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1.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263633, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35202433

RESUMO

Fundamental issues in sustainable development of competitive potato production in Indonesia are production and distribution inefficiencies. This study aims to examine the potato production competitiveness through competitive and comparative analyses as well as evaluating the impacts of government policy on potato production. This study employs Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM) to analyse the cross-section data collected from six regencies in Indonesia. Potato production in Indonesia was profitable privately and socially. The highest value of competitive advantage was indicated by PCR value in the dry season in Wonosobo Regency, Central Java Province. The lowest values were found in Bandung Regency. Highest comparative advantage was revealed in Tanah Karo Regency, North Sumatra Province, during the rainy season. Highest comparative advantage was found in Bandung Regency, West Java Province, in the dry season. However, the social profit was lower than the private profit indicating the potato farmers dealt with disincentives due to imperfect market. It implies that increasing domestic potato production will be more profitable rather than import. The policy makers need to evaluate the recent policies on input and output markets as well as the supply chain of potato to cope with imperfect markets in order to increase farmers' income.


Assuntos
Agricultura/economia , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solanum tuberosum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/economia , Fazendeiros , Humanos , Indonésia , Chuva , Estações do Ano , Solanum tuberosum/economia
2.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263063, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35192630

RESUMO

The pressure on land resources continuously increases not only with the rising demand for agricultural commodities, but also with the growing need for action on global challenges, such as biodiversity loss or climate change, where land plays a crucial role. Land saving as a strategy, where agricultural productivity is increased to allow a reduction of required cropland while sustaining production volumes and meeting demand, could address this trade-off. With our interdisciplinary model-based study, we globally assess regional potentials of land saving and analyze resulting effects on agricultural production, prices and trade. Thereby, different land saving strategies are investigated that (1) minimize required cropland (2) minimize spatial marginalization induced by land saving and (3) maximize the attainable profit. We find that current cropland requirements could be reduced between 37% and 48%, depending on the applied land saving strategy. The generally more efficient use of land would cause crop prices to fall in all regions, but also trigger an increase in global agricultural production of 2.8%. While largest land saving potentials occur in regions with high yield gaps, the impacts on prices and production are strongest in highly populated regions with already high pressure on land. Global crop prices and trade affect regional impacts of land saving on agricultural markets and can displace effects to spatially distant regions. Our results point out the importance of investigating the potentials and effects of land saving in the context of global markets within an integrative, global framework. The resulting land saving potentials can moreover reframe debates on global potentials for afforestation and carbon sequestration, as well as on how to reconcile agricultural production and biodiversity conservation and thus contribute to approaching central goals of the 21st century, addressed for example in the Sustainable Development Goals, the Paris Agreement or the post-2020 global biodiversity framework.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Segurança Alimentar/métodos , Agricultura/economia , Agricultura/ética , Biodiversidade , Sequestro de Carbono , Mudança Climática , Comércio/métodos , Ecossistema , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/tendências
3.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(3): 887-891, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34519048

RESUMO

The current food system is directly influenced by the increase in environmental problems and nutritional inequality globally. Financial and political collapses, health crises, excessive urbanization, and rapid industrialization are some of the principal factors threatening the food supply's security. The food system needs a profound transformation to avoid ecosystem destabilization and a global food crisis. Concerning this transformation, we are certain that the first step for a successful food system change is global resilience thinking. To reach an integrated food system, we proposed introducing the resilient concept linked with other known concepts, such as circular economy and sustainability. A resilient food system can recover over time, ensuring the supply of sustainable and quality food and access to all. This would mean redesigning the value chains in the food system, re-educating consumers to implement a healthier diet, and introducing technology such as digital innovation. Re-evaluating these relevant points, redesigning the focus of the food system, not only for economic efficiency but also including significant trade-offs, or valuing other services in the food system, are essential to reaching the desired resilience. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Tecnologia Digital/métodos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/economia , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/economia , Agricultura/economia , Agricultura/tendências , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/tendências , Dieta Saudável/tendências , Tecnologia Digital/economia , Tecnologia Digital/tendências , Ecossistema , Cadeia Alimentar , Humanos , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/tendências
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 23393, 2021 12 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34862424

RESUMO

The study attracted to insinuate the inhabitant anomalies of the crop yield in the districts of the Punjab where climate variation, inputs utilization, and district exponents are indispensable factors. Impact evaluation of sowing and harvesting dates for rice yield has been analyzed. Suitable sowing and harvesting dates and potential districts for the crop are proposed. Data consisting of 13,617 observations of more than 90 factors encompassing valuable dimensions of the growth of the crops collected through comprehensive surveys conducted by the Agriculture Department of Punjab are formulated to incorporate in this study. The results establish the significant negative repercussions of climate variability while the impacts vary in the districts. The crop yield deteriorates considerably by delaying the sowing and harvesting times. Districts climate-induced vulnerability ranking revealed Layyah, Jhelum, Mianwali, Khanewal and Chinniot, the most vulnerable while Kasur, Gujrat, Mandi Bhauddin, Nankana Sahib and Hafizabad, the least vulnerable districts. Spatial mapping explains the geographical pattern of vulnerabilities and yield/monetary losses. The study ranks districts using climate-induced yield and monetary loss (222.30 thousand metric tons of rice which are equal to 27.79 billion PKR climatic losses in single rice season) and recommends: the formation of district policy to abate the adverse climate impact, utilization of suitable climate variation by adhering proper sowing and harvesting times, setting the prioritized districts facing climate-induced losses for urgent attention and preferable districts for rice crop.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/classificação , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Agricultura/economia , Agricultura/métodos , Mudança Climática , Produtos Agrícolas/citologia , Produtos Agrícolas/economia , Paquistão , Filogeografia , Análise Espacial
6.
Molecules ; 26(21)2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34771108

RESUMO

To achieve the nutritional target of human food, boron (B) has been described as an essential mineral in determining seed and theoretical oil yield of Sesamum indicum L. The research to increase its cultivation is garnering attention due to its high oil content, quality and its utilization for various purposes, which include human nutrition as well as its use in the food industry. For this, a two-year field experiment was performed at PAU, Punjab, India to determine the effect of different concentrations of foliar-applied B (20, 30 and 40 mg L-1) and different growth stages of crop, i.e., we measured the effects on agroeconomic indicators and certain quality parameters of sesame using different concentrations of B applied at the flowering and capsule formation stages as compared to using water spray and untreated plants. Water spray did not significantly affect the studied parameters. However, B application significantly increased the yield, uptake, antioxidant activity (AOA) and theoretical oil content (TOC) compared to those of untreated plants. The maximum increase in seed yield (26.75%), B seed and stover uptake (64.08% and 69.25%, respectively) as well as highest AOA (69.41%) and benefit to cost ratio (B:C ratio 2.63) was recorded when B was applied at 30 mg L-1 at the flowering and capsule formation stages. However, the maximum sesame yield and B uptake were recorded when B was applied at a rate of 30 mg L-1. A significant increase in TOC was also recorded with a B application rate of 30 mg L-1. For efficiency indices, the higher values of boron agronomic efficiency (BAE) and boron crop recovery efficiency (BCRE) were recorded when B was applied at 20 mg L-1 (5.25 and 30.56, respectively) and 30 mg L-1 (4.96 and 26.11, respectively) at the flowering and capsule formation stages. In conclusion, application of B @ 30 mg L-1 at the flowering and capsule formation stages seemed a viable technique to enhance yield, B uptake and economic returns of sesame.


Assuntos
Agricultura/economia , Boro/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Sesamum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sesamum/metabolismo , Algoritmos , Fenômenos Químicos , Minerais , Modelos Econômicos , Modelos Teóricos , Óleo de Gergelim/análise , Óleo de Gergelim/química
7.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0257736, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34735485

RESUMO

Since 2016, fall armyworm (FAW) has threatened sub-Saharan 'Africa's fragile food systems and economic performance. Yet, there is limited evidence on this transboundary pest's economic and food security impacts in the region. Additionally, the health and environmental consequences of the insecticides being used to control FAW have not been studied. This paper presents evidence on the impacts of FAW on maize production, food security, and human and environmental health. We use a combination of an agroecology-based community survey and nationally representative data from an agricultural household survey to achieve our objectives. The results indicate that the pest causes an average annual loss of 36% in maize production, reducing 0.67 million tonnes of maize (0.225 million tonnes per year) between 2017 and 2019. The total economic loss is US$ 200 million, or 0.08% of the gross domestic product. The lost production could have met the per capita maize consumption of 4 million people. We also find that insecticides to control FAW have more significant toxic effects on the environment than on humans. This paper highlights governments and development partners need to invest in sustainable FAW control strategies to reduce maize production loss, improve food security, and protect human and environmental health.


Assuntos
Agricultura/economia , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Spodoptera/patogenicidade , África do Norte , Animais , Etiópia , Humanos , Inseticidas/economia , Larva/genética , Larva/parasitologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Spodoptera/efeitos dos fármacos , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/parasitologia
8.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259308, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34748595

RESUMO

The risk spillover among financial markets has been noticeably investigated in a burgeoning number of literature. Given those doctrines, we scrutinize the impact persistence of volatility spillover and illiquidity spillover of Chinese commodity markets in this paper. Based on the sample from 2010 to 2020, we reveal that there is a cross-market spillover of volatility and illiquidity in China and also, interactions between volatility and illiquidity in different financial markets are pronounced. More importantly, we demonstrate that different commodity markets have different responsiveness to stock market shocks, which embeds their market characteristics. Specifically, we discover that the majority of the traders in gold market might be hedger and therefore gold market is more sensitive to stock market illiquidity shock and thus the shock impact in persistent. On the other hand, agricultural markets like corn and soybean markets might be dominated by investors and thus those markets respond to the stock market volatility shocks and the shock impact in persistent over 10 periods given the first period of risk shock happening. In fact, different Chinese commodity markets' responsiveness towards Chinese stock market risk shocks indicates the stock market risk impact persistence in Chinese commodity markets. This result can help policymakers to understand the policy propagation effect according to this risk spillover channel and risk impact persistence mechanism in China.


Assuntos
Agricultura/economia , Comércio/economia , Investimentos em Saúde/economia , Marketing/economia , Metais/provisão & distribuição , Políticas , China , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Fatores de Risco
9.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259734, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34767607

RESUMO

In research portfolio planning contexts, an estimate of research policy and project synergies/tradeoffs (i.e. covariances) is essential to the optimal leveraging of institution resources. The data by which to make such estimates generally do not exist. Research institutions may often draw on domain expertise to fill this gap, but it is not clear how such ad hoc information can be quantified and fed into an optimal resource allocation workflow. Drawing on principal components analysis, I propose a method for "reverse engineering" synergies/tradeoffs from domain expertise at both the policy and project level. I discuss extensions to other problems and detail how the method can be fed into a research portfolio optimization workflow. I also briefly discuss the relevance of the proposed method in the context of the currently toxic relations between research communities and the donors that fund them.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Projetos de Pesquisa , Alocação de Recursos , Agricultura/economia , Agricultura/organização & administração
10.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0257669, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34710103

RESUMO

In recent years, Xinjiang mutton production has experienced a growth trend; however, it cannot meet the new consumer demand. Based on Michael Porter's "diamond model," this study presents a case study on the Xinjiang mutton industry in China and establishes an index system for the competitiveness of the industry. The competitiveness of the mutton industry is analyzed quantitatively via correlation analysis and principal component analysis by investigating the relevant data of 10 Chinese provinces topping in mutton production. On account of the related elements of the diamond model, a qualitative analysis is also performed. The quantitative analysis shows that among the 10 provinces (regions) topping in mutton production in China, Inner Mongolia wins in competitiveness, followed by Xinjiang, and Henan ranks at the bottom. The qualitative analysis shows that the Xinjiang mutton industry is inferior in three main factors compared to its competitors, and these are the production factors related to and supporting the industries and the enterprise strategies. Xinjiang performs moderately in terms of the auxiliary government factors. However, Xinjiang is in an advantageous position with respect to the main factors of demand conditions and auxiliary elements of opportunities. Given the existing problems, this study discusses the main reasons for the lack of competitiveness of the Xinjiang mutton industry. It also puts forward some strategic suggestions to enhance the competitiveness of the Xinjiang mutton industry based on the six elements of diamond model.


Assuntos
Agricultura/economia , Criação de Animais Domésticos/economia , Indústrias/economia , Carne/economia , Animais , China , Pradaria , Humanos , Análise de Componente Principal , Ovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(44)2021 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34697238

RESUMO

Pest management practices in modern industrial agriculture have increasingly relied on insurance-based insecticides such as seed treatments that are poorly correlated with pest density or crop damage. This approach, combined with high invertebrate toxicity for newer products like neonicotinoids, makes it challenging to conserve beneficial insects and the services that they provide. We used a 4-y experiment using commercial-scale fields replicated across multiple sites in the midwestern United States to evaluate the consequences of adopting integrated pest management (IPM) using pest thresholds compared with standard conventional management (CM). To do so, we employed a systems approach that integrated coproduction of a regionally dominant row crop (corn) with a pollinator-dependent specialty crop (watermelon). Pest populations, pollination rates, crop yields, and system profitability were measured. Despite higher pest densities and/or damage in both crops, IPM-managed pests rarely reached economic thresholds, resulting in 95% lower insecticide use (97 versus 4 treatments in CM and IPM, respectively, across all sites, crops, and years). In IPM corn, the absence of a neonicotinoid seed treatment had no impact on yields, whereas IPM watermelon experienced a 129% increase in flower visitation rate by pollinators, resulting in 26% higher yields. The pollinator-enhancement effect under IPM management was mediated entirely by wild bees; foraging by managed honey bees was unaffected by treatments and, overall, did not correlate with crop yield. This proof-of-concept experiment mimicking on-farm practices illustrates that cropping systems in major agricultural commodities can be redesigned via IPM to exploit ecosystem services without compromising, and in some cases increasing, yields.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Insetos , Inseticidas , Polinização , Agricultura/economia , Animais , Biomassa , Citrullus , Controle de Insetos/economia , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Pólen/química , Zea mays
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20451, 2021 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34650141

RESUMO

This research measures the epidemiological and economic impact of COVID-19 spread in the US under different mitigation scenarios, comprising of non-pharmaceutical interventions. A detailed disease model of COVID-19 is combined with a model of the US economy to estimate the direct impact of labor supply shock to each sector arising from morbidity, mortality, and lockdown, as well as the indirect impact caused by the interdependencies between sectors. During a lockdown, estimates of jobs that are workable from home in each sector are used to modify the shock to labor supply. Results show trade-offs between economic losses, and lives saved and infections averted are non-linear in compliance to social distancing and the duration of the lockdown. Sectors that are worst hit are not the labor-intensive sectors such as the Agriculture sector and the Construction sector, but the ones with high valued jobs such as the Professional Services, even after the teleworkability of jobs is accounted for. Additionally, the findings show that a low compliance to interventions can be overcome by a longer shutdown period and vice versa to arrive at similar epidemiological impact but their net effect on economic loss depends on the interplay between the marginal gains from averting infections and deaths, versus the marginal loss from having healthy workers stay at home during the shutdown.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Agricultura/economia , COVID-19/economia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Indústria da Construção/economia , Emprego , Humanos , Indústrias/economia , Modelos Econômicos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Teletrabalho , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258860, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669719

RESUMO

This paper empirically studies the relationship among inclusive finance, industrial structure upgrading and farmers' income, using the panel data of 28 provinces in China from 2006 to 2016.The research finds that inclusive finance can significantly promote the increase of farmers' income. Moreover, the Upgrading of Industry Structure (UIS) is the intermediary mechanism of inclusive finance to promote the increase of farmers' income, and this intermediary mechanism is heterogeneous among farmers with different income levels. Finally, the promotion effect of the UIS on farmers' income is affected by the threshold effect of inclusive finance. Compared with the development level of low inclusive finance, the promotion effect of the UIS on farmers' income is stronger under the development level of high inclusive finance. According to the results of empirical analysis, we suggest that the development strategy of inclusive finance should aim at the industrial development in rural areas, promote the organic connection between farmers and modern agricultural industry, and drive farmers to increase their income through the transformation and upgrading of rural industries.


Assuntos
Agricultura/economia , Fazendeiros , Organização do Financiamento/economia , Renda , China , Humanos
14.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 28(3): 378-384, 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34558257

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Accidents exert a negative effect on the quality and standard of living of rural inhabitants, especially when they make it impossible to continue work on a farm, or this work may be performed only to a limited extent. The creation of effective legal mechanisms which would guarantee the safety of operation of machinery is a crucial issue, it is of a preventive character and considerably limits the number of accidents. Approximately 16.1 million people live in the rural areas and around 2.3 million work in the agricultural sector, which represents 14.5% of all labour in Poland in 2019. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate the legal regulations resulting from the directives of technical harmonization in the European Union for improvement of safety of work with the use of agricultural machinery in Poland. MATERIALS AND METHOD: The method was critical analysis of legal acts in effect, court rulings, and statistical data concerning accidentsoin farms, made available by the Agricultural Social Insurance Fund (KRUS). BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE STATE OF KNOWLEDGE: As a result of Poland's membership of the European Union, rural areas were covered by globalization processes and single market rules, within which there function legal mechanisms of safety and quality of products. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of the 16 years of Poland's membership of the EU, resulted in positive results being observed in the use of the directives of technical harmonization, especially in reducing the number of accidents involving agricultural machinery. However, this improvement may result from using newly-purchased, modern and safer agricultural machinery covered by the conformity assessment, and preventive actions carried out by the Agricultural Social Insurance Fund. An impact of other factors, not analysed in the study, cannot be ruled out.


Assuntos
Agricultura/legislação & jurisprudência , Fazendeiros/legislação & jurisprudência , Saúde do Trabalhador/legislação & jurisprudência , Acidentes de Trabalho/economia , Acidentes de Trabalho/legislação & jurisprudência , Agricultura/economia , Agricultura/instrumentação , União Europeia , Humanos , Seguro , Saúde do Trabalhador/economia , Polônia
15.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 28(3): 452-457, 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34558269

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Agriculture and forestry are among the most dangerous professions in Europe, with a high level of accidents affecting the sustainability and viability of the sector. International conventions, EU directives and national legislation build the fundamental basis for prevention. The aim of the study is to describe and categorize national mechanisms of occupational safety and health (OSH) for agricultural workers in Europe, to assess the extent of implementing safety regulation, the body in charge, and to give examples of health and safety initiatives. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Results of a questionnaire-survey on basic safety regulations on farms sent by e-mail to the representatives of 30 participating European countries in the context of the Sacurima COST action network (CA 16123) are presented. Due to the complexity, only selected countries are described in this study highlighting the regulative bodies, occupational health services or specific training offers, as well as the complexity of the mechanisms. RESULTS: One of the most serious issues and deficits of EU OSH regulation is the exclusion of self-employed farmers who compose nearly 90% of the farming population. This leads to serious under-reporting of accidents, and because one of the most common measures for the performance of health and safety initiatives are the injury and ill health statistics, better registration systems are urgently needed in almost all countries as a basis for preventive efforts. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the study provide a basis for raising awareness about the current OSH systems in Europe, and the importance of developing sector specific OSH strategies. The proposed activities should assist in tackling high accident rates and poor occupational health for self-employed farmers.


Assuntos
Agricultura/legislação & jurisprudência , Agricultura/organização & administração , Saúde do Trabalhador/legislação & jurisprudência , Acidentes de Trabalho/economia , Acidentes de Trabalho/legislação & jurisprudência , Acidentes de Trabalho/prevenção & controle , Agricultura/economia , Emprego , Europa (Continente) , Fazendeiros/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Saúde do Trabalhador/economia
16.
Horm Metab Res ; 53(9): 575-587, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496408

RESUMO

Global warming and the rising prevalence of obesity are well described challenges of current mankind. Most recently, the COVID-19 pandemic arose as a new challenge. We here attempt to delineate their relationship with each other from our perspective. Global greenhouse gas emissions from the burning of fossil fuels have exponentially increased since 1950. The main contributors to such greenhouse gas emissions are manufacturing and construction, transport, residential, commercial, agriculture, and land use change and forestry, combined with an increasing global population growth from 1 billion in 1800 to 7.8 billion in 2020 along with rising obesity rates since the 1980s. The current Covid-19 pandemic has caused some decline in greenhouse gas emissions by limiting mobility globally via repetitive lockdowns. Following multiple lockdowns, there was further increase in obesity in wealthier populations, malnutrition from hunger in poor populations and death from severe infection with Covid-19 and its virus variants. There is a bidirectional relationship between adiposity and global warming. With rising atmospheric air temperatures, people typically will have less adaptive thermogenesis and become less physically active, while they are producing a higher carbon footprint. To reduce obesity rates, one should be willing to learn more about the environmental impact, how to minimize consumption of energy generating carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions, and to reduce food waste. Diets lower in meat such as a Mediterranean diet, have been estimated to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 72%, land use by 58%, and energy consumption by 52%.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Obesidade/etiologia , Agricultura/economia , Agricultura/tendências , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/patologia , Mudança Climática/história , Comorbidade , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Meio Ambiente , Exposição Ambiental/história , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Gases de Efeito Estufa/toxicidade , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Pandemias , Fatores de Risco
17.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256694, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506515

RESUMO

Large changes have taken place in smallholder farming systems in South Asia's coastal areas in recent decades, particularly related to cropping intensity, input availability, climate risks, and off-farm activities. However, few studies have investigated the extent to which these changes have impacted farm-level crop productivity, which is a key driver of food security and poverty in rainfed, low-input, rice-based systems. The objective of this study was to conduct an integrated assessment of variables related to socioeconomic status, farm characteristics, and crop management practices to understand the major factors influencing crop productivity and identify promising leverage points for sustainable development in coastal Bangladesh. Using a panel survey dataset of 32 variables from 502 farm households located within polder (coastal embankment) and outside polder systems during 2005-2015, we employed statistical factor analysis to characterize five independent latent factors named here as Farming Challenges, Economic Status, Crop Management Practices, Asset Endowment, and Farm Characteristics. The factor Farming Challenges explained the most variation among households (31%), with decreases observed over time, specifically households located outside polders. Individual variables contributing to this factor included perceived cyclone severity, household distance to main roads and input-output markets, cropping intensity, and access to extension services. The most important factors for increasing crop productivity on a household and per unit area basis were Asset Endowment and Crop Management Practices, respectively. The former highlights the need for increasing gross cropped area, which can be achieved through greater cropping intensity, while the latter was associated with increased fertilizer, labor, and pesticide input use. Despite the importance of these factors, household poverty trajectory maps showed that changes in off-farm income had played the strongest role in improving livelihoods in this coastal area. This study can help inform development efforts and policies for boosting farm-level crop productivity, specifically through agricultural intensification (higher cropping intensity combined with appropriate and efficient use of inputs) and expanding opportunities for off-farm income as key pathways to bring smallholder households out of poverty.


Assuntos
Agricultura/economia , Fazendas/economia , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Pobreza/economia , Bangladesh , Fazendeiros , Humanos , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Desenvolvimento Sustentável
18.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256832, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478456

RESUMO

Shallot is a national strategic commodity in Indonesia, but it is development has a fundamental technical, socioeconomic, and policy support problems. Therefore, it is essential to know the competitiveness of shallot in Indonesia and the incentive policy to implement the comparative advantage to become a sustainable competitive advantage. The purposes of this study are to (1) analyze the profitability of shallot farming privately and socially, (2) analyze the competitiveness of shallot farming from a competitive and comparative advantage perspective, (3) review the impact of government policy on shallot farming, and (4) formulate incentive policies in the development of shallot commodities. The empirical results of the Policy Analysis Matrix revealed that shallot farming in production centers in Indonesia has both competitive and comparative advantages. The highest competitive and comparative advantages were found in the dry season in the upland of Malang district with the coefficient values of PCR (Private Cost Ratio) of 0.268-0.508 and DRCR (Domestic Resource Cost Ratio) of 0.208-0.323. The lowest competitive advantage was found in the lowland of East Lombok district in the dry season with a coefficient value of PCR 0.728-0.844. The lowest comparative advantage in the dry season was found in East Lombok district with a DRCR of 0.448, while in the rainy season, it was found in Wonosobo district with a DRCR of 0.522. These results mean that it is more profitable for Indonesia to increase domestic shallot production than to import. Improving shallot competitiveness can be carried out by implementing advanced technology, agricultural infrastructure, capacity building of farmers' resources, and government incentive policies to increase productivity and competitiveness sustainability.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Fazendas/economia , Formulação de Políticas , Cebolinha Branca , Agricultura/economia , Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Indonésia , Tecnologia
19.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255791, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383791

RESUMO

Urbanization is a main driver of agricultural transition in the Global South but how it shapes trends of intensification or extensification is not yet well understood. The Indian megacity of Bengaluru combines rapid urbanization with a high demand for dairy products, which is partly supplied by urban and peri-urban dairy producers. To study the impacts of urbanization on dairy production and to identify key features of dairy production systems across Bengaluru's rural-urban interface, 337 dairy producers were surveyed on the socio-economic profile of their household, their dairy herd and management, resources availability and, in- and output markets. A two-step cluster analysis identified four spatially explicit dairy production systems based on urbanization level of their neighborhood, reliance on self-cultivated forages, pasture use, cattle in- and outflow and share of specialized dairy genotypes. The most extensive dairy production system, common to the whole rural-urban interface, utilized publicly available feed resources and pasture grounds rather than to cultivate forages. In rural areas, two semi-intensive and one intensive dairy production systems relying on self-cultivation of forage with or without pasture further distinguished themselves by their herd and breeding management. In rural areas, the village's dairy cooperative, which also provided access to inputs such as exotic genotype through artificial insemination, concentrate feeds and health care, was often the only marketing channel available to dairy producers, irrespective of the dairy production system to which they belonged. In urban areas, milk was mostly sold through direct marketing or a middleman. Despite rapidly progressing urbanization and a population of 10 million, Bengaluru's dairy sector still relies on small-scale family dairy farms. Shifts in resources availability, such as land and labor, are potential drivers of market-oriented intensification but also extensification of dairy production in an urbanizing environment.


Assuntos
Agricultura/economia , Indústria de Laticínios/economia , Animais , Cruzamento , Bovinos , Análise por Conglomerados , Fazendeiros/psicologia , Humanos , Índia , Leite/economia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Urbanização
20.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0254224, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34432806

RESUMO

Workers in climate exposed industries such as agriculture, construction, and manufacturing face increased health risks of working on high temperature days and may make decisions to reduce work on high-heat days to mitigate this risk. Utilizing the American Time Use Survey (ATUS) for the period 2003 through 2018 and historical weather data, we model the relationship between daily temperature and time allocation, focusing on hours worked by high-risk laborers. The results indicate that labor allocation decisions are context specific and likely driven by supply-side factors. We do not find a significant relationship between temperature and hours worked during the Great Recession (2008-2014), perhaps due to high competition for employment, however during periods of economic growth (2003-2007, 2015-2018) we find a significant reduction in hours worked on high-heat days. During periods of economic growth, for every degree above 90 on a particular day, the average high-risk worker reduces their time devoted to work by about 2.6 minutes relative to a 90-degree day. This effect is expected to intensify in the future as temperatures rise. Applying the modeled relationships to climate projections through the end of century, we find that annual lost wages resulting from decreased time spent working on days over 90 degrees across the United States range from $36.7 to $80.0 billion in 2090 under intermediate and high emission futures, respectively.


Assuntos
Agricultura/economia , Clima , Emprego/economia , Temperatura Alta , Modelos Econômicos , Salários e Benefícios/economia , Humanos , Estados Unidos
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