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1.
Funct Plant Biol ; 49(6): i-iii, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35533097

RESUMO

sion="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?> FP Functional Plant Biology Funct. Plant Biol. 1445-4408 1445-4416 CSIRO Publishing 36 Gardiner Road Clayton VIC 3168 Australia FP22050 10.1071/FP22050 Foreword Advanced technologies in studying plant photosynthesis: principles and applications A. Zavafer et al . https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8905-1618 Zavafer Alonso A Fan Dayong B * https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8150-9535 Murakami Keach C Handling Editor Shabala Sergey Plant Science Division, Research School of Biology, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2001, Australia. Hokkaido Agricultural Research Center (HARC), National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NARO), 1 Hitsujigaoka, Toyohira, Sapporo 062-8555, Japan. College of Forestry, Beijing Forestry, University, Beijing 100083, China. * Correspondence to: Dayong Fan Hokkaido Agricultural Research Center (HARC), National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NARO), 1 Hitsujigaoka, Toyohira, Sapporo 062-8555, Japan Email: dayong73fan@163.com 9 May 2022 49 6 Special Issue i iii 9 May 2022 Published: 9 May 2022 © 2022 The Author(s) (or their employer(s)). Published by CSIRO Publishing 2022 The Authors The foreword to this special issue on the advanced technologies in studying photosynthesis focuses on the main contributions of Fred Chow, one of the key Australian scientists studying light reactions in plants.


Assuntos
Agricultura Florestal , Fotossíntese , Agricultura , Austrália , Humanos , Pesquisa
4.
J Environ Manage ; 313: 114993, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35413650

RESUMO

In Sweden, the majority of forest area has been altered by industrial forestry over the decades. Almost 30 years ago, a shift towards biodiversity-oriented forest management practices occurred. Here we took advantage of long-term data collected by the Swedish National Forest Inventory to track developmental changes in forest structural components over this time. We assessed changes in structural components that play an important role in biodiversity (dead wood, large living trees, tree species composition, and understory vegetation) in four forest types with descending tiers of biodiversity protection: protected areas, woodland key habitats, low-productivity forests and production forests. Overall, we found a positive trend in the volumes of dead wood and large living trees, as well as in tree species diversity, while there was a general decline in understory vegetation coverage. Most observed changes were consistent with the intended outcomes of the current forest policy, adapted in the early 1990s. The implementation of retention forestry is likely driving some of the observed changes in forest structural components in the south. In contrast, we observed no changes in any of the focal structural components in the north, which could be attributed to the ongoing clear-cutting of forests previously managed less intensively. Dead wood and large living trees increased not only in managed, but also in unmanaged forests, likely reflecting historical management. The increased tree species diversity can be explained through current forest management practices that encourages maintenance of additional tree species. Decreasing understory vegetation coverage in both dense managed and unmanaged forests suggests that factors other than forestry contribute to the ongoing changes in understory vegetation in Swedish forests. Overall, the observed increase in structural components has not yet been reflected in documented improvements for red-listed forest species, which may be due to delays in species responses to small improvements, as well as a lack of detailed monitoring. Similarly, the increased availability of forest structural components might still be insufficient to meet the specific habitat requirements of red-listed species.


Assuntos
Árvores , Madeira , Biodiversidade , Agricultura Florestal , Florestas , Políticas , Suécia
5.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 7202352, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35392042

RESUMO

Based on the perspective of complex system management of forest biomass power generation (FBPG) supply chain, this paper explores a new way to reduce the operation cost of forest biomass raw materials supply chain and improve the operation efficiency of forest biomass supply chain in China. Firstly, the supply chain model of FBPG is summarized through the survey data, and the existing problems are found. Then, the behavior strategies among farmers, middlemen, and enterprises are analyzed, and the data that cannot be obtained in the model are estimated by using statistical methods. Finally, the complex supply chain system is simulated by computer. Through setting different forestry policies, this paper compares and analyzes the profit of the supply chain and puts forward policy suggestions to promote the development of the FBPG industry in China. In this paper, the actual situation, principles of statistics, and system simulation are effectively combined to make the behavior rules of various stakeholders fit the reality, and the research conclusions are more practical.


Assuntos
Agricultura Florestal , Florestas , Biomassa , China , Agricultura Florestal/métodos
6.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 4171, 2022 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35264620

RESUMO

There is interest in utilizing wood ash as an amendment in forestry operations as a mechanism to return nutrients to soils that are removed during harvesting, with the added benefit of diverting this bioenergy waste material from landfill sites. Existing studies have not arrived at a consensus on what the effects of wood ash amendments are on soil biota. We collected forest soil samples from studies in managed forests across Canada that were amended with wood ash to evaluate the effects on arthropod, bacterial and fungal communities using metabarcoding of F230, 16S, 18S and ITS2 sequences as well as enzyme analyses to assess its effects on soil biotic function. Ash amendment did not result in consistent effects across sites, and those effects that were detected were small. Overall, this study suggests that ash amendment applied to managed forest systems in amounts (up to 20 Mg ha-1) applied across the 8 study sties had little to no detectable effects on soil biotic community structure or function. When effects were detected, they were small, and site-specific. These non-results support the application of wood ash to harvested forest sites to replace macronutrients (e.g., calcium) removed by logging operations, thereby diverting it from landfill sites, and potentially increasing stand productivity.


Assuntos
Poluentes do Solo , Solo , Biota , Agricultura Florestal , Florestas , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise
8.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3968, 2022 03 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35273315

RESUMO

The compatibility of forestry and koala conservation is a controversial issue. We used a BACIPS design to assess change in koala density after selective harvesting with regulations to protect environmental values. We also assessed additional sites heavily harvested 5-10 years previously, now dominated by young regeneration. We used replicate arrays of acoustic sensors and spatial count modelling of male bellowing to estimate male koala density over 3600 ha. Paired sites in nearby National Parks served as controls. Naïve occupancy was close to 100% before and after harvesting, indicating koalas were widespread across all arrays. Average density was higher than expected for forests in NSW, varying between arrays from 0.03-0.08 males ha-1. There was no significant effect of selective harvesting on density and little change evident between years. Density 5-10 years after previous heavy harvesting was equivalent to controls, with one harvested array supporting the second highest density in the study. Within arrays, density was similar between areas mapped as selectively harvested or excluded from harvest. Density was also high in young regeneration 5-10 years after heavy harvesting. We conclude that native forestry regulations provided sufficient habitat for koalas to maintain their density, both immediately after selective harvesting and 5-10 years after heavy harvesting.


Assuntos
Phascolarctidae , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Feminino , Agricultura Florestal , Florestas , Masculino , New South Wales
9.
Anal Sci ; 38(4): 635-642, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35347675

RESUMO

Depending on the uniformity of the quality attribute within agricultural products, there is often a need to develop non-destructive and efficient evaluation methods to assure their qualities. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a well-suited method to characterize organic compounds, particularly when coupled with multivariate analysis methods. This review article introduces scientific and technical reports using the NIRS to evaluate food, agriculture, and forest products. Overall, basic spectroscopic research is continuously progressing; indeed, in combination with big-data information technology and spectral imaging techniques, material analysis is improving to maximize performance. Portable and low-cost devices have also been designed and produced, enabling remote analysis. Future advancements are expected to result in its applications in even more fields for online or at-line quality monitoring.


Assuntos
Agricultura Florestal , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Agricultura , Análise Multivariada , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/métodos
10.
J Environ Manage ; 310: 114804, 2022 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35240567

RESUMO

Global high-resolution imagery is a well-assimilated technology in forest mapping. The release of the Norway's International Climate & Forests Initiative (NICFI) Planet tropical basemaps time-series starting in 2015 at a 4.77-m resolution represents a unique opportunity to forecast climate change consequences such as drought episodes. Using multi-temporal ground surveys over 144 plots and publicly available high-resolution Planet dove time-series imagery we evaluate forest mortality patterns driven by imaging spectroscopy methods in Mato Grosso (Brazil) over an area planted with eucalypts severely affected by the 2019 drought. Changes in vegetation indexes before and after the 2019 drought were modelled using the effective logistic regression modelling to explain variation in tree mortality between the surveys, the dependent variable. We aimed to straightforwardly model tree mortality using change vectors in Planet's image mosaics co-registering in time with the observed tree mortality measurements in the field. The results showed differences in Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) as the most significant predictor variable under the effective logistic regression modelling performed. The efficacy of 80.98% in concordance pairs correctly classified represented 0.81 of area under the Receiver Operating Curve (ROC). The release of the 2015-2020 Planet imagery in the tropics at 4.77-m resolution represents a valuable dataset to better understand previous natural disturbances and a powerful technology to detect in advance, and monthly after September 2020, eucalypt areas prone to harmful and increasingly frequent water-stress episodes.


Assuntos
Imagens de Satélites , Árvores , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Agricultura Florestal , Florestas , Planetas
11.
Work ; 71(3): 719-728, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35253706

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite constant technological evolution, the forestry sector is still characterised as one with the highest risk of occupational accidents. There is no doubt that accidents penalise workers considerably, as well as the companies, insurers, and, consequently, the society, to which many of the costs are externalised, namely in cases where the worker is incapacitated and unable to work. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work is to analyse data on occupational accidents in forestry operations in Brazil between 2007 and 2018 in both native and planted forests. METHODS: Data were made available by the Brazilian Statistical Directory of Accidents at Work. RESULTS: The results show that, although most accidents occurred in planted forests, mortality was higher in native forests. It was also found that, overall, the rate of serious accidents resulting in an incapacity to work and, consequently, sick leave is considerably high. CONCLUSIONS: These results highlight that integrating an occupational safety system into a forest management system is crucial for reducing work-related accidents in both native and planted forests. However, the success of this measure will only be effective if it is accompanied by a review of both the Brazilian labour policy and the Brazilian occupational safety management policy, to ensure compliance with legislation, mainly on the part of outsourced companies.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trabalho , Saúde do Trabalhador , Brasil/epidemiologia , Agricultura Florestal , Florestas , Humanos
12.
Math Biosci Eng ; 19(3): 2935-2949, 2022 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35240814

RESUMO

Due to the growing demand for timber, forest soils are increasingly exposed to mechanical disturbances, caused by forestry equipment. Even though using skidding machines to transport wood is detrimental to the physical state of the soil, this method remains the most common. Hence, there is a need to model the impact of skidding systems on the upper (fertile) layer of the soil. This study aims to develop such a model using the D'Alembert principle, the method of Laplace transforms, and a modified Kelvin-Voigt model. The work shows that subdividing the tractor-bundle-soil system makes it possible to consider the dynamic effect of the vibrating tractor on the soil and soil's ability to undergo deformation separately. In addition, the study developed individual models for the first subsystem that determine vibration effects on soil caused by an unloaded tractor and two loaded skidding systems using different methods of semi-suspended skidding. The present findings can be used to predict the degree of dynamic soil compaction without conducting direct on-site experiments and thus minimize the negative impact of forestry operations on the local ecosystem. The current data also allow simplifying design models for complex forwarders.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Solo , Agricultura Florestal/métodos , Florestas , Árvores
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35329142

RESUMO

Urban deciduous forests are an important ecological resource and seasonal landscape in the urban environment. However, in the abundant literature on how urban green space promotes human health and well-being, research on urban seasonal deciduous forests is limited. This study aimed to investigate the physiological and psychological recovery potential provided of urban deciduous forest space for youths and the spatial preferences of youths regarding such spaces. We recruited 120 participants to study the restorative potential of two typical urban deciduous forest landscape spaces (experimental groups) and one urban road environment (control group). The results showed that after 15 min of observation, the blood pressure (especially the diastolic blood pressure (p < 0.01)) and pulse of the deciduous forest trail setting (DFTS) group effectively decreased, and the restorative mood significantly increased. Regarding change in emotional parameters, the DFTS group scored higher on "interest" and significantly higher than the other two groups on positive emotion. The correlation results show that density and level are the key factors affecting spatial preferences regarding complex deciduous forests. An increase in density reduces the mood of re-laxation, and an increase in level decreases fatigue and interest. We suggest (1) constructing foot-paths in urban deciduous forests to reduce their spatial density as to improve the relaxation effect and (2) increasing landscape diversity according to the forest space to facilitate user participation and interest. This study provides a scientific basis for the environmental restoration of deciduous landscapes and for urban forestry management decision-makers based on space type construction.


Assuntos
Agricultura Florestal , Florestas , Adolescente , Pesquisa Empírica , Fadiga , Humanos , Parques Recreativos
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 825: 153820, 2022 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35157863

RESUMO

Even if the maximum global warming thresholds established by the Paris Agreement (1.5 and 2 °C relative to pre-industrial levels) are not exceeded, part of the climate system impacts resulting from this warming will be unavoidable. Forestry industries may be especially vulnerable, due to water shortages and the inability of growing certain forest species. An important part of the South American economy depends on the forestry sector (between 2 to ~7% of the Gross Domestic Product), mainly products derived from Eucalyptus, and so evaluating water availability considering the temperature thresholds established by the Paris Agreement will be fundamental. This study analyzed increased global average temperatures at 1.5 °C and 2 °C, and the impacts on water availability, using the Climatic Water Balance (CWB), and also studied possible impacts on Eucalyptus plantations in South America. Monthly temperature and precipitation data obtained from a set of simulations and projections of 26 General Circulation Models (GCMs) were used, in four Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios. The CWB was calculated for three periods: i) the pre-industrial period (1861-1890), ii) the present period (1975-2005), and iii) the period when temperature projections are expected to reach global average increases of 1.5 °C and 2 °C. Due to changes in the CWB, with increases in actual evapotranspiration, water deficits, and a reduced water surplus, Eucalyptus plantations will be negatively affected and economically unfeasible for about 49.2% to 56.7% of all of South America, including a large part of the Amazon region, northern South America, midwestern and northeastern Brazil, western portions of Bolivia, Paraguay, central/northern Argentina, and northern Chile. Only some parts of South America, like the southern and southeastern regions of Brazil, Uruguay, southern Argentina and Chile, Andes Mountain Range, and northwestern South America, will not suffer water deficits, and Eucalyptus plantations will be less impacted in these regions. Large parts of South America will suffer from changes in water availability. The future of the forestry industry, and especially Eucalyptus plantations in these regions, will depend on urgent and effective adaptation measures.


Assuntos
Eucalyptus , Aquecimento Global , Brasil , Agricultura Florestal , Água
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(7)2022 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35165148

RESUMO

Sustainable land-system transformations are necessary to avert biodiversity and climate collapse. However, it remains unclear where entry points for transformations exist in complex land systems. Here, we conceptualize land systems along land-use trajectories, which allows us to identify and evaluate leverage points, i.e., entry points on the trajectory where targeted interventions have particular leverage to influence land-use decisions. We apply this framework in the biodiversity hotspot Madagascar. In the northeast, smallholder agriculture results in a land-use trajectory originating in old-growth forests and spanning from forest fragments to shifting hill rice cultivation and vanilla agroforests. Integrating interdisciplinary empirical data on seven taxa, five ecosystem services, and three measures of agricultural productivity, we assess trade-offs and cobenefits of land-use decisions at three leverage points along the trajectory. These trade-offs and cobenefits differ between leverage points: Two leverage points are situated at the conversion of old-growth forests and forest fragments to shifting cultivation and agroforestry, resulting in considerable trade-offs, especially between endemic biodiversity and agricultural productivity. Here, interventions enabling smallholders to conserve forests are necessary. This is urgent since ongoing forest loss threatens to eliminate these leverage points due to path dependency. The third leverage point allows for the restoration of land under shifting cultivation through vanilla agroforests and offers cobenefits between restoration goals and agricultural productivity. The co-occurring leverage points highlight that conservation and restoration are simultaneously necessary to avert collapse of multifunctional mosaic landscapes. Methodologically, the framework highlights the importance of considering path dependency along trajectories to achieve sustainable land-system transformations.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Agricultura Florestal , Modelos Biológicos , Animais , Humanos , Madagáscar
17.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 1797, 2022 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35110574

RESUMO

Tropical forests are being heavily modified by varying intensities of land use ranging from structural degradation to complete conversion. While ecological responses of vertebrate assemblages to habitat modification are variable, such understanding is critical to appropriate conservation planning of anthropogenic landscapes. We assessed the responses of medium/large-bodied mammal assemblages to the ecological impacts of reduced impact logging, secondary regrowth, and eucalyptus and oil palm plantations in Eastern Brazilian Amazonia. We used within-landscape paired baseline-treatment comparisons to examine the impact of different types of habitat modification in relation to adjacent primary forest. We examined assemblage-wide metrics including the total number of species, number of primary forest species retained in modified habitats, abundance, species composition, and community integrity. We ranked all types of habitat modification along a gradient of assemblage-wide impact intensity, with oil palm and eucalyptus plantations exerting the greatest impact, followed by secondary regrowth, and selectively logging. Selectively-logged and secondary forests did not experience discernible biodiversity loss, except for the total number of primary forest species retained. Secondary forests further experienced pronounced species turnover, with loss of community integrity. Considering the biodiversity retention capacity of anthropogenic habitats, this study reinforces the landscape-scale importance of setting aside large preserved areas.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Arecaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Eucalyptus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Agricultura Florestal , Floresta Úmida , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biodiversidade , Monitoramento Ambiental , Clima Tropical
18.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(3)2022 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35162004

RESUMO

Plant diseases and their diagnoses are currently one of the global challenges and causes significant impact to the economy of farmers and industries depending on plant-based products. Plant pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, and pollution caused by the nanomaterial, as well other important elements of pollution, are the main reason for the loss of plants in agriculture and in forest ecosystems. Presently, various techniques are used to detect pathogens in trees, which includes DNA-based techniques, as well as other microscopy based identification and detection. However, these methodologies require complex instruments and time. Lately, nanomaterial-based new biosensing systems for early detection of diseases, with specificity and sensitivity, are developed and applied. This review highlights the nanomaterial-based biosensing methods of disease detection. Precise and time effective identification of plant pathogens will help to reduce losses in agriculture and forestry. This review focuses on various plant diseases and the requirements for a reliable, fast, and cost-effective testing method, as well as new biosensing technologies for the detection of diseases of field plants in forests at early stages of their growth.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Ecossistema , Agricultura Florestal , Ouro , Doenças das Plantas , Estudos Prospectivos
19.
Glob Chang Biol ; 28(10): 3293-3309, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35156274

RESUMO

Thin, hair-like lichens (Alectoria, Bryoria, Usnea) form conspicuous epiphyte communities across the boreal biome. These poikilohydric organisms provide important ecosystem functions and are useful indicators of global change. We analyse how environmental drivers influence changes in occurrence and length of these lichens on Norway spruce (Picea abies) over 10 years in managed forests in Sweden using data from >6000 trees. Alectoria and Usnea showed strong declines in southern-central regions, whereas Bryoria declined in northern regions. Overall, relative loss rates across the country ranged from 1.7% per year in Alectoria to 0.5% in Bryoria. These losses contrasted with increased length of Bryoria and Usnea in some regions. Occurrence trajectories (extinction, colonization, presence, absence) on remeasured trees correlated best with temperature, rain, nitrogen deposition, and stand age in multinomial logistic regression models. Our analysis strongly suggests that industrial forestry, in combination with nitrogen, is the main driver of lichen declines. Logging of forests with long continuity of tree cover, short rotation cycles, substrate limitation and low light in dense forests are harmful for lichens. Nitrogen deposition has decreased but is apparently still sufficiently high to prevent recovery. Warming correlated with occurrence trajectories of Alectoria and Bryoria, likely by altering hydration regimes and increasing respiration during autumn/winter. The large-scale lichen decline on an important host has cascading effects on biodiversity and function of boreal forest canopies. Forest management must apply a broad spectrum of methods, including uneven-aged continuous cover forestry and retention of large patches, to secure the ecosystem functions of these important canopy components under future climates. Our findings highlight interactions among drivers of lichen decline (forestry, nitrogen, climate), functional traits (dispersal, lichen colour, sensitivity to nitrogen, water storage), and population processes (extinction/colonization).


Assuntos
Líquens , Ecossistema , Agricultura Florestal , Florestas , Nitrogênio , Taiga , Árvores
20.
Int J Biometeorol ; 66(4): 753-767, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35059819

RESUMO

Timber extraction is often cited as detrimental to wildlife ecology. Little information, however, in particular from the Southeast Asian tropics, is available on how exactly logging affects wildlife food security. To address the gap, this paper presents the first high-resolution comparison of fruit production between logged and intact forests in lowland Borneo. In the period of 2004-2008, dry weight of fruit litter was assessed as a proxy for food security of wildlife. The pheno-phases of 1,054 trees in 14 sampling plots were monitored for 54 months. A total of 143,184 fruits from 50 tree families were collected from six sampling transects totalling 810 km in 34 months. Surprisingly, logged forest (mean = 23.3 kg ha-1, SD = 48.9) produced more fruit litter than intact forest (mean = 16.7 kg ha-1, SD = 23.3), although the difference is not significant based on Student's t test; t(66) = 0.702, p = 0.485. Pheno-phases could not be entirely explained by rainfall and temperature variables. Some evidence, however, indicates tree species composition, stand structure and sunlight exposure were likely determinants of flowering and fruit litter intensity. All things being equal, results imply selective logging if considerately practiced may increase food security for wildlife. The findings, however, should be interpreted with caution since tropical forest phenology and fruit productivity are also driven by a suite of small-scale edaphic attributes and large-scale spatio-temporal meteorological forcing. Although this research deals mainly with Borneo, the principles discussed and insights offered herein are valuable for furthering conversation around sustainable forestry in tropical Asia and elsewhere globally.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Florestas , Animais , Bornéu , Agricultura Florestal , Humanos , Árvores
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