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1.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 68(10): 1434-1440, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36417649

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of online breastfeeding counseling after cesarean section on breastfeeding success and anthropometric measurements of the baby in the first 6 months. METHODS: The study was conducted with single-blind randomized controlled experimental research design and performed with 151 primiparous women as intervention (n=76) and control (n=75) groups. The mothers were given training in the first 24 h postpartum by applying the "Data Collection Form," "Breastfeeding and Infant Follow-up Form," and "Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale - Short Form," who followed up at the first and sixth months, and further again for 6 months. RESULTS: Although there was no difference and homogeneity at the beginning of study among the participants in the intervention group compared with the control group, it was observed that the breastfeeding rates at the first and sixth months were higher and significant. When the anthropometric measurements of the participants in both the groups were compared, it was found that there was a significant difference between the measurements of height and weight at discharge, first, and sixth months. Breastfeeding self-efficacy scores in the intervention group were significantly higher at discharge, 4 weeks postpartum, and 6 months postpartum than those in the control group (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Breastfeeding training and online counseling given to mothers who give birth by cesarean section during the early postpartum period increased breastfeeding rates and self-sufficiency, and the anthropometric measurements of babies were found to be higher at healthy limits.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Cesárea , Lactente , Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Método Simples-Cego , Aconselhamento
2.
Breastfeed Med ; 17(11): 891-925, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36301257

RESUMO

Background: Lactation support, defined here as the access to educational resources, supplies, mental health and psychosocial support, skilled lactation counseling, and peer support, has been identified as critical to optimal health outcomes for birthing parents and infants. People who give birth while incarcerated are likely to receive suboptimal lactation support. The purpose of this review is to explore the literature on lactation support for incarcerated people to identify existing programs and policies, gaps in lactation support and ways to address the gaps, and incarcerated people's perspectives on breastfeeding and lactation support. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature to identify studies that addressed two main concepts: (1) breastfeeding and (2) incarcerated populations in the United States. Results: After meeting the eligibility criteria, 29 studies were included in the qualitative synthesis of the findings. Studies highlight the importance of supporting birthing people who want to provide milk to their infants in a way that is desired, psychologically safe, and structurally supported. Programs are needed to delay or prevent parent-infant separation after birth, provide education around breastfeeding misconceptions, and link to resources and ongoing support for both breastfeeding and milk expression. Implementation of breastfeeding programs may be most effectively undertaken with clear policies and dedicated leadership either internally or through community or health care partnerships. Discussion: This review highlights the policies and practices that hinder adequate lactation support for birthing parent-infant dyads who are incarcerated and describes feasible policies, education, and clinical support that can be used to improve care.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Prisioneiros , Lactente , Feminino , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , Lactação , Pais
3.
Obstet Gynecol ; 140(5): 878-881, 2022 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36201781

RESUMO

We examined how breastfeeding advice in the context of cannabis use differed by race and ethnicity. Data from the 2017-2018 PRAMS (Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System) survey were used to assess differences in breastfeeding guidance related to cannabis use among 1,213 individuals who self-reported cannabis use 3 months before or during pregnancy. A multivariable logistic regression model was specified to examine the extent to which the odds of receiving prenatal advice against breastfeeding if using cannabis differed by self-reported race and ethnicity. We found that non-Hispanic Black people were four times more likely than non-Hispanic White people to be advised against breastfeeding if using cannabis (adjusted odds ratio 4.1, 95% CI 2.1-8.2). Pregnant non-Hispanic Black people were disproportionately advised not to breastfeed if using cannabis.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Cannabis , Humanos , Gravidez , Feminino , Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , Etnicidade , Brancos , Aconselhamento
4.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1885, 2022 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36217132

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization endorses exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of every child's life since exclusive breastfeeding has the potential of saving thousands of infants' lives. The global exclusive breastfeeding rate among mothers is sub-optimal. This predisposes infants born to teenage mothers to all types of ailments. Therefore, this study explored the factors that inhibit the practice of exclusive breastfeeding as perceived by pregnant teenagers in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana which is an urban area. METHODS: The study used techniques in qualitative descriptive exploration to collect data from 30 pregnant teenagers through focus group discussions. Six focus group discussions were conducted and each group was made up of five participants. Informed consent was obtained from participants who were 18 years and above as well as parents of participants below 18 years while informed assent was obtained from participants below 18 years after purposive sampling. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed and data were analysed through content analysis. RESULTS: Two major themes and eight sub themes emerged from the data after analysis. Personal related barriers (negative emotional feelings, irrational thinking, perceived health risks to the baby and perceived self-inefficacy) and social related barriers (provider-client interaction, disapproval of exclusive breastfeeding by close relatives, unfriendly workplace policies and social myths) were the perceived factors that discouraged exclusive breastfeeding among teenage mothers. CONCLUSION: Health professionals should be trained to provide culturally sensitive care to teenage mothers in order to promote exclusive breastfeeding. The media, religious leaders and politicians should help debunk misconceptions about breastfeeding expressed by participants in the study.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adolescente , Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Gana , Humanos , Lactente , Mães/psicologia , Gravidez
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078649

RESUMO

The Philippines has adopted policies to protect, promote, and support breastfeeding on par with global standards, yet the impact of these policies is not well understood. This study assesses the adequacy and potential impact of breastfeeding policies, as well as the perceptions of stakeholders of their effectiveness and how to address implementation barriers. This mixed methods study entailed a desk review of policies and documents and in-depth interviews with 100 caregivers, employees, employers, health workers, and policymakers in the Greater Manila Area. Although the Philippines has a comprehensive breastfeeding policy framework, its effectiveness was limited by structural and individual barriers. Structural barriers included inconsistent breastfeeding promotion, limited access of mothers to skilled counseling, limited workplace breastfeeding support, gaps in legal provisions, weak monitoring and enforcement of the Philippine Milk Code, and the short duration and limited coverage of maternity leave. Individual barriers included knowledge and skills gaps, misconceptions, and low self-confidence among mothers due to insufficient support to address breastfeeding problems, misconceptions in the community that undermine breastfeeding, limited knowledge and skills of health workers, and insufficient support extended to mothers by household members. Breastfeeding policies in the Philippines are consistent with global standards, but actions to address structural and individual barriers are needed to enhance their effectiveness for improving breastfeeding practices.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Mães , Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Mães/psicologia , Filipinas , Políticas , Gravidez , Local de Trabalho
6.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 722, 2022 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36138368

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine maternal, psychosocial, and pregnancy factors associated with breastfeeding for at least 6 months in those giving birth for the first time. METHODS: We performed a planned secondary analysis of an observational cohort study of 5249 women giving birth for the first time. Women were contacted at least 6 months after delivery and provided information regarding breastfeeding initiation, duration, and exclusivity. Maternal demographics, psychosocial measures, and delivery methods were compared by breastfeeding groups. RESULTS: 4712 (89.8%) of the women breastfed at some point, with 2739 (58.2%) breastfeeding for at least 6 months. Of those who breastfed, 1161 (24.7% of the entire cohort), breastfed exclusively for at least 6 months. In the multivariable model among those who ever breastfed, not smoking in the month prior to delivery (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.04, 95%CI 1.19-3.45), having a Master's degree of higher (aOR 1.89, 95%CI 1.51-2.36), having a planned pregnancy (aOR 1.48, 95%CI 1.27-1.73), older age (aOR 1.02, 95% CI, 1.01-1.04), lower BMI (aOR 0.96 95% CI 0.95-0.97), and having less anxiety measured during pregnancy (aOR 0.990, 95%CI 0.983-0.998) were associated with breastfeeding for at least 6 months. Compared to non-Hispanic White women, Hispanic women, while being more likely to breastfeed initially (aOR 1.40, 95%CI 1.02-1.92), were less likely to breastfeed for 6 months (aOR 0.72, 95%CI 0.59-0.88). While non-Hispanic Black women were less likely than non-Hispanic White women to initiate breastfeeding (aOR 0.68, 95%CI 0.51-0.90), the odds of non-Hispanic Black women of continuing to breastfeed for at least 6 months was similar to non-Hispanic White women (aOR 0.92, 95%CI 0.71-1.19). CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of women giving birth for the first time, duration of breastfeeding was associated with several characteristics which highlight groups at greater risk of not breastfeeding as long as currently recommended. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01322529 (nuMoM2b) and NCT02231398 (nuMoM2b-Heart Health).


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Parto , Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hispânico ou Latino , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Gravidez
7.
Int Breastfeed J ; 17(1): 67, 2022 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36064573

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite extensive benefits and high intentions, few mothers breastfeed exclusively for the recommended duration. Maternal mental health is an important underlying factor associated with barriers and reduced rates of breastfeeding intent, initiation, and continuation. Given evidence of a bidirectional association between maternal mental health and breastfeeding, it is important to consider both factors when examining the efficacy of interventions to improve these outcomes. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the literature on the efficacy of behavioral interventions focused on both maternal mental health and breastfeeding outcomes, examining the intersection of the two. METHODS: This systematic review was completed using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) reporting guidelines. Studies were selected if they were available in English, used primary experimental design, and used a behavioral intervention type to examine maternal mental health and breastfeeding outcomes. Articles were identified from PubMed, CINAHL, Embase, and PsycINFO from database inception to 3 March 2022. Study quality was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Results were synthesized by intervention success for 1. Mental health and breastfeeding, 2. Breastfeeding only, 3. Mental health only, and 4. No intervention effect. PROSPERO CRD42021224228. RESULTS: Thirty interventions reported in 33 articles were identified, representing 15 countries. Twelve studies reported statistically significant positive effect of the intervention on both maternal mental health and breastfeeding; most showing a decrease in self-report depressive and/or anxiety symptoms in parallel to an increase in breastfeeding duration and/or exclusivity. Common characteristics of successful interventions were a) occurring across pregnancy and postpartum, b) delivered by hospital staff or multidisciplinary teams, c) offered individually, and d) designed to focus on breastfeeding and maternal mental health or on breastfeeding only. Our results are not representative of all countries, persons, experiences, circumstances, or physiological characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions that extend the perinatal period and offer individualized support from both professionals and peers who collaborate through a continuum of settings (e.g., health system, home, and community) are most successful in improving both mental health and breastfeeding outcomes. The benefits of improving these outcomes warrant continued development and implementation of such interventions. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42021224228.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Saúde Mental , Terapia Comportamental , Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Mães , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez
8.
Isr J Health Policy Res ; 11(1): 31, 2022 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36071536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The breastfeeding initiation rate in Israel is approximately 90%, yet exclusive breastfeeding drops sharply in the early postnatal period. The study objective was to assess early postpartum professional breastfeeding support, its association with breastfeeding success and identification of risk factors for early breastfeeding discontinuation. METHODS: As part of a post-discharge newborn follow-up study, a convenience sample of 868 mothers attending Maternal and Child Health Centers (MCHCs) up to three months post-partum were interviewed using a 26-item questionnaire. Breastfeeding-related questions covered demographic variables, pregnancy and birth details; breastfeeding duration, lactation support in hospital and post-discharge; and problems experienced. RESULTS: Most mothers, 797 (91.8%), initiated breastfeeding in hospital. All women who initiated breastfeeding in the hospital reported exclusive breastfeeding; by two weeks postpartum, 70 women (13.2%) were supplementing with formula (partial breastfeeding). Kaplan-Meier Survival Analysis revealed an estimated mean duration of exclusive breastfeeding in the sample population of 66.8 ± 1.5 days. This duration was shorter for women with preterm births, low birthweight infants (LBW), cesarean births, and hospitalizations in neonatal intensive care units (NICU). A total of 472 (59.3%) breastfeeding mothers reported receiving in-hospital guidance. Of these, 290 (61.3%) were observed breastfeeding. Of all women who initiated breastfeeding, 280 (35.1%) attended MCHC follow-up within 72 h of hospital discharge. A higher proportion of women experiencing breastfeeding difficulties attended an MCHC within 72 h (131/297, 44.1%) compared to women not experiencing difficulties (148/499, 29.7%). The most frequently reported problems were mechanical (55.2%) or milk supply concerns (18.5%). First-time mothers were more likely to report problems, as were Jewish (vs Arab) mothers. CONCLUSIONS: Even in a population with high initiation rates of breastfeeding, breastfeeding duration, both exclusive and partial, is less than recommended. As much of this drop-off occurs during maternity leave, it is likely related to breastfeeding challenges other than employment. Breastfeeding support needs of women are currently not adequately met; staffing and time for both in-hospital and community-based counseling needs to be funded as well as mandated. Counseling hours should be tailored to assure adequate coverage of high-risk groups such as women after cesarean delivery and newborns requiring intensive care.


Assuntos
Assistência ao Convalescente , Aleitamento Materno , Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , Criança , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Israel/epidemiologia , Alta do Paciente , Gravidez
9.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 711, 2022 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36115939

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding in the early postpartum period is expected to have mental benefits for mothers; however, the underlying psychobiological mechanisms remain unclear. Previously, we hypothesized that the release of oxytocin in response to the suckling stimuli during breastfeeding would mediate a calming effect on primiparous mothers, and we examined salivary oxytocin measurements in primiparous mothers at postpartum day 4 using saliva samples without extraction, which was erroneous. Thus, further confirmation of this hypothesis with a precise methodology was needed. METHODS: We collected saliva samples at three time points (baseline, feeding, and post-feeding) to measure oxytocin in 24 primiparous mothers on postpartum day 2 (PD2) and 4 (PD4) across the breastfeeding cycle. Salivary oxytocin levels using both extracted and unextracted methods were measured and compared to determine the qualitative differences. State and trait anxiety and clinical demographics were evaluated to determine their association with oxytocin changes. RESULTS: Breastfeeding elevated salivary oxytocin levels; however, it was not detected to a significant increase in the extraction method at PD4. We found a weak but significant positive correlation between changes in extracted and unextracted oxytocin levels during breastfeeding (feeding minus baseline); there were no other significant positive correlations. Therefore, we used the extracted measurement index for subsequent analysis. We showed that the greater the increase in oxytocin during breastfeeding, the lower the state anxiety, but not trait anxiety. Mothers who exclusively breastfed at the 1-month follow-up tended to be associated with slightly higher oxytocin change at PD2 than those who did not. CONCLUSIONS: Breastfeeding in early postpartum days could be accompanied by the frequent release of oxytocin and lower state anxiety, potentially contributing to exclusive breastfeeding.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Aleitamento Materno , Ocitocina , Saliva , Ansiedade/metabolismo , Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Ocitocina/análise , Ocitocina/metabolismo , Período Pós-Parto/metabolismo , Período Pós-Parto/psicologia , Saliva/química , Saliva/metabolismo
10.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 10(9): e31996, 2022 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36103244

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The exclusive breastfeeding rate in Malaysia is still not satisfactory. Previous studies have shown that breastfeeding self-efficacy is one of the determinants of exclusive breastfeeding, and it can be improved using social cognitive theory. WhatsApp, which is widely used among Malaysians, could be leveraged as a platform to deliver health education interventions. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to develop, implement, and evaluate the effect of using a face-to-face and WhatsApp-based health education intervention based on social cognitive theory, namely the Self-Efficacy in Breastfeeding (SeBF) module, on mothers' self-efficacy, knowledge, and attitudes in a district in Selangor state. METHODS: This study was a 2-arm, parallel, single-blind, cluster randomized controlled field trial with an intervention and a control group involving primigravida or multigravida mothers who reside in a district in Selangor state and did not exclusively breastfeed during their previous pregnancy. All 12 maternity and pediatric clinics in this district were randomly divided into 6 intervention and 6 control groups. A total of 172 pregnant mothers were randomly assigned to the intervention group (n=86) or the control group (n=86). The control group received usual routine care. The primary outcome was breastfeeding self-efficacy, while secondary outcomes were knowledge and attitude toward breastfeeding. Each subject was assessed at 4 time points: at baseline, immediately after the intervention, 4 weeks post partum, and 8 weeks post partum. Generalized mixed model analysis was applied to measure the effect of health education on breastfeeding self-efficacy, knowledge, and attitude after the intervention. RESULTS: The response rate was 81% (139/172), with the dropout rate being 7% (6/86) in the intervention group and 31% (27/86) in the control group. In the intent-to-treat analysis, the intervention group showed a significant increase in the mean total breastfeeding self-efficacy score 8 weeks after delivery compared with the control group (F21,601=111.73, P<.001). In addition, the mean total score for breastfeeding knowledge increased significantly in the intervention group after the intervention compared to the control group (F21,601=8.33, P<.001). However, no significant difference was found in the mean total score for breastfeeding attitude after the intervention (F21,602=5.50, P=.47). CONCLUSIONS: Face-to-face and WhatsApp-based participation in the SeBF program, designed on the basis of social cognitive theory, contributed to improved self-efficacy and knowledge about breastfeeding. Further studies need to be conducted with a longer duration (until 6 months post partum) to evaluate its effectiveness in increasing exclusive breastfeeding. Furthermore, new strategies in health education need to be developed to improve breastfeeding attitudes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Thaiclinicaltrials.org TCTR20200213004; https://www.thaiclinicaltrials.org/show/TCTR20200213004.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Autoeficácia , Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , Criança , Comunicação , Feminino , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Gravidez , Método Simples-Cego
11.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-49117

RESUMO

A amamentação é uma fase de aprendizados, desafios e mudanças que podem refletir na saúde mental da mulher, causando estresse e exaustão. Essa fadiga emocional é capaz de interferir em diversos fatores, inclusive na produção de leite.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Fadiga Mental , Leite Humano
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35954868

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in 2020 has led to several changes and disturbances in the daily lives of the general public. Particularly for new (first-time) mothers, there has been a significant impact on the practices of raising and feeding their babies. Social distancing measures everywhere have made mothers hesitant to breastfeed their babies anywhere else but at home. Combined with the fear of being infected with COVID-19, the present situation has created unprecedented barriers for breastfeeding mothers to accessing various types of support: emotional, instrumental, informational, and appraisal. There has been no research on the influence of the pandemic on social support regarding breastfeeding in Hong Kong. This study aimed to explore the social support and impact of COVID-19 on mothers breastfeeding their babies. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 currently breastfeeding women in Hong Kong. Colaizzi's seven-step method was used for data analysis. Two key themes emerged from the interview data: (1) positive influences on breastfeeding support during COVID-19 and (2) negative influences on breastfeeding support during COVID-19. Our findings may help mothers prepare to breastfeed their babies in places other than their homes.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , COVID-19 , Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Mães/psicologia , Pandemias , Cuidado Pós-Natal/psicologia , Gravidez
13.
Int Breastfeed J ; 17(1): 60, 2022 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35987837

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The importance of breastfeeding in low- and middle- income countries is well recognized, yet the importance of postnatal mental health on breastfeeding practices and beliefs in these settings has been understudied. This study investigates the associations between maternal mental health problems, breastfeeding beliefs and breastfeeding practices in rural China. METHODS: Cross-sectional data were collected in November and December 2019 from 742 mothers of infants under 6 months old in rural Sichuan Province, China. Maternal mental health (depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms) was assessed using the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (short form). Breastfeeding beliefs were assessed using the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale and Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale (short form). Breastfeeding practices were assessed through a 24-h dietary recall questionnaire. Ordinary least squares regression, multiple logistic regression and heterogeneous effects analyses were used to identify associations between symptoms of mental health problems and breastfeeding outcomes. RESULTS: The average age of sample infants was 2.7 months. Among mothers, 13% showed symptoms of depression, 16% anxiety, and 9% stress. The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding in the previous 24 h was 38.0%. Depression symptoms were significantly associated with breastfeeding attitude (𝛽= - 1.11, 95% CI: - 2.07, - 0.14) and breastfeeding self-efficacy (𝛽= - 3.19, 95% CI: - 4.93, - 1.45). Anxiety and stress symptoms were significantly associated with breastfeeding self-efficacy (𝛽= - 1.81, 95% CI: - 3.43, - 0.18 and 𝛽 = - 2.88, 95% CI: - 4.98, - 0.78, respectively). There were no significant associations between symptoms of mental health problems and exclusive breastfeeding. The heterogeneous effects analyses revealed that less educated mothers with symptoms of stress had lower odds of exclusive breastfeeding than educated mothers without symptoms of stress (OR: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.25,1.10). Mothers of younger infants had higher odds of exclusive breastfeeding than the mother of older infants, regardless of depression, anxiety, or stress symptoms. CONCLUSION: Symptoms of maternal mental health problems are significantly associated with breastfeeding attitude and self-efficacy; however, these symptoms are not associated with breastfeeding practices. Maternal educational level and infant age may play a role in mothers' breastfeeding practices. To improve breastfeeding practices, interventions should employ a multi-dimensional approach that focuses on improving maternal mental well-being and considers demographic characteristics.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Saúde Mental , Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , População Rural
14.
J Health Popul Nutr ; 41(1): 34, 2022 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35964118

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding practice is still not optimum in Bangladesh. Understanding barriers to breastfeeding is needed to prevent harmful practices. This study aimed to understand barriers to breastfeeding among infants and young children in Bangladesh. METHODS: This qualitative study was conducted in five rural sub-districts and one urban slum in Bangladesh. We conceptualized that barriers to breastfeeding can be broadly grouped into individual, society, and system level barriers. We conducted in-depth interviews with 33 breastfeeding mothers and 13 grandmothers of breastfed children (total n = 46 interviews). We observed 23 of these infants and young children being breastfed. These data were supplemented by 3 focus group discussions held with the children's fathers. We managed the data using Atlas.ti software and analyzed the data thematically using an inductive approach. RESULTS: Important individual-level barriers perceived to influence breastfeeding included misconceptions about the adverse effects of breastfeeding on maternal health, nutrition and physical appearance, and lack of awareness of the value of breastfeeding among family members. Perceived society-level barriers included sociocultural norms, beliefs, and practices such as mother obliged to give more attention on household chores than breastfeeding to become a good housewife and feeding formula milk perceived as a symbol of parents' financial solvency in the society. System-level barriers included attractive advertisements of breastmilk substitutes, and inadequate facilities and support processes in mothers' work environments. CONCLUSION: A range of barriers at individual, society and system level have important implications for infant and young children's breastfeeding practices in Bangladesh. Development of interventions that address the range of barriers that many mothers face is essential to support breastfeeding practices. Potential interventions include strengthening information-giving during interaction between mothers and health workers on breastfeeding techniques, and engaging fathers and other "significant others" in counseling on breastfeeding.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Bangladesh , Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Mães/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa
15.
Lit Med ; 40(1): 121-146, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35848298

RESUMO

This essay examines the challenge of breastfeeding in Thi Bui's The Best We Could Do: An Illustrated Memoir, specifically how the process of learning to feed, significant in both her own and her mother's traumatic entrances into motherhood, enables Bui to face the "terrifying thought" that, upon giving birth, "FAMILY is now something [she has] created." By situating her narrative in the context of feeding her son, Bui amplifies the associations between the act of providing nourishment and the matrilineal responsibility of satiating a hunger for familial connection. In illustrating this association, Bui depicts the nuanced layers of breastfeeding difficulty and failure, especially for women mothering in the context of generational trauma. Within a biomedical context, Bui's narrative illustrates how breastfeeding difficulties, and their emotional toll, may be reminiscent of diasporic losses of cultural and familial connection, prompting practitioners to consider more broadly the roots of their patients' breastfeeding anxieties.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Medicina na Literatura , Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Mães/psicologia , Gravidez
16.
Midwifery ; 112: 103413, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35793572

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bidirectional relationships between health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and breastfeeding outcomes during the perinatal period across different body mass index (BMI) groups have not been investigated. Understanding the nature of such relations can provide strategies the for development of targeted interventions. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to longitudinally (1) investigate the patterns of HRQoL during the perinatal period across different BMI groups; (2) explore bidirectional associations between HRQoL, breastfeeding attitude, and positive breastfeeding status during the perinatal period, and (3) compare the aforementioned relationships across four BMI groups. METHODS: A three-wave prospective longitudinal design was adopted in the second and third trimesters and six weeks postpartum. Cross-lagged panel analysis was used to examine reciprocal relations between two domains of HRQoL, breastfeeding attitudes, and positive breastfeeding status from antenatal to postnatal periods. Multi-group analyses were conducted to determine whether different patterns exist in these relationships according to the four BMI groups. The BMI was self-reported. Breastfeeding attitude and HRQoL were measured by the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale and the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form Health Survey, respectively. RESULTS: A total of 781 perinatal multi-ethnic women were recruited in Singapore. Our results showed that the physical HRQoL scores were the lowest at Wave 2 compared with those at Waves 1 and 3, whereas the mental HRQoL scores were the lowest at Wave 3 compared with those at Waves 1 and 2 across different BMI groups. Multigroup cross-lagged path analyses showed that breastfeeding attitudes were an antecedent of physical HRQoL in women with underweight. A cross-lagged relationship was found between breastfeeding attitudes and physical HRQoL scores across Waves 1 and 2 in women with obesity. Chi-square difference tests suggested that two paths (breastfeeding attitudes to Wave 2 physical HRQoL, and Wave 2 mental HRQoL to Wave 3 positive breastfeeding status) were significantly different across the four BMI groups. CONCLUSIONS: Physical and mental HRQoL patterns were different during the perinatal period, pre-conception counselling and perinatal care should be tailored to women's physical and mental health care needs. Reciprocal relations between physical HRQoL and breastfeeding attitudes during pregnancy were found in women with obesity. A flexible and individualised approach should provide for the woman with obesity in a respectful manner.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Qualidade de Vida , Índice de Massa Corporal , Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Obesidade/psicologia , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
17.
Neonatal Netw ; 41(3): 129-136, 2022 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35644358

RESUMO

Background: Despite well-known benefits, rates of exclusive breastfeeding and early initiation of breastfeeding are very low. This study was conducted to identify most important and easily modifiable barriers to Early Initiation of Breast Feeding (EIBF).Methods: This hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2018 to December 2018. Data on factors which could impact EIBF was collected by interviewing with mothers using semi-structured questionnaire.Results: Only 306 (33.7 percent) of the total 908 mother-neonate dyads enrolled received breastfeeding within 1 hour of birth. Factors affecting EIBF included: delivery by lower segment cesarean section (LSCS), lack of prenatal advice on breastfeeding, use of prelacteal feeds, and maternal illness.Conclusion: Rates of EIBF were very low in present setting. Counseling during antenatal visits on the importance of EIBF, and having adequate staff to support initiation of BF, may improve the EIBF.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Cesárea , Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Recém-Nascido , Mães/psicologia , Gravidez , Centros de Atenção Terciária
18.
AIDS Res Ther ; 19(1): 29, 2022 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35761241

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is no other better way to safeguard an infant's health in the first 6 months of life than exclusive breastfeeding (EBF). Breast milk is valuable in all aspects of an infant's physical and mental growth as well as immune development. The study aimed to assess the prevalence and factors associated with EBF practice among HIV-infected mothers in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania. METHOD: A hospital-based analytical cross-sectional study was conducted among lactating HIV-infected mothers. A random sampling procedure was used to obtain 372 HIV-infected mothers of infants from 6 to 12 months of age who were still breastfeeding at the time of data collection. An interviewer-administered structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with EBF practice. Statistical package for social science (SPSS volume 20) software was used for data entry and analysis. RESULTS: The prevalence of EBF practice was 58.1% at 95% Confidence Interval of 52.9% to 63.1%. More than half of the respondents 199 (53.5%) had adequate knowledge while 173(46.5%) had inadequate knowledge about EBF. After adjusting for confounders, factors associated with EBF practice were knowledge about EBF [Adequate knowledge (AOR = 5.11 at 95% CI 3.2-8.17, p < 0.001)], ANC visits [Adequate (AOR = 1.76 at 95% CI 1.09-2.82, p = 0.002)], Income per day [1 0r more USD (AOR = 1.83 at 95% CI 1.14-2.94, p = 0.013)], positive perception of EBF [ positive perception (AOR = 3.51 at 95% CI 2.25-5.47, p < 0.001) and having ever experienced a breast problem AOR = 3.91 at 95% CI 1.89-8.08, p < 0.001. CONCLUSION: More than half of interviewed mothers with HIV practiced EBF. The EBF practice among HIV lactating mothers was significantly influenced by adequate knowledge of EBF, positive perception toward EBF, adequate ANC visits, and having never experienced breast problems. Strengthening adherence to ANC routine visits, counseling on breastfeeding, and improving mothers' knowledge about exclusive breastfeeding would contribute to the enhancement of EBF practice in this region. An innovative interventional study is recommended to develop more effective strategies to improve EBF knowledge and practice among HIV-infected mothers.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Infecções por HIV , Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Lactação , Mães/psicologia , Prevalência , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
19.
Nutrients ; 14(11)2022 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35684150

RESUMO

The health benefits of breast milk feeding have been well-established, yet disparities exist, with African American mothers having the lowest breast milk feeding rates in the United States. This prospective, longitudinal study examined infant feeding (breast milk and/or infant formula) from birth to age 16 weeks, predictors of any breast milk feeding by age 1 week, and predictors of cessation of any breast milk feeding by ages 3, 8, and 16 weeks among primiparous African American mothers. This secondary analysis included 185 mother-infant dyads from the Sleep SAAF (Strong African American Families) study, a randomized clinical trial testing a responsive parenting vs. child safety control intervention. Mothers reported sociodemographic and psychosocial characteristics at age 1 week and infant feeding practices at ages 1, 3, 8, and 16 weeks. Rates of any breast milk feeding decreased from 66.5% at 1 week to 23.3% at 16 weeks. Bivariate logistic regression models showed that prepregnancy BMI (OR = 1.09), working prepregnancy (OR = 2.25), and food insecurity (OR = 2.49) significantly increased the odds of mothers feeding any breast milk by 1 week, whereas Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) participation (OR = 0.21) significantly decreased the odds. Bivariate logistic regression models showed that Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participation (OR = 2.86) and racial discrimination (OR = 2.14) significantly increased the odds of cessation of any breast milk feeding by 3 weeks. SNAP (OR = 2.33) and WIC (OR = 2.38) participation significantly increased the odds of cessation of any breast milk feeding by 8 weeks, whereas higher prepregnancy BMI (OR = 0.95) decreased the odds. Higher mother's age (OR = 0.92) significantly decreased the odds of cessation of any breast milk feeding by 16 weeks. The findings can be used to inform targeted interventions to promote mothers feeding any breast milk and help reduce breast milk feeding disparities among African American mothers.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Mães , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Leite Humano , Mães/psicologia , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Estados Unidos
20.
J Hum Lact ; 38(3): 466-476, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35684942

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The benefits of breastfeeding in promoting child survival are well recognized. As one of the nutritional interventions for children, exclusive breastfeeding protects babies from various diseases that contribute to infant morbidity and mortality. However, no systematic review and meta-analysis has examined the influence of breastfeeding promotion programs on exclusive breastfeeding rates in sub-Saharan Africa. RESEARCH AIM: We examined the influence of breastfeeding promotion programs on exclusive breastfeeding rates at < 1 month, and at 1-5 months of breastfeeding in sub-Saharan countries including Ghana, Burkina Faso, Uganda, South Africa, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Tanzania, and the Democratic Republic of Congo. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analyses study of randomized controlled trials and quasi-experimental studies was conducted by searching in electronic databases and articles' reference lists. Two investigators independently evaluated and extracted the data. A total of 131 studies were identified using five databases. Of the 10 studies meeting the inclusion criteria for systematic review, seven studies were included in the meta-analysis. We used a random-effects model to pool studies together and performed a subgroup analysis. RESULTS: Breastfeeding promotion programs resulted in significantly higher exclusive breastfeeding rates at < 1 month (OR = 1.60, 95% CI [1.36,1.86]). However, there was no significant effect observed for exclusive breastfeeding at 1-5 months. Combined interventions were more effective in improving exclusive breastfeeding rates than individual counseling or home-based counseling alone. CONCLUSION: Breastfeeding promotion programs in sub-Saharan Africa are effective in increasing exclusive breastfeeding rates at 6 months after birth.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Aconselhamento , Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , Criança , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Lactente , Quênia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Tanzânia
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