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1.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(2): 453-464, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487397

RESUMO

Operative planning in agricultural production has historically had the objective of improving yields and quality. Sowing, cropping, and harvesting are usually treated independently, and waste and the sustainability of operations are generally not integrated into operational planning methodologies for agricultural production. This study shows the need to have a clear and precise methodology to minimize waste in agricultural production systems to ensure sustainability. This need is addressed with a novel methodological guide to minimizing waste in agricultural operations, crop maintenance, and harvesting. The proposed methodology is founded on the use of lean manufacturing as a waste-management tool. Lean manufacturing principles allow agricultural operations and the variables that represent wastes to be identified, mathematical models to be built, constraints to be defined, and the cost of waste to be illustrated, as well as its minimization through an objective function. To guide implementation, we propose a conceptual model to explain the construction of a mathematical model that represents the development of decision variables on agricultural operations with the elements to consider and the constraints and theoretical proposal of the necessary objective function. The proposed conceptual model and the constructed methodology constitute a novel development within agricultural production systems that could be used by decision makers and farmers. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Resíduos/análise , Agricultura/economia , Modelos Teóricos , Resíduos/economia
2.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(4): 1827-1831, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31875429

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Agriculture is the main means of subsistence for most of the population in developing countries. Crops that can increase their value with in situ processing have a big impact on the small landholder's economics. Moreover, crops such as coffee and cocoa beans have been very important for Ecuadorian farmers. In this study, we wanted to analyze if the climatic conditions exist for growing high-quality tea in Ecuador and determine the areas that will be less affected by global climate change in the future. RESULTS: We used a GIS (geographic information systems) based analysis, together with ecological niche modeling to determine areas in Ecuador where Ceylon and Nilgiris tea varieties could be grown, which will maintain similar ecological conditions in the future, and have a high agricultural aptitude. In total, there are more than 150 000 ha in Ecuador that could be converted to high-quality tea plantations, most of them in the coastal provinces, with some specific areas in the Andean foothills. CONCLUSION: Ecuador has a significant amount of land with the potential to grow high-quality tea, with no significant ecological niche modifications due to climate change in the long-term future. Tea is a viable and potentially highly profitable crop for small landholders and should be considered by local stakeholders. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Agricultura/economia , Camellia sinensis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mudança Climática , Produtos Agrícolas/economia , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ecossistema , Equador
3.
Nature ; 575(7781): 98-108, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695208

RESUMO

Much of the Earth's biosphere has been appropriated for the production of harvestable biomass in the form of food, fuel and fibre. Here we show that the simplification and intensification of these systems and their growing connection to international markets has yielded a global production ecosystem that is homogenous, highly connected and characterized by weakened internal feedbacks. We argue that these features converge to yield high and predictable supplies of biomass in the short term, but create conditions for novel and pervasive risks to emerge and interact in the longer term. Steering the global production ecosystem towards a sustainable trajectory will require the redirection of finance, increased transparency and traceability in supply chains, and the participation of a multitude of players, including integrated 'keystone actors' such as multinational corporations.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Ecossistema , Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Retroalimentação , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Atividades Humanas , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Agricultura/economia , Animais , Comércio/economia , Fontes Geradoras de Energia/economia , Abastecimento de Alimentos/economia , Agricultura Florestal , Água Subterrânea/análise , Atividades Humanas/economia , Humanos , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/economia
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480521

RESUMO

Insurance represents one of the main instruments, together with other risk management mechanisms, to face the adverse effects produced by natural calamity that, despite their growing intensity and the enormous costs, are still perceived as "exceptional". Risk management is an important part of farming, and it is a concern for those governments which aim at achieving their agricultural policy targets. In this context, crop insurance can also represent a financial mitigation tool for farmers to face climate change consequences. This study is focused on the Italian case analyzing the evolution of public support and its effect on risk management policy in agriculture. Our research, based on panel data regressions, provides two different levels of analysis. The first one evaluates how the reimbursed value issued by insurance companies in favor of agricultural firms, as recovery from natural adversities, affects farmers' profitability. The second one evaluates how the reimbursed value is used in farm management. The results of the analysis demonstrating the significance of insurance variables and their positive effect on the profitability of the farms, represent a strong advance in the farm risk management field.


Assuntos
Agricultura/economia , Fazendas/economia , Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Mudança Climática , Fazendeiros , Humanos , Itália , Gestão de Riscos
5.
Parasitol Res ; 118(9): 2567-2574, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375954

RESUMO

Kudoid myxozoans have been reported causing serious chronic problems in marine fisheries, by reducing the market value of infected fish through pathological damage to the host musculature. We report here the overall prevalence of a Kudoa species in 84/277 (30.3%) fishes from 20 different species of high commercial value captured between October 2011 and December 2013 from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) 34 commercial fishing area, near the coast of the Canary Islands (Spain). Macroscopic examination showed myxozoan-like cysts in skeletal muscle from 5 of the 20 fish species examined, with the following prevalences: Pagellus acarne (86.7%), Pagellus erythrinus (46.5%), Serranus cabrilla (27.8%), Spondyliosoma cantharus (19.4%), and Sarpa salpa (28.6%). Infection intensity was determined based on spore counts following muscle tissue digestion. Morphometric studies to characterize the species and DNA sequence analysis results suggest that these infections are attributable to a Kudoa species closely related to Kudoa trachuri. This paper reports the first study on a multivalvulidan species to be identified from the Canary Islands. Furthermore, this is the first report of Kudoa parasites in all of the hosts mentioned above, with the exception of P. acarne.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Myxozoa/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Agricultura/economia , Animais , Doenças dos Peixes/economia , Músculo Esquelético/parasitologia , Myxozoa/classificação , Myxozoa/genética , Myxozoa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/economia , Perciformes/parasitologia , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Espanha
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416145

RESUMO

The high-yield agricultural model in Almería is based on eight different crops. Having led fruit and vegetable exports in Spain for more than 50 years, a decrease in melon and watermelon growing areas in Almería caused a change in supply that affected the model's profit. Papaya cultivation could reactivate the profit of the agricultural model in Almería and also improve the available product range. The papaya crop needs greenhouse infrastructures high enough to contain the growth and size of the plants during a cycle crop, which is possible in most of the greenhouses of the Horticultural production model of Almería. The papaya harvests obtained in the region meet the quality requirements demanded by European markets. Furthermore, yields obtained are equal or higher than yields obtained by other producing countries. This crop improves profit compared with the profit obtained from the rotation of other horticultural crops that have been traditionally grown in the region.


Assuntos
Agricultura/economia , Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Carica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/economia , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , /estatística & dados numéricos , Verduras/economia , Espanha , Verduras/crescimento & desenvolvimento
7.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(14): 6129-6138, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31273793

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Food security can benefit from the technology's transparency, relatively low transaction costs and instantaneous applications. A blockchain is a distributed database of records in the form of encrypted blocks, or a public ledger of all transactions or digital events that have been executed and shared among participating parties and can be verified at any time in the future. Generally, the robust and decentralized functionality of the blockchain is used for global financial systems, but it can easily be expanded to contracts and operations such as tracking of the global supply chain. In the precision agriculture context, Information and Communications Technology can be further implemented with a blockchain infrastructure to enable new farm systems and e-agriculture schemes. RESULTS: The purpose of this review is to show a panorama of the scientific studies (enriched by a terms mapping analysis) on the use of blockchain in the agri-food sector, from both an entirely computational and an applicative point of view. As evidenced by the network analysis, the reviewed studies mainly focused on software aspects (e.g. the architecture and smart contracts). However, some aspects regarding the different blockchain knots (computers always connected to the blockchain network) having the role to store and distribute an updated copy of each block in a food supply-chain, result of crucial importance. CONCLUSION: These technologies appear very promising and rich of great potential showing a good flexibility for applications in several sectors but still immature and hard to apply due to their complexity. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Agricultura/economia , Sistemas de Computação , Indústria Alimentícia/economia , Sistemas de Computação/tendências , Software
8.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2844, 2019 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253787

RESUMO

With rising demand for biomass, cropland expansion and intensification represent the main strategies to boost agricultural production, but are also major drivers of biodiversity decline. We investigate the consequences of attaining equal global production gains by 2030, either by cropland expansion or intensification, and analyse their impacts on agricultural markets and biodiversity. We find that both scenarios lead to lower crop prices across the world, even in regions where production decreases. Cropland expansion mostly affects biodiversity hotspots in Central and South America, while cropland intensification threatens biodiversity especially in Sub-Saharan Africa, India and China. Our results suggest that production gains will occur at the costs of biodiversity predominantly in developing tropical regions, while Europe and North America benefit from lower world market prices without putting their own biodiversity at risk. By identifying hotspots of potential future conflicts, we demonstrate where conservation prioritization is needed to balance agricultural production with conservation goals.


Assuntos
Agricultura/economia , Agricultura/métodos , Biodiversidade , Mudança Climática , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Modelos Econômicos
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185621

RESUMO

Large-scale food system practices have diminished soil and water quality and negatively impacted climate change. Yet, numerous opportunities exist to harness food system practices that will ensure better outcomes for human health and ecosystems. The objective of this study was to consider food Production, Processing, Access and Consumption domains, and for each determine the challenges and successes associated with progressing towards a sustainable food system. A workshop engaging 122 participants including producers, consultants, consumers, educators, funders, scientists, media, government and industry representatives, was conducted in Perth, Western Australia. A thematic analysis of statements (Successes (n = 170) or Challenges (n = 360)) captured, revealed issues of scale, knowledge and education, economics, consumerism, big food, environmental/sustainability, communication, policies and legislation, and technology and innovations. Policy recommendations included greater investment into research in sustainable agriculture (particularly the evidentiary basis for regenerative agriculture), land preservation, and supporting farmers to overcome high infrastructure costs and absorb labour costs. Policy, practice and research recommendations included focusing on an integrated food systems approach with multiple goals, food system actors working collaboratively to reduce challenges and undertaking more research to further the regenerative agriculture evidence.


Assuntos
Agricultura/organização & administração , Abastecimento de Alimentos/economia , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Agricultura/economia , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Governo , Humanos , Solo , Austrália Ocidental
11.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(19): 19481-19489, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31077046

RESUMO

This study applied the logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI) model to identify and discuss the main drivers of Pakistan's CO2 emissions over the period 1990-2016. The study examined the effects of five factors based on Pakistan's three main economic sectors while considering the 11 types of fuels consumed in that country. The results showed that the energy structure effect is the greatest driving force of CO2 emissions in this country, followed by scale effect and economic structure effect. Energy intensity is the main contributor to reducing Pakistan's carbon emissions throughout the study period. A comparative review at the sectoral level shows that the industrial sector for which coal is the main source of energy supply is the one that contributes the most to CO2 emissions in Pakistan. Alongside this sector is the tertiary sector, where the transport sub-sector imposes rules of conduct based on a growing Pakistani population. Meanwhile, deforestation would be the main cause of CO2 emissions from the agricultural sector in Pakistan, as energy consumption in this sector remains very low. Improving energy efficiency through the intensification of clean energy is urgently needed if Pakistan's environmental goals are to be achieved.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Conservação de Recursos Energéticos/tendências , Desenvolvimento Econômico/tendências , Agricultura/economia , Carvão Mineral/economia , Conservação de Recursos Energéticos/economia , Indústrias/economia , Modelos Teóricos , Paquistão
12.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216466, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31063505

RESUMO

Based on the calculation of the inclusive financial development level of 22 provinces and 4 municipalities in China from 2004 to 2017, this paper uses the Kernel density estimation method to further analyze the evolution of the inclusive financial index. Based on the above analysis, we make empirical analysis of the impact of China's inclusive financial inclusion development index on farmers' entrepreneurship using static panel and dynamic panel estimation method. The empirical conclusions show that there are certain differences in inclusive financial inclusion development level in various provinces in China. Improving the inclusion development level of inclusive finance can better promote farmers' entrepreneurship. Urbanization level, economic openness and regional economic development level have a significant positive effect on farmers' entrepreneurship, while farmers' income and education level have a significant negative effect on farmers' entrepreneurship. It is possible to promote farmers' entrepreneurship by improving the inclusive development level of inclusive finance, combining urbanization, increasing government investment in productive fixed assets, increasing economic openness and improving regional economic development.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Contrato de Risco/economia , Fazendeiros , Agricultura/economia , Agricultura/organização & administração , Humanos
13.
Prev Vet Med ; 168: 95-102, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31097130

RESUMO

Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhyo) is generally accepted to be the most common porcine respiratory pathogen worldwide causing big economical losses in swine production by affecting pig's downstream performance. The objective of this study was to develop a partial budget model to determine the payback period and economic value of two Mhyo elimination protocols. Retrospective data recorded from 2004 to 2017 from 70 breeding herds that implemented herd closure or whole-herd medication protocol targeting Mhyo elimination. Close out data was used to estimate differences in downstream performance between Mhyo-negative and positive flows. Assuming a 5000 sows breed-to-finish operation producing 135,870 weaned pigs and 125,000 finishing pigs/year, the total cost for implementing Mhyo elimination was $112,100 using the herd closure protocol, and $185,700 for the medication protocol. Statistically differences (p < 0.05) in downstream performance were observed for ADG and mortality, but not for feed conversion rate. The parameters that accounts for the greatest benefits were related to the improvement in ADG, savings in antibiotic medication in growing pigs and improvement in feed conversion rate. The benefit of Mhyo elimination was $877,375 per farm per year, or $7.00 per pig marketed. The estimated project value after 1 year was $616,121 for the herd closure considering a probability of success of 83%, and $323,177 for the medication protocol for 58% chance of success. The project value reached the break-even point when the cost per sow was $145.64 for the herd closure and $101.78 for the medication protocol. The payback period was 2 months after the start of marketing Mhyo-negative pigs for the herd closure, and 7 months for the medication protocol adjusted for the probability of success for each protocol. The protocols described here can be easily applied with a good success rate and showing that the benefits obtained are greater than the costs of project failure. Even if the farm stayed negative only a year, the economic benefits downstream are worth the investment. This information may help producers and veterinarians on decision-making process to conduct a Mhyo elimination protocol in their herds.


Assuntos
Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae , Pneumonia Suína Micoplasmática/economia , Doenças dos Suínos/economia , Agricultura/economia , Ração Animal , Animais , Antibacterianos/economia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Vacinas Bacterianas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Bacterianas/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Modelos Econômicos , Pneumonia Suína Micoplasmática/prevenção & controle , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(16): 15872-15883, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30955197

RESUMO

Conventional agriculture has been widely used to overcome food scarcity in Egypt, but in turn created new environmental, social, and economic problems. Aquaponics has a huge potential as a sustainable solution since it demonstrates promising results for urban food development while providing new entrepreneurship and start-up opportunities. Although it presents a big opportunity especially for developing countries like Egypt, it still requires further studies and researches to fully overcome foreseen challenges. This study discusses the possibility of implementing aquaponics as an alternative to conventional agriculture in Egypt through a comparison between aquaponics and conventional agriculture. The first section of this investigation analyzes the economic feasibility of aquaponics in terms of capital and operational expenditure costs. Then, an experimental comparative study is carried out examining two pilot-scale aquaponics systems (Deep water Culture system and Integrated Aqua-Vegaculture system), where crop quality (vitamins, heavy metals, and pesticides residues) of the two systems has been compared among each other, as well as to that of the commercially available organic food available in supermarkets. Results indicated that both systems produce high-quality safe organic food. The economic feasibility analysis indicated that Integrated Aqua-Vegaculture System is producing more crops with a wider variety of almost 20% less capital expenditure and operational expenditure costs. Fish production for both systems was close, yet slightly higher in Deep Water Culture. Although, on the short term, aquaponics entails relatively high capital and operational expenditure costs compared with conventional agriculture; yet, on the long term, it is more profitable, while saving up to 85% of the water wasted by conventional farming techniques. Finally, the study discusses the main limitations, drawbacks, and future of aquaponics in Egypt where public awareness and a new mindset are needed to highlight the link between agriculture and sustainability.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Corchorus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hidroponia/métodos , Alface/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Agricultura/economia , Agricultura/instrumentação , Animais , Ciclídeos , Produtos Agrícolas/economia , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Egito , Desenho de Equipamento , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Alimentos Orgânicos , Alface/economia , Desenvolvimento Sustentável
15.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(3): 614-618, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989931

RESUMO

The Dendrobium species are rare and endangered medicinal plants, and it is difficult to investigate their wild resources with conventional methods because of typical epiphytic herbaceous. We explored Dendrobium resources(include culture resource) of Qinba Mountains and the boundary Mountain area in Hubei, Chongqing using the methods of literatures and field investigation, and found that the cultural base of Dendrobium were profound in Qinba Mountains region. Furthermore, its germplasm resources of Dendrobium were established for the first time in Wanzhou Luotian town. In case the advantages of local rock resources and poverty alleviation demand, we have actively carried out the cultivating mode of Dendrobium which grow on rock, and the poverty alleviation model of local characteristic Dendrobium industry were established preliminarily. Our application case can provide reference for the mining and transformation of traditional Chinese medicine resources census results.


Assuntos
Agricultura/economia , Dendrobium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Medicinais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pobreza , China , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa
16.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0214569, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30947276

RESUMO

Indonesia is the fifth largest cocoa-producing country in the world, and an increase in cocoa farming efficiency can help farmers to increase their per capita income and reduce poverty in rural areas of this country. This research evaluated the efficiency of Indonesian cocoa farms using a non-parametric approach. The results revealed that the majority of cocoa farms are operated relatively inefficiently. The average technical and allocative efficiencies (0.82 and 0.46, respectively) of these cocoa farms demonstrated that there is potential for improvement. The potential cost reductions range from 36 to 76%, with an average of 60%, if farmers practice efficiently. The technical and allocative efficiencies and cocoa farm economies are affected by the use of quality seeds, organic fertilizers, frequency of extension and training of farm managers, access to bank credit and the market, the participation of women, and the farm manager's gender. An increase in the output would increase farmers' income and reduce poverty in rural areas. This research suggests that the availability of extension and training provided to farmers as well as support for women farmer groups should be increased. Credit programs are also important for cocoa farmers, so policymakers should develop programs that make production credit more accessible for farmers, especially through cooperatives and banks.


Assuntos
Agricultura/economia , Cacau/economia , Comércio , Eficiência , Renda , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fazendeiros , Fazendas , Feminino , Fertilizantes , Alimentos , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Indonésia , Masculino , Pobreza , População Rural , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(11): 4889-4897, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30924951

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The development of low-carbon agriculture is promising for mitigating climate change. This study used adjustments to the planting structure in Zhangbei County, China, as an example to evaluate whether the carbon footprint per unit of economic benefit is a suitable indicator of low-carbon agriculture and to determine if low-carbon agriculture is not necessarily low-input non-intensive agriculture. RESULTS: The results showed that total greenhouse gas emissions increased; therefore, the adjustments to the planting structure were ostensibly not a low-carbon process. However, if we obtain the same economic benefit as the actual distribution of the planting industry by adopting the scenario of planting only grain crops, then the annual greenhouse gas emissions would be 1608.00 × 103  t CO2 eq, and 5769.94 × 103  ha of farmland would be required. However, if we adopt the scenario of planting only vegetable crops, then only 82.52 × 103  ha of farmland would be required, and the annual greenhouse gas emissions would be 323.52 × 103  t CO2 eq. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicated that the carbon footprint per unit of economic benefit is a suitable indicator to assess agricultural sustainability and that intensive agriculture with high input and high output is a form of low-carbon agriculture if the carbon footprint per unit of economic benefit is low. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Agricultura/economia , Agricultura/métodos , Pegada de Carbono/economia , Carbono , China , Análise Custo-Benefício , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fazendas , Gases de Efeito Estufa/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Verduras/crescimento & desenvolvimento
18.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(3): e0007285, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30908484

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brucellosis is one of the most common zoonoses worldwide, causing direct losses to the livestock industry and threatening human health. Little is known about the status and factors affecting farmers' private investment in the prevention and control of sheep brucellosis in China. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From April to October 2017, a cross-sectional, house-based study was conducted in 7 Chinese provinces. A total of 1037 households included in the study were analyzed. The average amount of private investment in the prevention and control of brucellosis was $0.73±0.54 per sheep. Multivariable analysis showed that factors facilitating private investment included older age of householder (OR = 1.07, 95%CI: 1.03-1.11), herd size >100 (OR = 2.49, 95%CI: 1.38-4.51), a higher percentage of income from sheep farming comparing to the total household income (OR = 1.14, 95%CI: 1.11-1.16), higher score of brucellosis knowledge (OR = 3.85, 95%CI: 1.40-10.51), actively learning related knowledge (OR = 2.98, 95%CI: 1.55-5.74), actively participating in related training courses (OR = 3.07, 95%CI: 1.52-6.18), care about other people's attitudes (OR = 1.75, 95%CI: 1.35-2.28), concern about the health of neighbors' livestock (OR = 1.75, 95%CI: 1.23-2.51). The analysis found a discouraging factor for private investment, supporting culling policy (OR = 0.67, 95%CI: 0.49-0.91). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In addition to providing interventions related to farmers' knowledge, attitudes and practices, guidance must be offered to help farmers understanding the importance of private investment in the prevention and control of brucellosis.


Assuntos
Brucella/fisiologia , Brucelose/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Agricultura/economia , Animais , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/microbiologia , Brucelose/prevenção & controle , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Fazendeiros , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Gado , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Zoonoses
20.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0211448, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30893333

RESUMO

Rigorous impact evaluations on agricultural interventions in the developing world have proliferated in research of recent years. Whereas increased care in causal identification in such analyses is beneficial and has improved the quality of research in this field, much of the literature still fails to investigate the costs needed to achieve any benefits identified. Such understanding, however, would be crucial for drawing policy and programmatic conclusions from the research and for informing the allocation of public investments. Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) subjects both the cost side and the effects side of agricultural and rural interventions to technical scrutiny and unifies both sides in order to compare the relative cost-effectiveness of different modalities of a programme, of efforts to reach different target groups, or of efforts to achieve different outcomes. CEAs, while present in the health and education sectors, remain rare in agricultural and rural development research. This study contributes to filling the knowledge gap by conducting CEAs in a particular type of programmatic work in the agricultural sector-namely, interventions conducted as field experiments that bring a gender lens to community-based advisory services in African rural areas. Specifically, we consider two such programmes-one in Mozambique in which such advisory services aim to improve sustainable land management (SLM) practices in agricultural production, and the other in Tanzania to advise farmers on their land rights. Using CEA methods combined with econometric analysis based on randomised controlled trials, we find that the gendered modality is consistently more cost-effective than the basic modality when considering varied outcomes and target groups. However, for any given modality, it is more cost-effective to improve outcomes for men than for women. The structure of costs in the agricultural extension programme further allowed for a simulation of how cost-effectiveness would change if the programme were scaled up geographically. The results show that expansion of the basic modality of the SLM programme leads to improvements in cost-effectiveness, while the gendered modality displays nonlinear changes in cost-effectiveness along the expansion path, first worsening with initial scale-up and subsequently improving with further expansion.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício/métodos , Fazendeiros/psicologia , Seguridade Social/economia , Adulto , Agricultura/economia , Participação da Comunidade/métodos , Participação da Comunidade/psicologia , Consultores , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Moçambique , População Rural , Tanzânia
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