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1.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 49(4): 868-883, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38621894

RESUMO

Scorpio is a valuable Chinese animal medicine commonly used in clinical practice in China. It is the main drug in the treatment of liver wind internal movement caused by various reasons throughout the history of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM), with the effects of relieving wind and spasm, dredging collaterals, relieving pain, and eliminating toxin and mass. Scorpio is poisonous and often used as medicine after processing. There are records of its processing as early as the Song Dynasty. Afterward, there were more than 15 processing methods, including frying with vinegar, neat processing, and stir-frying. After processing, the fishy smell could be removed to correct the taste, and the toxicity could be reduced, which was beneficial to clinical application. At present, the main reported components in Scorpio are protein polypeptides, alkaloids, and lipids, with many pharmacological effects, such as anti-cancer, anti-coagulation, anti-thrombosis, anti-atherosclerosis, and anti-bacteria. In this study, the historical evolution of processing, chemical constituents, and pharmacological action of Scorpio were discussed in order to provide references for the related research on Scorpio.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Animais , Evolução Química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Alcaloides/farmacologia
2.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 200: 105814, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582586

RESUMO

To explore active natural products against tobacco powdery mildew caused by Golovinomyces cichoracearum, an extract from the fermentation of endophytic Aspergillus fumigatus 0338 was investigated. The mechanisms of action for active compounds were also studied in detail. As a result, 14 indole alkaloid derivatives were isolated, with seven being newly discovered (1-7) and the remaining seven previously described (8-14). Notably, compounds 1-3 are rare linearly fused 6/6/5 tricyclic prenylated indole alkaloids, with asperversiamide J being the only known natural product of this kind. The isopentenyl substitutions at the 5-position in compounds 4 and 5 are also rare, with only compounds 1-(5-prenyl-1H-indol-3-yl)-propan-2-one (8) and 1-(6-methoxy-5-prenyl-1H-indol3-yl)-propan-2-one currently available. In addition, compounds 6 and 7 are new framework indole alkaloid derivatives bearing a 6-methyl-1,7-dihydro-2H-azepin-2-one ring. The purified compounds were evaluated for their activity against G. cichoracearum, and the results revealed that compounds 7 and 9 demonstrated obvious anti-G. cichoracearum activities with an inhibition rate of 82.6% and 85.2%, respectively, at a concentration of 250 µg/mL, these rates were better than that of the positive control agent, carbendazim (78.6%). The protective and curative effects of compounds 7 and 9 were also better than that of positive control, at the same concentration. Moreover, the mechanistic study showed that treatment with compound 9 significantly increased the structural tightness of tobacco leaves and directly affect the conidiospores of G. cichoracearum, thereby enhancing resistance. Compounds 7 and 9 could also induce systemic acquired resistance (SAR), directly regulating the expression of defense enzymes, defense genes, and plant semaphorins, which may further contribute to increased plant resistance. Based on the activity experiments and molecular dockings, the indole core structure may be the foundation of these compounds' anti-G. cichoracearum activity. Among them, the indole derivative parent structures of compounds 6, 7, and 9 exhibit strong effects. Moreover, the methoxy substitution in compound 7 can enhance their activity. By isolating and structurally identifying the above indole alkaloids, new candidates for anti-powdery mildew chemical screening were discovered, which could enhance the utilization of N. tabacum-derived fungi in pesticide development.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Aspergillus fumigatus , Neopreno , Tabaco , Alcaloides Indólicos/farmacologia , Alcaloides Indólicos/química , Alcaloides/farmacologia
3.
Molecules ; 29(7)2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38611859

RESUMO

A novel Lycopodium alkaloid, lycocasine A (1), and seven known Lycopodium alkaloids (2-8), were isolated from Lycopodiastrum casuarinoides. Their structures were determined through NMR, HRESIMS, and X-ray diffraction analysis. Compound 1 features an unprecedented 5/6/6 tricyclic skeleton, highlighted by a 5-aza-tricyclic[6,3,1,02,6]dodecane motif. In bioactivity assays, compound 1 demonstrated weak inhibitory activity against acid-sensing ion channel 1a.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Lycopodiaceae , Lycopodium , Canais Iônicos Sensíveis a Ácido , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Azacitidina
4.
Molecules ; 29(7)2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38611869

RESUMO

The fascaplysin and homofascaplysin class of marine natural products has a characteristic 12H-pyrido[1,2-a:3,4-b']diindole pentacyclic structure. Fascaplysin was isolated in 1988 from the marine sponge Fascaplysinopsis bergquist sp. The analogs of fascaplysin, such as homofascaplysins A, B, and C, were discovered late in the Fijian sponge F. reticulate, and also have potent antimicrobial activity and strong cytotoxicity against L-1210 mouse leukemia. In this review, the total synthesis of fascaplysin and its analogs, such as homofascaplysins A, B, and C, will be reviewed, which will offer useful information for medicinal chemistry researchers who are interested in the exploration of marine alkaloids.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Antineoplásicos , Produtos Biológicos , Carbolinas , Indóis , Indolizinas , Poríferos , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário , Animais , Camundongos , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Bandagens
5.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0298201, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38626042

RESUMO

Covid-19 disease caused by the deadly SARS-CoV-2 virus is a serious and threatening global health issue declared by the WHO as an epidemic. Researchers are studying the design and discovery of drugs to inhibit the SARS-CoV-2 virus due to its high mortality rate. The main Covid-19 virus protease (Mpro) and human transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2) are attractive targets for the study of antiviral drugs against SARS-2 coronavirus. Increasing consumption of herbal medicines in the community and a serious approach to these drugs have increased the demand for effective herbal substances. Alkaloids are one of the most important active ingredients in medicinal plants that have wide applications in the pharmaceutical industry. In this study, seven alkaloid ligands with Quercetin nucleus for the inhibition of Mpro and TMPRSS2 were studied using computational drug design including molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation (MD). Auto Dock software was used to evaluate molecular binding energy. Three ligands with the most negative docking score were selected to be entered into the MD simulation procedure. To evaluate the protein conformational changes induced by tested ligands and calculate the binding energy between the ligands and target proteins, GROMACS software based on AMBER03 force field was used. The MD results showed that Phyllospadine and Dracocephin-A form stable complexes with Mpro and TMPRSS2. Prolinalin-A indicated an acceptable inhibitory effect on Mpro, whereas it resulted in some structural instability of TMPRSS2. The total binding energies between three ligands, Prolinalin-A, Phyllospadine and Dracocephin-A and two proteins MPro and TMRPSS2 are (-111.235 ± 15.877, - 75.422 ± 11.140), (-107.033 ± 9.072, -84.939 ± 10.155) and (-102.941 ± 9.477, - 92.451 ± 10.539), respectively. Since the binding energies are at a minimum, this indicates confirmation of the proper binding of the ligands to the proteins. Regardless of some Prolinalin-A-induced TMPRSS2 conformational changes, it may properly bind to TMPRSS2 binding site due to its acceptable binding energy. Therefore, these three ligands can be promising candidates for the development of drugs to treat infections caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , COVID-19 , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Quercetina/farmacologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteases/química , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Antivirais/química
6.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301660, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38626146

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory disease of the digestive tract. Rauwolfia polysaccharide (Rau) has therapeutic effects on colitis in mice, but its mechanism of action needs to be further clarified. In the study, we explored the effect of Rau on the UC cell model induced by Lipopolysaccharide (LPS). METHODS: We constructed a UC cell model by stimulating HT-29 cells with LPS. Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) was used to induce mice to construct an animal model of UC. Subsequently, we performed Rau administration on the UC cell model. Then, the therapeutic effect of Rau on UC cell model and was validated through methods such as Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK8), Muse, Quantitative real­time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), Western blotting, and Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS: The results showed that Rau can promote the proliferation and inhibit the apoptosis of the HT-29 cells-induced by LPS. Moreover, we observed that Rau can inhibit the expression of NOS2/JAK2/STAT3 in LPS-induced HT-29 cells. To further explore the role of NOS2 in UC progression, we used siRNA technology to knock down NOS2 and search for its mechanism in UC. The results illustrated that NOS2 knockdown can promote proliferation and inhibit the apoptosis of LPS-induced HT-29 cells by JAK2/STAT3 pathway. In addition, in vitro and in vivo experiments, we observed that the activation of the JAK2/STAT3 pathway can inhibit the effect of Rau on DSS-induced UC model. CONCLUSION: In short, Rauwolfia polysaccharide can inhibit the progress of ulcerative colitis through NOS2-mediated JAK2/STAT3 pathway. This study provides a theoretical clue for the treatment of UC by Rau.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Colite Ulcerativa , Colite , Rauwolfia , Animais , Camundongos , Colite Ulcerativa/induzido quimicamente , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Colite Ulcerativa/genética , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Colite/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Sulfato de Dextrana/toxicidade , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Colo/metabolismo
7.
J Nat Prod ; 87(3): 617-628, 2024 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38436272

RESUMO

Nature is an important source of bioactive compounds and has continuously made a large contribution to the discovery of new drug leads. Particularly, plant-derived compounds have long been identified as highly interesting in the field of aging research and senescence. Many plants contain bioactive compounds that have the potential to influence cellular processes and provide health benefits. Among them, Piper alkaloids have emerged as interesting candidates in the context of age-related diseases and particularly senescence. These compounds have been shown to display a variety of features, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and other bioactive properties that may help counteracting the effects of cellular aging processes. In the review, we will put the emphasis on piperlongumine and other related derivatives, which belong to the Piper alkaloids, and whose senomodulating potential has emerged during the last several years. We will also provide a survey on their potential in therapeutic perspectives of age-related diseases.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Piper , Amidas , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(6)2024 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38542359

RESUMO

Trigonelline (TRG) is a natural polar hydrophilic alkaloid that is found in many plants such as green coffee beans and fenugreek seeds. TRG potentially acts on multiple molecular targets, including nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, glycogen synthase kinase, tyrosinase, nerve growth factor, estrogen receptor, amyloid-ß peptide, and several neurotransmitter receptors. In this review, we systematically summarize the pharmacological activities, medicinal properties, and mechanistic actions of TRG as a potential therapeutic agent. Mechanistically, TRG can facilitate the maintenance and restoration of the metabolic homeostasis of glucose and lipids. It can counteract inflammatory constituents at multiple levels by hampering pro-inflammatory factor release, alleviating inflammatory propagation, and attenuating tissue injury. It concurrently modulates oxidative stress by the blockage of the detrimental Nrf2 pathway when autophagy is impaired. Therefore, it exerts diverse therapeutic effects on a variety of pathological conditions associated with chronic metabolic diseases and age-related disorders. It shows multidimensional effects, including neuroprotection from neurodegenerative disorders and diabetic peripheral neuropathy, neuromodulation, mitigation of cardiovascular disorders, skin diseases, diabetic mellitus, liver and kidney injuries, and anti-pathogen and anti-tumor activities. Further validations are required to define its specific targeting molecules, dissect the underlying mechanistic networks, and corroborate its efficacy in clinical trials.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Diabetes Mellitus , Humanos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2 , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Alcaloides/uso terapêutico , Alcaloides/química , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Oxidativo
9.
ACS Infect Dis ; 10(4): 1339-1350, 2024 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38491938

RESUMO

Increasing antimicrobial resistance, coupled with the absence of new antibiotics, has led physicians to rely on colistin, a polymyxin with known nephrotoxicity, as the antibiotic of last resort for the treatment of infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria. One approach to increasing antibiotic efficacy and thereby reducing dosage is the use of small-molecule potentiators that augment antibiotic activity. We recently identified the aporphine alkaloid (±)-variabiline, which lowers the minimum inhibitory concentration of colistin in Acinetobacter baumannii and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Herein, we report the first total synthesis of (±)-variabiline to confirm structure and activity, the resolution, and evaluation of both enantiomers as colistin potentiators, and a structure-activity relationship study that identifies more potent variabiline derivatives. Preliminary mechanistic studies indicate that (±)-variabiline and its derivatives potentiate colistin by targeting the Gram-negative outer membrane.


Assuntos
Acinetobacter baumannii , Alcaloides , Aporfinas , Colistina/farmacologia , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Alcaloides/farmacologia
10.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 328: 118047, 2024 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38499258

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The quality requirements of Corydalis Rhizoma (CR) in different producing areas are uniform, resulting in uneven efficacy. As a genuine producing area, the effective quality control of CR in Zhejiang Province (ZJ) could provide a theoretical basis for the rational application of medicinal materials. AIM OF THE STUDY: The purpose of this study was to effectively distinguish the CR inside and outside ZJ, and provided a theoretical basis for the quality control and material basis research of ZJ CR. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The core components of ZJ CR could be identified by HPLC combined with chemometrics screening, and the quality of CR from different producing areas was evaluated by a genetic algorithm-back propagation (GA-BP) neural network. Chromaticity and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy were used to identify CR inside and outside ZJ, and rapid content prediction was realized. The analgesic effect of CR in different regions was compared by a zebrafish analgesic experiment. Analgesic experiments in rats and analysis of the research status of quality components were used to screen the quality control components of ZJ CR. RESULTS: The contents of palmatine hydrochloride (YSBMT), dehydrocorydaline (TQZJJ), tetrahydropalmatine (YHSYS), tetrahydroberberine (SQXBJ), corydaline (YHSJS), stylopine (SQHLJ), and isoimperatorin (YOQHS) in ZJ CR were higher than those in CR from outside ZJ, but the content of protopine (YAPJ) and berberine hydrochloride (YSXBJ) was lower than that in CR from outside ZJ. YHSJS and SQHLJ could be used as the core components to identify ZJ CR. The GA-BP neural network showed that the relative importance of ZJ CR was the strongest. Chroma-content correlation analysis and the NIR qualitative model could effectively distinguish CR from inside and outside of ZJ, and the NIR quantitative model could quickly predict the content of CR from inside and outside of ZJ. Zebrafish experiments showed that ZJ, Shaanxi (SX), Henan (HN), and Sichuan (SC) CR had significant analgesic effects, while Hebei (HB) CR had no significant analgesic effect. Overall comparison, the analgesic effect of ZJ CR was better than that of CR outside ZJ. The comprehensive score of the grey correlation degree between YAPJ, YSBMT, YSXBJ, TQZJJ, YHSYS, YHSJS, SQXBJ, and SQHLJ were higher than 0.9, and the research frequency were extremely high. CONCLUSIONS: The relative importance of the content and origin of most components of ZJ CR was higher than that of CR outside ZJ. The holistic analgesic effect of ZJ CR was better than that of CR outside ZJ, but slightly lower than that of SX CR. YHSJS and SQHLJ could be used as the core components to identify ZJ CR. YAPJ, YSBMT, YSXBJ, TQZJJ, YHSYS, SQXBJ, YHSJS, and SQHLJ could be used as the quality control components of ZJ CR. The multidimensional evaluation method used in this study provided a reference for the quality control and material basis research of ZJ CR.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Corydalis , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Ratos , Animais , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Corydalis/química , Peixe-Zebra , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico
11.
Bioorg Chem ; 146: 107297, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38503027

RESUMO

In our previous study, a screening of a variety of lycotonine-type diterpenoid alkaloids were screened for cardiotonic activity revealed that lycoctonine had moderate cardiac effect. In this study, a series of structurally diverse of lycoctonine were synthesized by modifying on B-ring, D-ring, E-ring, F-ring, N-atom or salt formation on lycoctonine skeleton. We evaluated the cardiotonic activity of the derivatives by isolated frog heart, aiming to identify some compounds with significantly enhanced cardiac effects, among which compound 27 with a N-isobutyl group emerged as the most promising cardiotonic candidate. Furthermore, the cardiotonic mechanism of compound 27 was preliminarily investigated. The result suggested that the cardiotonic effect of compound 27 is related to calcium channels. Patch clamp technique confirmed that the compound 27 had inhibitory effects on CaV1.2 and CaV3.2, with inhibition rates of 78.52 % ± 2.26 % and 79.05 % ± 1.59 % at the concentration of 50 µM, respectively. Subsequently, the protective effect of 27 on H9c2 cells injury induced by cobalt chloride was tested. In addition, compound 27 can alleviate CoCl2-induced myocardial injury by alleviating calcium overload. These findings suggest that compound 27 was a new structural derived from lycoctonine, which may serve as a new lead compound for the treatment of heart failure.


Assuntos
Aconitina/análogos & derivados , Alcaloides , Cardiotônicos , Cardiotônicos/farmacologia , Aconitina/química , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Alcaloides/química , Canais de Cálcio , Cálcio
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(6)2024 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38542061

RESUMO

Naphthylisoquinoline (NIQ) alkaloids are rising as a promising class of secondary metabolites with pharmaceutical potential. NF-κB has already been recognized as a significant modulator of cancer proliferation and drug resistance. We have previously reported the mechanisms behind the cytotoxic effect of dioncophylline A, an NIQ monomer, in leukemia cells. In the current study, we have investigated the cytotoxic effect of jozimine A2, an NIQ dimer, on leukemia cells in comparison to a second, structurally unsymmetric dimer, michellamine B. To this end, molecular docking was applied to predict the binding affinity of the dimers towards NF-κB, which was then validated through microscale thermophoresis. Next, cytotoxicity assays were performed on CCRF-CEM cells and multidrug-resistant CEM/ADR5000 cells following treatment. Transcriptome analysis uncovered the molecular networks affected by jozimine A2 and identified the cell cycle as one of the major affected processes. Cell death modes were evaluated through flow cytometry, while angiogenesis was measured with the endothelial cell tube formation assay on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The results indicated that jozimine A2 bound to NF-κB, inhibited its activity and prevented its translocation to the nucleus. In addition, jozimine A2 induced cell death through apoptosis and prevented angiogenesis. Our study describes the cytotoxic effect of jozimine A2 on leukemia cells and explains the interactions with the NF-κB signaling pathway and the anticancer activity.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Antineoplásicos , Leucemia , Humanos , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Apoptose , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Células Endoteliais , Leucemia/tratamento farmacológico , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , NF-kappa B/farmacologia
13.
Nat Metab ; 6(3): 433-447, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38504132

RESUMO

Mitochondrial dysfunction and low nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) levels are hallmarks of skeletal muscle ageing and sarcopenia1-3, but it is unclear whether these defects result from local changes or can be mediated by systemic or dietary cues. Here we report a functional link between circulating levels of the natural alkaloid trigonelline, which is structurally related to nicotinic acid4, NAD+ levels and muscle health in multiple species. In humans, serum trigonelline levels are reduced with sarcopenia and correlate positively with muscle strength and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in skeletal muscle. Using naturally occurring and isotopically labelled trigonelline, we demonstrate that trigonelline incorporates into the NAD+ pool and increases NAD+ levels in Caenorhabditis elegans, mice and primary myotubes from healthy individuals and individuals with sarcopenia. Mechanistically, trigonelline does not activate GPR109A but is metabolized via the nicotinate phosphoribosyltransferase/Preiss-Handler pathway5,6 across models. In C. elegans, trigonelline improves mitochondrial respiration and biogenesis, reduces age-related muscle wasting and increases lifespan and mobility through an NAD+-dependent mechanism requiring sirtuin. Dietary trigonelline supplementation in male mice enhances muscle strength and prevents fatigue during ageing. Collectively, we identify nutritional supplementation of trigonelline as an NAD+-boosting strategy with therapeutic potential for age-associated muscle decline.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Sarcopenia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Animais , Sarcopenia/tratamento farmacológico , Sarcopenia/prevenção & controle , Sarcopenia/metabolismo , NAD/metabolismo , Caenorhabditis elegans , Envelhecimento , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Alcaloides/uso terapêutico , Alcaloides/metabolismo
14.
J Biochem Mol Toxicol ; 38(4): e23696, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38528700

RESUMO

Although cyclophosphamide (CP) has been approved as an anticancer drug, its toxic effect on most organs, especially the testis, has been established. Piperine (PIP) is an alkaloid that has antioxidant, antiapoptotic, and anti-inflammatory activities. This study was investigated the protective effects of PIP on CP-induced testicular toxicity in the mice. In this experimental study, 48 adult male BALB/c mice (30-35 g) were divided into six groups (n = 8), receiving normal saline (C), 5 mg/kg of PIP (PIP5), 10 mg/kg of PIP (PIP10), 200 mg/kg of CP, 200 mg/kg of CP + PIP5, and 200 mg/kg of CP + PIP10. On the eighth day of the study, blood and testis samples were prepared for serum testosterone hormone quantification, sperm analysis, histological, and immunohistochemical assays. The results of this study showed that CP induced testicular toxicity with the decrease of sperm count, motility, and viability. Also, CP treatment caused histological structure alterations in the testis, including exfoliation, degeneration, vacuolation of spermatogenic cells, and reducing the thickness of the epithelium and the diameter of the seminiferous tubule. In addition, CP decreased glutathione (GSH) levels, increased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, Caspase-3, and NF-κB. At the same time, PIP treatment reduced testicular histopathological abnormalities, oxidative stress, and apoptosis that were induced by CP. These results showed that PIP improved CP-induced testicular toxicity in mice, which can be related to its antioxidant, antiapoptotic, and anti-inflammatory activities.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Benzodioxóis , Piperidinas , Alcamidas Poli-Insaturadas , Testículo , Masculino , Camundongos , Animais , Testículo/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Sêmen/metabolismo , Espermatozoides , Estresse Oxidativo , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Ciclofosfamida/toxicidade , Glutationa/metabolismo , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/metabolismo , Apoptose
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 274: 116187, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38460404

RESUMO

Due to the adverse environmental impacts of toxic heavy metal-based antifoulants, the screening of environmentally friendly antifoulants has become important for the development of marine antifouling technology. Compared with the traditional lengthy and costly screening method, computer-aided drug design (CADD) offers a promising and efficient solution that can accelerate the screening process of green antifoulants. In this study, we selected barnacle chitin synthase (CHS, an important enzyme for barnacle settlement and development) as the target protein for docking screening. Three CHS genes were identified in the barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite, and their encoded proteins were found to share a conserved glycosyltransferase domain. Molecular docking of 31,561 marine natural products with AaCHSs revealed that zoanthamine alkaloids had the best binding affinity (-11.8 to -12.6 kcal/mol) to AaCHSs. Considering that the low abundance of zoanthamine alkaloids in marine organisms would limit their application as antifoulants, a marine fungal-derived natural product, mycoepoxydiene (MED), which has a similar chemical structure to zoanthamine alkaloids and the potential for large-scale production by fermentation, was selected and validated for stable binding to AaCHS2L2 using molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations. Finally, the efficacy of MED in inhibiting cyprid settlement of A. amphitrite was confirmed by a bioassay that demonstrated an EC50 of 1.97 µg/mL, suggesting its potential as an antifoulant candidate. Our research confirmed the reliability of using AaCHSs as antifouling targets and has provided insights for the efficient discovery of green antifoulants by CADD.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Incrustação Biológica , Thoracica , Animais , Quitina Sintase/genética , Quitina Sintase/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Incrustação Biológica/prevenção & controle , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Larva
17.
J Oleo Sci ; 73(3): 359-370, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38433000

RESUMO

Neuronal cell death and dysfunction of the central nervous system can be caused by oxidative stress, which is associated with the development of neurodegenerative diseases. Sophocarpine, an alkaloid compound derived from Sophora moorcroftiana (Benth.) Baker seeds, has a wide range of medicinal value. This study sought to determine how sophocarpine exerts neuroprotective effects by inhibited oxidative stress and apoptosis in mouse hippocampus neuronal (HT22) cells. 20mM glutamate-induced HT22 cells were used to develop an in vitro model of oxidative stress damage. The Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay was used to assess cell viability. According to the instructions on the kits to detect reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and oxidative stress indicators. HT22 cells were examined using immunofluorescence and Western Blotting to detect Nuclear Factor Erythroid 2-related Factor 2 (Nrf2) expression. The expression of proteins and messenger RNA (mRNA) for heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) was examined by Western Blotting and Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and Cell apoptosis were used by 5, 5', 6, 6'-Tetrachloro-1, 1', 3, 3'-tetraethyl-imidacarbocyanine iodide (JC- 1) kit and Terminal Deoxynucleotidyl Transferase-mediated dUTP Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL) apoptosis assay kit, respectively. Finally, the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins was detected by Western Blotting. The result demonstrated that sophocarpine (1.25 µM-10 µM) can significantly inhibit glutamate-induced cytotoxicity and ROS generation, improve the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Sophocarpine increased the expression of HO-1 protein and mRNA and the nuclear translocation of Nrf2 to play a cytoprotective role; however, cells were transfected with small interfering RNA targeting HO-1 (si-HO-1) reversed the above effects of sophocarpine. In addition, sophocarpine significantly inhibited glutamate induced mitochondrial depolarization and further inhibited cell apoptosis by reducing the expression level of caspase-related proteins.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Matrinas , Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Animais , Camundongos , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Ácido Glutâmico/toxicidade , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2 , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Humanos
18.
Molecules ; 29(5)2024 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38474561

RESUMO

Berberis species have a long history of use in traditional Chinese medicine, Ayurvedic medicine, and Western herbal medicine. The aim of this study was the quantification of the main isoquinoline alkaloids in extracts obtained from various Berberis species by HPLC, in vitro and in silico determination of anti-cholinesterase activity, and in vitro and in vivo investigations of the cytotoxic activity of the investigated plant extracts and alkaloid standards. In particular, Berberis species whose activity had not been previously investigated were selected for the study. In the most investigated Berberis extracts, a high content of berberine and palmatine was determined. Alkaloid standards and most of the investigated plant extracts exhibit significant anti-cholinesterase activity. Molecular docking results confirmed that both alkaloids are more favourable for forming complexes with acetylcholinesterase compared to butyrylcholinesterase. The kinetic results obtained by HPLC-DAD indicated that berberine noncompetitively inhibited acetylcholinesterase, while butyrylcholinesterase was inhibited in a mixed mode. In turn, palmatine exhibited a mixed inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. The cytotoxic activity of berberine and palmatine standards and plant extracts were investigated against the human melanoma cell line (A375). The highest cytotoxicity was determined for extract obtained from Berberis pruinosa cortex. The cytotoxic properties of the extract were also determined in the in vivo investigations using the Danio rerio larvae xenograft model. The obtained results confirmed a significant effect of the Berberis pruinosa cortex extract on the number of cancer cells in a living organism. Our results showed that extracts obtained from Berberis species, especially the Berberis pruinosa cortex extract, can be recommended for further in vivo experiments in order to confirm the possibility of their application in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and human melanoma.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Antineoplásicos , Berberina , Berberis , Melanoma , Humanos , Berberina/farmacologia , Acetilcolinesterase , Butirilcolinesterase , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
19.
Bioorg Chem ; 145: 107246, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38428283

RESUMO

Phytochemical investigation of the stems of Celastrus monospermus Roxb enabled isolation and identification of fifteen new macrolide sesquiterpene pyridine alkaloids (1-15) along with five known analogues. Their structures were elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic analysis (NMR, HRESIMS, IR, UV), chemical hydrolysis, and single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Bioassay of the abundant isolates revealed that seven compounds inhibited the proliferation of B lymphocytes with IC50 values ranging between 1.4 and 19.9 µM. Among them, celasmondine C (3) could significantly promote the apoptosis of activated B lymphocyte, especially late-stage apoptosis. Besides, compounds 3, 16, and 20 exhibited potent suppression of osteoclast formation at a concentration of 1.0 µM. This investigation enriched the chemical diversity of macrolide sesquiterpene pyridine alkaloids, and supported evidence for the development of new immunosuppressive and anti-osteoclastogenesis agents.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Celastrus , Sesquiterpenos , Celastrus/química , Macrolídeos , Estrutura Molecular , Piridinas/farmacologia , Piridinas/química , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Alcaloides/química , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Sesquiterpenos/química
20.
J Orthop Surg Res ; 19(1): 178, 2024 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38468339

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common degenerative joint disease characterized by persistent articular cartilage degeneration and synovitis. Oxymatrine (OMT) is a quinzolazine alkaloid extracted from the traditional Chinese medicine, matrine, and possesses anti-inflammatory properties that may help regulate the pathogenesis of OA; however, its mechanism has not been elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the effects of OMT on interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß)-induced damage and the potential mechanisms of action. METHODS: Chondrocytes were isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats. Toluidine blue and Collagen II immunofluorescence staining were used to determine the purity of the chondrocytes. Thereafter, the chondrocytes were subjected to IL-1ß stimulation, both in the presence and absence of OMT, or the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA). Cell viability was assessed using the MTT assay and SYTOX Green staining. Additionally, flow cytometry was used to determine cell apoptosis rate and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. The protein levels of AKT, mTOR, LC3, P62, matrix metalloproteinase-13, and collagen II were quantitatively analyzed using western blotting. Immunofluorescence was used to assess LC3 expression. RESULTS: OMT alleviated IL-1ß-induced damage in chondrocytes, by increasing the survival rate, reducing the apoptosis rates of chondrocytes, and preventing the degradation of the cartilage matrix. In addition, OMT decreased the ROS levels and inhibited the AKT/mTOR signaling pathway while promoting autophagy in IL-1ß treated chondrocytes. However, the effectiveness of OMT in improving chondrocyte viability under IL-1ß treatment was limited when autophagy was inhibited by 3-MA. CONCLUSIONS: OMT decreases oxidative stress and inhibits the AKT/mTOR signaling pathway to enhance autophagy, thus inhibiting IL-1ß-induced damage. Therefore, OMT may be a novel and effective therapeutic agent for the clinical treatment of OA.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Cartilagem Articular , Matrinas , Osteoartrite , Ratos , Animais , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Condrócitos/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/toxicidade , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Osteoartrite/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Cartilagem Articular/metabolismo , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Alcaloides/uso terapêutico , Alcaloides/metabolismo , Autofagia , Colágeno/metabolismo , Apoptose
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