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1.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 427, 2021 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to describe the prevalence and lifetime criteria profiles of DSM-5 alcohol use disorder (AUD) and the transitions from alcohol use to disorder in Chifeng, China. METHODS: Face-to-face interviews were conducted using Composite International Diagnostic Interview-3.0 (CIDI-3.0) among 4528 respondents in Chifeng. RESULTS: The weighted lifetime and 12-month prevalence of DSM-5 AUD were 3.03 and 1.05%, respectively. Mild lifetime AUD was the most prevalent severity level (69.53%). The two most common criteria were "failure to quit/cutdown" and "drinking more or for longer than intended." Lifetime prevalence was 65.59% for alcohol use, and 22.97% for regular drinking. Male and domestic violence were risk factors for the transition from alcohol use to regular drinking or AUD and from regular drinking to AUD. Younger age was risk factor for the transition to AUD from alcohol use or regular drinking. Poverty (OR = 2.49) was risk factor for the transition from alcohol use to regular drinking. The earlier drinkers were more likely to develop to regular drinking (OR = 2.11). CONCLUSION: AUD prevalence in Chifeng was not as high as that in Western countries. The study revealed that multiple risk factors might contribute to the transition across different stages of alcohol use. Further research should explore the underlying mechanisms.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool , Alcoolismo , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/diagnóstico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/diagnóstico , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
2.
JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc ; 59(240): 787-790, 2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508468

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Alcohol dependence syndrome is an important and major public health issue seen in our community and health center. It is mostly associated with different mental health problems and psychiatric co-morbidities. This study aims to find out the prevalence of depression among alcohol dependence syndrome in a tertiary care hospital. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted over one year from April 15, 2020, to February 15, 2021 at a tertiary care hospital. The ethical approval was obtained from the Institutional Review Committee of Nobel Medical College (reference number: 409/2020). Convenience sampling method was used. The patients admitted for alcohol use and related problems in the Psychiatry Department, Nobel Medical College Teaching Hospital, Biratnagar were included. Data entry was done using Microsoft Excel and statistical analysis was done by using Statistical Packages of Social Sciences Version 16.0. Point estimate at 95% Confidence Interval was calculated along with frequency and percentage. RESULTS: The prevalence of depression in patients with Alcohol Dependence Syndrome was 17 (16.3%) (95% Confidence Interval= 9.20-23.39) . The patients suffering from depressive disorder male and female were 16 (94.1%) and 1 (5.8%) respectively. The participants with Alcohol Dependence Syndrome with no other comorbid psychiatric disorders were found to be 60 (57.7%). CONCLUSIONS: Psychiatric comorbidity was found to be common in alcohol dependent people among which depression was found to be most common.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Centros de Atenção Terciária
3.
Br Dent J ; 231(4): 225-231, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446893

RESUMO

'Necrotising periodontal diseases' is an umbrella term for necrotising gingivitis, necrotising periodontitis, necrotising stomatitis and noma. These rapidly destructive conditions are characterised by pain, interdental ulceration and gingival necrosis which, if left untreated, can result in osteonecrosis. Research indicates that patients with a history of alcohol misuse are at an increased risk of malnutrition, which negatively affects the immune response and predisposition to necrotising periodontal diseases. This article will discuss that osteonecrosis of the alveolar bone does not exclusively occur in association with antiresorptive medications, but can occur as a severe form of necrotising gingivitis. In this article, we will describe two cases to highlight the occurrence, presentation and management of necrotising periodontal diseases secondary to alcohol misuse.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Gengivite Ulcerativa Necrosante , Gengivite , Noma , Osteonecrose , Doenças Periodontais , Alcoolismo/complicações , Gengivite Ulcerativa Necrosante/etiologia , Gengivite Ulcerativa Necrosante/terapia , Humanos , Osteonecrose/induzido quimicamente , Osteonecrose/terapia
4.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(9): 2462-2465, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424171

RESUMO

Disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL) is an uncommon form of Leishmania braziliensis infection. It remains unknown why some people develop this clinical condition. We describe 14 DCL patients in Northeast Brazil during 2015-2018. These patients regularly drank large amounts of alcohol, possibly increasing their risk for DCL.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Leishmania braziliensis , Leishmaniose Cutânea , Brasil/epidemiologia , Etanol , Humanos , Leishmaniose Cutânea/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia
5.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34460159

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To search for objective diagnostic criteria for the development of delirium tremens (DT) based on physiological and metabolic parameters. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The total number of patients was 506, including 393 patients with DT and 113 patients with uncomplicated alcohol withdrawal syndrome (UAWS). Twenty clinical and metabolic indicators were analyzed statistically using comparison of means, logistic regression and ROC-analysis. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Hyponatremia, thrombocytopenia and tachycardia are most prognostically significant indicators, changes in which are observed in the development of DT. These indicators can serve as the basis for objective diagnosis of alcohol withdrawal syndrome complicated by delirium.


Assuntos
Delirium por Abstinência Alcoólica , Alcoolismo , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias , Delirium por Abstinência Alcoólica/diagnóstico , Alcoolismo/complicações , Etanol , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos
6.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34460170

RESUMO

A combination of depression and alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a typical and most common example of a dual diagnosis at the intersection of general psychiatry and addiction psychiatry. A comorbidity of depression and AUD is more common than it can be brought about by mere coincidence, which might be explained to some extent by the synergetic effect of both diseases, with each of them complicating the course and worsening the prognosis of the other. Treatment protocols for patients with depression and comorbid AUD include antidepressants, specific medications for alcohol dependence, and psychotherapy. The first-line antidepressants in the treatment of patients with a comorbid combination of depression and alcohol use disorder, as in other clinical situations implying use of antidepressants, are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Fluvoxamine has certain advantages over the other SSRIs in the treatment of patients with a depression and comorbid AUD.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Alcoolismo/complicações , Alcoolismo/diagnóstico , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Fluvoxamina , Humanos , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/uso terapêutico
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444272

RESUMO

This study analyzed the effects of various alcohol prevention programs on the drinking behavior of adolescents. There were seven electronic databases used for the literature search. A systematic review and meta-analysis are employed for works published in Korean and English from January 2010 to April 2021, with strict inclusion criteria yielding 12 papers in the review. The type of alcohol prevention interventions included educational and motivational interventions. Six studies had more than 500 participants each, and five studies had more than 10 participating schools. The programs did not effectively reduce the frequency of drinking or binge drinking of adolescents but significantly reduced the amount of alcohol consumed. Based on the results of this study, when planning alcohol prevention programs for adolescents, it is necessary to adopt a multi-level approach, including the engagement of parents and the community.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Alcoolismo , Consumo Excessivo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Alcoolismo/prevenção & controle , Consumo Excessivo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas
9.
Dev Psychol ; 57(6): 900-912, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424008

RESUMO

Prior work suggests that substance-dependent mothers insensitively respond to their child's emotional needs, which can increase children's risk for psychopathology. However, the mechanisms and processes underlying these associations remain unclarified. Mothers' insensitivity to children's distress is an especially unique predictor of child maladjustment, yet no study has examined whether or how different types of insensitivity to child distress uniquely affect the development of internalizing problems in children of alcohol-dependent mothers. To bridge these gaps, this study examined longitudinal mediational pathways between maternal alcohol dependence symptoms, 2 types of maternal insensitivity to child distress (disengagement and intrusiveness), and 2 types of child internalizing symptoms (affective and anxiety problems) in a majority Black and Latinx sample of young children (Mage = 2.14 years) and their mothers. Results revealed that maternal disengagement mediated associations between maternal alcohol dependence symptoms and child internalizing problems such that alcohol dependence predicted increased disengagement to children's distress, which subsequently predicted increases in children's affective problems. Maternal alcohol dependence symptoms were not associated with intrusiveness to child distress; however, increased intrusiveness predicted later increases in child anxiety problems. Findings support a differentiated approach to studying maternal insensitivity to child distress, specifically indicating that mothers with alcohol dependence symptoms may be more or less likely to display certain types of insensitivity to child distress which may differentially influence children's risk for internalizing problems. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Mães , Ansiedade , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Mãe-Filho
10.
Praxis (Bern 1994) ; 110(10): 561-562, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344195

RESUMO

CME/Answers: Early Recognition and Prevention of a Disulfiram-Ethanol Reaction Abstract. Disulfiram is an alcohol-aversive agent for pharmacological relapse prevention in alcohol dependency. When combined with alcohol, disulfiram induces a disulfiram-ethanol reaction (DER), causing mild to severe symptoms. While the anticipated adverse effects should support abstinence, failed abstinence can be potentially lethal. Since there is no specific antidote, early recognition and supportive treatment are vital. The aim of this article is to illustrate the clinical features of DER, to suggest a reasonable diagnostic pathway and to provide a basis for decision-making as to the treatment with disulfiram.


Assuntos
Dissuasores de Álcool , Alcoolismo , Dissuasores de Álcool/efeitos adversos , Alcoolismo/diagnóstico , Dissulfiram/efeitos adversos , Etanol , Humanos , Prevenção Secundária
11.
Georgian Med News ; (315): 160-164, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365443

RESUMO

According to data that would have been obtained precisely as a result of studying the changes caused by alcohol abuse in the female body which can help solve many abnormal conditions developing in the female reproductive system, such as oligodysmenorrhea and amenorrhea, the purpose of this study was to identify changes in the endometrium that occur in chronic alcoholism. The study included sectional material, selected from women who, according to history data (interviews with relatives) and autopsy data (presence of alcoholic cirrhosis of the liver), had confirmed alcohol abuse. Microscopic examination of endometrium was carried out followed by morphometric examination with determining: the average diameter of the endometrial glands, the minimum diameter of the endometrial glands, the maximum diameter of the endometrial glands, gland wall thickness, the relative volume of the epithelium, and the thickness of the epithelium for the proliferative or secretory type of the endometrium. Based on the study, it can be assumed that alcohol abuse has a significantly significant effect on the female reproductive system as a whole, in particular, on the morpho-functional state of the endometrium, which is manifested by its statistically reliable thinning, hypoplasia of the glands, which was determined both in proliferative and in the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle. Results of the morphometric study have to be interpreted as tendency to atrophy in endometrium with decreased by 13.7% the average diameter of the endometrial glands (from 51.71±2.90 x10-6 m to 44.65±2.48 x10-6 m), reduced diameter of the endometrial glands from 72.14±2.21 x10-6m to 64.13±3.90 x10-6m, abridged the relative volume of the epithelium. The study shows the importance of an individual approach in working with this cohort of patients, which may consist in proper history taking (to confirm alcohol abuse), detection of pathomorphological changes in the endometrium, which is important for the correct diagnosis and selection of the most effective treatment.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Endométrio , Epitélio , Feminino , Humanos , Ciclo Menstrual
12.
Neuroimage Clin ; 31: 102771, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34359014

RESUMO

Men and women tend to differ in the age of first alcohol consumption, transition into disordered drinking, and the prevalence of alcohol use disorder. Here, we use a unique longitudinal dataset to test for potentially predispositonal sex-biases in brain organization prior to initial alcohol exposure. Our study combines measures of subcortical morphometry gathered in alcohol naive individuals during childhood (mean age: 9.43 years, SD = 2.06) with self-report measures of alcohol use in the same individuals an average of 17 years later (N = 81, 46 males, 35 females). We observe that pediatric amygdala and hippocampus volume both show sex-biased relationships with adult drinking. Specifically, females show a stronger association between subcortical volumetric reductions in childhood and peak drinking in adulthood as compared to males. Detailed analysis of subcortical shape localizes these effects to the rostro-medial hippocampus and basolateral amygdala subnuclei. In contrast, we did not observe sex-specific associations between striatal anatomy and peak alcohol consumption. These results are consistent with a model in which organization of the amygdala and hippocampus in childhood is more relevant for subsequent patterns of peak alcohol use in females as compared to males. Differential neuroanatomical precursors of alcohol use in males and females could provide a potential developmental basis for well recognized sex-differences in alcohol use behaviors.. Thus, our findings not only indicate that brain correlates of human alcohol consumption are manifest long before alcohol initiation, but that some of these correlates are not equivalent between males and females.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Tonsila do Cerebelo , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Tonsila do Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hipocampo , Humanos , Masculino
14.
Int J Ment Health Nurs ; 30 Suppl 1: 1293-1309, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34363429

RESUMO

Problematic alcohol and other drug use has a significant societal, personal, and financial burden. Nurses are key in responding to problematic alcohol and other drug use; however, research indicates many nurses hold negative attitudes towards people with substance and alcohol use disorders. Further, little content exists in most undergraduate degrees to address stigma held by new nurses. The objective of this scoping review, structured using Arksey and O'Malley's (International Journal of Social Research Methodology: Theory and Practice, 8 (1), 19-32, 2005) framework, is to examine studies that either explore or attempt to improve the knowledge and attitudes of undergraduate nurses caring for people who use alcohol and other drugs. Our initial search located 610 articles, and after screening, 14 articles were appraised using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT) and included in this review. Most of the papers appraised were small, localized studies using evaluation methods considered low quality, but showed promising results in addressing stigma and confidence in providing care to people who use alcohol and other drugs. This review indicates that a consistent direction for improving knowledge and attitudes among undergraduate nursing students working with people who use alcohol and other drugs is urgently needed. Further studies of interventions, tested with more rigorous evaluation methodologies, are required to extend existing work in this area.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Bacharelado em Enfermagem , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Atitude , Atenção à Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos
15.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 63: 102794, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352511

RESUMO

Unanticipated alcohol bans, as witnessed during the lockdown in response to Covid-19, led to severe withdrawal among dependent users. This sometimes resulted in desperate measures to handle withdrawal. We reviewed media reports of 54 persons who died from the consumption of hand sanitizer or other toxic chemicals due to the unavailability of alcohol during the lockdown in India. An informed and gradual cutdown of alcohol availability along with ensuring access to medical help for alcohol withdrawal should be considered of utmost priority in such a context.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , COVID-19 , Higienizadores de Mão , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , Índia , SARS-CoV-2
16.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255594, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352012

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Implementation of evidence-based care for heavy drinking and depression remains low in global health systems. We tested the impact of providing community support, training, and clinical packages of varied intensity on depression screening and management for heavy drinking patients in Latin American primary healthcare. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Quasi-experimental study involving 58 primary healthcare units in Colombia, Mexico and Peru randomized to receive: (1) usual care (control); (2) training using a brief clinical package; (3) community support plus training using a brief clinical package; (4) community support plus training using a standard clinical package. Outcomes were proportion of: (1) heavy drinking patients screened for depression; (2) screen-positive patients receiving appropriate support; (3) all consulting patients screened for depression, irrespective of drinking status. RESULTS: 550/615 identified heavy drinkers were screened for depression (89.4%). 147/230 patients screening positive for depression received appropriate support (64%). Amongst identified heavy drinkers, adjusting for country, sex, age and provider profession, provision of community support and training had no impact on depression activity rates. Intensity of clinical package also did not affect delivery rates, with comparable performance for brief and standard versions. However, amongst all consulting patients, training providers resulted in significantly higher rates of alcohol measurement and in turn higher depression screening rates; 2.7 times higher compared to those not trained. CONCLUSIONS: Training using a brief clinical package increased depression screening rates in Latin American primary healthcare. It is not possible to determine the effectiveness of community support on depression activity rates due to the impact of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Alcoólicos/psicologia , Depressão/terapia , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Intoxicação Alcoólica/psicologia , Alcoolismo/diagnóstico , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Atenção à Saúde , Depressão/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peru/epidemiologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/tendências , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias/métodos
18.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371928

RESUMO

The "drunken monkey" hypothesis posits that attraction to ethanol derives from an evolutionary linkage among the sugars of ripe fruit, associated alcoholic fermentation by yeast, and ensuing consumption by human ancestors. First proposed in 2000, this concept has received increasing attention from the fields of animal sensory biology, primate foraging behavior, and molecular evolution. We undertook a review of English language citations subsequent to publication of the original paper and assessed research trends and future directions relative to natural dietary ethanol exposure in primates and other animals. Two major empirical themes emerge: attraction to and consumption of fermenting fruits (and nectar) by numerous vertebrates and invertebrates (e.g., Drosophila flies), and genomic evidence for natural selection consistent with sustained exposure to dietary ethanol in diverse taxa (including hominids and the genus Homo) over tens of millions of years. We also describe our current field studies in Uganda of ethanol content within fruits consumed by free-ranging chimpanzees, which suggest chronic low-level exposure to this psychoactive molecule in our closest living relatives.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Evolução Biológica , Exposição Dietética , Etanol/metabolismo , Fermentação , Frutas/microbiologia , Leveduras/metabolismo , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/metabolismo , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Alcoolismo/metabolismo , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Animais , Exposição Dietética/efeitos adversos , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Alimentar , Frutas/metabolismo , Humanos , Pan troglodytes
19.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 387, 2021 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348698

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several fatal medical complications have been associated with alcohol withdrawal, such as seizure, cardiac arrhythmia, and takotsubo cardiomyopathy. However, there have been no reports on hypovolemic shock during alcohol withdrawal, although two physical signs of alcohol withdrawal, i.e., diaphoresis and fever, can lead to hypovolemia and its medical consequences. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe a patient with alcohol use disorder who exhibited hypovolemic shock and its associated acute renal failure during alcohol withdrawal with severe diaphoresis and fever even though he had consumed almost the full amount of food he was offered. Given his excessive diaphoresis and fever that were related to alcohol withdrawal, his water intake was insufficient. Infusion with extracellular fluid resolved all these medical issues. CONCLUSIONS: The increased adrenergic activity associated with alcohol withdrawal might substantially increase a patient's water-intake requirement through diaphoresis and fever and may cause severe hypovolemia and its associated medical complications.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Choque , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias , Cardiomiopatia de Takotsubo , Alcoolismo/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Choque/etiologia , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/complicações
20.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5071, 2021 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417470

RESUMO

Identification of causal variants and genes underlying genome-wide association study (GWAS) loci is essential to understand the biology of alcohol use disorder (AUD) and drinks per week (DPW). Multi-omics integration approaches have shown potential for fine mapping complex loci to obtain biological insights to disease mechanisms. In this study, we use multi-omics approaches, to fine-map AUD and DPW associations at single SNP resolution to demonstrate that rs56030824 on chromosome 11 significantly reduces SPI1 mRNA expression in myeloid cells and lowers risk for AUD and DPW. Our analysis also identifies MAPT as a candidate causal gene specifically associated with DPW. Genes prioritized in this study show overlap with causal genes associated with neurodegenerative disorders. Multi-omics integration analyses highlight, genetic similarities and differences between alcohol intake and disordered drinking, suggesting molecular heterogeneity that might inform future targeted functional and cross-species studies.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genômica , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/genética , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Feto/metabolismo , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Loci Gênicos , Marcadores Genéticos , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Mapeamento Físico do Cromossomo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética
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