled remotely and synchronised. This paper discusses recent advances in sensor networks for aerospace cyber-physical systems, focusing on Cognitive HMI2 (CHMI2) implementations. The key neurophysiological measurements used in this context and their relationship with the operator's cognitive states are discussed. Suitable data analysis techniques based on machine learning and statistical inference are also presented, as these techniques allow processing both neurophysiological and operational data to obtain accurate cognitive state estimations. Lastly, to support the development of sensor networks for CHMI2 applications, the paper addresses the performance characterisation of various state-of-the-art sensors and the propagation of measurement uncertainties through a machine learning-based inference engine. Results show that a proper sensor selection and integration can support the implementation of effective human-machine systems for various challenging aerospace applications, including Air Traffic Management (ATM), commercial airliner Single-Pilot Operations (SIPO), one-to-many Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), and space operations management.


Assuntos
Aeronaves , Sistemas Homem-Máquina , Sistema Nervoso Central/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Expressão Facial , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Neuroimagem
10.
Aerosp Med Hum Perform ; 90(9): 792-799, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426895

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Adverse weather and poor visual cues are common elements in night-time Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) operations contributing to spatial disorientation and fatal accidents. Pilots are required to make weather-related preflight risk assessments to accept or reject a flight. This study's aim was to develop predictive risk assessment tools based on historical accident data to assist the decision-making process.METHODS: We analyzed 32 single-pilot HEMS night-time visual flight rules fatal accidents to identify contributory risk factors. Logistic regression analysis was used to develop prediction nomograms for nonvisual meteorological conditions (non-VMC), cause and nonsurvivable accidents as dependent variables. Risk factors such as temperature dew point spread, elevation difference, and years of HEMS pilot experience, were entered as continuous variables. Flight crew composition, pilot DTE (domain task experience) and flight rule capability, primary missions, and temperature dew point spread were entered as categorical variables. A point scoring matrix transposed model probability to likelihood and consequence severity.RESULTS: The nomograms correctly predicted the likelihood of entering non-VMC, accident cause, and sustaining a nonsurvivable accident in 75%, 55%, and 94% of cases, respectively. Using data from a recent nonsurvivable HEMS accident, the nomogram estimated a 92% probability (Very Likely) of nonsurvivable accident if visual cues were lost.CONCLUSION: These nomograms can provide preflight information to predict the likelihood of adverse safety outcomes occurring during a planned HEMS mission. While further development work is needed, this approach has the potential to improve HEMS operational safety.Aherne BB, Zhang C, Chen WS, Newman DG. Preflight risk assessment for improved safety in Helicopter Emergency Medical Service operations. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2019; 90(9):792-799.


Assuntos
Acidentes Aeronáuticos/prevenção & controle , Resgate Aéreo/organização & administração , Tomada de Decisões , Pilotos/psicologia , Gestão da Segurança/métodos , Acidentes Aeronáuticos/mortalidade , Medicina Aeroespacial , Aeronaves , Temperatura Baixa , Sinais (Psicologia) , Humanos , Nomogramas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Tempo (Meteorologia)
11.
Aerosp Med Hum Perform ; 90(9): 800-806, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Royal Netherlands Air Force (RNLAF) helicopter aircrew get Helicopter Underwater Egress Training (HUET) using a Modular Egress Training Simulator (METS™) in order to be prepared for escaping the aircraft when ditching into water. In the current situation the retraining intervals are only chosen on an arbitrary basis for different backgrounds of the crew (maritime and regular flight crew). The frequency of refresher training depends on the expected degree of retention, but evidence-based research on required intervals between refresher courses is scarce. Ideally, training should be based on the amount of retention of acquired competencies.METHODS: Retrospective questionnaires were filled in by 132 helicopter aircrew who followed the HUET course(s) at the Survival Evasion Resistance and Escape (SERE) school in Gilze-Rijen (Netherlands). They assessed themselves on competencies and gave their opinion on the preferred interval.RESULTS: Maritime crew report increasing competence levels with the number of refresher courses followed. According to the opinion of all aircrew, retraining intervals may take longer than 18 (first refresher) to 30 mo (fourth refresher). Maritime and regular flight crew differ in preferred retraining intervals (up to 22 mo and up to 33 mo, respectively).DISCUSSION: This study provides indications to reconsider the retraining interval and to differentiate between maritime and regular flight crew based on aircrew's opinions and self-assessments. As competence levels still increase with the number of courses followed, it is recommended to reconsider the current fixed intervals of once a year or once every 3 yr for maritime and regular flight crew, respectively.Bottenheft C, Oprins EAPB, Houben MMJ, Meeuwsen T, Valk PJL. Self-assessed preferred retraining intervals of Helicopter Underwater Egress Training (HUET). Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2019; 90(9):800-806.


Assuntos
Acidentes Aeronáuticos/prevenção & controle , Aeronaves , Emergências , Militares/educação , Água , Acidentes Aeronáuticos/mortalidade , Adulto , Medicina Aeroespacial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Países Baixos , Competência Profissional/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Autoavaliação , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo
12.
J Anim Ecol ; 88(11): 1720-1731, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31435938

RESUMO

The ubiquitous anthropogenic low-frequency noise impedes communication by masking animal signals. To overcome this communication barrier, animals may increase the frequency, amplitude and delivery rate of their acoustic signals, making them more easily heard. However, a direct impact of intermittent, high-level aircraft noise on birds' behaviour living close to a runway has not been studied in detail. We recorded common chiffchaffs Phylloscopus collybita songs near two airports and nearby control areas, and we measured sound levels in their territories at Manchester Airport. The song recordings were made in between aircraft movements, when ambient sound levels were similar between airport and control populations. We also conducted playback experiments at the airport and a control population to test the salience of airport, and control population specific songs. In contrast to the general pattern of increased song frequency in noisy areas, we show that common chiffchaffs at airports show a negative relationship between noise exposure level and song frequency. Experimental data show that chiffchaffs living near airports also respond more aggressively to song playback. Since the decrease in song frequency results in increased overlap with aircraft noise, these findings cannot be explained as an adaptation to improve communication. The increased levels of aggression suggest that chiffchaffs, like humans, might be affected behaviourally by extreme noise pollution. These findings should influence environmental impact assessments for airport expansions globally.


Assuntos
Agressão , Aeronaves , Aeroportos , Animais , Aves , Humanos , Ruído
13.
Environ Pollut ; 254(Pt B): 112987, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454579

RESUMO

A mass balance approach to quantify methane (CH4) emission of four co-located landfills by means of airborne measurements and dispersion modelling was proposed and assessed. By flying grids at different heights above the landfills, atmospheric CH4 densities and wind components were measured along the edges and inside the study atmospheric volume, in order to calculate mass flows in the along- and across-wind directions. A steady-state Gaussian dispersion model was applied to build the concentration fields associated to unit emission from each landfill, while the contribution of each one to the total emission was assessed using a General Linear Model approach, minimizing the difference between measured and modeled mass flows. Results showed that wind spatial and temporal variability is the main factor controlling the accuracy of the method, as a good agreement between measured and modeled mass flows was mainly found for flights made in steady wind conditions. CH4 emissions of the entire area ranged from 213.5 ±â€¯33.5 to 317.9 ±â€¯90.4 g s-1 with a mean value of 252.5 ±â€¯54.2 g s-1. Contributions from individual sources varied from 17.5 to 40.1 g m-2 day-1 indicating a substantial heterogeneity of the different landfills, which differed in age and waste composition. The proposed method was validated against tower eddy covariance flux measurements made at one of the landfills, revealing an overall agreement within 20%.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Metano/análise , Aeronaves , Monitoramento Ambiental , Modelos Lineares , Eliminação de Resíduos , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos , Vento
14.
Waste Manag ; 96: 57-64, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376970

RESUMO

The aviation industry generates a significant amount of comingle waste. Nowadays, companies are making efforts to enhance waste management and reduce waste generation. In order to improve present practices and implement a proper waste management system, the quantities, materials, and typology of waste generated need to be studied. A total of 145 airplanes were analysed. We differentiated 5 strips of duration and identified 4 different generation sources within the cabin associated to the business and tourist passenger classes. We classified and characterized the waste into 20 different materials. Results provide a detailed, representative and adapted study of the catering waste generated in the aviation industry. The characterization, which allows distinguishing between manipulated and unmanipulated materials, aims at providing useful information to reduce the generation of waste. The analysis performed in the present study shows that the flying distance increases the waste generation, as more food is served. It also shows that organic matter, paper/cardboard and packaging are the dominant materials in the waste generated in flights. The results of the characterizations obtained allow making some recommendations. The use of bi-compartmentalized waste trolleys to separate on-board recyclable materials from the rest is desirable to obtain a clean recoverable waste stream. Supressing unpopular food from menus, identified analysing the leftovers, could also reduce the amount of waste generated. (This characterization study is part of the European project LIFE + Zero Cabin Waste.). Changes in the CE 1069/2009 regulation would allow more waste to be recycled instead of landfilled. Ultimately, the information obtained from this study will be used to design a more sustainable waste management system.


Assuntos
Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Aeronaves , Alimentos , Embalagem de Produtos , Reciclagem
15.
Wilderness Environ Med ; 30(3): 268-273, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31345722

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In 2011, our hospital on the Izu peninsula began to hold meetings to discuss how to manage patients with decompression illness (DCI) to establish a cooperative medical system. We retrospectively investigated the influence of these meetings and the changes subsequently effected. METHODS: A medical chart review was retrospectively performed to investigate all cases between January 2005 and December 2017 in which the transport of patients with DCI via a physician-staffed helicopter emergency medical service (HEMS) was attempted. The patients were divided into 2 groups: the preprogram group and the postprogram group. RESULTS: There were 63 patients in the preprogram group and 65 in the postprogram group. There were no cases in which a patient's symptoms deteriorated during transportation by the HEMS. The frequency of dispatch to the scene for direct evacuation in the postprogram group (86%) was greater than that in the preprogram group (74%), but the difference was not statistically significant (P=0.09). In the postprogram group, the duration of activities at the scene or the first aid hospital was significantly shorter in comparison to the preprogram group (P=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: This retrospective study revealed simultaneity between the introduction of the yearly meetings and a reduced duration of the HEMS staff's activity at either the scene or the first aid hospital.


Assuntos
Doença da Descompressão/terapia , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/organização & administração , Medicina Ambiental/organização & administração , Adulto , Aeronaves/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicina Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Primeiros Socorros/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(16): 9636-9645, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347357

RESUMO

California methane (CH4) emissions are quantified for three years from two tower networks and one aircraft campaign. We used backward trajectory simulations and a mesoscale Bayesian inverse model, initialized by three inventories, to achieve the emission quantification. Results show total statewide CH4 emissions of 2.05 ± 0.26 (at 95% confidence) Tg/yr, which is 1.14 to 1.47 times greater than the anthropogenic emission estimates by California Air Resource Board (CARB). Some of differences could be biogenic emissions, superemitter point sources, and other episodic emissions which may not be completely included in the CARB inventory. San Joaquin Valley (SJV) has the largest CH4 emissions (0.94 ± 0.18 Tg/yr), followed by the South Coast Air Basin, the Sacramento Valley, and the San Francisco Bay Area at 0.39 ± 0.18, 0.21 ± 0.04, and 0.16 ± 0.05 Tg/yr, respectively. The dairy and oil/gas production sources in the SJV contribute 0.44 ± 0.36 and 0.22 ± 0.23 Tg CH4/yr, respectively. This study has important policy implications for regulatory programs, as it provides a thorough multiyear evaluation of the emissions inventory using independent atmospheric measurements and investigates the utility of a complementary multiplatform approach in understanding the spatial and temporal patterns of CH4 emissions in the state and identifies opportunities for the expansion and applications of the monitoring network.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Metano , Aeronaves , Teorema de Bayes , California , São Francisco
17.
Aerosp Med Hum Perform ; 90(8): 720-724, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331422

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The incidence of hypoxia-like symptoms in military aviators is on the rise. Cases can be related to On-Board Oxygen Generating System (OBOGS) malfunction, air contamination, loss of cabin pressurization, hyperventilation, or a combination of these issues simultaneously. Normobaric hypoxia training in tactical fighter simulations has been conducted in the Finnish Air Force since 2008. This training helps aviators to recognize their individual hypoxia symptoms and refreshes hypoxia emergency procedures in a realistic cockpit.METHODS: A flight mission included three set-ups and a return to base (RTB) after the third set-up. In a tactical Hawk simulator, different concentrations of oxygen were used (8%, 7%, and 6% oxygen in nitrogen) to create normobaric hypoxia exposures. During the RTB, the flight instructor evaluated the subjects' flight performance (N = 16) in order to estimate cognitive functions after hypoxia. A control flight was evaluated before or after the flight with normobaric hypoxia exposure.RESULTS: Instrumental flight rule performance during RTB decreased significantly from 4.81 to 3.63 after normobaric hypoxia and emergency procedures. Some pilots reported fatigue, headache, memory problems, and cognitive impairment as adverse effects up to 12 h after normobaric hypoxia training.DISCUSSION: Hypoxia has a significant effect on flight performance during RTB, even 10 min after hypoxia emergency procedures. Since 100% oxygen was used as emergency oxygen, as in a real aircraft, the oxygen paradox may decrease flight performance. Hypoxia training in tactical fighter simulations provides an opportunity for pilots to also understand the effects of the "hypoxia hangover" on their flight performance.Varis N, Parkkola KI, Leino TK. Hypoxia hangover and flight performance after normobaric hypoxia exposure in a Hawk simulator. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2019; 90(8):720-724.


Assuntos
Medicina Aeroespacial , Hipóxia/epidemiologia , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Pilotos/estatística & dados numéricos , Aeronaves , Altitude , Finlândia , Humanos , Hipóxia/etiologia , Incidência , Masculino , Militares/educação , Pilotos/educação , Treinamento por Simulação
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(26): 26925-26938, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31309420

RESUMO

In light of growing concern and insufficient knowledge on the negative impact of aircraft emissions on environmental health, this study strives to investigate the air burden of major and trace elements caused by general aviation, piston-engine, and turboprop aircraft, within the vicinity of Eskisehir Hasan Polatkan Airport (Eskisehir, Turkey). The levels of 57 elements were investigated, based on moss bag biomonitoring using Sphagnum sp., along with chemical analyses of lubrication oil and aviation gasoline fuel used in the aircraft's operations. Five sampling sites were selected within the vicinity of the airport area to capture spatial changes in the concentration of airborne elements. The study demonstrates that moss bag biomonitoring is a useful tool in the identification of differences in the air burden by major and trace elements that have concentrated downwind of the aircraft emission sources. Moreover, pollutant enrichment in the Sphagnum moss bags and elemental characterization of oil/fuel are in agreement suggesting that Pb, followed by Cd, Cu, Mo, Cr, Ni, Fe, Si, Zn, Na, P, Ca, Mg, and Al are dominant elements that shaped the general aviation aircraft emissions.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Aeronaves , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Sphagnopsida/química , Aeroportos , Quelantes/análise , Gasolina , Turquia
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