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1.
Appl Ergon ; 98: 103580, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34598077

RESUMO

With the rapid rise in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for military and civil first-person applications like infrastructure inspection, there is an increased need for skilled UAV operators. However, research on effective training of UAV pilots has not kept pace with the demand. How much autonomy should be onboard, how much training, and how much control humans should have are still points of debate. To help fill this gap, this paper examines how different training programs and levels of control autonomy affect training outcomes for people operating a UAV in inspection tasks with high onboard autonomy. Results revealed a cost-benefit trade space in that those top performers with both lower-level teleoperation and higher-level supervisory control training could achieve the best performance, but with higher variability, as compare to those who received just supervisory control training. Another important finding was that those trainees who were overconfident were more likely to spend too much time micro-controlling the UAV, and also 15 times more likely to crash. Given that commercial UAV licensing is expected to significantly increase in the next few years, these results suggest more work is needed to determine how to mitigate overconfidence bias both through training and design.


Assuntos
Aeronaves , Militares , Humanos
2.
Appl Ergon ; 98: 103603, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638037

RESUMO

Auditory comfort evaluations are garnering increased attention in engineering and particularly in the context of air transportation. Being able to produce sound environments corresponding to various flight conditions in aircraft mock-ups would be a valuable tool to investigate acoustic comfort inside aircrafts in controlled environments. Before using such mock-ups, they must be developed and validated in physical and perceptual terms. This paper provides a perceptual validation of sound environment reproduction inside aircraft mock-up. To provide a faithfully reproduced sound environment, time, frequency and spatial characteristics should be preserved. Physical sound field reproduction approaches for spatial sound reproduction are required while properly preserving localization cues at the listener's ears to recreate a realistic and immersing sound environment. We report a perceptual validation of a sound field reproduction system developed in an aircraft mock-up based on multichannel least-square methods and equalization. Twenty participants evaluated reproduced sound environments relative to a reference sound environment in an aircraft cabin mock-up equipped with a 41-actuator multichannel sound reproduction system. Results indicate that the preferred reproduction corresponds to the best physical reconstruction of the sound environment.


Assuntos
Aeronaves , Som , Atenção , Sinais (Psicologia) , Humanos , Reprodução
3.
Appl Ergon ; 98: 103578, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509717

RESUMO

Aviation places significant demands on pilots' perceptual and attentional capacities. The avoidance of other objects both on the ground and in the air is critical to safe flight. Research on automobile driving has revealed the occurrence of 'inattentional blindness' (IB) whereby objects clearly located within the visual field may not detected when drivers are concurrently engaged in another attention capturing task such as a cellphone conversation. Almost no comparable research has been conducted within the aviation domain despite the significance of both ground-based and mid-air collisions. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of diverting attentional resources away from the primary task of safely flying a simulated light aircraft from takeoff to cruising. Flight naïve students were trained to proficiency in a flight-simulator and flew two simulated flights with and without a competing attentional task. Detection of a variety of objects placed in the background was measured. The results showed that when distracted by an engaging cellphone conversation novice pilots failed to detect many of the objects located within the visual scene. Recognition accuracy was greater when pilots' attention was not diverted elsewhere. There was a reduction in time spent looking at some key flight instruments but not on others. Inattentional blindness poses significant flight safety risks and further research into both the stimulus and perceiver characteristics that promote or reduce inattentional blindness would be of significant benefit to aviation safety.


Assuntos
Aviação , Aeronaves , Atenção , Cegueira , Simulação por Computador , Humanos
4.
Am J Case Rep ; 22: e933862, 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731159

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Head trauma, defined as damage to the brain, skull, or scalp when the head is hit by an external force, is a major cause of mortality in military personnel. Therefore, we report a novel case involving a naval helicopter pilot who sustained a helicopter propeller rotor blade injury. CASE REPORT We describe a case involving a pilot struck on the head by a helicopter rotor blade. He received care from medical staff shortly after the injury and was en route to the nearest trauma center. Cranial computed tomography (CT) scans revealed a comminuted fracture of the right occipital bone, with bone fragment retention in the right cerebral hemispheres. We performed an emergency right occipital craniotomy. The visual field patterns demonstrated right homonymous hemianopia when the patient was discharged. The patient underwent delayed titanium mesh cranioplasty about 3 months after the right occipital craniotomy. From discharge to 5 years, the patient had performed rehabilitation exercise for at least 3 days every week. The patient's continued recovery was confirmed at the 5-year follow-up in 2019. The bilateral visual acuity was 20/20, and the right homonymous hemianopia problem also disappeared. In the same year, after a physical and psychological assessment by an aviation doctor, he was able to resume flying. CONCLUSIONS This report has shown that despite safety regulations for military and civilian helicopter personnel, which include the wearing of helmets, helicopter rotor blade injuries still occur and can have long-term consequences due to the severity of head injury.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Craniocerebrais , Pilotos , Adulto , Aeronaves , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/etiologia , Craniotomia , Humanos , Masculino
5.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med ; 29(1): 163, 2021 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34801070

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Auscultating for breath sounds to assess for pneumothorax in the helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) settings can be extremely challenging. Thoracic point of care ultrasound (POCUS) offers a seemingly more useful visual (rather than audible) alternative. This review critically and quantitatively evaluates the use of thoracic POCUS for pneumothorax in the HEMS setting. METHODS: A systematic literature review with meta-analysis was conducted. Only papers reporting on patients undergoing POCUS for pneumothorax in the helicopter or pre-hospital setting were included. Primary outcome was accuracy, focusing on sensitivity and specificity. Secondary outcome was practicality. PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library were searched. The Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS-2) was used to assess validity of studies. RESULTS: Twelve studies reporting on n = 1,936 images from medical and trauma patients were included in qualitative synthesis. Studies were nearly all observational designs. Most images were acquired by nurses or paramedics who were previously novices to ultrasound. The reference standard was predominantly CT. Specificity results were unanimously precise and very high, whereas sensitivity results were imprecise and extremely variable. Meta-analysis of eight studies involving n = 1,713 images yielded pooled sensitivity 61% (95% CI: 27-87%; I2 = 94%) and pooled specificity 99% (95% CI: 98-100%; I2 = 89%). Six studies involving n = 315 images reported practicality. The highest or second highest categorisation of image quality was reported in around half of those images. CONCLUSION: Thoracic POCUS is highly specific but has extremely variable sensitivity for pneumothorax when performed in the HEMS setting. This is from purely a diagnostic (not clinical) perspective. Sensitivity increases when only clinically significant pneumothoraces are considered. Case reports reveal thoracic POCUS can appropriately alter treatment and triage decisions, but only for a small number of patients. It appears predominantly useful in mitigating against unnecessary interventions. More research reporting patient focused outcomes is required. In the meantime, thoracic POCUS appears to offer a more appropriate visual alternative to auscultation for breath sounds when assessing for pneumothorax in the HEMS setting.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Pneumotórax , Aeronaves , Humanos , Pneumotórax/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumotórax/terapia , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Ultrassonografia
6.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med ; 29(1): 161, 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794486

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As pediatric patients are typically rare among helicopter emergency medical systems (HEMS), children might be at risk for oligo-analgesia due to the rescuer's lack of experience and the fear of side effects. METHODS: In this retrospective analysis, data was obtained from the ÖAMTC HEMS digital database including 14 physician staffed helicopter bases in Austria over a 12-year timeframe. Primary missions involving pediatric trauma patients (< 15 years) not mechanically ventilated on-site were included. Analgesia was assessed and compared between the age groups 0-5, 6-10 and 11-14 years. RESULTS: Of all flight missions, 8.2% were dedicated to children < 15 years. Analgetic drugs were administered in 31.4% of all primary missions (3874 of 12,324), wherefrom 2885 were injured and non-ventilated (0-5 yrs.: n = 443; 6-10 yrs.: n = 902; 11-14 yrs.: n = 1540). The majority of these patients (> 75%) suffered moderate to severe pain, justifying immediate analgesia. HEMS physicians typically chose a monotherapy with an opioid (n = 1277; 44.3%) or Esketamine (n = 1187; 41.1%) followed by the combination of both (n = 324; 11.2%). Opioid use increased (37.2% to 63.4%) and Esketamine use decreased (66.1% to 48.3%) in children < 6 vs. > 10 years. Esketamine was more often administered in extremity (57.3%) than in head (41.5%) or spine injuries (32.3%). An intravenous access was less often established in children < 6 years (74.3% vs. 90.8%; p < 0.001). Despite the use of potent analgesics, 396 missions (13.7%) were performed without technical monitoring. Particularly regarding patient data at handover in hospital, merely < 10% of all missions featured complete documentation. Therefore, sufficient evaluation of the efficacy of pain relief was not possible. Yet, by means of respiratory measures required during transport, severe side effects such as respiratory insufficiency, were barely noted. CONCLUSIONS: In the physician-staffed HEMS setting, pediatric trauma patients liberally receive opioids and Esketamine for analgesia. With regard to severe respiratory insufficiency during transport, the application of these potent analgesics seems safe.


Assuntos
Resgate Aéreo , Analgesia , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Médicos , Aeronaves , Áustria/epidemiologia , Criança , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Dor/epidemiologia , Dor/etiologia , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(21)2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770666

RESUMO

In the near future, the integration of manned and unmanned aerial vehicles into the common airspace will proceed. The changes taking place mean that the safety of light aircraft, ultralight aircraft and unmanned air vehicles (UAV) will become an increasing problem. The IDAAS project (Intruder Detection And collision Avoidance System) meets the new challenges as it aims to produce technically advanced detection and collision avoidance systems for light and unmanned aerial vehicles. The work discusses selected elements of research and practical tests of the intruder detection vision system, which is part the of IDAAS project. At the outset, the current formal requirements related to the necessity of installing anticollision systems on aircraft are presented. The concept of the IDAAS system and the structure of algorithms related to image processing are also discussed. The main part of the work presents the methodology developed for the needs of dedicated flight tests, its implementation and the results obtained. The initial tests of the IDAAS system carried out on an ultralight aircraft generally indicate the possibility of the effective detection of intruders in the airspace with the use of vision methods, although they also indicated the existence of conditions in which this detection may prove difficult or even impossible.


Assuntos
Aeronaves , Algoritmos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador
8.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 579, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34781954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Continuous medical education is essential in Helicopter Emergency Medical Services (HEMS). In-situ simulation training makes it possible to train in a familiar environment. The use of a dedicated facilitator is essential; however, when an in-situ simulation training session is interrupted by a live mission, the efforts invested in the training are left unfulfilled. This study aims to evaluate if HEMS mission observation and debriefing by the simulation facilitator is a feasible alternative to mission-interrupted simulation training, and how this alternative to simulation training is perceived by both facilitators and HEMS crew members. METHODS: Facilitator observation during live missions and post-mission debriefing was offered as an alternative to mission-interrupted simulation training over a one-year period at three HEMS bases. Immediate feedback was requested from crews and facilitators after each observed live mission on a predefined questionnaire. At the end of the study period, semi-structured interviews were performed with a sample of HEMS crew members and facilitators to further explore the experience with the concept. Numerical data about the sessions were recorded continuously. RESULTS: A total of 78 training sessions were attempted, with 46 (59%) of the simulations conducted as planned. Of the remaining, 23 (29%) were not started because the crew had other duties (fatigued crew or crew called for a mission where observation was inappropriate/impossible), and 9 (12%) training sessions were converted to observed live missions. In total, 43 (55%), 16 (21%) and 19 (24%) attempts to facilitate simulation training were undertaken on the three bases, respectively. The facilitators considered mission observation more challenging than simulation. The interviews identified local know-how, clinical skills, and excellent communication skills as important prerequisites for the facilitators to conduct live mission observation successfully. Participating crews and facilitators found simulation both valuable and needed. Being observed was initially perceived as unpleasant but later regarded as a helpful way of learning. CONCLUSION: Live mission observation and debriefing seems a feasible and well-received alternative to an in-situ simulation program in HEMS to maximise invested resources and maintain the learning outcome. Furthermore, additional training of simulation facilitators to handle the context of live mission observation may further improve the learning output.


Assuntos
Resgate Aéreo , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Treinamento por Simulação , Aeronaves , Humanos , Aprendizagem
9.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(19)2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34640691

RESUMO

During critical moments, disaster and accident victims may not be able to request help from the emergency response center. This may happen when the victim's vehicle is located within a coverage hole in a wireless network. In this paper, we adopt an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to work as an automatic emergency dispatcher for a user in a vehicle facing a critical condition. Given that the UAV is located within a coverage hole and a predetermined critical condition is detected, the UAV becomes airborne and dispatches distress messages to a communication network. We propose to use a path loss map for UAV trajectory design, and we formulate our problem mathematically as an Integer Linear Program (ILP). Our goals are to minimize the distress messages delivery time and the UAV's mission completion time. Due to the difficulty of obtaining the optimal solution when the scale of the problem is large, we proposed an efficient algorithm that reduces the computational time significantly. We simulate our problem under different scenarios and settings, and study the performance of our proposed algorithm.


Assuntos
Aeronaves , Desastres , Algoritmos
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639780

RESUMO

Recently, many airline companies have trialed introducing team systems to manage crew members and enhance competitiveness systematically through the efficiency of manpower operation. Cabin crew members share in a sense of unity when spending time with team members outside of work hours. Cabin crews must be able to resolve unexpected issues-fires, aircraft defects, medical emergencies, and sudden airflow changes-quickly and accurately. As unexpected issues may result in major accidents, it is crucial that cabin crew members can take responsibility for passenger safety and offer satisfactory services to customers. Furthermore, most cabin duties require cooperation and are highly interdependent; thus, respect and teamwork are essential. This empirical study aims to identify and examine the positive factors of the team system used to evaluate causalities in job satisfaction, team potency, and mental health. The research model is developed based on a theoretical review, focusing on five positive factors-sense of belonging, mutual support, communication, motivation, and work flexibility-and dependent variables: job satisfaction, team potency, and mental health. Sense of belonging, communication, and work flexibility significantly affected team potency along with job satisfaction. This study has practical implications, providing guidance for the sustainable development of team systems for airline crew management.


Assuntos
Aeronaves , Saúde Mental , Comunicação , Satisfação no Emprego , Ocupações
11.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(20)2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34696023

RESUMO

UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) have been developed and adopted for various fields including military, IT, agriculture, construction, and so on. In particular, UAVs are being heavily used in the field of disaster relief thanks to the fact that UAVs are becoming smaller and more intelligent. Search for a person in a disaster site can be difficult if the mobile communication network is not available, and if the person is in the GPS shadow area. Recently, the search for survivors using unmanned aerial vehicles has been studied, but there are several problems as the search is mainly using images taken with cameras (including thermal imaging cameras). For example, it is difficult to distinguish a distressed person from a long distance especially in the presence of cover. Considering these challenges, we proposed an autonomous UAV smart search system that can complete their missions without interference in search and tracking of castaways even in disaster areas where communication with base stations is likely to be lost. To achieve this goal, we first make UAVs perform autonomous flight with locating and approaching the distressed people without the help of the ground control server (GCS). Second, to locate a survivor accurately, we developed a genetic-based localization algorithm by detecting changes in the signal strength between distress and drones inside the search system. Specifically, we modeled our target platform with a genetic algorithm and we re-defined the genetic algorithm customized to the disaster site's environment for tracking accuracy. Finally, we verified the proposed search system in several real-world sites and found that it successfully located targets with autonomous flight.


Assuntos
Desastres , Militares , Aeronaves , Humanos
12.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(20)2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34696151

RESUMO

Structural health monitoring is recognized as a viable solution to increase aviation safety and decrease operating costs enabling a novel maintenance approach based on the actual condition of the airframe, mitigating operating costs induced by scheduled inspections. However, the net benefit is hardly demonstrated, and it is still unclear how the implementation of such an autonomic system can affect performance at aircraft level. To close this gap, this paper presents a systematic analysis where the impact of cost and weight of integrating permanently attached sensors-used for diagnostics- affect the main performance of the aircraft. Through a multidisciplinary aircraft analysis framework, the increment of aircraft operating empty weight is compared with the possible benefits in terms of direct operating costs to identify a breakeven point. Furthermore, the analysis allows to establish a design guideline for structural health monitoring systems returning a safer aircraft without any economic penalties. The results show that the operating costs are lower than those of the reference aircraft up to 4% increase in maximum take-off weight. Paper findings suggest to considering a condition monitoring strategy from the conceptual design stage, since it could maximize the impact of such innovative technology. However, it involves in a design of a brand-new aircraft instead of a modification of an existing one.


Assuntos
Aeronaves , Aviação , Custos e Análise de Custo , Tecnologia
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682680

RESUMO

This paper focuses on clarifying the relationship between noise exposure and the prevalence of highly annoyed people due to transportation noise in Japan. The authors accumulated 34 datasets, which were provided by Socio-Acoustic Survey Data Archive and derived from the other surveys conducted in Japan. All the datasets include the following micro-data: demographic factors, exposure, and annoyance data associated with specific noise sources. We performed secondary analyses using micro-data and established the relationships between noise exposure (Lden) and the percentage of highly annoyed people (%HA) for the following noise source: road traffic, conventional railway, Shinkansen railway, civil aircraft, and military aircraft noises. Among the five transportation noises, %HA for the military aircraft noise is the highest, followed by civil aircraft noise and Shinkansen railway noise. The %HA for conventional railway noise was higher than that for road traffic noise. To validate the representativeness of the exposure-response curves, we have discussed factors affecting the difference in annoyance. In addition, comparing the Japanese relationship with that shown in the "Environmental Noise Guidelines for the European Region," we revealed that Japanese annoyance is higher than the WHO-reported annoyance.


Assuntos
Ruído dos Transportes , Aeronaves , Exposição Ambiental , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Ruído dos Transportes/efeitos adversos , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
MSMR ; 28(8): 14-21, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622757

RESUMO

U.S. Air Force (USAF) manned aircraft (MA) pilots and remotely piloted aircraft (RPA) pilots and their non-pilot crew form part of the forward-most contingent of airpower. Limited information exists on the incidence of mental health (MH) disorders, behavioral health (BH) problems, sleep disorders, and fatigue among these groups. Incidence rates and incidence rate ratios of these conditions were calculated among all active component USAF members during the period from 1 October 2003 to 30 June 2019. Compared to those in all other USAF occupations, RPA and MA pilots had statistically significantly lower risk of MH and BH outcomes while RPA crew shared a risk similar to other USAF members, although with higher risk of post-traumatic stress disorder and lower risk of substance- and alcohol-related disorders. This pattern was similar for fatigue outcomes except RPA crew had slightly higher risk. All 3 occupational groups had elevated risk for sleep disorders, and RPA pilots had 32% higher risk compared to those in all other USAF occupations. This study highlights that pilots have lower risk and/or reporting tendency for MH disorders, BH problems, and fatigue, while sleep disorders are common among service members in all of these (RPA/MA pilot, RPA crew) occupations.


Assuntos
Militares , Pilotos , Aeronaves , Fadiga/epidemiologia , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Sono
15.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med ; 29(1): 151, 2021 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656149

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The helicopter emergency services (HEMS) Benefit Score (HBS) is a nine-level scoring system developed to evaluate the benefits of HEMS missions. The HBS has been in clinical use for two decades in its original form. Advances in prehospital care, however, have produced demand for a revision of the HBS. Therefore, we developed the emergency medical services (EMS) Benefit Score (EBS) based on the former HBS. As reflected by its name, the aim of the EBS is to measure the benefits produced by the whole EMS systems to patients. METHODS: This is a four-round, web-based, international Delphi consensus study with a consensus definition made by experts from seven countries. Participants reviewed items of the revised HBS on a 5-point Likert scale. A content validity index (CVI) was calculated, and agreement was defined as a 70% CVI. Study included experts from seven European countries. Of these, 18 were prehospital expert panellists and 11 were in-hospital commentary board members. RESULTS: The first Delphi round resulted in 1248 intervention examples divided into ten diagnostic categories. After removing overlapping examples, 413 interventions were included in the second Delphi round, which resulted in 38 examples divided into HBS categories 3-8. In the third Delphi round, these resulted in 37 prehospital interventions, examples of which were given revised version of the score. In the fourth and final Delphi round, the expert panel was given an opportunity to accept or comment on the revised scoring system. CONCLUSIONS: The former HBS was revised by a Delphi methodology and EBS developed to represent its structural purpose better. The EBS includes 37 exemplar prehospital interventions to guide its clinical use. Trial registration The study permission was requested and granted by Turku University Hospital (decision number TP2/010/18).


Assuntos
Resgate Aéreo , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Aeronaves , Consenso , Técnica Delfos , Humanos
16.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med ; 29(1): 152, 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34663396

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Danish Helicopter Emergency Medical Services (HEMS) is part of the Danish Emergency Medical Services System serving 5.7 million citizens with 1% living on islands not connected to the mainland by road. HEMS is dispatched based on pre-defined criteria including severity and urgency, and moreover to islands for less urgent cases, when rapid transport to further care is needed. The study aim was to characterize patient and sociodemographic factors, comorbidity and use of healthcare services for patients with HEMS missions to islands versus mainland. METHODS: Descriptive study of data from the HEMS database in a three-year period from 1 October 2014 to 30 September 2017. All missions in which a patient was either treated on scene or transported by HEMS were included. RESULTS: Of 5776 included HEMS missions, 1023 (17.7%) were island missions. In total, 90.2% of island missions resulted in patient transport by HEMS compared with 62.1% of missions to the mainland. Disease severity was serious or life-threatening in 34.7% of missions to islands compared with 65.1% of missions to mainland and less interventions were performed by HEMS on island missions. The disease pattern differed with more "Other diseases" registered on islands compared with the mainland where cardiovascular diseases and trauma were the leading causes of contact. Patients from islands were older than patients from the mainland. Sociodemographic characteristics varied between inhabiting island patients and mainland patients: more island patients lived alone, less were employed, more were retired, and more had low income. In addition, residing island patients had to a higher extend severe comorbidity and more contacts to general practitioners and hospitals compared with the mainland patients. CONCLUSIONS: HEMS missions to islands count for 17.7% of HEMS missions and 90.2% of island missions result in patient transport. The island patients encountered by HEMS are less severely diseased or injured and interventions are less frequently performed. Residing island patients are older than mainland patients and have lower socioeconomic position, more comorbidities and a higher use of health care services. Whether these socio-economic differences result in longer hospital stay or higher mortality is still to be investigated.


Assuntos
Resgate Aéreo , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Aeronaves , Comorbidade , Atenção à Saúde , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Ilhas
17.
J Occup Health ; 63(1): e12286, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34708468

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the prevalence of musculoskeletal discomfort among female cabin crew through cabin tasks and demographic factors, including age and seniority. METHODS: This study conducted an online questionnaire survey targeted at female cabin crew in Taiwan and ensured that the sample size was with a statistical power of 0.95. This study evaluated the work intensity by ranking six common cabin tasks and examined musculoskeletal discomfort with Cornell Musculoskeletal Discomfort Questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to learn the work intensity and discomfort conditions. In addition, the Chi-square test of independence and multivariate adjustment were applied to clarify the impact of age and occupation on musculoskeletal discomfort in the neck, shoulders, and lower back. RESULTS: This study enrolled 88 female cabin crew members. Handling carry-on baggage was voted as the highest intensity cabin task (40%), which was also ranked as the strongest intensity on shoulders. Meanwhile, the upper trunk was more prevalent in musculoskeletal discomfort. Moreover, after multivariate adjustment with controlling the effect of age, this study found a marginal significant association (p = .09) between seniority and right shoulder discomfort for younger staff. CONCLUSION: This study found that handling carry-on baggage was associated with musculoskeletal complaints in the shoulders. Therefore, this study suggested that shoulders, especially for the right side might be related to the occupational injury, which was prevalent along with seniority among the younger crew. Overall, this study provided the preliminary findings to improve occupational training for preventive health.


Assuntos
Aeronaves , Comércio , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Prevalência , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Eur J Neurosci ; 54(9): 7109-7124, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34655118

RESUMO

Pilots and crew of domestic flights are exposed to transient periods of mild reductions of partial pressure of inspired oxygen each day, and this might have functional consequence on their performance in the long range. Here, we exposed mice to mild reductions of oxygen exposure (ROE) four times per day for 21 days by lowering oxygen partial pressure to levels corresponding to an altitude of about 2300 m, which is the quote of pressurization of the air cabin. Four groups of mice were studied: unstressed or stressed mice exposed to ROE or normoxic conditions. Mice were exposed to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) for 28 days, and ROE was delivered in the last 21 days of CUS. In normoxic mice, CUS caused anhedonia in the sucrose preference test, anxiety-like behaviour in the open field test, learning impairment in the Morris water maze, reduced hippocampal neurogenesis, increased serum corticosterone levels and increased expression of depression-related genes (Pclo, Mthfr and Grm5) in the hippocampus. All these changes were reversed by ROE, which had little or no effect in unstressed mice. These findings suggest that ROE simulating air cabin conditions of domestic flights may enhance resilience to stress improving mood, anxiety and learning ability.


Assuntos
Hipocampo , Estresse Psicológico , Aeronaves , Animais , Ansiedade , Depressão , Camundongos , Oxigênio
20.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2021: 7618828, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34567103

RESUMO

Aircraft, as one of the indispensable transport tools, plays an important role in military activities. Therefore, it is a significant task to locate the aircrafts in the remote sensing images. However, the current object detection methods cause a series of problems when applied to the aircraft detection for the remote sensing image, for instance, the problems of low rate of detection accuracy and high rate of missed detection. To address the problems of low rate of detection accuracy and high rate of missed detection, an object detection method for remote sensing image based on bidirectional and dense feature fusion is proposed to detect aircraft targets in sophisticated environments. On the fundamental of the YOLOv3 detection framework, this method adds a feature fusion module to enrich the details of the feature map by mixing the shallow features with the deep features together. Experimental results on the RSOD-DataSet and NWPU-DataSet indicate that the new method raised in the article is capable of improving the problems of low rate of detection accuracy and high rate of missed detection. Meanwhile, the AP for the aircraft increases by 1.57% compared with YOLOv3.


Assuntos
Aeronaves , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto
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