Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 3.528
Filtrar
1.
Pest Manag Sci ; 77(2): 628-634, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33270959

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Deer pressure on forest regeneration constitutes a serious problem in commercial forests in the northern hemisphere due to the increase in deer populations. However, other drivers, such as climate, landscape structure and the level of human activity, have a strong influence on deer pressure. The direct, density-related impacts of ungulates on forest regeneration have been well studied, but there is limited empirical evidence related to the indirect factors mentioned above. We conducted a field experiment in three forest divisions in Poland to evaluate the role of a common element of human infrastructure, i.e. small, unpaved forestry roads. Additionally, we assessed the modifying effect of visibility driven by vegetation cover and forage availability. RESULTS: The proximity of unpaved roads affected deer habitat use and foraging behaviour, and limited browsing pressure on regenerating forests. Low visibility and higher winter forage availability increased the probability of tree browsing. We observed different responses to roads in two deer species: red deer avoided roads, while roe deer browsed in the vicinity of roads. CONCLUSIONS: A typical forest network of unpaved roads creates a landscape of fear for red and roe deer, and limits browsing pressure on regenerating forests due to the changes in deer habitat use, activity patterns and foraging behaviour. Knowledge of the factors influencing browsing pressure can help to spatially optimise the application of protective measures for tree seedlings.


Assuntos
Cervos , Animais , Ecossistema , Agricultura Florestal , Florestas , Humanos , Polônia
2.
Ambio ; 50(2): 448-464, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920770

RESUMO

Europe has a wealth of community forest arrangements. This paper aims to transcend the diversity of locally specific terms and forms, to highlight the value of considering them inclusively. Building on methods to make sense of diversity, we use reflexive grounded inquiry in fifteen cases in Italy, Scotland, Slovenia and Sweden. Within four dimensions (forest, community, relationships between them, and relationships with wider society), we identify 43 subdimensions to describe them collectively. Our approach shows how European arrangements contribute to wider discourses of collective natural resource management. Both tradition and innovation in Europe inform options for environmental governance. Arrangements challenge the distinction between 'communities of place' and 'communities of interest', with implications for social and environmental justice. They exemplify multilevel environmental governance through both vertical and horizontal connections. Emerging from long histories of political and environmental pressures, they have a role in enhancing society's connection with nature and adaptive capacity.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Agricultura Florestal , Política Ambiental , Europa (Continente) , Florestas , Itália , Escócia , Suécia
3.
J Environ Manage ; 280: 111646, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33213989

RESUMO

Artificial creation of dead wood in managed forests can be used to mitigate the negative effects of forestry on biodiversity. For this to be successful, it is essential to understand the conservation value that the created dead wood has in comparison to naturally occurring dead wood, and, furthermore, where in the landscape addition of dead wood is most beneficial, i.e. how landscape composition influences species occurrence on dead wood. We examined these questions by surveying epixylic lichens on artificially created high stumps of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) in 3-17 years old clear-cuts. We compared lichen assemblages on high stumps to those on other types of pine dead wood in mature forests, and examined how stump age, the amount of dead wood at the clear-cuts, and landscape composition at 500 m - 2.5 km scale influenced the assemblages. In comparison to other dead wood types, high stumps hosted lower lichen richness and less variable assemblages containing mainly common generalist species. Species richness increased with stump age, whereas dead wood amount and landscape composition were not important; only the total amount of forests in the landscape had a minor positive effect. We conclude that at the studied timescale high stumps of Scots pine are not particularly valuable for epixylic lichens and provide a poor substitute for naturally occurring dead wood in mature forests, although their value may increase with age. Furthermore, directing dead wood creation to specific stands or landscapes does not appear beneficial for lichen biodiversity, given the minor effect of landscape composition found at scales below 2.5 km.


Assuntos
Líquens , Biodiversidade , Agricultura Florestal , Florestas , Árvores , Madeira
4.
J Environ Manage ; 280: 111711, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33267977

RESUMO

The establishment of protected areas has been considered a tool to battle deforestation in densely populated countries like Bangladesh. Since 2000, Bangladesh's Forest Department has declared about 41 protected areas. However, before more land is designated as a protected area, it is important to know how effective existing protected areas are in achieving conservation goals. Unfortunately, the determination of the conservation effectiveness of protected areas, such as their capacity to reduce deforestation and forest fragmentation over a considerable period at high temporal frequency (e.g., yearly), is still unavailable despite some known methods being available, for example, the System for the Integrated Assessment of Protected Areas. In this study, we processed and analyzed the Hansen dataset from 2000 to 2018 to produce yearly forest/non-forest maps of four protected areas in Bangladesh and used these maps, with a matching method, to estimate the effectiveness of protected area in reducing deforestation after controlling for potential hidden bias. We also analyzed the forest fragmentation scenario over the same time frame. The forest cover change results from 2010 to 2018 revealed a large-scale deforestation pattern in areas adjacent to the protected area boundary of Chunati Wildlife Sanctuary (CWS) and Baroiyadhala National Park-Hazarikhil Wildlife Sanctuary (together B-HWS). Using a propensity score matching (PSM) approach with a caliper of 0.25, we found that B-HWS was the best performing of the studied protected areas, and that 37% of forest pixels in B-HWS would have been deforested in 2018 if they had not been brought under protection in 2010. Similarly, the estimated avoided deforestation rates were approximately 21% and 4% for CWS and Dudpukuria-Dhopachari Wildlife Sanctuary, respectively. Despite an improvement in deforestation scenarios, during the period 2010-2018, for all protected areas, the forest fragmentation scenarios were exacerbated both inside their boundaries and in adjacent unprotected areas. Therefore, it remains questionable whether protected areas can ultimately maintain the integrity of conservation.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Agricultura Florestal , Bangladesh , Florestas , Parques Recreativos , Árvores
5.
Pest Manag Sci ; 77(1): 432-439, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32770659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leaf-cutting ants (LCAs) are amongst the most important forestry pests in South America. Currently, their control is carried out almost exclusively through the application of toxic baits of restricted use. Here we evaluate a push-pull strategy (i.e., the simultaneous use of attractant and repellent stimuli in order to divert pests) to manage LCAs Acromyrmex spp. in young willow plantations in the area of Delta of the Parana River, Argentina, a wetland ecosystem. First, we surveyed ants' selection of farmland vegetation during one year. Then, we estimated ants' preferences between the willow Salix babylonica and a subsample of plant species from farmland vegetation under laboratory conditions. Finally, we designed and performed a fully crossed experimental field assay to evaluate a push-pull strategy by using farmland vegetation as pull stimulus. RESULTS: We surveyed 39 plant species in the area, 19 of which had been foraged by LCAs along the year. Plants were selected by species, not by abundance. In the lab, ants showed similar preference for the cultivated willow and the subsample of plant species. Push-pull was the only treatment that maintained willow remaining vegetation above 60-80% at the end of the growing season. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time the push-pull strategy was evaluated in social insects. We demonstrated that it can be successfully used to manage LCAs in young willow plantations. Our strategy generates biodiversity, which can improve the ecosystem functioning, and it can be easily implemented by producers since its design is based on regular willow plantations.


Assuntos
Formigas , Animais , Argentina , Ecossistema , Agricultura Florestal , Insetos
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33291500

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate if proposed restorative attributes according to attention restoration theory and supportive environment theory could be experienced and identified in Icelandic landscape and contribute to a restorative experience in nature sites in rural Iceland. A prospective mixed-method study was conducted over the period of one year. Seven different nature sites that were considered likely to have restorative qualities were selected for the evaluation i.e., three forest sites, three seashores, and one park in and in the vicinity of Ísafjörður, Iceland. Each site was evaluated regarding how the participants experienced its restorative qualities and how a stay therein affected their mental state. Nature visits were offered once a week, where the participants visited one of the seven locations for two hours. The findings show that the participants perceived and experienced nature sites as having the characteristics of a restorative environment and that staying at the nature sites positively affected their mental state. External conditions, like weather, which can affect nature visits, were rarely a hinderance. Thus, it can be concluded that numerous coastal areas, forests, and parks in Iceland, especially in rural areas, might possess restorative qualities as well. This result shows that wild and open nature in North West Iceland has the characteristics of a restorative environment and can be utilized for health promotion.


Assuntos
Atenção , Meio Ambiente , Florestas , Promoção da Saúde , Agricultura Florestal , Humanos , Islândia , Estudos Prospectivos , População Rural
7.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1940): 20201713, 2020 12 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33290673

RESUMO

Understanding factors affecting the functional diversity of ecological communities is an important goal for ecologists and conservationists. Previous work has largely been conducted at the community level; however, recent studies have highlighted the critical importance of considering intraspecific functional diversity (i.e. the functional diversity of phenotypic traits among conspecifics). Further, a major limitation of existing literature on this topic is the lack of empirical studies examining functional diversity of behavioural phenotypes-including animal personalities. This is a major shortcoming because personality traits can affect the fitness of individuals, and the composition of personalities in a population can have important ecological consequences. Our study aims to contribute to filling this knowledge gap by investigating factors affecting the functional diversity of personality traits in wild animal populations. Specifically, we predicted that the richness, divergence and evenness associated with personality traits would be impacted by key components of forest structure and would vary between contrasting forest types. To achieve our objective we conducted a fully replicated large-scale field experiment over a 4 year period using small mammal populations as a model system. We found that greater heterogeneity in the cover of shrubs, coarse woody debris and canopy cover was associated with a greater richness, lower divergence and lower evenness in personality traits. Greater population density was associated with greater functional richness and lower functional divergence and evenness of personality traits. To maintain a behaviourally diverse population and its associated functions, managers may promote heterogeneity in vegetation and increased population density, which we found to be the most important determinants driving functional diversity of personality traits.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Mamíferos , Animais , Agricultura Florestal , Florestas , Personalidade , Fenótipo , Densidade Demográfica
8.
Sci Data ; 7(1): 398, 2020 11 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33199736

RESUMO

This study presents a new global gridded dataset of bioclimatic indicators at 0.5° by 0.5° resolution for historical and future conditions. The dataset, called CMCC-BioClimInd, provides a set of 35 bioclimatic indices, expressed as mean values over each time interval, derived from post-processing both climate reanalysis for historical period (1960-1999) and an ensemble of 11 bias corrected CMIP5 simulations under two greenhouse gas concentration scenarios for future climate projections along two periods (2040-2079 and 2060-2099). This new dataset complements the availability of spatialized bioclimatic information, crucial aspect in many ecological and environmental wide scale applications and for several disciplines, including forestry, biodiversity conservation, plant and landscape ecology. The data of individual indicators are publicly available for download in the commonly used Network Common Data Form 4 (NetCDF4) format.


Assuntos
Clima , Monitoramento Ambiental , Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecologia , Agricultura Florestal , Gases de Efeito Estufa
9.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(3): e20200263, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33175016

RESUMO

The main purpose of this paper was to present the Forestry Routing Optimization Model (FRoM) as a version of the classical Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP). This work approaches for wood logistic problems consisting of simple displacement and multiple displacements of trucks toward the stands. The FRoM encompasses both steps into one single integer mixed linear programming model, considering cranes and trucks schedule, fleet reduction, reduction of overtime, reduction of half-load transportation, and approaching the minimum distance traveled along a fixed planning horizon. Some technique constraints were implemented to provide accurate model function. An executed real problem data was used to compare the outcomes. The objective was to carry and transport 21,881.82 tons of lumber from 10 stands using a total of 48 trucks and 5 cranes in a planning horizon of 6 days, which each day has 20 hours of effective work. The FRoM has performed a fleet reduction of 72.92%, eliminating overtime. It has reduced the half-load trips to the order of 3.17% of all routes. The crane's analysis allowed catching points of inefficiency due to operational idleness. The FRoM provided savings of 49.12% at all logistic costs. FRoM has shown to be a good option as a route optimizer for forestry logistics.


Assuntos
Agricultura Florestal , Madeira , Transportes
11.
PLoS Biol ; 18(11): e3000949, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33232314

RESUMO

Climate change is triggering similar effects on the incidence and severity of disease for crops in agriculture and wild plants in natural communities. The complexity of natural ecosystems, however, generates a complex array of interactions between wild plants and pathogens in marked contrast to those generated in the structural and species simplicity of most agricultural crops. Understanding the different impacts of climate change on agricultural and natural ecosystems requires accounting for the specific interactions between an individual pathogen and its host(s) and their subsequent effects on the interplay between the host and other species in the community. Ultimately, progress will require looking past short-term fluctuations to multiyear trends to understand the nature and extent of plant and pathogen evolutionary adaptation and determine the fate of plants under future climate change.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Doenças das Plantas/etiologia , Plantas , Agricultura , Produtos Agrícolas , Ecossistema , Extinção Biológica , Agricultura Florestal , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Neve
12.
Ambio ; 49(12): 1925-1942, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048322

RESUMO

This article provides useful information for universities offering forestry programs and facing the growing demand for bioeconomy education. An explorative survey on bioeconomy perception among 1400 students enrolled in 29 universities across nine European countries offering forestry programs was performed. The data have been elaborated via descriptive statistics and cluster analysis. Around 70% of respondents have heard about the bioeconomy, mainly through university courses. Students perceive forestry as the most important sector for bioeconomy; however, the extent of perceived importance of forestry varies between countries, most significantly across groups of countries along a North-South European axis. Although differences across bachelor and master programs are less pronounced, they shed light on how bioeconomy is addressed by university programs and the level of student satisfaction with this. These differences and particularities are relevant for potential development routes towards comprehensive bioeconomy curricula at European forestry universities with a forestry focus.


Assuntos
Agricultura Florestal , Estudantes , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Satisfação Pessoal , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16818, 2020 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33033341

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal helminth-microbiota associations are shaped by various ecological processes. The effect of the ecological context of the host on the bacterial microbiome and gastrointestinal helminth parasites has been tested in a number of ecosystems and experimentally. This study takes the important step to look at these two groups at the same time and to start to examine how these communities interact in a changing host environment. Fresh faecal samples (N = 335) from eight wild Eulemur populations were collected over 2 years across Madagascar. We used 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing to characterise the bacterial microbiota composition, and faecal flotation to isolate and morphologically identify nematode eggs. Infections with nematodes of the genera Callistoura and Lemuricola occurred in all lemur populations. Seasonality significantly contributed to the observed variation in microbiota composition, especially in the dry deciduous forest. Microbial richness and Lemuricola spp. infection prevalence were highest in a previously intensely logged site, whereas Callistoura spp. showed no such pattern. In addition, we observed significant correlations between gastrointestinal parasites and bacterial microbiota composition in these lemurs, with 0.4-0.7% of the variation in faecal bacterial microbiota composition being explained by helminth infections. With this study, we show effects of environmental conditions on gastrointestinal nematodes and bacterial interactions in wild lemurs and believe it is essential to consider the potential role of microbiome-parasite associations on the hosts' GI stability, health, and survival.


Assuntos
Agricultura Florestal/estatística & dados numéricos , Lemur/parasitologia , Animais , Ecossistema , Fezes/microbiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Helmintos , Lemur/microbiologia , Madagáscar , Masculino , Estações do Ano
14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(45): 28515-28524, 2020 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33106399

RESUMO

Tropical forest loss currently exceeds forest gain, leading to a net greenhouse gas emission that exacerbates global climate change. This has sparked scientific debate on how to achieve natural climate solutions. Central to this debate is whether sustainably managing forests and protected areas will deliver global climate mitigation benefits, while ensuring local peoples' health and well-being. Here, we evaluate the 10-y impact of a human-centered solution to achieve natural climate mitigation through reductions in illegal logging in rural Borneo: an intervention aimed at expanding health care access and use for communities living near a national park, with clinic discounts offsetting costs historically met through illegal logging. Conservation, education, and alternative livelihood programs were also offered. We hypothesized that this would lead to improved health and well-being, while also alleviating illegal logging activity within the protected forest. We estimated that 27.4 km2 of deforestation was averted in the national park over a decade (∼70% reduction in deforestation compared to a synthetic control, permuted P = 0.038). Concurrently, the intervention provided health care access to more than 28,400 unique patients, with clinic usage and patient visitation frequency highest in communities participating in the intervention. Finally, we observed a dose-response in forest change rate to intervention engagement (person-contacts with intervention activities) across communities bordering the park: The greatest logging reductions were adjacent to the most highly engaged villages. Results suggest that this community-derived solution simultaneously improved health care access for local and indigenous communities and sustainably conserved carbon stocks in a protected tropical forest.


Assuntos
Carbono , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Assistência à Saúde , Florestas , Saúde da População Rural , Adulto , Mudança Climática , Diagnóstico , Doença , Feminino , Agricultura Florestal , Avaliação do Impacto na Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Árvores , Clima Tropical
15.
Acta amaz ; 50(3): 199-203, jul. - set. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118820

RESUMO

Obtaining juvenile material may favor the clonal propagation of Brazil nut, Bertholletia excelsa. We aimed to assess the emission of epicormic shoots on detached branches of Brazil nut trees as a function of the mother tree and branch diameter, in order to provide juvenile material for use in clonal multiplication. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 6 (mother trees) x 3 (stem diameter: < 20 20-40 and 40-80 mm) factorial design, with four replicates. Every five days the number of shoots emitted was counted and the sprouting speed index and average sprouting time were calculated. The number of epicormic shoots and the sprouting speed index were dependent on the interaction between mother tree and branch diameter. Branches with larger diameter (20-40 and 40-80 mm) showed higher potential for obtaining propagules for use in Brazil nut clonal multiplication (cutting, grafting and in vitro cultivation). (AU)


Assuntos
Reprodução Assexuada , Agricultura Florestal , Lecythidaceae , Bertholletia
16.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(4): 384-388, 2020 May 13.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935513

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficiency of various agroforestry systems for snail control in plateau hilly schistosomiasis-endemic areas of Yunnan Province, so as to provide insights into the construction of agroforestry schistosomiasis control projects in plateau hilly regions. METHODS: The pilot areas of snail control forests with various agroforestry systems were built in snail-breeding farmlands in Eryuan County, Yunnan Province in 2010, and the economic benefits and snail control effect were investigated in 2018. In addition, a fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model was created to screen the agroforestry system with high comprehensive benefits. RESULTS: A total of 14 types of pilot areas of snail control forests with various agroforestry systems were built. Economic benefit analysis showed that the"walnut + garlic"pattern had the best economic benefit, with annual economic benefits of 270 000 Yuan/hm2, followed by the"walnut + chili"pattern (annual economic benefits of 120 000 Yuan/hm2) and the "walnut + vegetables"pattern (annual economic benefits of 105 000 Yuan/hm2). No snails were detected in 8 types of the agroforestry systems, including the"walnut + chili"pattern, the"walnut + tobacco"pattern and the"walnut + garlic"pattern; however, there were snail found with various densities in other types of systems. Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation showed that the"walnut + garlic"pattern had the best comprehensive control effect, followed by the"walnut + chili"pattern and the"walnut + tobacco" pattern, while the pure grassland pattern showed no effect on snail control. CONCLUSIONS: The agroforestry system is a preferential approach of forestry schistosomiasis control in plateau hilly schistosomiasis-endemic areas, which not only achieves snail control effects, but also promotes economic development and ecological construction in poor hilly areas.


Assuntos
Agricultura Florestal , Controle de Pragas , Caramujos , Animais , China , Agricultura Florestal/métodos , Florestas , Humanos , Controle de Pragas/economia , Controle de Pragas/métodos , Controle de Pragas/normas , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Caramujos/fisiologia
18.
Ambio ; 49(11): 1736-1746, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32918718

RESUMO

While the role of forestry in mitigating climate change is increasingly subject to political commitment, other areas, such as water protection, may be at risk. In this study, we ask whether surface waters are sufficiently safeguarded in relation to the 2015 launch of a series of measures to intensify forest management for mitigation of climate change in Norway. First, we assess how impacts on water are accounted for in existing regulations for sustainable forestry. Secondly, we provide an overview of the impacts of forestry on water quality relevant to three support schemes: afforestation on new areas, increased stocking density in existing forests, and forest fertilisation. Lastly, we assess the uncertainties that exist with regard to surface waters in the implementation of these measures. We find that the safeguards in place are adequate to protect water resources at the point of initiation, but there is a large degree of uncertainty as to the long-term effect of these mitigation measures.


Assuntos
Agricultura Florestal , Florestas , Mudança Climática , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Noruega , Incerteza
19.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4762, 2020 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32958767

RESUMO

Forests are increasingly affected by natural disturbances. Subsequent salvage logging, a widespread management practice conducted predominantly to recover economic capital, produces further disturbance and impacts biodiversity worldwide. Hence, naturally disturbed forests are among the most threatened habitats in the world, with consequences for their associated biodiversity. However, there are no evidence-based benchmarks for the proportion of area of naturally disturbed forests to be excluded from salvage logging to conserve biodiversity. We apply a mixed rarefaction/extrapolation approach to a global multi-taxa dataset from disturbed forests, including birds, plants, insects and fungi, to close this gap. We find that 75 ± 7% (mean ± SD) of a naturally disturbed area of a forest needs to be left unlogged to maintain 90% richness of its unique species, whereas retaining 50% of a naturally disturbed forest unlogged maintains 73 ± 12% of its unique species richness. These values do not change with the time elapsed since disturbance but vary considerably among taxonomic groups.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Agricultura Florestal/normas , Florestas , Animais , Benchmarking , Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Ecossistema , Especificidade da Espécie
20.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239405, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997680

RESUMO

Sri Lanka's community forestry (CF) program emerged in the early 1980s following a global trend to conserve forest resources and provide benefits to the local community. However, very little is known about the effect of CF on forest resources. We assess the impacts of CF on forest conditions of semi-mixed evergreen forest in the intermediate zone of Sri Lanka using the before-after control-impact method. The study examines tree density, regeneration, woody species diversity, and evidence of disturbance as parameters to analyze the impact of the CF program. Data are analyzed using the difference in differences approach. The results show that the CF program has increased seedling and sapling density to a significant degree and reduced human disturbances. A major contribution of the CF program is that it was found to reduce invasive species and forest fires. The program reduced the amount of invasive species up to six times less than previous. The findings revealed that the impact of CF on forests may vary depending on pre-existing forest conditions, length of period to implement, perception, and decisions by local people. Community understanding and decision-making, in tandem with government policy, will weigh heavily on its future effectiveness.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Agricultura Florestal , Florestas , Características de Residência , Biodiversidade , Humanos , Sri Lanka , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA