Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 2.352
Filtrar
1.
Sci Adv ; 7(6)2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547077

RESUMO

Despite numerous journalistic accounts, systematic quantitative evidence on economic conditions during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic remains scarce for most low- and middle-income countries, partly due to limitations of official economic statistics in environments with large informal sectors and subsistence agriculture. We assemble evidence from over 30,000 respondents in 16 original household surveys from nine countries in Africa (Burkina Faso, Ghana, Kenya, Rwanda, Sierra Leone), Asia (Bangladesh, Nepal, Philippines), and Latin America (Colombia). We document declines in employment and income in all settings beginning March 2020. The share of households experiencing an income drop ranges from 8 to 87% (median, 68%). Household coping strategies and government assistance were insufficient to sustain precrisis living standards, resulting in widespread food insecurity and dire economic conditions even 3 months into the crisis. We discuss promising policy responses and speculate about the risk of persistent adverse effects, especially among children and other vulnerable groups.


Assuntos
/economia , Países em Desenvolvimento/economia , Emprego/tendências , Renda/tendências , Pandemias/economia , Adulto , África/epidemiologia , Agricultura/economia , Ásia/epidemiologia , Criança , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Violência Doméstica , Recessão Econômica , Características da Família , Feminino , Programas Governamentais/economia , Humanos , Masculino , Estações do Ano , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Molecules ; 26(2)2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33478152

RESUMO

The food sector includes several large industries such as canned food, pasta, flour, frozen products, and beverages. Those industries transform agricultural raw materials into added-value products. The fruit and vegetable industry is the largest and fastest-growing segment of the world agricultural production market, which commercialize various products such as juices, jams, and dehydrated products, followed by the cereal industry products such as chocolate, beer, and vegetable oils are produced. Similarly, the root and tuber industry produces flours and starches essential for the daily diet due to their high carbohydrate content. However, the processing of these foods generates a large amount of waste several times improperly disposed of in landfills. Due to the increase in the world's population, the indiscriminate use of natural resources generates waste and food supply limitations due to the scarcity of resources, increasing hunger worldwide. The circular economy offers various tools for raising awareness for the recovery of waste, one of the best alternatives to mitigate the excessive consumption of raw materials and reduce waste. The loss and waste of food as a raw material offers bioactive compounds, enzymes, and nutrients that add value to the food cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. This paper systematically reviewed literature with different food loss and waste by-products as animal feed, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical products that strongly contribute to the paradigm shift to a circular economy. Additionally, this review compiles studies related to the integral recovery of by-products from the processing of fruits, vegetables, tubers, cereals, and legumes from the food industry, with the potential in SARS-CoV-2 disease and bacterial diseases treatment.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Indústria Farmacêutica , Indústria Alimentícia , Resíduos/economia , Agricultura/economia , Cosméticos/economia , Grão Comestível , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos/economia , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos/métodos , Frutas , Raízes de Plantas , Tubérculos , Verduras
3.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0229478, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378382

RESUMO

Livestock keepers in sub-Saharan Africa face a range of pressures, including climate change, land loss, restrictive policies, and population increase. Widespread adaptation in response can lead to the emergence of new, non-traditional typologies of livestock production. We sought to characterise livestock production systems in two administrative regions in northern Tanzania, an area undergoing rapid social, economic, and environmental change. Questionnaire and spatial data were collected from 404 livestock-keeping households in 21 villages in Arusha and Manyara Regions in 2016. Multiple factor analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis were used to classify households into livestock production systems based on household-level characteristics. Adversity-based indicators of vulnerability, including reports of hunger, illness, and livestock, land and crop losses were compared between production systems. Three distinct clusters emerged through this process. The ethnic, environmental and livestock management characteristics of households in each cluster broadly mapped onto traditional definitions of 'pastoral', 'agro-pastoral' and 'smallholder' livestock production in the study area, suggesting that this quantitative classification system is complementary to more qualitative classification methods. Our approach allowed us to demonstrate a diversity in typologies of livestock production at small spatial scales, with almost half of study villages comprising more than one production system. We also found indicators of change within livestock production systems, most notably the adoption of crop agriculture in the majority of pastoral households. System-level heterogeneities in vulnerability were evident, with agro-pastoral households most likely to report hunger and pastoral households most likely to report illness in people and livestock, and livestock losses. We demonstrate that livestock production systems can provide context for assessing household vulnerability in northern Tanzania. Policy initiatives to improve household and community well-being should recognise the continuing diversity of traditional livestock production systems in northern Tanzania, including the diversity that can exist at small spatial scales.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Produtos Agrícolas , Gado , Agricultura/economia , Criação de Animais Domésticos/economia , Animais , Humanos , Tanzânia
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33348533

RESUMO

The extent of tobacco cultivation remains substantially high in Bangladesh, which is the 12th largest tobacco producer in the world. Using data from a household survey of current, former, and never tobacco farmers, based on a multi-stage stratified sampling design with a mix of purposive and random sampling of households, this study estimated the financial and economic profitability per acre of land used for tobacco cultivation. The environmental effects of tobacco cultivation on land and water resources were estimated using laboratory tests of sample water and soil collected from tobacco-cultivating and non-tobacco cultivating areas. The study finds that tobacco cultivation turns into a losing concern when the opportunity costs of unpaid family labour and other owned resources, and the health effects of tobacco cultivation are included. Tobacco cultivation poses a significantly high environmental cost that causes a net loss to society. Nevertheless, the availability of unpaid family labour and the options of advanced credit as well as a buy back guarantee from the tobacco companies attract farmers to engage in and continue tobacco cultivation. Therefore, supply side interventions to curb the tobacco epidemic in Bangladesh need to address major drivers of tobacco cultivation to correct the wrong incentives and motivate tobacco farmers to switch to alternative livelihood options.


Assuntos
Agricultura/economia , Tabaco , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Fazendeiros , Fazendas , Humanos
5.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13492, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33314560

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was to assess the productivity of pigs to investigate the time-dependent change in productivity and compare productivity according to breeding company group and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) status on commercial swine farms in southern Kyushu, Japan. Data used in the present study were 245 annual productivity records from 2014 to 2018 obtained from 72 farms. Average sow inventory was 481.2 sows. Mean numbers of pigs weaned per sow per year and market pigs sold per sow per year were 23.7 and 21.6, respectively. Pigs born alive per litter increased from 11.1 to 11.9 pigs from 2014 to 2018 (p < .05). Farms using domestic breeding companies had similar numbers in 2016 to those using international breeding companies, but fewer pigs in 2014, 2015, 2017, and 2018 (p < .05). Farms with an unknown or unstable PRRS status had fewer pigs born alive per litter and pigs weaned per sow per year than those with stable or negative PRRS statuses (11.2 ± 0.06 vs. 11.8 ± 0.08 pigs and 22.6 ± 0.38 vs. 25.0 ± 0.22 pigs, respectively; p < .05). These results can be used to establish feasible targets and standards of performance to identify problem areas and improve production.


Assuntos
Agricultura/economia , Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Cruzamento/economia , Cruzamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Eficiência , Fazendas/economia , Fazendas/estatística & dados numéricos , Reprodução , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Japão/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Fatores de Tempo , Desmame
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(41): 25434-25444, 2020 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978301

RESUMO

With rapid economic growth and urbanization, self-sufficiency in crop production has become central to China's agriculture policy. Accurate crop production statistics are essential for research, monitoring, and planning. Although researchers agree that China's statistical authority has considerably modernized over time, China's economic statistics have still been viewed as unreliable and often overstated to meet growth targets at different administrative levels. Recent increases in crop production reported by national statistics have also come under increasing scrutiny. This paper investigates crop production data quality from a planetary boundary perspective-comparing net primary production (NPP) harvested obtained from national statistics with satellite-driven NPP estimates that are supported by detailed observation of land cover, combined with observations on physical factors that limit plant growth. This approach provides a powerful means to check the plausibility of China's grain production statistics at different administrative levels that can generate insights about their discrepancies and can contribute to improved crop production measurements. We find some evidence of potential misreporting problems from the lower administration level where the risk of manipulation of statistics is higher. We also find problems from provincial-level major grain producers. These values can also affect the national totals. Although the numbers are affected by large uncertainties, we find that improving the spatial resolution of key agricultural parameters can greatly improve the reliability of the indicator that in turn can help improve data quality. More reliable production data will be vital for relevant research and provide better insights into food security problems, the carbon cycle, and sustainable development.


Assuntos
Agricultura/economia , Produção Agrícola/estatística & dados numéricos , Produtos Agrícolas/economia , China , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto
8.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 73, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32725097

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE To analyze how the profile of food purchases from family farming under the National School Feeding Program (PNAE) is related to socioeconomic and demographic indicators in Brazilian capitals. METHODS This cross-sectional and descriptive study was based on secondary data from 2016 and 2017 from the Brazilian government. We used demographic and socioeconomic data, as well as the amount of federal funding; the percentage used purchases of food from family farming and the public call notices. RESULTS The capitals in the largest quartile of HDI and funding by the federal government used less than 30% of the resource for the purchase of crops from family farming in 2016. All capitals of the Northern region used more than 30%, while the Southern and Southeastern regions did not comply with the legislation. We highlight that most analyzed food items were in natura. CONCLUSIONS The implementation of this public policy occurs unequally in Brazilian capitals, with greater difficulty in those supposedly with better institutional structure and higher volume of resources destined to the National School Feeding Program. The program, however, maintains its potential for the promotion of adequate and healthy food in schools, due to the quality of food included in public calls.


Assuntos
Agricultura/economia , Serviços de Alimentação/economia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Humanos
9.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236334, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730346

RESUMO

In order to increase the stability of fresh agricultural product supply chain, farmers and enterprises need to evolve into a symbiotic system of supply chain. At the present stage, symbiotic relations and evolutionary trends in a symbiotic system for fresh agricultural product supply chains lack quantitative methods for determining symbiotic criteria. In the sense of quantification -oriented criteria, symbiotic systems for fresh agricultural product supply chains are defined, and an improved stationary state analysis method is proposed. Three key steps in this method are quantifying a symbiotic energy model with an evaluation model of ecological carrying capacity, setting up a system evolution model based on the logistic growth function, and verifying the symbiotic system's singularity and phase transition boundary by Lyapunov indirect method. MATLAB numerical simulation shows that types of singularity and the phase transition boundary of symbiotic system are divided effectively. And in both conditions, infinite exponential growth and convergence to steady state, the mutualism mode is the optimal choice for the symbiotic system we defined, symbiotic relations between farmers and cooperative companies are stable and long-term at this time. Those conclusions provide a reference approach to enhance the overall prospective benefits to the fresh agricultural products supply chain.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Simbiose , Agricultura/economia , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Custos e Análise de Custo , Fazendeiros , Modelos Biológicos
10.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235507, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614870

RESUMO

Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs) training programs were developed to provide guidance to fruit and vegetable growers on how to reduce food safety risks on the farm. These programs have been enhanced over the years due, in part, to increasing buyer and regulatory requirements. However, the costs of implementing additional food safety practices has been identified as a primary barrier to long-term farm financial feasibility, particularly for smaller scale producers. A survey of past participants in New York State revealed that increasing food safety improvements facilitated by GAPs have not significantly impacted the size of farm operations or the types of crops grown. In terms of farm size, we show that both the financial costs and financial benefits of food safety improvements increase with farm size, but at decreasing rates. In so doing, relatively higher market sales gains per acre by smaller farms from additional food safety investments offset the relatively higher costs to them of their implementation. We also demonstrate that benefits of food safety improvements were significantly higher for farms that had third-party food safety audits and for those that market primarily through wholesale channels. The results should prove welcome by educators as they encourage participation by all scales of producers in GAPs trainings and for growers in understanding that food safety investments can support both reduced microbial risks and sales growth.


Assuntos
Agricultura/economia , Fazendeiros/psicologia , Inocuidade dos Alimentos/métodos , Agricultura/educação , Análise Custo-Benefício , Produção Agrícola/economia , Humanos , New York , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235846, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706787

RESUMO

The extraordinary population growth of the 20th century will subside in the 21st century, followed by depopulation, constituting the first population decline phase in human history in Japan and other developed countries. The drivers of land-use change during the population decline phase are expected to differ from those of the population growth phase; however, research on land-use drivers during the decline phase is limited. Identifying these drivers is necessary to develop effective management plans for biodiversity and ecosystem services in the decline phase. First, we calculated the probability of farmland abandonment in Hokkaido, a Japanese food production area, from 1973-2009 and divided the period into the population growth phase (1978-1997) and the decline phase (1997-2009). We examined various geographical and social factors that were assumed to alter the land use during these two phases. Geographical and social conditions are key factors in determining the probability of farmland abandonment, but their influences varied between the two phases. The farmlands located on geographically uncultivable sites, such as marginal, underproductive, narrow, and steep land, were abandoned during these phases; however, social conditions, such as the distance from densely inhabited districts (DIDs) and the population, exerted opposite effects during these two phases. Farmland abandonment occurred near DIDs (i.e., urban areas) during the population growth phase, whereas farmland abandonment occurred far from DIDs and sparsely populated farmlands during the decline phase. Farmland abandonment was strongly affected by government policy during the population growth phase, but the policy weakened during the decline phase, which triggered farmland abandonment throughout Hokkaido. The geographical and social drivers found in the present study may provide new insights for other developed countries experiencing depopulation problems.


Assuntos
Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Ecossistema , Fazendeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Fazendas/estatística & dados numéricos , Migração Humana/estatística & dados numéricos , Agricultura/economia , Fazendas/economia , Japão , Fatores Socioeconômicos
13.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234213, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502217

RESUMO

Agricultural development projects have a poor track record of success mainly due to risks and uncertainty involved in implementation. Cost-benefit analysis can help allocate resources more effectively, but scarcity of data and high uncertainty makes it difficult to use standard approaches. Bayesian Networks (BN) offer a suitable modelling technology for this domain as they can combine expert knowledge and data. This paper proposes a systematic methodology for creating a general BN model for evaluating agricultural development projects. Our approach adapts the BN model to specific projects by using systematic review of published evidence and relevant data repositories under the guidance of domain experts. We evaluate a large-scale agricultural investment in Africa to provide a proof of concept for this approach. The BN model provides decision support for project evaluation by predicting the value-measured as net present value and return on investment-of the project under different risk scenarios.


Assuntos
Agricultura/economia , Clima , Investimentos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Política , Teorema de Bayes , Modelos Estatísticos , Risco , Incerteza
14.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92 Suppl 1: e20190277, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32491138

RESUMO

Precision agriculture is an alternative for reducing costs. This study evaluated and economically compared three sampling methods used in precision agriculture with respect to the acquisition of inputs and machines and equipment. The sampling methods used were zone management by elevation (ZME), grid sampling (GS) and sampling guided by apparent electrical conductivity of the soil (OS). Soil samples for the ZME were collected after the definition of zones according to the elevations of the plots. The sample mesh was in a georeferenced mesh of 100 x 100 m. The targeted sampling was performed after a ground proximity sensor was used to identify the apparent electrical conductivity of the soil to define the management areas. From the results of the laboratory tests, the application costs were calculated for lime, phosphorus, potassium and nitrogen to allow a comparison between the methods, volumes and costs. This approach considered the costs of depreciation, insurance, interest, operating costs, labor, maintenance and fuel. With this study, it was possible to compare the volumes of the recommended fertilizers and estimate the overall economic cost of using the technology via sensor. Taking the GS as a reference, the ZME presented as the best alternative compared to other methods.


Assuntos
Agricultura/economia , Fertilizantes/análise , Nitrogênio/análise , Fósforo/análise , Potássio/análise , Manejo de Espécimes/economia , Humanos , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos
15.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3201, 2020 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32581263

RESUMO

Humans cultivate thousands of economic plants (i.e. plants with economic value) outside their native ranges. To analyze how this contributes to naturalization success, we combine global databases on economic uses and naturalization success of the world's seed plants. Here we show that naturalization likelihood is 18 times higher for economic than non-economic plants. Naturalization success is highest for plants grown as animal food or for environmental uses (e.g. ornamentals), and increases with number of uses. Taxa from the Northern Hemisphere are disproportionately over-represented among economic plants, and economic plants from Asia have the greatest naturalization success. In regional naturalized floras, the percentage of economic plants exceeds the global percentage and increases towards the equator. Phylogenetic patterns in the naturalized flora partly result from phylogenetic patterns in the plants we cultivate. Our study illustrates that accounting for the intentional introduction of economic plants is key to unravelling drivers of plant naturalization.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Espécies Introduzidas/economia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Agricultura/economia , Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Geografia , Filogenia , Plantas/classificação , Sementes/classificação , Sementes/fisiologia , Especificidade da Espécie
16.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233171, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407405

RESUMO

Intercropping legumes with cereals has been a common cropping system in short-season rainfed environments due to its increased productivity and sustainability. Intercropping barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) with Egyptian clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) could increase the grain yield of barley and improve resource use efficiency of the intercropping system. However, non-optimum planting geometry has been a hurdle in the adaptation of barley-based cropping systems. This study was aimed at optimizing the planting geometry, and assess the productivity and profitability of barley-Egyptian clover intercropping system. Ten different planting geometries, differing in number of rows of barley, width and number of irrigation furrows and planting method were tested. Intercropping barley with Egyptian clover improved 56-68% grain yield of barley compared with mono-cropped barley. Barley remained dominant crop in terms of aggressiveness, relative crowding coefficient and competitive ratio. The amount of water used was linearly increased with increasing size of barley strip from 3 to 8 rows. The highest water use efficiency (4.83 kg/cf3) was recorded for 8-row barley strip system with 120 cm irrigation furrows compared to rest of the planting geometries. In conclusion, 8-rows of barley planted on beds with Egyptian clover in 120 cm irrigation furrows had the highest net income and cost benefit ratio. Therefore, it is recommended that this planting geometry can be used for better economic returns of barley-Egyptian clover intercropping system. However, barley strips with >8 rows were not included in this study, which is limitation of the current study. Therefore, future studies with >8 barley rows in strip should be conducted to infer the economic feasibility and profitability of wider barley strips.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Clima Desértico , Hordeum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Trifolium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Clima Tropical , Agricultura/economia , Conceitos Meteorológicos , Solo , Água
17.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232267, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32357184

RESUMO

Experience across many countries shows that, without large premium subsidies, crop insurance uptake rates are generally low. In this article, we propose to use the cumulative prospect theory to design weather insurance products for situations in which farmers frame insurance narrowly as a stand-alone investment. To this end, we introduce what we call "behavioral weather insurance" whereby insurance contract parameters are adjusted to correspond more closely with farmers' preferences. Depending on farmers' preferences, we find that a stochastic multiyear premium increases the prospect value of weather insurance, while a zero deductible design does not. We suggest that insurance contracts should be tailored precisely to serve farmers' needs. This offers potential benefits for both the insurer and the insured.


Assuntos
Agricultura/economia , Seguro/economia , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Tomada de Decisões , Estudos de Viabilidade , Alemanha , Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Estatísticos , Fatores de Risco
18.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0231840, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379773

RESUMO

Production systems that feature temporal and spatial integration of crop and livestock enterprises, also known as integrated crop-livestock systems (ICLS), have the potential to intensify production on cultivated lands and foster resilience to the effects of climate change without proportional increases in environmental impacts. Yet, crop production outcomes following livestock grazing across environments and management scenarios remain uncertain and a potential barrier to adoption, as producers worry about the effects of livestock activity on the agronomic quality of their land. To determine likely production outcomes across ICLS and to identify the most important moderating variables governing those outcomes, we performed a meta-analysis of 66 studies comparing crop yields in ICLS to yields in unintegrated controls across 3 continents, 12 crops, and 4 livestock species. We found that annual cash crops in ICLS averaged similar yields (-7% to +2%) to crops in comparable unintegrated systems. The exception was dual-purpose crops (crops managed simultaneously for grazing and grain production), which yielded 20% less on average than single-purpose crops in the studies examined. When dual-purpose cropping systems were excluded from the analysis, crops in ICLS yielded more than in unintegrated systems in loamy soils and achieved equal yields in most other settings, suggesting that areas of intermediate soil texture may represent a "sweet-spot" for ICLS implementation. This meta-analysis represents the first quantitative synthesis of the crop production outcomes of ICLS and demonstrates the need for further investigation into the conditions and management scenarios under which ICLS can be successfully implemented.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Produção Agrícola/economia , Produtos Agrícolas/economia , Gado , Agricultura/economia , Animais , Bovinos , Mudança Climática , Secas , Meio Ambiente , Estações do Ano , Ovinos , Solo
20.
Prev Vet Med ; 180: 105030, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32447153

RESUMO

Responses to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic have included travel bans and social distancing with "shelter in place" orders, resulting in sudden changes in human activity and subsequent effects on the global and national economy. We speculate that animal health will likely be impacted by COVID-19 through the immediate consequences of sudden human confinement and inactivity, and through the long-term consequences of the upcoming economic crisis on farmer livelihoods and veterinary service capacities. We expect the COVID-19 pandemic and the subsequent economic crisis to impact negatively on the control of diseases that are already present in Europe, as well as on the European capacity to prevent and respond in a timely manner to new and emerging animal diseases. We also expect an increased attention to the animal health implications of coronavirus infections in animals. Mechanisms explaining these outcomes include increased wildlife-livestock contacts due to human confinement; disruption of ongoing testing schemes for endemic diseases; lower disease surveillance efforts; and lower capacity for managing populations of relevant wildlife reservoirs. The main mitigation action consists in adapting animal health management strategies to the available resources.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Atividades Cotidianas , Agricultura/economia , Doenças dos Animais/prevenção & controle , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Recessão Econômica , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias/veterinária , Pneumonia Viral/veterinária , Isolamento Social , Medicina Veterinária/organização & administração
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA