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1.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-47929

RESUMO

A coordenadora da campanha Gravidez sem Álcool da Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria (SBP), dra. Conceição de Matos Segre, publicou artigo sobre a Síndrome Alcoólica Fetal (SAF) e os problemas por ela ocasionados. A prevalência da afecção é considerada alta em todo o mundo, sendo 9 casos por cada 1.000 nascidos vivos.


Assuntos
Complicações na Gravidez , Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal , Alcoolismo , Gravidez
2.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33081453

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the content and role of saturated fatty acids (SFA) in lipid metabolism disorder in patients with alcohol dependence syndrome (ADS). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 123 men were examined: 44 patients with ADS and 79 healthy people. The patients were examined on the 5-6 day after admission to the hospital. The content of saturated fatty acids (SFA) (caproic, caprylic, capric, undecyl, lauric, tridecane, myristic, pentadecanoic, palmitic, margarine, stearic, arachin, eicosanoic, behenic) was determined by gas-liquid chromatography. Quantitative calculation of SFA levels was carried out by the AgilentChemStationB.03.01 program (USA). The ratio of stearic to palmitic acid (C18:0/C16:0) was calculated. The study of the enzymatic activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT) was carried out by generally accepted standardized methods on a Cobas Mirra automated analyzer. RESULTS: In ADS patients, changes in the composition of SFA were found with an increase in the number of short-chain fatty acids (caproic acid by 52.2%, caprylic acid by 75.5%); medium-chain acids (capric acid by 47.9%, undecyl acid by 74.7%, lauric acid), but with a decrease in the concentration of long-chain acids (pentadecanoic by 5.1%, margarine by 34.7%, arachinic by 19.58%, eicosanoic by 26.6%, behenic by 5.1%). Less correlations between the fatty acid content and the parameters of the lipid transport system of blood serum were established in ADS patients compared to the controls. This indicates deep disorders of lipid metabolism. CONCLUSION: The results expand the understanding of the complex mechanisms of lipid metabolism disorders in ASD, which is important for secondary prevention. They also substantiate the need for a purposeful study of lipid metabolism disorders in patients with ADS at an earlier stage of the disease.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Ácidos Graxos , Alcoolismo/complicações , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Masculino
3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(39): 1428-1433, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001874

RESUMO

Excessive alcohol use is a leading cause of preventable death in the United States (1) and costs associated with it, such as those from losses in workplace productivity, health care expenditures, and criminal justice, were $249 billion in 2010 (2). CDC used the Alcohol-Related Disease Impact (ARDI) application* to estimate national and state average annual alcohol-attributable deaths and years of potential life lost (YPLL) during 2011-2015, including deaths from one's own excessive drinking (e.g., liver disease) and from others' drinking (e.g., passengers killed in alcohol-related motor vehicle crashes). This study found an average of 95,158 alcohol-attributable deaths (261 deaths per day) and 2.8 million YPLL (29 years of life lost per death, on average) in the United States each year. Of all alcohol-attributable deaths, 51,078 (53.7%) were caused by chronic conditions, and 52,921 (55.6%) involved adults aged 35-64 years. Age-adjusted alcohol-attributable deaths per 100,000 population ranged from 20.8 in New York to 53.1 in New Mexico. YPLL per 100,000 population ranged from 631.9 in New York to 1,683.5 in New Mexico. Implementation of effective strategies for preventing excessive drinking, including those recommended by the Community Preventive Services Task Force (e.g., increasing alcohol taxes and regulating the number and concentration of alcohol outlets), could reduce alcohol-attributable deaths and YPLL.†.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/mortalidade , Expectativa de Vida/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Pediatrics ; 146(4)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32968030

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Adolescents often display heterogenous trajectories of alcohol use. Initiation and escalation of drinking may be important predictors of later harms, including alcohol use disorder (AUD). Previous conceptualizations of these trajectories lacked adjustment for known confounders of adolescent drinking, which we aimed to address by modeling dynamic changes in drinking throughout adolescence while adjusting for covariates. METHODS: Survey data from a longitudinal cohort of Australian adolescents (n = 1813) were used to model latent class alcohol use trajectories over 5 annual follow-ups (mean age = 13.9 until 17.8 years). Regression models were used to determine whether child, parent, and peer factors at baseline (mean age = 12.9 years) predicted trajectory membership and whether trajectories predicted self-reported symptoms of AUD at the final follow-up (mean age = 18.8 years). RESULTS: We identified 4 classes: abstaining (n = 352); late-onset moderate drinking (n = 503); early-onset moderate drinking (n = 663); and early-onset heavy drinking (n = 295). Having more alcohol-specific household rules reduced risk of early-onset heavy drinking compared with late-onset moderate drinking (relative risk ratio: 0.31; 99.5% confidence interval [CI]: 0.11-0.83), whereas having more substance-using peers increased this risk (relative risk ratio: 3.43; 99.5% CI: 2.10-5.62). Early-onset heavy drinking increased odds of meeting criteria for AUD in early adulthood (odds ratio: 7.68; 99.5% CI: 2.41-24.47). CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides evidence that parenting factors and peer influences in early adolescence should be considered to reduce risk of later alcohol-related harm. Early initiation and heavy alcohol use throughout adolescence are associated with increased risk of alcohol-related harm compared with recommended maximum levels of consumption (late-onset, moderate drinking).


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/etiologia , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/psicologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Alcoolismo/diagnóstico , Austrália/epidemiologia , Intervalos de Confiança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Poder Familiar , Pais , Grupo Associado , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
5.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 2): 273-280, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970647

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Researches to date had indicated that socioeconomic status is a strong predictor of health behavior but also it has two-way effect with alcohol use disorder. This study examines social factors and their impact on alcohol use disorder and places individual alcohol use in the context of the status and conditions in which people live. To determine the distribution and characteristics of social factor in patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD) in the area of the Tuzla Canton (TC) in the period 01.01.2011 - 31.12.2015, in relation to: age, sex, marital status, level of education, municipality of residence, home ownership status, family structure, employment status, and monthly monetary income. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Retrospective research was conducted using a systematic sample of 1863 patients with AUD, using documentation from the Psychiatry clinic of the University Clinical Centre (UCC) and the protocols of Health Centres. RESULTS: The sample was composed 1808 (97.05%) men and 55 (2.95%) women; the ratio of men to women was 33:1. the ages of the patients in the sample were 54.4±9.79 years - men 54.49±9.74 years; women 51.45±10.94 years. Most of the men in the sample were married (71.1%) and most of the women were widowed (54.5%). The largest number of patients had elementary school education (66.5%), were unemployed (56.8%), with a monthly monetary income less than 300 convertible marks (KM) (62.2%), owned their own home (78.2%), and 36.1% of them lived with a partner or their own children. CONCLUSIONS: There are significantly more men being treated for AUD; most of them are married, and most of the women are widowed. The largest number of patients treated for AUD have elementary school education, are unemployed, have monthly monetary income less than 300 km, own their own house, and a little more than one third of them lived with their partner or their own children.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Adulto , Bósnia e Herzegóvina/epidemiologia , Emprego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Casamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
6.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 2): 281-289, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970648

RESUMO

The different personalities of alcoholics are expressed in the way they manifest certain traits of their personality. In addition to knowing the general and common characteristics of alcoholics, it is even more important for clinical practice to know the differences between them, thus allowing a personalized approach to each patient, as a unique personality. The division of the personalities of alcoholics may be viewed through the prism of seven perspectives: the disease perspective, the dimensional perspective, the cognitive-anxiety perspective, the behavioral perspective, the spiritual/transcendent perspective, the narrative and the systemic perspective. Each of these perspectives more clearly represents part of the personality of the alcoholic; together they give a clearer picture of the problem and accordingly offer different treatment options.


Assuntos
Alcoólicos/psicologia , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Personalidade , Ansiedade , Humanos
7.
Acta Cir Bras ; 35(8): e202000805, 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901682

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of alcohol exposure and diabetes on apoptotic process in the corpus cavernosum. METHODS: Forty eight male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control, diabetic, alcoholic and diabetic-alcoholic. Samples of the corpus cavernosum were prepared to study protein expression of apoptotic genes (Caspases-3 and 9) by immunohistochemistry and Real-Time PCR. RESULTS: The immunoreactivity of Caspases-3 and -9 was diffuse and higher in the treated groups though there was no significant difference between the experimental groups, only when compared with the control group. An increase was observed in the gene expression of Caspases-9 in the diabetic and ethanol-diabetic groups when compared with control and ethanol groups. CONCLUSIONS: The association of these factors (ethanol and diabetes) probably can affect the apoptosis mechanism in lesions of the cavernous tissue in the rat penis. Both gene and protein expression of Caspase-9 in diabetic and ethanol-diabetic groups suggest the involvement of the apoptosis cascade from this study model.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Apoptose , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Alcoolismo/complicações , Animais , Masculino , Pênis , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
8.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 1): 146-149, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890379

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Belgium, 82% of the population consumes alcohol occasionally while 10% consume in a way that can be seen as problematic. On a European level, only 8% of the people who can be characterized as having Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) would have consulted professional assistance in the past year. In this context, the KCE (Belgian Health Care Knowledge Centre) has addressed multiple recommendations to health professionals to reduce the "treatment gap" concerning the patients' care: (1) encourage screening and preventative interventions, (2) promote the acquirement of communicational and relational competences (3) develop collaborations between professionals. The objective of this article is to better understand their functioning. METHOD: We format a non-systematic literature review concerning these recommendations. RESULTS: The implementation of these Brief Interventions programs in primary care is relevant due to the moderately positive impact on the frequency and quantity of alcohol consumption but both the quality of the therapeutic relationship and collaboration with the care network would optimize Brief Interventions. The quality of the therapeutic relationship alone appears to have an impact on therapeutic outcome. CONCLUSION: Training concerning patient-professional relationship is necessary to maximize the effectiveness of BIs.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Alcoolismo , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Alcoolismo/diagnóstico , Bélgica , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento
9.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 1): 176-179, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is public health issue; bariatric surgery is considered as the most efficient treatment. However, the risk of developing an alcohol use disorder could increase after Roux-en-Y bypass. The purpose of this review is to emphasize the further research needed in this area. METHODS: Pubmed and Sciencedirect databases were searched. Articles written in another language than French or English as well as abstracts, conference presentations, editorials and expert opinions were excluded. RESULTS: Most of studies included in this review show an increased risk of developing an AUD (alcohol use disorder) after gastric bypass surgery. Male sex, younger age, smoking, regular alcohol consumption, AUD, recreational drug use, lower sense of belonging and undergoing a RYGB (Roux-en-Y gastric bypass) were identified as risk factors. There is an alteration of alcohol metabolism after gastric bypass. Gut hormones could also play a role in the development of AUD. The hypothesis of an addiction transfer is still controversial. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of developing an AUD seems to increase after surgery. Long term follow-up, after the second post-surgery year, is needed. Further researches are needed to understand the mechanisms that underlie the development of AUD.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Alcoolismo , Derivação Gástrica , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade , Fatores de Risco
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876295

RESUMO

Sporotrichosis is an implantation mycosis highly prevalent in Brazil, associated with soil activities and contact with infected animals. It has numerous clinical manifestations and its disseminated cutaneous form is uncommon, found in approximately 4% of cases and usually related to immunosuppressive conditions. We report an alcoholic 56-year-old male patient with no other comorbidities, presenting with multiple cutaneous nodules and ulcers. The patient was diagnosed with disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis based on the isolation and identification of Sporothrix spp. The patient was initially treated with amphotericin B with satisfactory results and then with itraconazole.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/complicações , Sporothrix/isolamento & purificação , Esporotricose/diagnóstico , Anfotericina B/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Brasil , Humanos , Itraconazol/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esporotricose/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento , Úlcera/etiologia
11.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32916739

RESUMO

Surgical treatment of patients with alcohol use disorder can lead to disturbances (withdrawal syndrome, delirium) which require intensive care treatment. In a surgical ward, the diagnosis of an alcohol related disorder is not always simple. Oftentimes patients conceal or trivialize the issue and as a result are admitted to the hospital in a non-abstinent or unstable state. It is risky to assume that patients with alcohol use disorder will successfully be supplied with alcohol in general hospitals. The risk can be reduced through presurgical identification and alcohol withdrawal of such patients. A literature review concludes that there is no secured evidence for the application of alcohol as prophylaxis or therapy of alcohol withdrawal syndrome in a surgical intensive care unit. The use of intravenous and oral alcohol in intensive care is an unnecessary risk to patients. There are more secure alternatives.


Assuntos
Delirium por Abstinência Alcoólica , Alcoolismo , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Cuidados Críticos , Etanol , Humanos
12.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e169, 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32996442

RESUMO

AIMS: Many people who are homeless with severe mental illnesses are high users of healthcare services and social services, without reducing widen health inequalities in this vulnerable population. This study aimed to determine whether independent housing with mental health support teams with a recovery-oriented approach (Housing First (HF) program) for people who are homeless with severe mental disorders improves hospital and emergency department use. METHODS: We did a randomised controlled trial in four French cities: Lille, Marseille, Paris and Toulouse. Participants were eligible if they were 18 years or older, being absolutely homeless or precariously housed, with a diagnosis of schizophrenia (SCZ) or bipolar disorder (BD) and were required to have a high level of needs (moderate-to-severe disability and past hospitalisations over the last 5 years or comorbid alcohol or substance use disorder). Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to immediate access to independent housing and support from the Assertive Community Treatment team (social worker, nurse, doctor, psychiatrist and peer worker) (HF group) or treatment as usual (TAU group) namely pre-existing dedicated homeless-targeted programs and services. Participants and interviewers were unmasked to assignment. The primary outcomes were the number of emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalisation admissions and inpatient days at 24 months. Secondary outcomes were recovery (Recovery Assessment Scale), quality of life (SQOL and SF36), mental health symptoms, addiction issues, stably housed days and cost savings from a societal perspective. Intention-to-treat analysis was performed. RESULTS: Eligible patients were randomly assigned to the HF group (n = 353) or TAU group (n = 350). No differences were found in the number of hospital admissions (relative risk (95% CI), 0.96 (0.76-1.21)) or ED visits (0.89 (0.66-1.21)). Significantly less inpatient days were found for HF v. TAU (0.62 (0.48-0.80)). The HF group exhibited higher housing stability (difference in slope, 116 (103-128)) and higher scores for sub-dimensions of S-QOL scale (psychological well-being and autonomy). No differences were found for physical composite score SF36, mental health symptoms and rates of alcohol or substance dependence. Mean difference in costs was €-217 per patient over 24 months in favour of the HF group. HF was associated with cost savings in healthcare costs (RR 0.62(0.48-0.78)) and residential costs (0.07 (0.05-0.11)). CONCLUSION: An immediate access to independent housing and support from a mental health team resulted in decreased inpatient days, higher housing stability and cost savings in homeless persons with SCZ or BP disorders.


Assuntos
Serviços Comunitários de Saúde Mental/métodos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoas em Situação de Rua/psicologia , Habitação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Alcoolismo/complicações , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Transtorno Bipolar/complicações , Transtorno Bipolar/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/economia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/métodos , Qualidade de Vida , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia
13.
Korean J Parasitol ; 58(4): 413-419, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871635

RESUMO

Eosinophilia occurs commonly in many diseases including allergic diseases and helminthic infections. Toxocariasis has been suggested as one cause of eosinophilia. The present study was undertaken to examine the prevalence of toxocariasis in patients with eosinophilia and to identify the risk factors for toxocariasis. This prospective cohort study recruited a total of 81 patients with eosinophilia (34 males and 47 females) who visited the outpatient clinic at Seoul National University Hospital from January 2017 to February 2018 and agreed to participate in this study. The prevalence of toxocariasis was examined by T. canis-specific ELISA, and the various risk factors for toxocariasis were evaluated by a questionnaire survey. Among 81 patients with eosinophilia, 18 were positive for anti-T. canis antibodies (22.2%); 88.9% were male (16/18) and 11.1% were female (2/18). Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that males (OR 21.876, 95% CI: 1.667-287.144) with a history of consuming the raw meat or livers of animals (OR 5.899, 95% CI: 1.004-34.669) and a heavy alcohol-drinking habit (OR 8.767, 95% CI: 1.018-75.497) were at higher risk of toxocariasis in patients with eosinophilia. Toxocariasis should be considered a potential cause of eosinophilia when the patient has a history of eating the raw meat or livers of animals in Korea. A single course of albendazole is recommended to reduce the migration of Toxocara larvae in serologically positive cases with eosinophilia.


Assuntos
Eosinofilia/etiologia , Toxocaríase/complicações , Toxocaríase/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo , Animais , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Eosinofilia/epidemiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Carne/efeitos adversos , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Toxocara canis/imunologia , Toxocaríase/diagnóstico , Toxocaríase/parasitologia
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(38): e21884, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957309

RESUMO

The Dulong nationality is one of the 5 smallest ethnic minorities in China. The suicide rate among people of the Dulong nationality is very serious. To address this issue, we conducted cross-sectional epidemiological studies on the prevalence of mental disorders in ethnic groups. Studying the unique situation of ethnic minorities can help us better understand their mental state and improve their quality of life.We conducted a cross-sectional epidemiological survey on a minority group in Southwest China. We used the cluster sampling method, and 2129 people were included in the study.The highest 1-month disorder prevalence was for alcohol dependence/abuse (4.16%), and the prevalence of lifelong mood disorders was 9.82%. The results of multivariate analysis showed that women faced a higher risk of mood disorders and anxiety disorders.This epidemiological survey of the prevalence of mental disorders in ethnic minorities in Southwest China provides a significant reference for mental health interventions for other ethnic minorities around the world.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Alcoolismo/etnologia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Rev. Asoc. Odontol. Argent ; 108(2): 41-45, mayo-ago. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1120976

RESUMO

La atención de salud abre una ventana de reflexiones compartidas entre los distintos actores que convergen hoy alrededor de la infancia y la adolescencia: profesionales de la salud, de la educación, instituciones y familias. El desarrollo humano implica una interacción dinámica. El conjunto de cuidados que conforman la crianza tiene lugar en múltiples contextos: la casa, la familia extendida, la escuela y la sociedad, cuyos valores, creencias y prácticas definen la cultura. Somos parte de una realidad que está evolucionando y creciendo en complejidad, en un escenario multifactorial y polifacético. Emergen enfermedades que, si bien son conocidas por parte de los profesionales de la salud, ganan una importancia creciente en la sociedad actual. Varias de estas patologías emergentes vienen catalizadas por factores medioambientales y por determinantes de tipo social que antes tenían una influencia menor o que, sencillamente, no se tenían en cuenta. Las transformaciones que experimentan los/as niños/as existen de manera visible, por lo que se hace imprescindible que madres, padres, docentes y profesionales de la salud, desde nuestro lugar de adultos, actuemos con responsabilidad en todos los espacios en los que deambulan los/as niños/as y los/as adolescentes de hoy (AU)


Health care opens a window for shared reflections among the different people who interact with children and adolescents: family, health professionals, educators and institutions today. Human development involves dynamic interaction. Care takes place in multiple contexts: the immediate and the extended family, the school and society with its values, beliefs and practices that define the culture where the individual grows up. We are part of a reality that is evolving and growing in complexity, facing a multifactorial and multifaceted scenario. A number of diseases while known by health professionals, gain increasing importance in today's society. Several of these emerging pathologies are catalyzed by environmental factors and by social determinants that previously had less influence or that were simply not taken into account. The transformations that the child undergoes nowadays are visible, and for that reason, it is essential that mothers, fathers, teachers and health professionals viewed from our position as adults, act responsibly in all the spaces where children and adolescents of today are (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Saúde da Criança , Medicina do Adolescente , Relações Pais-Filho , Argentina , Gravidez na Adolescência , Suicídio , Tabagismo , Violência , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Pessoas com Deficiência , Depressão , Alcoolismo , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento , Identidade de Gênero , Obesidade
18.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827370

RESUMO

The article presents the results of analysis of complex of potential environmental factors for alcohol consumption by population of the Russian Federation. It was revealed that the level of alcoholization of residents of certain territories of the Russian Federation is positively associated with systemic severity of indices of social and criminal tension in society. The potential physical and geographical risk factors of alcohol abuse of population are severity of Northern latitude of residence and low level of average annual air temperature and longitude of day in winter season. The content of boron, calcium and magnesium in human body are negatively and copper, manganese and nickel positively associated with alcoholization of residents of Russian regions. It should be noted that systematic accounting of environmental characteristics can predict risk of alcoholization among residents of certain territories of the Russian Federation.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Alcoolismo , Humanos , Federação Russa
19.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(31): 1009-1014, 2020 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32759915

RESUMO

Drinking alcohol during pregnancy can cause fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, including birth defects, behavioral disorders, and impaired cognitive development (1). Little is known about the co-use of other substances by females who drink during pregnancy. CDC used 2015-2018 data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) to estimate the overall and trimester-specific prevalence of self-reported drinking in the past 12 months, current drinking, and binge drinking, overall and by trimester, and the co-use of other substances among pregnant females aged 12-44 years. Past drinking (12 months) was reported by 64.7% of pregnant respondents. Current drinking (at least one drink in the past 30 days) was reported by 19.6% of respondents who were in their first trimester of pregnancy and 4.7% of respondents who were in their second or third trimester. Binge drinking (consuming four or more drinks on at least one occasion in the past 30 days) was reported by 10.5% of first trimester respondents and 1.4% of second or third trimester respondents. Overall, 38.2% of pregnant respondents who reported current drinking also reported current use of one or more other substances. The substances used most with alcohol were tobacco and marijuana. Self-reported drinking prevalence was substantially lower among second or third trimester respondents than among first trimester respondents. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) recommends alcohol use and substance use disorders screening for all females seeking obstetric-gynecologic care and counseling patients that there is no known safe level of alcohol use during pregnancy (2).


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Gestantes/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236641, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776986

RESUMO

Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) has been associated with abnormalities in hippocampal volumes, but these relationships have not been fully explored with respect to sub-regional volumes, nor in association with individual characteristics such as age, gender differences, drinking history, and memory. The present study examined the impact of those variables in relation to hippocampal subfield volumes in abstinent men and women with a history of AUD. Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging at 3 Tesla, we obtained brain images from 67 participants with AUD (31 women) and 64 nonalcoholic control (NC) participants (31 women). The average duration of the most recent period of sobriety for AUD participants was 7.1 years. We used Freesurfer 6.0 to segment the hippocampus into 12 regions. These were imputed into statistical models to examine the relationships of brain volume with AUD group, age, gender, memory, and drinking history. Interactions with gender and age were of particular interest. Compared to the NC group, the AUD group had approximately 5% smaller subiculum, CA1, molecular layer, and hippocampal tail regions. Age was negatively associated with volumes for the AUD group in the subiculum and the hippocampal tail, but no significant interactions with gender were identified. The relationships for delayed and immediate memory with hippocampal tail volume differed for AUD and NC groups: Higher scores on tests of immediate and delayed memory were associated with smaller volumes in the AUD group, but larger volumes in the NC group. Length of sobriety was associated with decreasing CA1 volume in women (0.19% per year) and increasing volume size in men (0.38% per year). The course of abstinence on CA1 volume differed for men and women, and the differential relationships of subfield volumes to age and memory could indicate a distinction in the impact of AUD on functions of the hippocampal tail. These findings confirm and extend evidence that AUD, age, gender, memory, and abstinence differentially impact volumes of component parts of the hippocampus.


Assuntos
Abstinência de Álcool , Alcoolismo/patologia , Hipocampo/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Memória , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tamanho do Órgão
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