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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253948, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355909

RESUMO

Abstract The assessment of the comparative effect of biosal (phytopesticide), deltamethrin, and lambda-cyhalothrin (pyrethroids) were made against two fodder pests, Hermolaus modestus and Hermolaus ocimumi by filter paper impregnation method. The activity of total protein contents, GPT (glutamic-pyruvic transaminase) and GOT (glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase) were affected in Hermolaus modestus and Hermolaus ocimumi against biosal, deltamethrin, and lambda cyhalothrin. The activity of total protein contents in H. modestus was 31.053%, 4.607%, and 24.575%, against biosal, deltamethrin, and lambda-cyhalothrin, respectively. The activity of total protein contents was observed as 24.202%, 15.25%, and 56.036% against deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, and biosal, respectively in H. ocimumi. The activity of GOT was observed as 98.675% for biosal 33.95% for deltamethrin and 83.619% for lambda-cyhalothrin in H. modestus. The GOT activity was estimated in H. ocimumi as 78.831%, 47.645%, and 71.287% against biosal, deltamethrin, and lambda-cyhalothrin, respectively. The efficacy of GPT enzyme against biosal, deltamethrin, and lambda-cyhalothrin was calculated as 89.26%, 73.07%, and 47.58%, respectively in H. modestus. The H. ocimumi showed GPT activity as 77.58% for biosal, 68.84% for deltamethrin, and 52.67% for lambda-cyhalothrin, respectively.


Resumo A avaliação do efeito comparativo do biosal (fitopesticida), deltametrina e lambda-cialotrina (piretróides) foi feita contra duas pragas forrageiras, Hermolaus modestus e Hermolaus ocimumi, pelo método de impregnação com papel de filtro. A atividade do conteúdo de proteína total, GPT (transaminase glutâmico-pirúvica) e GOT (oxaloacetato transaminase glutâmico) foram afetados em Hermolaus modestus e Hermolaus ocimumi contra biosal, deltametrina e lambda cialotrina. A atividade do conteúdo de proteína total em H. modestus foi 31.053%, 4.607% e 24.575%, contra biosal, deltametrina e lambda-cialotrina, respectivamente. A atividade do conteúdo de proteína total foi observada como 24.202%, 15.25% e 56,036% contra deltametrina, lambda-cialotrina e biosal, respectivamente em H. ocimumi. A atividade do GOT foi observada em 98.675% para o biosal, 33,95% para a deltametrina e 83.619% para a lambda-cialotrina em H. modestus. A atividade do GOT foi estimada em H. ocimumi como 78.831%, 47.645% e 71.287% contra biosal, deltametrina e lambda-cialotrina, respectivamente. A eficácia da enzima GPT contra biosal, deltametrina e lambda-cialotrina foi calculada como 89.26%, 73.07% e 47.58%, respectivamente em H. modestus. A H. ocimumi apresentou atividade GPT de 77.58% para biosal, 68.84% para deltametrina e 52.67% para lambda-cialotrina, respectivamente.


Assuntos
Animais , Piretrinas , Inseticidas , Heterópteros , Alanina Transaminase , Ração Animal , Nitrilas
2.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 47(9): 2500-2508, 2022 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35531697

RESUMO

This study aimed to explore the effects of Gynostemma pentaphyllum saponins(GPs) on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD) induced by high-fat diet in rats and reveal the underlying mechanism. The NAFLD model rats were prepared with high-fat diet. Forty male Sprague Dawley(SD) rats were randomly assigned into the control group, model group, and low-, moderate-, and high-dose GPs(50, 100, and 150 mg·kg~(-1), respectively) groups. After intragastric administration for 8 continuous weeks, we determined the body weight, liver weight, the levels of total cholesterol(TC), triglyceride(TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-c), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-c), alanine aminotransferase(ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase(AST) in serum, and the levels of TC, TG, malondialdehyde(MDA), superoxide dismutase(SOD), catalase(CAT), and interleukin 6(IL-6) in the liver. Furthermore, we observed the pathological changes of liver tissue by oil red O staining and hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining, sequenced the 16 S rRNA of the intestinal flora in rat feces, and determined the content of short-chain fatty acids in rat feces. The results showed that GPs inhibited the excessive weight gain of high-fat diet-induced NAFLD in rats, reduced the liver weight, lowered the TC, TG, LDL-c, AST, and ALT levels in serum(P<0.05), and rose the HDL-c level in serum(P<0.01). GPs relieved the liver damage caused by high-fat diet, mainly manifested by the lowered levels of TC, TG, MDA, and IL-6 in the liver(P<0.01) and elevated levels of CAT and SOD in the liver. Furthermore, GPs reversed the intestinal flora disorder caused by high-fat diet, restored the diversity of intestinal flora, increased the relative abundance of Bacteroides, and reduced the relative abundance of Firmicutes and the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroides. Moreover, GPs promoted the proliferation of beneficial bacteria such as Akkermansia, Bacteroides, and Parabacteroides, and inhibited the growth of harmful bacteria such as Desulfovibrio, Escherichia-Shigella, and Helicobacter. GPs increased the content of short-chain fatty acids(acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid)(P<0.01). These findings indicate that GPs can alleviate the high-fat diet-induced NAFLD in rats via regulating the intestinal flora and short-chain fatty acid metabolism.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Saponinas , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Animais , LDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , LDL-Colesterol/farmacologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Gynostemma , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Fígado , Masculino , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Saponinas/farmacologia , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
3.
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi ; 30(4): 389-394, 2022 Apr 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35545563

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of nucleos(t)ide analogues in the treatment of HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B with normal alanine aminotransferase and high level of HBV DNA. Methods: Treatment-naïve chronic hepatitis B patients who were followed up at the Center of Infectious Diseases, West China Hospital of Sichuan University from January 2019 to January 2020 were selected as subjects. Demographic characteristics, the results of laboratory examination before treatment and one year after treatment were retrospectively collected. Patients were divided into tenofovir dipivoxil (TDF) and propofol fumurate tenofovir (TAF) treatment group according to different types of medication. The changes of serum HBV DNA level, HBeAg serological conversion and HBsAg quantitative level were analyzed and compared between the two groups. Results: A total of 38 cases were enrolled. Among them, there were 16 and 22 cases in the TDF and TAF group, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in demographic characteristics, baseline HBV DNA levels and HBsAg quantitative levels between the two groups. Virological response was achieved in 60.5% (23/38) of patients after one year of antiviral therapy. Serum HBV DNA levels below the lower limit of detection [68.2% (15/22) vs. 50.0% (8/16), P=0.258] and higher HBeAg seroconversion rate [18.2%] (4/22) vs. 6.3% (1/16), P=0.374] was obtained in TAF than TDF group; however, there was no statistically significant differences between the two. Serum HBsAg quantitative level was significantly reduced with TDF and TAF treatment. In addition, alanine aminotransferase elevation was reduced in TAF than TDF treated group. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that patient age was an independent predictor of a virological response to antiviral therapy. Conclusion: HBeAg-positive CHB patients with normal alanine aminotransferase, and high HBV DNA level can obtain better curative effect after TDF and TAF treatment.


Assuntos
Hepatite B Crônica , Alanina Transaminase , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , DNA Viral , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B , Antígenos E da Hepatite B , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tenofovir/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Clin Lab ; 68(5)2022 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35536082

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Highly infectious viruses such as SARS-CoV-2, MERS-CoV, and Ebola virus represent a threat to clinical laboratory workers. We aimed to investigate how virus inactivation by heating at 60°C for 1 hour affects routine clinical laboratory indicators. METHODS: Each collected serum sample was separated into two aliquots, and various indicators were measured in first aliquot after inactivation by heating at 60°C for 1 hour and in the second after room-temperature incubation for 1 hour. RESULTS: Serological test results for 36 indicators remained mostly unaffected by heat inactivation, with a mean estimated bias of < 10%. By contrast, the results for alanine transaminase, pseudocholinesterase, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, cardiac troponin I, and myoglobin were affected by heat inactivation, with the mean esti-mated bias here being > 20%, which was further increased in the case of the results for alkaline phosphatase, lipase, and creatine kinase isoenzyme MB. Immunological serological measurements showed good agreement according to Kappa consistency checks after heat inactivation of serum. The results for alanine transaminase, pseudocholinesterase, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, cardiac troponin I, and myoglobin were significantly correlated (r > 0.95) after heat inactivation, and after correction by using a regression equation, the results for the indicators still retained a clinical reference value. CONCLUSIONS: Inactivation by heating at 60°C for 1 hour exerts no marked effect on numerous routine biochemical and immunological indicators in serum, but the detection values for certain items are significantly decreased. Our method could serve as reference strategy for routine serological diagnostics in patients with suspected or confirmed infection with highly pathogenic viruses.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Inativação de Vírus , Alanina Transaminase , Butirilcolinesterase , Creatina Quinase , Creatina Quinase Forma MB , Calefação , Humanos , Lactato Desidrogenases , Mioglobina , SARS-CoV-2 , Troponina I
5.
BMC Pharmacol Toxicol ; 23(1): 29, 2022 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35526079

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thioacetamide (TAA) is used in various fields, such as synthetic drugs, organic chemical synthesis, and materials chemistry. TAA is mainly used to establish animal liver injury models and other organ damage models to explore their mechanisms for helping patients with liver disease. Liver damage can lead to abnormal expression of some enzymes in the serum, so we detected the appropriate enzyme levels in the serum of SD rats to verify the damage of TAA to the liver. More importantly, TAA caused bone damage is barely understood. Therefore, our research aims to establish a rat model reflecting the acute bone damage injury caused by TAA. METHODS: The SD rats were intraperitoneally injected with normal saline (0.9%) or TAA (200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg) for 1 month (once the other day). After the last intraperitoneal injection, serum samples from rats were used for biochemical tests. Masson staining is used to detect liver damage, and micro-CT is used to detect the changes in bone. Moreover, the three-point bending experiment was used to detect the force range of the hind limbs of SD rats. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, after the intraperitoneal injection of TAA, the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), uric acid (UA), total bile acid (TBA), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), carbamide (UREA) and creatinine (CREA) rose sharply, while the levels of serum content of total protein (TP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) were severely reduced. After TAA administration, collagen fibers were deposited and liver fibrosis was obvious. Micro-CT results showed that the bone surface, tissue surface, bone volume, and tissue volume of rats with an intraperitoneal injection of TAA were significantly reduced. In addition, the bones of rats with an intraperitoneal injection of TAA can resist less pressure and are prone to fractures. CONCLUSIONS: TAA can cause liver damage in SD rats, which is explained by the changes in serum biochemical indicators and the deposition of liver collagen. More importantly, TAA can reduce bone mineral density and increase the separation of bone trabeculae in SD rats, and finally lead to bone injury. This suggests that TAA may become an ideal model to investigate abnormal bone metabolism after liver injury.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos , Fígado , Tioacetamida , Alanina Transaminase , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Osso e Ossos/fisiopatologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Tioacetamida/toxicidade
6.
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 54(2): 272-277, 2022 Apr 18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35435191

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of hepatitis B virus (HBV) on helper T lymphocytes 17 (Th17), regulatory T lymphocyte (Treg) and Th17/Treg ratio in chronic hepatitis B patients in different alanine aminetransferase (ALT) stages. METHODS: In the study, 336 chronic hepatitis B patients in the first hospital of Lanzhou University were analyzed. The hepatitis B antigen antibody parameters were measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay analyzer, the liver function parameters were measured by automatic biochemical analyzer, the HBV loads were measured by quantitative PCR, Th17, Treg and Th17/Treg ratios were detected by flow cytometry. Among them, 111 cases (ALT < 40 U/L) of ALT were normal hepatitis B, 108 cases of chronic hepatitis B with ALT above normal upper limit and < 2 times higher (40 U/L≤ALT < 80 U/L), and 117 cases of chronic hepatitis B with ALT above 2 times normal upper limit (80 U/L≤ALT). According to the viral load, they were divided into low replication group with HBV DNA < 4.0 lg copies/mL, medium replication group with 4.0 lg copies/mL≤HBV DNA < 6.0 lg copies/mL and high replication group with HBV DNA ≥ 6.0 lg copies / mL. Dunnett T3 variance analysis were used to analyze the effects of HBV on Th17, Treg and Th17/Treg ratio in the chronic hepatitis B patients in different ALT stages. The changes of virological and immunological indexes before and after treatment were observed for 24 weeks of antiviral therapy in the hepatitis B patients with ALT≥double upper limit of normal group. RESULTS: In the ALT normal group, different virus load HBV had minor effects on Th17, Treg and Th17/Treg ratio. In the ALT≥2 times upper limit of normal group, with the virus load increased, Th17 (3.18%±0.79% in low replication group, 3.78%±0.92% in medium replication group and 4.57%±1.15% in high replication group), Treg cells (5.52%±1.58% in low replication group, 5.89%±1.84% in medium replication group and 6.37%±2.35% in high replication group) and their ratio Th17/Treg (0.57±0.25 in low replication group, 0.65±0.29 in medium replication group and 0.73±0.36 in high replication group) were significantly increased (P < 0.05). After entecavir treatment 24 weeks, the patient' s HBV-DNA decreased significantly, Th17 (3.89%±1.02% vs. 2.06%±0.46%), Treg (6.02%±2.03% vs. 5.06%±1.25%), Th17/Treg ratio (0.65±0.28 vs. 0.41±0.14) decreased significantly (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Investigation on the effects of HBV on Th17 and Treg cells and their ratios in different ALT states can clarify the effects of HBV on the body from the immunological perspective and can further understand the ALT grouping for antiviral treatment theoretical significance, which is helpful for clinical treatment.


Assuntos
Hepatite B Crônica , Hepatite B , Alanina/farmacologia , Alanina/uso terapêutico , Alanina Transaminase/farmacologia , Alanina Transaminase/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/farmacologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , DNA Viral/farmacologia , DNA Viral/uso terapêutico , Hepatite B/tratamento farmacológico , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Linfócitos T Reguladores
7.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 70(4): 11-12, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35443454

RESUMO

Corona virus disease is a global pandemic. One of the key issues has been the very high volume of patients presenting to health centres or hospitals during the outbreak. It clearly overwhelms the human and mechanistic capacities available. Therefore, early and effective predictors of clinical outcomes are required for risk stratification. MATERIAL: This is hospital based retrospective study on patients who were admitted in Covid wards/ICU at IGGMC. Patients were divided into 3 groups- mild-moderate; severe; and critical based on their clinical presentation on admission. Several biomarkers like WBC, platelets, N/L, CRP, LDH, S. ferritin, d-dimer, CPK-MB, Serum creatinine, BUL, SGOT, SGPT, Serum albumin were analysed before and after treatment. OBSERVATION: 110 patients were enrolled in this study, 36 were classified into mild-moderate, 56 into severe and 18 into critical. As all of mild-moderate patients were discharged and majority of critical patients expired, biomarkers were compared between severe patients who were discharged vs severe patients who died. Out of these biomarkers, CRP was significantly decreased during course of treatment in severe patients who were discharged (p = 0.004) in comparison to severe patients who died where CRP was significantly increased (p = 0.001) (p value of difference being 0.00001). There was also significant change in ferritin levels (p = 0.006), while other biomarkers like WBC (p = 0.07), platelets (p = 0.066), N/L (p = 0.3), LDH (p = 0.06), d-dimer (p = 0.1), CPK-MB (p = 0.49), serum creatinine (p = 0.05), urea (p = 0.06), S. albumin (p= 0.3), SGOT (p =0.07), SGPT (p=0.25) did not show promising results. In addition, various treatment protocols were analysed by comparing CRP before and after treatment. Severe patients were divided into 2 groups, who took injection Remdesivir along with antibiotics, LMWH, systemic steroids vs who didn't, and CRP level were compared, but the difference was not significant (p = 0.06). Pre and post treatment CRP was also compared for Tocilizumab, Fevipiravir, Hydroxychloroquine, Doxycyline, but none of them were able to decrease CRP significantly (p > 0.05) in the severe or critical group but these drugs were effective in reducing CRP significantly (p<0.05) when given in mild-moderate group or if the treatment was started early. CONCLUSION: Increment in CRP and ferritin could effectively predict clinical outcome and could be used for risk stratification but no available drug is effective in reducing these biomarkers significantly in severe or critical group.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular , Alanina Transaminase , Aspartato Aminotransferases , Biomarcadores , Creatinina , Ferritinas , Humanos , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 70(4): 11-12, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35443492

RESUMO

Progressive deterioration of liver functions for more than 6 months is considered Chronic liver disease (CLD). Hepatic fibrosis occurs in response to chronic liver injury. The gold standard for assessment of hepatic fibrosis is Liver biopsy, which is an invasive and painful procedure. and rarely can pass on potential life-threatening complications. Thus non-invasive tests that can correctly indicate the severity of liver fibrosis is essential. A number of non-invasive markers have been developed which are useful supplements to assess stages of fibrosis. These are biomarkers (aspartate transaminase (AST) to alanine transaminase (ALT) ratio (AAR), AST to Platelet Ratio Index (APRI), fibrosis index (FI), fibrosis-4 (FIB-4), Age Platelet Index (API), Pohl score, Fibrosis Cirrhosis Index (FCI)) and transient elastography. In our study, we will compare Novel Fibrosis Index (NFI) with other available noninvasive serum indices and transient elastography in predicting Liver Fibrosis Stages. NFI=[(bilirubin×(ALP)2)/ (platelet count (albumin)2)]-n, where n=2000 is a constant. MATERIAL: In this study, a total of 142 cases of confirmed Chronic liver disease were included. All the patients underwent transient elastography and routine hematological and biochemical investigations. Fibrosis staging was done according to Metavir staging (F0-F4) using the fibroscan score. Then the serum indices for predicting liver fibrosis were calculated and compared for various fibrosis stages with Novel Fibrosis index. OBSERVATION: Out of 142 patients, the majority of the patients belonged to age above 40 years and were males(65%). The majority of the patients belonged to F4 fibrosis stage(77.4%) and the most common etiology of Chronic liver disease was Viral hepatitis(47%), the most common being Hepatitis B.The optimum cutoff of NFI for F4 stage was ≥6670 with a sensitivity of 75.8% and specificity of 81.8%. The optimum cutoff of NFI for F3 stage was ≥2112 with a sensitivity of 63.6% and specificity of 72.7%.%. The optimum cutoff of NFI for F2 stage was ≥1334 with a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 5.3%.The NFI had maximum area under the curve compared to other indices in predicting F2,F3 and F4 stage. CONCLUSION: NFI was the best index in predicting various fibrosis stages in chronic liver disease patients compared to other available serum indices and had maximum accuracy in predicting F4 stage.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade , Adulto , Alanina Transaminase , Aspartato Aminotransferases , Biomarcadores , Biópsia , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade/efeitos adversos , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade/métodos , Feminino , Fibrose , Humanos , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Cirrose Hepática/etiologia , Masculino
9.
Cell Rep ; 39(4): 110733, 2022 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35476997

RESUMO

Hepatic gluconeogenesis from amino acids contributes significantly to diabetic hyperglycemia, but the molecular mechanisms involved are incompletely understood. Alanine transaminases (ALT1 and ALT2) catalyze the interconversion of alanine and pyruvate, which is required for gluconeogenesis from alanine. We find that ALT2 is overexpressed in the liver of diet-induced obese and db/db mice and that the expression of the gene encoding ALT2 (GPT2) is downregulated following bariatric surgery in people with obesity. The increased hepatic expression of Gpt2 in db/db liver is mediated by activating transcription factor 4, an endoplasmic reticulum stress-activated transcription factor. Hepatocyte-specific knockout of Gpt2 attenuates incorporation of 13C-alanine into newly synthesized glucose by hepatocytes. In vivo Gpt2 knockdown or knockout in liver has no effect on glucose concentrations in lean mice, but Gpt2 suppression alleviates hyperglycemia in db/db mice. These data suggest that ALT2 plays a significant role in hepatic gluconeogenesis from amino acids in diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Hiperglicemia , Alanina/farmacologia , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Gluconeogênese , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Obesidade/metabolismo
10.
Int J Artif Organs ; 45(5): 523-532, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35416082

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute liver failure (ALF), which can potentially be treated with an artificial liver, is a fatal condition. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of a novel hybrid bioartificial liver system (NHBLS) using simulated liver failure serum in vitro. METHODS: The bioreactor in experimental group was cultivated with primary porcine hepatocytes, whereas in control group was not. Next, the simulated liver failure serum was treated using the NHBLS for 10 h. Changes in albumin (ALB), total bilirubin (TBIL), ammonia (Amm), total bile acid (TBA), creatinine (Cr), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were measured before treatment (0 h) and every 2 h during treatment. In addition, changes in NHBLS pressures, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lidocaine metabolism were also recorded. RESULTS: The NHBLS worked steadily without unexpected occurrences during the treatment. Blood culture showed no bacterial growth after 7 days, and the endotoxin level was less than 0.5 EU. The TBIL, TBA, Cr, and BUN levels in both groups were markedly lower than those at 0 h (p < 0.05). The Amm level in experimental group was significantly lower than that in control group (p < 0.05). NHBLS pressures were also stable, and the hepatocytes in the bioreactor functioned well. CONCLUSIONS: The preparation method for the simulated liver failure serum was optimized successfully, and the safety and effectiveness of the NHBLS in vitro were verified. Furthermore, the NHBLS significantly reduced the levels of Amm which can lead to hepatic encephalopathy.


Assuntos
Falência Hepática Aguda , Fígado Artificial , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Animais , Bilirrubina , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Falência Hepática Aguda/terapia , Suínos
11.
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi ; 30(3): 290-296, 2022 Mar 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35462485

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy, establish a diagnostic model, and value of ultrasound attenuation parameters (UAP) to diagnose hepatic steatosis in metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) and its relevant disorders. Methods: 3770 cases were selected from the Health Examination Center of the Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University between October to December 2020. MAFLD diagnosis was based on the Asia-Pacific region MAFLD clinical diagnosis and treatment guidelines. The degree of hepatic steatosis was divided into mild, moderate and severe according to ultrasound imaging. UAP, clinical characteristic indexes, serum biochemical indexes, characteristics of hepatic steatosis and related factors were compared and analyzed in MAFLD patients and healthy controls. Logistic regression method was used to analyze the independent risk factors affecting the progression of hepatic steatosis in MAFLD to establish the diagnostic model. The clinical efficacy of UAP and the new model in diagnosing MAFLD was evaluated by the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC). One-way ANOVA was used to compare means among multiple groups. Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare non-normally distributed measurement data between the two groups, and rank-sum test was used to compare multiple groups. χ2 test was used to compare count data between groups. Results: Among the 3 770 cases, 650 were MAFLD, with a prevalence rate of 17.24%, and the highest prevalence was 37.23% in the age group of 60-69. The prevalence rate was significantly higher in male than female (30.34% vs. 9.17%). Age-sex analysis showed that the prevalence rate in males aged 30-69 years was 38.26%, and that in females aged over 60 years was 31.94%. UAP was significantly higher in patients with MAFLD than healthy controls (278.55 dB/m vs. 220.90 dB/m, Z=-12.592, P<0.001), and an increasing trend with increased degree of hepatic steatosis (mild:257.20 dB/m, moderate:286.20 dB/m, and severe: 315.00 dB/m) were observed. The cut-off values of UAP for the diagnosis of mild, moderate and severe hepatic steatosis were 243≤UAP<258 dB/m, 258≤UAP<293 dB/m, ≥293 dB/m in MAFLD. The sensitivity and specificity were 67.20%, 93.60%, 95.90%, and 82.10%, 72.00%, and 84.80%, respectively. UAP, alanine aminotransferase and fasting blood glucose were independent risk factors for the progression of hepatic steatosis in MAFLD. The combined MAFLD classification model (UAG model) was established. The AUC of mild, moderate and severe hepatic steatosis in MAFLD were 0.906, 0.907, and 0.946, respectively, and the sensitivity and specificity were 76.50%, 82.10%, 98.00%, and 90.80%, 83.30% and 76.10%, respectively. Conclusion: MAFLD is a common disease in the general population, with a higher incidence in male and elderly female over 30 years of age. UAP can be used as a new noninvasive diagnostic technique to evaluate hepatic steatosis in MAFLD. The UAG model has a good diagnostic efficacy on MAFLD and its relevant disorders, and thus can be used as a guide for evaluating clinical diagnosis and prognosis.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Adulto , Idoso , Alanina Transaminase , Feminino , Humanos , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico por imagem , Curva ROC , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Ultrassonografia/métodos
12.
Molecules ; 27(7)2022 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35408620

RESUMO

The present study was designed to examine the efficacy and protection mechanisms of sea buckthorn sterol (SBS) against acute liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rats. Five-week-old male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into six groups and fed with saline (Group BG), 50% CCl4 (Group MG), or bifendate 200 mg/kg (Group DDB), or treated with low-dose (Group LD), medium-dose (Group MD), or high-dose (Group HD) SBS. This study, for the first time, observed the protection of SBS against CCl4-induced liver injury in rats and its underlying mechanisms. Investigation of enzyme activities showed that SBS-fed rats exhibited a significant alleviation of inflammatory lesions, as evidenced by the decrease in cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GT). In addition, compared to the MG group, the increased indices (superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), and total protein (TP)) of lipid peroxidation and decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) in liver tissues of SBS-treated groups showed the anti-lipid peroxidation effects of SBS. Using the wide range of targeted technologies and a combination of means (UPLC-MS/MS detection platform, self-built database, and multivariate statistical analysis), the addition of SBS was found to restore the expression of metabolic pathways (e.g., L-malic acid, N-acetyl-aspartic acid, N-acetyl-l-alanine, etc.) in rats, which means that the metabolic damage induced by CCl4 was alleviated. Furthermore, transcriptomics was employed to analyze and compare gene expression levels of different groups. It showed that the expressions of genes (Cyp1a1, Noct, and TUBB6) related to liver injury were regulated by SBS. In conclusion, SBS exhibited protective effects against CCl4-induced liver injury in rats. The liver protection mechanism of SBS is probably related to the regulation of metabolic disorders, anti-lipid peroxidation, and inhibition of the inflammatory response.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Crônica Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Hippophae , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Tetracloreto de Carbono/efeitos adversos , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Doença Hepática Crônica Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Cromatografia Líquida , Hippophae/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Fígado , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Esteróis/farmacologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
13.
J Med Case Rep ; 16(1): 143, 2022 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35395817

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus infection is a global public health problem. Although hepatitis B virus primarily affects hepatocytes, it sometimes develops disease manifestations outside the liver, such as myopathy, which is commonly caused by chronic hepatitis B. CASE PRESENTATION: This case report describes a 57-year-old Iranian woman admitted to the hospital with jaundice, fever, body itching, abdominal pain, progressive muscle weakness, icteric sclera, right upper quadrant pain, and decreased muscle force. Examination on the first day of admission revealed that the patient was negative for hepatitis D antibody, positive for hepatitis B core (IgM) antibody, positive for hepatitis B surface antigen, and negative for hepatitis B e antibody but positive for hepatitis B e antigen. Moreover, she showed high levels of hepatitis B virus DNA viral load, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, and alkaline phosphatase, and electromyography/nerve conduction velocity showed acute myopathic process. CONCLUSIONS: Interestingly, myopathy symptoms improved after improving hepatitis symptoms and decreasing hepatitis B viral load, suggesting a close association between hepatitis B infection and myopathy.


Assuntos
Hepatite B , Icterícia , Doenças Musculares , Alanina Transaminase , Bilirrubina , Feminino , Hepatite B/complicações , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
14.
Clin Transl Med ; 12(4): e546, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35474299

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is considered an inherent component of organ transplantation that compromises transplant outcomes and organ availability. The ischemia-free liver transplantation (IFLT) procedure has been developed to avoid interruption of blood supply to liver grafts. It is unknown how IFLT might change the characteristics of graft IRI. METHODS: Serum and liver biopsy samples were collected from IFLT and conventional liver transplantation (CLT) recipients. Pathological, metabolomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics analyses were performed to identify the characteristic changes in graft IRI in IFLT. RESULTS: Peak aspartate aminotransferase (539.59 ± 661.76 U/L versus 2622.28 ± 3291.57 U/L) and alanine aminotransferase (297.64 ± 549.50 U/L versus 1184.16 ± 1502.76 U/L) levels within the first 7 days and total bilirubin levels by day 7 (3.27 ± 2.82 mg/dl versus 8.33 ± 8.76 mg/dl) were lower in the IFLT versus CLT group (all p values < 0.001). The pathological characteristics of IRI were more obvious in CLT grafts. The antioxidant pentose phosphate pathway remained active throughout the procedure in IFLT grafts and was suppressed during preservation and overactivated postrevascularization in CLT grafts. Gene transcriptional reprogramming was almost absent during IFLT but was profound during CLT. Proteomics analysis showed that "metabolism of RNA" was the major differentially expressed process between the two groups. Several proinflammatory pathways were not activated post-IFLT as they were post-CLT. The activities of natural killer cells, macrophages, and neutrophils were lower in IFLT grafts than in CLT grafts. The serum levels of 14 cytokines were increased in CLT versus IFLT recipients. CONCLUSIONS: IFLT can largely avoid the biological consequences of graft IRI, thus has the potential to improve transplant outcome while increasing organ utilization.


Assuntos
Transplante de Fígado , Traumatismo por Reperfusão , Alanina Transaminase , Humanos , Isquemia/patologia , Fígado/irrigação sanguínea , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Transplante de Fígado/métodos , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/patologia
15.
J Healthc Eng ; 2022: 3139929, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35368957

RESUMO

Objective: This study aims to investigate the clinical efficacy of plasma exchange in treating acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) through meta-analysis. Method: PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wanfang databases were searched using a computer for all relevant Chinese and English literature from 2000 to 2021 in each database. At the same time, a large number of related papers and materials were manually consulted. Randomized controlled trials of plasma exchange (PE, control group) and combined double plasma molecular absorption system (DPMAS + PE, observation group) for the treatment of ACLF were collected. Meta-analysis was performed with Stata16.0 software. Result: A total of 474 articles were retrieved, and 11 papers were finally included for research after screening. Meta-analysis results showed that the effective rate of treatment in the experimental group was significantly higher than that in the control group. At the same time, the observation group's prothrombin activity (PTA) level was better than that of the control group after treatment. After treatment, there was no significant difference in prothrombin time (PT) and international normalized ratio (INR) between the two groups. In addition, after treatment, the alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level of the observation group was significantly lower than that of the control group. However, TBIL levels and albumin (ALB) levels did not change significantly between the two groups. Regarding blood routine indexes, there were no significant changes in creatinine (Cr) levels and platelet counts (PLT) in the two groups after treatment, but hemoglobin (HGB) levels in the observation group were significantly lower than those in the control group. Conclusion: DPMAS combined with plasma exchange therapy can improve liver function, coagulation function, and blood routine level of ACLF patients and increase the effective rate of treatment. It is an effective treatment for acute-on-chronic liver failure.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada , Insuficiência Hepática Crônica Agudizada/terapia , Alanina Transaminase , China , Humanos , Troca Plasmática , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Onderstepoort J Vet Res ; 89(1): e1-e6, 2022 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35384682

RESUMO

Aflatoxins are potent hepatotoxic and carcinogenic secondary metabolites produced by toxigenic fungi. The present study investigated the protective effect of methanolic leaf extracts of Monanthotaxis caffra (MLEMC) against aflatoxin B1-induced toxicity in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were randomly divided into 6 groups of 8 animals each. Five groups were administered orally for seven days with three different concentrations of MLEMC (100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg), curcumin (10 mg/kg) or vehicle (25% propylene glycol). The following day, these groups were administered 1 mg/kg b.w. of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). The experiment was terminated three days after administration of AFB1. Group 6 represented untreated healthy control. Serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine and liver histopathology were evaluated. Methanolic leaf extracts of M. caffra decreased the levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase and creatinine in the sera of rats as compared with the AFB1 intoxicated group. Co-administration of MLEMC improved the histological characteristics of the hepatocytes in contrast to the AFB1 treated group, which had mild to severe hepatocellular injuries including bile duct proliferation, bile duct hyperplasia, lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate and fibrosis. Extracts of M. caffra were beneficial in mitigating the hepatotoxic effects of AFB1 in rats by reducing the levels of liver enzymes and preventing hepatic injury.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Doenças dos Roedores , Aflatoxina B1/metabolismo , Aflatoxina B1/toxicidade , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Alanina Transaminase/farmacologia , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Aspartato Aminotransferases/farmacologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/veterinária , Creatinina/metabolismo , Creatinina/farmacologia , Lactato Desidrogenases/metabolismo , Fígado , Masculino , Metanol/metabolismo , Metanol/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Doenças dos Roedores/metabolismo , Doenças dos Roedores/patologia
17.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5437, 2022 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35361872

RESUMO

Excessive ammonium blood concentration causes many serious neurological complications. The medications currently used are not very effective. To remove ammonium from the blood, erythrocyte-bioreactors containing enzymes that processing ammonium have been proposed. The most promising bioreactor contained co-encapsulated glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). However, a low encapsulation of a commonly used bovine liver GDH (due to high aggregation), makes clinical use of such bioreactors impossible. In this study, new bioreactors containing ALT and non-aggregating GDH at higher loading were first produced using the flow dialysis method and the new bacterial GDH enzyme from Proteus sp. The efficacy of these erythrocyte-bioreactors and their properties (hemolysis, osmotic fragility, intracellular and extracellular activity of included enzymes, erythrocyte indices, and filterability) were studied and compared with native cells during 1-week storage. The ammonium removal rate in vitro by such erythrocyte-bioreactors increased linearly with an increase in encapsulated GDH activity. Alanine in vitro increased in accordance with ammonium consumption, which indicated the joint functioning of both included enzymes. Thus, novel bioreactors for ammonium removal containing GDH from Proteus sp. are promising for clinical use, since they have a more efficient GDH encapsulation and their properties are not inferior to previously obtained erythrocyte-bioreactors.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio , Glutamato Desidrogenase , Alanina Transaminase , Animais , Reatores Biológicos , Bovinos , Eritrócitos , Proteus , Suínos
18.
World J Gastroenterol ; 28(6): 689-692, 2022 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35317426

RESUMO

To evaluate and predict liver fibrosis in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), several non-invasive scoring systems were built and widely used in the progress of diagnosis and treatment, which showed great diagnostic efficiency, such as aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index, fibrosis-4 index, body mass index, aspartate aminotransferase to alanine aminotransferase ratio, diabetes score and NAFLD fibrosis score. Since the new concept of metabolic associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) was proposed, the clinical application value of the non-invasive scoring systems mentioned above has not been assessed in MAFLD. The evaluation of the diagnostic performance of these non-invasive scoring systems will provide references for clinicians in the diagnosis of MAFLD.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Alanina Transaminase , Aspartato Aminotransferases , Biomarcadores , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico
19.
World J Gastroenterol ; 28(5): 570-587, 2022 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35316959

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abnormal liver chemistries are common findings in patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the association of these abnormalities with the severity of COVID-19 and clinical outcomes is poorly understood. AIM: We aimed to assess the prevalence of elevated liver chemistries in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and compare the serum liver chemistries to predict the severity and in-hospital mortality. METHODS: This retrospective, observational study included 3380 patients with COVID-19 who were hospitalized in the Johns Hopkins Health System (Baltimore, MD, United States). Demographic data, clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, treatment measures, and outcome data were collected. Cox regression modeling was used to explore variables associated with abnormal liver chemistries on admission with disease severity and prognosis. RESULTS: A total of 2698 (70.4%) had abnormal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) at the time of admission. Other more prevalent abnormal liver chemistries were aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (44.4%), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (16.1%), and total bilirubin (T-Bil) (5.9%). Factors associated with liver injury were older age, Asian ethnicity, other race, being overweight, and obesity. Higher ALT, AST, T-Bil, and ALP levels were more commonly associated with disease severity. Multivariable adjusted Cox regression analysis revealed that abnormal AST and T-Bil were associated with the highest mortality risk than other liver injury indicators during hospitalization. Abnormal AST, T-Bil, and ALP were associated with a need for vasopressor drugs, whereas higher levels of AST, T-Bil, and a decreased albumin levels were associated with mechanical ventilation. CONCLUSION: Abnormal liver chemistries are common at the time of hospital admission in COVID-19 patients and can be closely related to the patient's severity and prognosis. Elevated liver chemistries, specifically ALT, AST, ALP, and T-Bil levels, can be used to stratify risk and predict the need for advanced therapies in these patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Fígado/química , Alanina Transaminase , Fosfatase Alcalina , Aspartato Aminotransferases , Baltimore , Bilirrubina , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/terapia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
20.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(5): 1717-1728, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35302221

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In this study, the protective effect of sodium copper chlorophyllin and nebivolol was evaluated in a mice model of CCL4 induced hepatotoxicity. Silymarin was used as a traditional hepatoprotective drug. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty (30) mice were used as they were divided into five groups: the first group was the control group which received distilled water + olive oil, the second group which received 1.5 ml/kg of CCl4 diluted in olive oil three times a week, the third group which received CCl4 + Silymarin 50 mg/kg/day, the fourth group which received CCl4 + nebivolol 4 mg/kg/day, and the fifth group which received 1.5 ml/kg of CCl4+ Cu-chlorophyllin 50 mg/kg/day. The drugs were given by intraperitoneal route for 5 weeks. The detection, quantification of CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity and possible protective effect of either silymarin, nebivolol, or sodium copper chlorophyllin were assessed using biochemical analysis of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein, lipid profile, an assay of oxidants and antioxidants, assay of interleukin 6 (IL6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and histopathological examination. RESULTS: The administration of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) produced pronounced liver impairment. It significantly increased ALT, AST, ALP, malondialdehyde, and serum nitric oxide levels compared to normal control group besides a decrease in total protein, serum catalase, tissue SOD, and GSH levels. IL-6 and TNF-α levels were significantly higher while total cholesterol was significantly lower in mice receiving CCL4 compared to the normal control group. CCL4 induced severe hyperemia and congestion inside the portal area with leukocytic infiltration, hepatic degeneration, and bridge fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS: Co-administration of either silymarin, nebivolol, or sodium copper chlorophyllin with CCl4 was able to ameliorate up to almost contradict CCl4 induced hepatic injury through their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Silimarina , Alanina Transaminase , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Aspartato Aminotransferases , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Clorofilídeos , Fígado/metabolismo , Camundongos , Nebivolol/metabolismo , Nebivolol/farmacologia , Azeite de Oliva/metabolismo , Azeite de Oliva/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Silimarina/farmacologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
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