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1.
Issues Law Med ; 39(1): 50-65, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38771714

RESUMO

The Alabama Supreme Court recently held, in LePage v. Center for Reproductive Medicine, that the parents of human embryos that were negligently destroyed at a fertility clinic could bring an action for damages under the State's wrongful death statute. Although the Alabama legislature promptly enacted a law essentially overturning the state supreme court's decision, concerns have been raised that the court's decision might influence courts in other States to interpret their wrongful death statutes, or possibly even their fetal homicide statutes, to apply in similar circumstances, thereby threatening the availability of in vitro fertilization (IVF) technology. This article addresses those concerns.With respect to wrongful death statutes, only fourteen States (excluding Alabama) have interpreted their statutes to apply to unborn children without regard to their stage of gestation or development. The majority of States impose a gestational requirement (typically, viability) which would preclude their application to the destruction of human embryos. Even with respect to the minority of States that impose no limitation on the cause of action, those statutes, either by their express language or by fair interpretation, would not apply to unimplanted human embryos.With respect to the fetal homicide statutes in thirty-one States that do not have any gestational or developmental limitation, the statutes in twenty-six of those States apply only to acts causing the death of an unborn child in utero. As to the statutes in the other five States, the structure of the statute, considered in light of the applicable case law, strongly suggests that there would be no liability for causing the death of an unborn child before implantation. In sum, the Alabama Supreme Court's decision in LePage is not likely to be followed as a precedent in interpreting either the wrongful death statutes or the fetal homicide statutes of any other State.


Assuntos
Fertilização in vitro , Homicídio , Humanos , Homicídio/legislação & jurisprudência , Fertilização in vitro/legislação & jurisprudência , Estados Unidos , Gravidez , Feminino , Direito de não Nascer , Alabama , Imperícia/legislação & jurisprudência , Decisões da Suprema Corte
2.
Sci Prog ; 107(2): 368504241245222, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38745552

RESUMO

A significant body of evidence indicates that climate change is influencing many aspects of avian ecology. Yet, how climate change is affecting, and is expected to influence some aspects of the breeding ecology of cavity-nesting birds remains uncertain. To explore the potential linkage between timing of first clutch, and the influence of ambient temperature on hatching success, we used Eastern Bluebird (Sialia sialis) nest records over a nine-year period from Alabama, USA. We investigated changes to annual clutch initiation dates, as well as variability in hatching success associated with ambient air temperatures during the incubation period. Using a simple linear model, we observed earlier annual egg laying dates over the nine years of this study with a difference of 24 days between earliest egg-laying date of the season. Daily temperature minima increased 2 °C across the nine-year time frame of this study. These data also indicate that Eastern Bluebird hatching success was the highest when mean ambient air temperature during incubation was between 19 °C and 24 °C (78%, as opposed to 69% and 68% above and below this temperature range, respectively). Our findings of increasing maxima, earlier maxima each year, and the lower minima of temperatures within our study area could expand the breadth of temperatures experienced by nesting Eastern Bluebirds possibly exposing them to temperatures outside of what promotes nesting success. These findings with a cavity-nesting bird highlight an optimal range of ambient temperatures associated with highest hatching success, conditions likely to be affected by climate change.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Comportamento de Nidação , Temperatura , Animais , Comportamento de Nidação/fisiologia , Reprodução/fisiologia , Aves Canoras/fisiologia , Alabama , Estações do Ano , Aves/fisiologia
3.
Am J Public Health ; 114(S4): S330-S333, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38748961

RESUMO

Objectives. To examine the accessibility of hospital facilities with maternity care services in 1 rural county in Alabama in preparation for the initiation of prenatal care services at a federally qualified health center. Methods. We analyzed driving distance (in miles) from maternal city of residence in Conecuh County, Alabama to hospital of delivery, using 2019-2021 vital statistics data and geographic information system (GIS) software. Results. A total of 370 births to mothers who have home addresses in Conecuh County were reported, and 368 of those were in hospital facilities. The majority of deliveries were less than 30 miles (median = 23 miles) from the maternal city of residence. Some women traveled more than 70 miles for obstetrical care. Conclusions. Pregnant patients in Conecuh County experience significant geographic barriers related to perinatal care access. Using GIS for this analysis is a promising approach to better understand the unique challenges of pregnant individuals in this rural population. Public health policy efforts need to be geographically tailored to address these disparities. (Am J Public Health. 2024;114(S4):S330-S333. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2024.307692).


Assuntos
Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde Materna , Humanos , Feminino , Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Alabama , Serviços de Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos
4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(5): e249657, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38700861

RESUMO

Importance: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), characterized by irregular menstrual cycles and hyperandrogenism, is a common ovulatory disorder. Having an irregular cycle is a potential marker for cardiometabolic conditions, but data are limited on whether the associations differ by PCOS status or potential interventions. Objective: To evaluate the association of PCOS, time to regularity since menarche (adolescence), and irregular cycles (adulthood) with cardiometabolic conditions. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study used a large, US-based digital cohort of users of the Apple Research application on their iPhone. Eligibility criteria were having ever menstruated, living in the US, being at age of consent of at least 18 years (or 19 years in Alabama and Nebraska or 21 years in Puerto Rico), and being able to communicate in English. Participants were enrolled between November 14, 2019, and December 13, 2022, and completed relevant surveys. Exposures: Self-reported PCOS diagnosis, prolonged time to regularity (not spontaneously establishing regularity within 5 years of menarche), and irregular cycles. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was self-reported cardiometabolic conditions, including obesity, prediabetes, type 1 and 2 diabetes, high cholesterol, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, arrhythmia, congestive heart failure, coronary artery disease, heart attack, heart valve disease, stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA), deep vein thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism measured using descriptive statistics and logistic regression to estimate prevalence odds ratios (PORs) and 95% CIs. Effect modification by lifestyle factors was also estimated. Results: The study sample (N = 60 789) had a mean (SD) age of 34.5 (11.1) years, with 12.3% having PCOS and 26.3% having prolonged time to regularity. Among a subset of 25 399 participants who completed the hormonal symptoms survey, 25.6% reported irregular cycles. In covariate-adjusted logistic regression models, PCOS was associated with a higher prevalence of all metabolic and several cardiovascular conditions, eg, arrhythmia (POR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.20-1.55), coronary artery disease (POR, 2.92; 95% CI, 1.95-4.29), heart attack (POR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.23-2.54), and stroke (POR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.21-2.24). Among participants without PCOS, prolonged time to regularity was associated with type 2 diabetes (POR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.05-1.46), hypertension (POR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.01-1.19), arrhythmia (POR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.06-1.35), and TIA (POR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.01-1.73), and having irregular cycles was associated with type 2 diabetes (POR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.08-1.69), high cholesterol (POR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.05-1.30), arrhythmia (POR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.02-1.43), and TIA (POR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.06-2.26). Some of these associations were modified by high vs low body mass index or low vs high physical activity. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that PCOS and irregular cycles may be independent markers for cardiometabolic conditions. Early screening and intervention among individuals with irregular menstrual cycles may be beneficial.


Assuntos
Síndrome do Ovário Policístico , Humanos , Feminino , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/epidemiologia , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/complicações , Estudos Transversais , Adulto , Distúrbios Menstruais/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem , Estudos de Coortes , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Alabama/epidemiologia
5.
South Med J ; 117(5): 221-225, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38701841

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Sixty-three percent of Latinos/as/x in Alabama, speak English "not well" or "not at all." Effective provider-patient communication is the foundation of successful clinical interactions. Medical interpretation is important to the healthcare provision for patients with limited English proficiency (LEP). We examined Alabama providers' perceptions of working with medical interpreters to identify strategies to improve healthcare provision for LEP patients. METHODS: We conducted nine semistructured qualitative interviews with primary healthcare providers in western Alabama. We used NVivo to conduct thematic coding and content analysis. RESULTS: Of the nine providers, one self-identified as Latina and the others identified as White. Four participants worked in community clinics and five worked at university-based clinics. Four themes emerged: preference for in-person interpreters over technology-based interpretation; providers' perceptions and expectations of the roles of professional interpreters; challenges in the communication process; and use of family members or other ad hoc interpreters. CONCLUSIONS: To meet the needs of Latino/a/x communities, clinical settings should invest in adequate staffing of in-person interpreters, infrastructure and workflow improvements, and the hiring and training of polylingual providers. Capacity-building opportunities to establish team building between interpreters and providers could be useful tools in improving healthcare provision for LEP patients.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Feminino , Alabama , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Hispânico ou Latino/psicologia , Hispânico ou Latino/estatística & dados numéricos , Tradução , Barreiras de Comunicação , Proficiência Limitada em Inglês , Entrevistas como Assunto , Adulto , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia
6.
J Environ Manage ; 359: 120983, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38703645

RESUMO

Managing surface water quality is a global challenge, and understanding spatial and temporal patterns of water quality is a key component to effective management. However, analysis of spatiotemporal patterns of impaired waters over broad areas is sparse due to disparate water quality data and variable water quality standards. Thus, here we leverage the Alabama 303(d) List of impaired waters to present a new perspective for investigating spatiotemporal water quality patterns. Every two years, each state in the United States is required to assess its surface water quality and compile a list of impaired waterbodies, meaning waters that do not meet water quality standards for their designated usage - referred to as the 303(d) List. The purpose of the 303(d) List is to identify impaired waters so that corrective action can be taken to reduce pollutant loads and, ultimately, improve water quality. Using GIS, a space time cube was created to analyze and visualize spatiotemporal patterns of the impaired rivers added to the Alabama 303(d) Lists from 1996 to 2022. For this analysis, the percentage of river length impaired out of the total river length, and number of times each impairment cause was listed, were summarized within Alabama sub-basins (Hydrologic Unit Code 8) (n = 51). Trend and hot spot analyses were conducted on the river impairment and causes. There was an up trend in river impairment for eight sub-basins across the state and a downtrend in one sub-basin. Over half of the sub-basins with an up trend in impairment also had an up trend in the number of times pathogens was listed as a cause of impairment. Additionally, coastal sub-basins were found to be a hot spot for river impairment. Interestingly, there was a down trend in the number of times nutrients, ammonia, and siltation were listed as a cause of impairment at the state and sub-basin scales of analysis. Altogether, these findings show the use of spatiotemporal pattern analysis of impaired waters and can indicate where, both spatially and by pollutant, management should prioritize water quality improvement efforts.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Rios , Qualidade da Água , Alabama
8.
Microbiol Spectr ; 12(5): e0367423, 2024 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578091

RESUMO

Vibrio is a genus of halophilic, gram-negative bacteria found in estuaries around the globe. Integral parts of coastal cultures often involve contact with vectors of pathogenic Vibrio spp. (e.g., consuming raw shellfish). High rates of mortality from certain Vibrio spp. infections demonstrate the need for an improved understanding of Vibrio spp. dynamics in estuarine regions. Our study assessed meteorological, hydrographic, and biological correlates of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus at 10 sites in the Eastern Mississippi Sound System (EMSS) from April to October 2019. During the sampling period, median abundances of V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus were 2.31 log MPN/L and 2.90 log MPN/L, respectively. Vibrio spp. dynamics were largely driven by site-based variation, with sites closest to freshwater inputs having the highest abundances. The E-W wind scalar, which affects Ekman transport, was a novel Vibrio spp. correlate observed. A potential salinity effect on bacterial-particle associations was identified, where V. vulnificus was associated with larger particles in conditions outside of their optimal salinity. Additionally, V. vulnificus abundances were correlated to those of harmful algal species that did not dominate community chlorophyll. Correlates from this study may be used to inform the next iteration of regionally predictive Vibrio models and may lend additional insight to Vibrio spp. ecology in similar systems. IMPORTANCE: Vibrio spp. are bacteria found in estuaries worldwide; some species can cause illness and infections in humans. Relationships between Vibrio spp. abundance, salinity, and temperature are well documented, but correlations to other environmental parameters are less understood. This study identifies unique correlates (e.g., E-W wind scalar and harmful algal species) that could potentially inform the next iteration of predictive Vibrio models for the EMSS region. Additionally, these correlates may allow existing environmental monitoring efforts to be leveraged in providing data inputs for future Vibrio risk models. An observed correlation between salinity and V. vulnificus/particle-size associations suggests that predicted environmental changes may affect the abundance of Vibrio spp. in certain reservoirs, which may alter which vectors present the greatest vibrio risk.


Assuntos
Estuários , Vibrio parahaemolyticus , Vibrio vulnificus , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/isolamento & purificação , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vibrio vulnificus/isolamento & purificação , Vibrio vulnificus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Alabama , Dinâmica Populacional , Salinidade , Vibrioses/microbiologia , Vibrioses/epidemiologia , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Microbiologia da Água
9.
JAMA ; 331(13): 1085-1086, 2024 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38436997

RESUMO

This Viewpoint breaks down the myriad ways the Alabama Supreme Court decision to declare frozen embryos as legal equivalents to children harms the health of mothers and fetuses, limits reproductive decision-making based on genetics and out-of-reach costs, and impedes research.


Assuntos
Regulamentação Governamental , Jurisprudência , Medicina Reprodutiva , Governo Estadual , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Aborto Legal/legislação & jurisprudência , Alabama , Medicina Reprodutiva/legislação & jurisprudência , Estados Unidos
10.
JAMA ; 331(13): 1083-1084, 2024 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38436995

RESUMO

This Viewpoint discusses the Alabama Supreme Court's opinion on in vitro fertilization and how it plays into a larger push for fetal and embryonic personhood.


Assuntos
Política , Direitos Sexuais e Reprodutivos , Criança , Humanos , Alabama , Estados Unidos , Direitos Sexuais e Reprodutivos/legislação & jurisprudência , Estruturas Embrionárias
11.
Parasit Vectors ; 17(1): 161, 2024 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38553770

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Veterinary knowledge regarding feline heartworm has been increasing significantly over the past two decades. Necropsy surveys of shelter cats have shown feline adult heartworm infection prevalence to be 5-20% of the rate in unprotected dogs; however, other studies have shown feline heartworm antibody prevalence up to 33%, reflecting higher exposure rates and potential immature adult infections. Thus, the true prevalence of feline heartworm infection is likely underestimated due to the limitations of current diagnostic techniques, inadequate testing protocols, and the high likelihood of cats exhibiting transient clinical signs or dying without confirmation of infection. Diagnosing Feline Heartworm Disease (FHWD), also referred to as Heartworm Associated Respiratory Disease (HARD), is one of the conundrums of veterinary medicine. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and characterize the occurrence of Heartworm Associated Respiratory Disease [HARD] in shelter cats, naturally-infected with D.immitis. METHODS: Fifty shelter cats slated for euthanasia between December 2009 and June 2010 were investigated by gross necropsy, radiography, serology, and lung histopathology using techniques that have been established in experimental models of cat heartworm infection. The relationship between pulmonary vascular disease and serological markers for heartworm was also examined using correlations and statistical modeling. Serology included standard heartworm antigen test and a commonly used heartworm antibody test. Also included were heat-treated heartworm antigen test and two additional heartworm antibody tests previously evaluated on experimentally-infected cats. RESULTS: None of the cats were heartworm antibody (HW Ab) positive on a commonly used HW Ab test used by many reference laboratories even though 20% of the study cats were heartworm antigen (HW Ag) positive on heat-treated samples. Two additional HW Ab test were positive on 26% and 22% of the study cats. The combination of heat-treated HW Ag, HW Ab tests, and histopathology indicated 34% of the study cats had HARD. CONCLUSIONS: Utilizing both, the above tests, and thoracic radiographs, enhanced the ability to predict vascular disease, possibly caused by infection with immature and adult heartworms and supported the premise that cats develop heartworm disease at the same rate as dogs.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Dirofilaria immitis , Dirofilariose , Doenças Vasculares , Animais , Gatos , Alabama , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/patologia , Dirofilariose/diagnóstico , Dirofilariose/epidemiologia , Dirofilariose/patologia , Pulmão/patologia , Doenças Vasculares/patologia
13.
Environ Manage ; 73(5): 1032-1048, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38466407

RESUMO

Successful management of invasive species often requires working across public and private landownerships. A prime example of an invasive species that commonly occurs on privately and publicly owned and managed lands is the wild pig (Sus scrofa). Because of the multitude of negative impacts associated with wild pigs, management must occur across both private and public lands to achieve widespread control and sustained success. However, managing wild pigs across property boundaries is challenging as we know very little about differing management practices and landowner perspectives. To address this knowledge gap, we sought to understand wild pig management efforts on privately owned lands, the perceived economic, ecological, and human health impact of wild pigs, and beliefs related to policy. Generally, stakeholders believe wild pigs have negative impacts on wildlife, the economy, and ecological and public health, however less than half of landowners participate in wild pig control. Furthermore, stakeholders believe that the responsibility of managing and paying for damages associated with wild pigs lies with individual landowners. Our findings suggest that increased efficacy of wild pig control and collaboration between private and public landowners is not only possible but also necessary if wild pig population control is to be regionally successful.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Animais , Humanos , Alabama , Espécies Introduzidas , Políticas
14.
Breastfeed Med ; 19(4): 256-261, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38502815

RESUMO

Objective: We sought to evaluate breastfeeding (BF) practices in patients with maternal cardiac disease (MCD) stratified by area deprivation index (ADI) to identity communities at risk. Study Design: Retrospective cohort of patients managed by the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) Cardio-Obstetrics Program. Patients were included if they had ≥1 prenatal visit with the Cardio-Obstetrics team, delivered at UAB, and had a street address on file. The primary outcome was BF rate at hospital discharge. Secondary outcomes included BF intent on admission and BF at the postpartum (PP) visit. ADI reports socioeconomic disadvantage at the census tract level; 1 = least deprived and 100 = most deprived. Baseline characteristics and BF rates were compared by ADI categories: Low (ADI 1-33), medium (ADI 34-66), and high (ADI 67-100). Results: One hundred and forty-eight patients were included: 14 (10%) low, 42 (28%) medium, and 92 (62%) high ADI. Patients in the high ADI category were younger relative to those in the medium or low ADI (26 versus 28 versus 32 years; p < 0.01) and less likely to be married or living with a partner (30.4% versus 58.5% versus 71.4%; p < 0.01), There was no difference in BF intent between the lowest, medium, and highest ADI categories (85.7% versus 85.4% versus 81.6%; p = 0.38) or BF rates at hospital discharge (100% versus 92.7% versus 85.6%, p = 0.23). However, there was a significant difference in BF rates at the PP visit (90% versus 63.0% versus 38.6%; p < 0.01) even after controlling for differences in baseline characteristics (odds ratio = 0.11 (95% confidence interval [0.01-0.93]), p = 0.043). Conclusions: There was an association between living in a resource-poor community and early cessation of BF in our population of patients with MCD. Community-based interventions targeting mothers with heart disease living in high ADI communities may help these individuals achieve higher BF rates.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Cardiopatias , Humanos , Feminino , Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto , Gravidez , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Alabama/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Recém-Nascido , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Mães/psicologia
15.
J Fish Dis ; 47(6): e13937, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38440909

RESUMO

The guppy, Poecilia reticulata, is one of the most common cultured ornamental fish species, and a popular pet fish highly desired by hobbyists worldwide due to its availability of many brilliantly coloured fish of many varieties. The susceptibility of guppies to diseases presents a remarkable concern for both breeders and hobbyists. In this study, we report the emergence of disease in fancy guppies caused by a previously uncharacterized virus in the USA. This virus was isolated from moribund guppies in two separate outbreaks in California and Alabama, from December 2021 to June 2023. The infected guppies presented with acute morbidity and mortality shortly after shipping, displaying nonspecific clinical signs and gross changes including lethargy, anorexia, swimming at the water surface, gill pallor, mild to moderate coelomic distension and occasional skin lesions including protruding scales, skin ulcers and hyperaemia. Histological changes in affected fish were mild and nonspecific; however, liver and testes from moribund fish were positive for Tilapia lake virus (TiLV), the single described member in the family Amnoonviridae, using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, although the latter was weak. A virus was successfully recovered following tissue inoculation on epithelioma papulosum cyprini and snakehead fish cell lines. Whole genome sequencing and phylogenetic analyses revealed nucleotide and amino acid homologies from 78.3%-91.2%, and 78.2%-97.7%, respectively, when comparing the guppy virus genomes to TiLV isolates. Based on the criteria outlined herein, we propose the classification of this new virus, fancy tailed guppy virus (FTGV), as a member of the family Amnoonviridae, with the name Tilapinevirus poikilos (from the Greek 'poikilos', meaning of many colours; various sorts, akin to 'poecilia').


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes , Filogenia , Poecilia , Animais , Doenças dos Peixes/virologia , Doenças dos Peixes/patologia , Doenças dos Peixes/diagnóstico , California , Alabama
17.
JAMA Intern Med ; 184(5): 538-546, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38497987

RESUMO

Importance: Rural Black participants need effective intervention to achieve better blood pressure (BP) control. Objective: Among Black rural adults with persistently uncontrolled hypertension attending primary care clinics, to determine whether peer coaching (PC), practice facilitation (PF), or both (PCPF) are superior to enhanced usual care (EUC) in improving BP control. Design, Setting, and Participants: A cluster randomized clinical trial was conducted in 69 rural primary care practices across Alabama and North Carolina between September 23, 2016, and September 26, 2019. The participating practices were randomized to 4 groups: PC plus EUC, PF plus EUC, PCPF plus EUC, and EUC alone. The baseline EUC approach included a laptop for each participating practice with hyperlinks to participant education on hypertension, a binder of practice tips, a poster showing an algorithm for stepped care to improve BP, and 25 home BP monitors. The trial was stopped on February 28, 2021, after final data collection. The study included Black participants with persistently uncontrolled hypertension. Data were analyzed from February 28, 2021, to December 13, 2022. Interventions: Practice facilitators helped practices implement at least 4 quality improvement projects designed to improve BP control throughout 1 year. Peer coaches delivered a structured program via telephone on hypertension self-management throughout 1 year. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the proportion of participants in each trial group with BP values of less than 140/90 mm Hg at 6 months and 12 months. The secondary outcome was a change in the systolic BP of participants at 6 months and 12 months. Results: A total of 69 practices were randomized, and 1209 participants' data were included in the analysis. The mean (SD) age of participants was 58 (12) years, and 748 (62%) were women. In the intention-to-treat analyses, neither intervention alone nor in combination improved BP control or BP levels more than EUC (at 12 months, PF vs EUC odds ratio [OR], 0.94 [95% CI, 0.58-1.52]; PC vs EUC OR, 1.30 [95% CI, 0.83-2.04]; PCPF vs EUC OR, 1.02 [95% CI, 0.64-1.64]). In preplanned subgroup analyses, participants younger than 60 years in the PC and PCPF groups experienced a significant 5 mm Hg greater reduction in systolic BP than participants younger than 60 years in the EUC group at 12 months. Practicewide BP control estimates in PF groups suggested that BP control improved from 54% to 61%, a finding that was not observed in the trial's participants. Conclusions and Relevance: The results of this cluster randomized clinical trial demonstrated that neither PC nor PF demonstrated a superior improvement in overall BP control compared with EUC. However, PC led to a significant reduction in systolic BP among younger adults. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02866669.


Assuntos
Negro ou Afro-Americano , Hipertensão , Tutoria , Grupo Associado , Humanos , Hipertensão/terapia , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tutoria/métodos , North Carolina , População Rural , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Idoso , Alabama , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Adulto
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