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1.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 5324560, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33029513

RESUMO

The ongoing global pandemic caused by the human coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has infected millions of people and claimed hundreds of thousands of lives. The absence of approved therapeutics to combat this disease threatens the health of all persons on earth and could cause catastrophic damage to society. New drugs are therefore urgently required to bring relief to people everywhere. In addition to repurposing existing drugs, natural products provide an interesting alternative due to their widespread use in all cultures of the world. In this study, alkaloids from Cryptolepis sanguinolenta have been investigated for their ability to inhibit two of the main proteins in SARS-CoV-2, the main protease and the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, using in silico methods. Molecular docking was used to assess binding potential of the alkaloids to the viral proteins whereas molecular dynamics was used to evaluate stability of the binding event. The results of the study indicate that all 13 alkaloids bind strongly to the main protease and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase with binding energies ranging from -6.7 to -10.6 kcal/mol. In particular, cryptomisrine, cryptospirolepine, cryptoquindoline, and biscryptolepine exhibited very strong inhibitory potential towards both proteins. Results from the molecular dynamics study revealed that a stable protein-ligand complex is formed upon binding. Alkaloids from Cryptolepis sanguinolenta therefore represent a promising class of compounds that could serve as lead compounds in the search for a cure for the corona virus disease.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Cryptolepis/química , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Alcaloides/química , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/enzimologia , Simulação por Computador , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Cisteína Endopeptidases , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Humanos , Alcaloides Indólicos/química , Alcaloides Indólicos/farmacologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Relação Quantitativa Estrutura-Atividade , Quinolinas/química , Quinolinas/farmacologia , RNA Replicase/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/antagonistas & inibidores
2.
Chem Biol Interact ; 330: 109229, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32835667

RESUMO

Cell cycle dysregulation is the mainstay of aberrant cell proliferation, which leads to tumor progression. Mutations in tumor cells initiate various dysregulated pathways and spontaneous over-proliferation with genomic/chromosomal instability. Despite advances in cancer therapy, it has remained a medicinal challenge to treat. Besides, the complexity of pathophysiological pathways behind cancer raises the need for novel multi-target agents, possessing fewer side effects. Alkaloid-based therapies have been explored so far to target cell division in cancer, including vinca alkaloids. As a class of hopeful ß-carboline derivatives, growing evidence has indicated their auspicious roles in combating cancer by inhibiting topoisomerase (TOPO), kinesin Eg5, telomerase, cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK), IκB kinase (IKK), and polo-like kinase-1 (PLK1) in the transition phases of cell cycle. In this review, in vitro potential of ß-carboline has been revealed through targeting cell division cycle at different phases. In conclusion, ß-carboline alkaloids could be introduced as novel candidates in cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Carbolinas/farmacologia , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Alcaloides/uso terapêutico , Carbolinas/uso terapêutico , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos
3.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(2): e019819, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609242

RESUMO

We investigated the in vitro acaricide activity of the methanolic extract (ME) and alkaloid-rich fraction (AF) of Prosopis juliflora on Rhipicephalus microplus and correlated this effect with acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition. The acaricide activity was evaluated using adult and larval immersion tests. Also, we studied the possible interaction mechanism of the major alkaloids present in this fraction via molecular docking at the active site of R. microplus AChE1 (RmAChE1). Higher reproductive inhibitory activity of the AF was recorded, with effective concentration (EC50) four times lower than that of the ME (31.6 versus 121 mg/mL). The AF caused mortality of tick larvae, with lethal concentration 50% (LC50) of 13.8 mg/mL. Both ME and AF were seen to have anticholinesterase activity on AChE of R. microplus larvae, while AF was more active with half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.041 mg/mL. The LC-MS/MS analyses on the AF led to identification of three alkaloids: prosopine (1), juliprosinine (2) and juliprosopine (3). The molecular docking studies revealed that these alkaloids had interactions at the active site of the RmAChE1, mainly relating to hydrogen bonds and cation-pi interactions. We concluded that the alkaloids of P. juliflora showed acaricide activity on R. microplus and acted through an anticholinesterase mechanism.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Colinesterases , Extratos Vegetais , Prosopis , Rhipicephalus , Acaricidas/farmacologia , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Animais , Colinesterases/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida , Ativação Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Prosopis/química , Rhipicephalus/efeitos dos fármacos , Rhipicephalus/enzimologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
4.
Life Sci ; 257: 118090, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32679144

RESUMO

AIMS: This study aimed to investigate oxymatrine via regulating miR-182 improved the hepatic lipid accumulation in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Wistar rats were fed high-fat and high-fructose diet (HFDHFr group) for 4 weeks and HepG2 cells were treated with palmitic acid (PA group), and then were given oxymatrine intervention. The expression profiles of miRNAs were accessed by RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and Oil Red O staining were used to observe the inflammation and lipid accumulation in liver. The levels of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty-acid synthase (FAS) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT-1A) were detected by RT-qPCR and Western blotting, respectively. Cell viability was detected by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8). KEY FINDINGS: miR-182 was down-regulated in the HFDHFr group and PA group. Oxymatrine reduced body weight, and improved glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in the HFDHFr + OMT group compared with HFDHFr group. In addition, oxymatrine reduced the ratio (liver weight/body weight), the content of triglycerides (TG), hepatic lipid accumulation and steatosis. The levels of SREBP-1c, ACC, and FAS were significantly decreased, while the CPT-1A level was obviously elevated after oxymatrine intervention (P < 0.05). In vivo, miR-182 knockdown increased the levels of SREBP-1c, ACC and FAS, while reduced the CPT-1A level. Additionally, oxymatrine attenuated the effects of miR-182 inhibitor on lipid accumulation. SIGNIFICANCE: We presented a possible mechanism that oxymatrine alleviated hepatic lipid metabolism via regulating miR-182 in NAFLD model.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/farmacologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , MicroRNAs/genética , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Quinolizinas/farmacologia , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/fisiopatologia , Ácido Palmítico/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
5.
J Environ Sci Health B ; 55(9): 835-843, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657210

RESUMO

Aflatoxins produced by Aspergillus parasiticus are toxic and carcinogenic metabolites. The biosynthesis of this mycotoxins is a complex process and involves at least 30 genes clustered within an approximately 82 kB gene cluster. In the present study, the effect of Capsicum chinense and Piper nigrum fruits on Aspergillus parasiticus growth and aflatoxin production were studied in relation to the expression of aflD, aflM, aflR, and aflS four; key genes of aflatoxins biosynthesis pathway. GC-EIMS analysis identified capsaicin (66,107 µg g-1) and piperine (1,138 µg g-1) as the most abundant compounds in C. chinense and P. nigrum fruits, respectively. The antifungal and anti-aflatoxigenic assays showed that C. chinense, P. nigrum, capsaicin, and piperine inhibited A. parasiticus growth and aflatoxins production in a dose-dependent manner. The piperine at 300 µg mL-1 produced higher radial growth inhibition (89%) and aflatoxin production inhibition (69%). The expression of aflatoxin biosynthetic genes was evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and revealed that aflatoxin inhibition occurring via downregulating the aflS and aflR, and subsequently aflD and aflM genes. These results will improve our understanding of the mechanism of aflatoxin regulation by C. chinense, P. nigrum, capsaicin, and piperine, and provides a reference for further study.


Assuntos
Aflatoxinas/metabolismo , Aspergillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Capsicum/química , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Piper nigrum/química , Aflatoxinas/genética , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Aspergillus/genética , Aspergillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aspergillus/metabolismo , Benzodioxóis/farmacologia , Vias Biossintéticas , Capsaicina/farmacocinética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Frutas/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Genes Fúngicos , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Alcamidas Poli-Insaturadas/farmacologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
6.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236433, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706801

RESUMO

Coptidis alkaloids are the primary active components of Coptis chinensis Franch. Clinical and pharmacodynamic studies have confirmed that Coptidis alkaloids have multiple therapeutic effects including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antitumor effects, and they are usually used to treat various inflammatory disorders and related diseases. Mouse bone marrow cells (BMCs) were isolated from BALB/c mice. Immune-mediated destruction of BMCs was induced by interferon (IFN) -γ. High-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/ mass spectrometry was used to analyze the ingredients of the aqueous extract from Coptis chinensis Franch. The results confirmed that Coptidis alkaloids were the predominant ingredients in the aqueous extract from Coptis chinensis. The functional mechanism of Coptidis alkaloids in inhibiting immune-mediated destruction of BMCs was studied in vitro. After Coptidis alkaloid treatment, the percentages of apoptotic BMCs and the proliferation and differentiation of helper T (Th) cells and regulatory T (Treg) cells were measured by flow cytometry. The expression and distribution of T-bet in BMCs were observed by immunofluorescence. Western blotting analysis was used to assay the expression of key molecules in the Fas apoptosis and Jak/Stats signaling pathways in BMCs. We identified five alkaloids in the aqueous extract of Coptis chinensis. The apoptotic ratios of BMCs induced by IFN-γ were decreased significantly after Coptidis alkaloid treatment. The levels of key molecules (Fas, Caspase-3, cleaved Caspase-3, Caspase-8 and Caspase-8) in Fas apoptosis signaling pathways also decreased significantly after treatment with low concentrations of Coptidis alkaloids. Coptidis alkaloids were also found to inhibit the proliferation of Th1 and Th17 cells and induce the differentiation of Th2 and Treg cells; further, the distribution of T-bet in BMCs was decreased significantly. In addition, the levels of Stat-1, phospho-Stat-1 and phospho-Stat-3 were also reduced after Coptidis alkaloid treatment. These results indicate that Coptidis alkaloids extracted by water decoction from Coptis chinensis Franch could inhibit the proliferation and differentiation of T lymphocytes, attenuate the apoptosis of BMCs, and suppress the immune-mediated destruction of the BMCs induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/farmacologia , Células da Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Coptis/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Células da Medula Óssea/patologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/imunologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/patologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/patologia
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(23): e20181, 2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32501970

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study will examine the effects of oxymatrine on the proliferation of human liver cancer Bel-7404 cells (HLCBC). METHODS: This study will search electronic bibliographic databases available in PUBMED, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Scopus, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, China Biology Medicine, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure. We attempt to search case-controlled studies (CCSs) or randomized controlled studies (RCSs) pertaining to HLCBC from their inception to the February 29, 2020 without limitations of language and publication time. We will include any CCSs or RCSs on exploring oxymatrine on the proliferation of HLCBC. We will assess the methodological quality of CCSs by Newcastle-Ottawa Scale, and RCSs by Cochrane risk of bias tool. Review Manager 5.3 software will be utilized for statistical analysis. RESULTS: The current study will summarize most recent eligible studies to investigate the effects of oxymatrine on the proliferation of HLCBC. CONCLUSION: Its results may provide reliable scientific evidence on effects of oxymatrine on the proliferation of HLCBC. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: INPLASY202040026.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/farmacologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Quinolizinas/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Fator de Transcrição E2F1/biossíntese , Expressão Gênica , Genes myc/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Projetos de Pesquisa
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3236, 2020 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32591543

RESUMO

The promotion of apoptosis in tumor cells is a popular strategy for developing anti-cancer drugs. Here, we demonstrate that the plant indole alkaloid natural product nauclefine induces apoptosis of diverse cancer cells via a PDE3A-SLFN12 dependent death pathway. Nauclefine binds PDE3A but does not inhibit the PDE3A's phosphodiesterase activity, thus representing a previously unknown type of PDE3A modulator that can initiate apoptosis without affecting PDE3A's canonical function. We demonstrate that PDE3A's H840, Q975, Q1001, and F1004 residues-as well as I105 in SLFN12-are essential for nauclefine-induced PDE3A-SLFN12 interaction and cell death. Extending these molecular insights, we show in vivo that nauclefine inhibits tumor xenograft growth, doing so in a PDE3A- and SLFN12-dependent manner. Thus, beyond demonstrating potent cytotoxic effects of an alkaloid natural product, our study illustrates a potentially side-effect-reducing strategy for targeting PDE3A for anti-cancer therapeutics without affecting its phosphodiesterase activity.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Nucleotídeo Cíclico Fosfodiesterase do Tipo 3/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Alcaloides/química , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cilostazol/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos Nus , Inibidores da Fosfodiesterase 3/farmacologia , Estabilidade Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Tetra-Hidroisoquinolinas/farmacologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
9.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234639, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525924

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Kratom, or Mitragyna speciosa Korth., is a tropical plant that has been reported to exhibit opioid-like effects. Although opioids have been demonstrated to alter the lipid profile of regular users, data on the lipid-altering effects of kratom are scarce. This study aimed to compare the fasting lipid profile of regular kratom users to that of healthy subjects who do not use kratom. It also determined the association between various characteristics of kratom users and the serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels of regular kratom users. METHODS: A total of 200 participants (n = 100 kratom users and n = 100 healthy subjects who do not use kratom) were recruited for this analytical cross-sectional study. Data on sociodemographic status, kratom use characteristics, cigarette smoking, physical activity, body mass index (BMI), fasting serum lipid profile, and liver function were collected from all participants. RESULTS: The liver parameters of the study participants were within normal range. The serum total cholesterol and LDL of kratom users were significantly lower than those of healthy subjects who do not use kratom. There were no significant differences in the serum triglyceride and HDL levels. However, higher average daily frequency of kratom use and increasing age were associated with increased serum total cholesterol among kratom users. Other kratom use characteristics such as age of first kratom intake, duration of kratom use, and quantity of daily kratom intake were not associated with increased serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL, and HDL levels. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest regular kratom consumption was not linked to elevated serum lipids, except when there is a higher frequency of daily kratom intake. However, the study was limited by the small sample size, and hence a more comprehensive study with larger sample size is warranted to confirm the findings.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/farmacologia , Drogas Ilícitas/farmacologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Mitragyna/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Vida Independente , Lipoproteínas LDL/sangue , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Triglicerídeos/sangue
10.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 16(2): 209-214, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32474503

RESUMO

Objective: To research the effect of matrine on the proliferation and migration of HepG2 cells through extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling pathway. Methods: HepG2 cell was selected and divided into blank control group, experimental group (matrine 1, 2, and 4 mg/mL), and positive control group (PD98059, ERK1/2 inhibitor). MTT measure was used to detect the effective time and concentration which matrine inhibits HepG2 cells. After 24 h, the effect of effective concentration of matrine on the of morphological changing HepG2 cells was observed. The invasion ability was assayed by transwell method, the expression of ERK1/2 and pERK1/2 were detected through Western blot, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to test the expression level of ERK1/2 mRNA. Results: With the increase of matrine concentration, the number of adherent HepG2 cells gradually decreased, the morphologic changes gradually became spherical, some cell morphology was incomplete, and even cell fragments appeared. The proliferation and invasion ability of HepG2 cells decreased. The expression of ERK1/2, pERK1/2, and ERK1/2 mRNA downregulated with the increase of matrine concentration (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Matrine inhibits the proliferation and migration of HepG2 cells by downregulating the ERK1/2 signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/farmacologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinolizinas/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais , Apoptose , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Sophora/química
11.
Exp Parasitol ; 213: 107902, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353376

RESUMO

Natural compounds played an important role for prevention and treatment of the disease as well as are the important compounds for the design of the new bioactive compounds. In this study, eight tropolone alkaloids were isolated from Colchicum kurdicum including colchicoside, 2-demethyl colchicine, 3-demethyl colchicine, demecolcine, colchifoline, N-deacetyl-N-formyl colchicine, colchicine and cornigerine by column and preparative thin layer chromatography. The chemical structures were identified by 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Moreover, the antileishmanial activity on Leishmania major, anti-inflammatory activity, iron chelating activity and toxicity studies including hemolytic activity, brine shrimp toxicity, cytotoxicity and acute toxicity and docking study of all isolated bioactive compounds were evaluated. As result, colchicoside and colchicine had potent leishmanicidal effects and N-deacetyl-N-formyl colchicine and cornigerine had the highest anti-inflammatory effects. All compounds had the significant iron chelating activity. According to toxicity studies, isolated compounds showed the low hemolytic activity and cytotoxicity, high LC50, LC90 and LD50. In the molecular docking study, colchicoside had the high dockscore. According to the study, with future studies all isolated compounds could be used for design the novel antileishmanial drugs.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/farmacologia , Colchicum/química , Leishmania major/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Tripanossomicidas/farmacologia , Alcaloides/química , Alcaloides/isolamento & purificação , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Tropolona/química , Tripanossomicidas/química , Tripanossomicidas/isolamento & purificação
12.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 21(5): 151, 2020 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32440910

RESUMO

Triple-negative breast (TNBC) cancer that is upregulated with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and devoid of both the hormonal receptors and epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER 2), has led to a concept of treating TNBC with EGFR-targeted therapeutics. The combination of paclitaxel (PTX) and piperine (PIP) may improve the bioavailability of paclitaxel for cancer therapy. TPGS (vit E-PEG 1000-succinate)-coated liposomes were prepared with PTX alone or in combination with PIP, and either with (targeted) or without (non-targeted) cetuximab (CTX) conjugation. The Bradford assay indicated that 75% of CTX has been conjugated on the liposomes. The size and percent encapsulation of PTX&PIP co-loaded liposomes were found to be in the range of 204 to 218 nm and 31-73%, respectively. The drug release rate was found to be higher at pH 5.5 in comparison with release at pH 6.4 and pH 7.4. Cellular uptake and toxicity studies on MDA-MB-231 cells showed that PTX&PIP co-loaded targeted liposomes have demonstrated superior uptake and cytotoxicity than their non-targeted counterparts. The IC50 values of both of the liposomal formulations were found to be significantly higher than PTX control. Indeed, combining PIP with PTX control has improved the cytotoxicity of PTX control, which proved the synergistic anticancer effect of PIP. Lyophilized liposomes showed an excellent stability profile with the size range between 189 and 210 nm. Plasma stability study revealed a slight increase in the particle size due to the adsorption of plasma proteins on the surface of liposomes. The long-term stability study also indicated that liposomes were stable at 4°C.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/uso terapêutico , Benzodioxóis/uso terapêutico , Paclitaxel/uso terapêutico , Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Alcamidas Poli-Insaturadas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Benzodioxóis/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Composição de Medicamentos , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Receptores ErbB/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Liofilização , Humanos , Lipossomos , Paclitaxel/metabolismo , Paclitaxel/farmacologia , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Alcamidas Poli-Insaturadas/farmacologia , Receptor ErbB-2
13.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 237(7): 2111-2124, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32363440

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Gelsemine is a natural alkaloid extracted from Gelsemium elegans Benth., a traditional Chinese medicinal herb. Gelsemine has been shown to penetrate the brain, and could produce neurological activities, such as anxiolytic and neuralgia-alleviating effects, suggesting that this natural compound might be used for treating nervous system diseases. RESULTS: In this study, we have found, for the first time, that gelsemine at low concentrations (5-10 µg/kg) significantly alleviated cognitive impairments induced by ß-amyloid (Aß) oligomer, a main neurotoxin of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In addition, gelsemine substantially prevented Aß oligomer-induced over-activation of microglia and astrocytes, indicating that gelsemine might reduce AD-related gliosis. Consistently, gelsemine inhibited the over-expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), in the brain of mice. Moreover, gelsemine largely increased the expression of pSer9-glycogen synthase kinase-3ß (GSK3ß), and decreased the hyper-phosphorylation of tau protein as evidenced by Western blotting analysis. Furthermore, gelsemine prevented Aß oligomer-induced reduction of PSD-95, a representative post-synaptic protein. CONCLUSION: All these results directly demonstrated the anti-Aß oligomer neuroprotective properties of gelsemine, opening a novel perspective for the development of gelsemine-based therapeutics against Aß-associated neurodegeneration disorders, including AD in particular.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/uso terapêutico , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/toxicidade , Disfunção Cognitiva/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Gelsemium , Mediadores da Inflamação/antagonistas & inibidores , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/toxicidade , Alcaloides/isolamento & purificação , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Doença de Alzheimer/induzido quimicamente , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Disfunção Cognitiva/induzido quimicamente , Disfunção Cognitiva/metabolismo , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/isolamento & purificação , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR
14.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 1170-1173, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32432977

RESUMO

The emerging SARS-CoV-2 infection associated with the outbreak of viral pneumonia in China is ongoing worldwide. There are no approved antiviral therapies to treat this viral disease. Here we examined the antiviral abilities of three broad-spectrum antiviral compounds gemcitabine, lycorine and oxysophoridine against SARS-CoV-2 in cell culture. We found that all three tested compounds inhibited viral replication in Vero-E6 cells at noncytotoxic concentrations. The antiviral effect of gemcitabine was suppressed efficiently by the cytidine nucleosides. Additionally, combination of gemcitabine with oxysophoridine had an additive antiviral effect against SARS-CoV-2. Our results demonstrate that broad-spectrum antiviral compounds may have a priority for the screening of antiviral compounds against newly emerging viruses to control viral infection.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/farmacologia , Alcaloides de Amaryllidaceae/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Fenantridinas/farmacologia , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Betacoronavirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cloroquina/farmacologia , Desoxicitidina/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Combinação de Medicamentos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Células Vero
15.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 1170-1173, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-324574

RESUMO

The emerging SARS-CoV-2 infection associated with the outbreak of viral pneumonia in China is ongoing worldwide. There are no approved antiviral therapies to treat this viral disease. Here we examined the antiviral abilities of three broad-spectrum antiviral compounds gemcitabine, lycorine and oxysophoridine against SARS-CoV-2 in cell culture. We found that all three tested compounds inhibited viral replication in Vero-E6 cells at noncytotoxic concentrations. The antiviral effect of gemcitabine was suppressed efficiently by the cytidine nucleosides. Additionally, combination of gemcitabine with oxysophoridine had an additive antiviral effect against SARS-CoV-2. Our results demonstrate that broad-spectrum antiviral compounds may have a priority for the screening of antiviral compounds against newly emerging viruses to control viral infection.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/farmacologia , Alcaloides de Amaryllidaceae/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Fenantridinas/farmacologia , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Betacoronavirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cloroquina/farmacologia , Desoxicitidina/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Combinação de Medicamentos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Células Vero
16.
Life Sci ; 253: 117671, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32335165

RESUMO

AIMS: We still do not have effective treatment for hippocampal demyelination and memory deficit, the two common comorbidities in multiple sclerosis (MS). This study aimed to assess the therapeutic effect of Piperine (the main alkaloid of black pepper) in an experimental model of demyelination. MAIN METHODS: Demyelination was induced in male Wistar rats by bilateral injection of lysolecithin (LPC) into the CA1 region of the hippocampus. Piperine (5, 10, 20 mg/kg) was daily injected intraperitoneally three days post LPC injection for ten days. The spatial memory was examined by the Morris water maze task. Demyelination and astrocyte activation were assessed by an immunohistological study. The gene expression analysis of TNF-α, IL1-ß, NF-κB, IL-10, Foxp3, iNOS, Nrf2, HO1, MBP, and BDNF was done using qPCR. The total antioxidant capacity of hippocampal tissue was measured using FRAP assay. KEY FINDINGS: Our results showed that piperine improved the memory performance and myelin repair in the hippocampal demyelination model. Piperine inhibited iNOS expression concomitant with enhanced expression levels of Nrf2, HO1 and the total antioxidant capacity in the hippocampal tissue. Piperine treatment significantly reduced the gene expression level of TNF-α, IL1-ß, NF-κB, and glial activation in the injured area; however, the mRNA level of IL-10, Foxp3, BDNF and MBP were significantly increased. SIGNIFICANCE: We found piperine to be an effective treatment for spatial memory impairment and myelin repair in the hippocampal demyelination model. However, further experimental evidence is needed to investigate the precise mechanisms underlying piperine as a promising therapeutic target in MS patients.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/farmacologia , Benzodioxóis/farmacologia , Doenças Desmielinizantes/tratamento farmacológico , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Lisofosfatidilcolinas/metabolismo , Transtornos da Memória/tratamento farmacológico , Bainha de Mielina/efeitos dos fármacos , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Alcamidas Poli-Insaturadas/farmacologia , Alcaloides/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Benzodioxóis/metabolismo , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Piperidinas/metabolismo , Alcamidas Poli-Insaturadas/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Memória Espacial/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Viruses ; 12(4)2020 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32340120

RESUMO

The whole world is currently facing an unseen enemy, called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is causing a global pandemic. This disease is caused by a novel single-stranded enveloped RNA virus, known as the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Although huge efforts are being made to produce effective therapies to combat this disease, it continues to be one of the greatest challenges in medicine. There is no doubt that herpesviruses are one of the most important viruses that infect humans and animals, and infections induced by these pathogens have developed into a great threat to public health. According to the currently available evidence, the correlation between herpesviruses and coronaviruses is limited to the induced complications following the infections. For instance, the inflammation that is induced at the sites of infection could tie these viruses to each other in a relationship. Another example, bovine herpesvirus 1, which is an important pathogen of cattle, can cause a severe respiratory infection; the same way in which SARS-CoV-2 affects humans. Considering the current circumstances related to the COVID-19 crisis, this editorial paper, which belongs to the Special Issue "Recent Advances in Herpesviruses Research: What's in the Pipeline?" aims to draw attention to some natural anti-herpesvirus alkaloid compounds, which have recently been proven to have excellent inhibitory efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 replication. Thus, this special focus is an attempt to hunt down various treatment options to combat COVID-19 based on repurposing drugs that are known to have multiple antiviral properties, including against herpesvirus.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/farmacologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Herpesviridae/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Herpesviridae/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Pandemias , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico
18.
Chin J Nat Med ; 18(3): 161-168, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32245585

RESUMO

The liver is an important metabolic organ and controls lipid, glucose and energy metabolism. Dysruption of hepatic lipid metabolism is often associated with fatty liver diseases, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), alcoholic fatty liver diseases (AFLD) and hyperlipidemia. Recent studies have uncovered the contribution of hormones, transcription factors, and inflammatory cytokines to the pathogenesis of dyslipidemia and fatty liver diseases. Moreover, a significant amount of effort has been put to examine the mechanisms underlying the potential therapeutic effects of many natural plant products on fatty liver diseases and metabolic diseases. We review the current understanding of insulin, thyroid hormone and inflammatory cytokines in regulating hepatic lipid metabolism, focusing on several essential transcription regulators, such as Sirtuins (SIRTs), Forkhead box O (FoxO), Sterol-regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs). We also discuss a few representative natural products with promising thereapeutic effects on fatty liver disease and dyslipidemia.


Assuntos
Fígado Gorduroso Alcoólico/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperlipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Fitoterapia , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dislipidemias , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Saponinas/farmacologia , Sirtuínas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol/metabolismo , Hormônios Tireóideos/metabolismo
19.
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 36(2): 157-163, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32314714

RESUMO

Objective To investigate the effect of matrine on gastric mucosal injury induced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) in rats and its mechanism. Methods A total of 75 Wister rats were randomly divided into a control group, a model group and three matrine-treated groups (100, 150 and 200 mg/kg). Except for the control group, the other groups were treated with MNNG to establish the models of gastric mucosal injury in the rats. After the models were successfully established, the rats in the three matrine-treated groups were administrated 100, 150, 200 mg/kg matrine, respectively, for successive 45 days. After the last administration, the body mass, daily intake of drinking water and dietary of rats were measured. And then the tissue samples were collected after the rats were sacrificed. The levels of interleukin 1ß (IL-1ß), IL-4, interferon gamma (IFN-γ), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were measured by ELISA in gastric mucosa. HE staining was used to observe the pathological changes of gastric mucosa tissue. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to evaluate the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (VEGFR3) in gastric mucosa. The protein levels of Bcl2, BAX, caspase-3, cytochrome C (Cyt-C), Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and nuclear factor κB p65 (NF-κB p65) were determined by Western blotting. Results The body mass, daily intake of drinking water and dietary increased in matrine-treated rats in comparison with the model group. In addition, compared with the model group, matrine significantly reduced the expression levels of VEGF-C, VEGFR3, BAX, caspase-3, Cyt-C, TLR4, MyD88 and NF-κB p65, and increase Bcl2 protein level in the gastric mucosa tissues. Conclusion Matrine can reduce gastric mucosal damage induced by MNNG in rats, which is related to the down-regulation of VEGF-C/VEGFR3 and NF-κB/TLR4 signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/farmacologia , Mucosa Gástrica/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Gástrica/patologia , Metilnitronitrosoguanidina/efeitos adversos , Quinolizinas/farmacologia , Animais , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Fator C de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Receptor 3 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
20.
J Anim Sci ; 98(5)2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32280983

RESUMO

This research evaluated a feed additive (benzoic acid, eugenol, thymol, and piperine), associated or not with colistin, in weaned piglets feeding. The parameters evaluated were growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients, diarrhea incidence, intestinal morphology, relative weights of digestive organs, microbial diversity, and the percentages of operational taxonomic units of microorganisms in the cecum content of pigs. One-hundred and eight crossbred piglets (5.3 ± 0.5 kg) were used in a three-phase feeding program (21 to 35, 36 to 50, 51 to 65 d of age) and fed a control diet with no inclusion of growth promoter feed additive, a diet with 40 ppm of colistin, a diet with 0.3% of alternative additive, and a diet with 0.3% of alternative additive and 40 ppm of colistin. The diets were based on corn, soybean meal, dairy products, and spray-dried blood plasma and formulated to provide 3.40, 3.38, and 3.20 Mcal of ME/kg and 14.5, 13.3, and 10.9 g/kg of digestible lysine, in phases 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The piglets were housed three per pen, with nine replicates per diet, in a complete randomized block design based on initial BW. The data were submitted to ANOVA and means were separated by Tukey test (5%), using SAS. Pigs fed diets with the alternative feed additive had greater (P < 0.05) ADG (114.3 vs. 91.8 g) and ADFI (190.1 vs. 163.3 g) in phase 1 than pigs fed diets without the product. The alternative additive improved (P < 0.05) ATTD of crude protein (CP) in phase 1 (71.0% vs. 68.6%), gross energy in phases 1 (77.4% vs. 75.2%) and 3 (79.0% vs. 77.1%), and dry matter in phase 3 (79.1% vs. 77.1%). The antibiotic inclusion in the diets increased (P < 0.05) ATTD of CP in phase 1 (71.5% vs. 68.2%). The alternative feed additive tended (P = 0.06) to increase (46%) normal feces frequency, decreased (P < 0.05) goblet cells count (104.3 vs. 118.1) in the jejunum, and decreased (P < 0.05) small intestine (4.60% vs. 4.93%) and colon (1.41% vs. 1.65%) relative weights, compared with pigs not fed with the alternative additive. There was a tendency (P = 0.09) for a lower concentration of Escherichia-Shigella (1.46% vs. 3.5%) and lower (P < 0.05) percentage of Campylobacter (0.52% vs. 10.21%) in the cecum content of piglets fed diets containing essential oils and benzoic acid compared with pigs fed diets without the alternative feed additive. The alternative feed additive was effective in improving growth performance, diets digestibility, and gut health in piglets soon after weaning.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Aditivos Alimentares/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Suínos/fisiologia , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Benzodioxóis/farmacologia , Ácido Benzoico/farmacologia , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Eugenol/farmacologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Masculino , Nutrientes , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Alcamidas Poli-Insaturadas/farmacologia , Soja , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos/microbiologia , Timol/farmacologia , Desmame , Zea mays
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