Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 20.007
Filtrar
1.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 122(2): e202310051, abr. 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1533067

RESUMO

Introducción. El tamaño al nacer se encuentra sujeto a influencias genéticas y ambientales; la altura geográfica es muy influyente. El peso al nacer (PN) es el indicador más utilizado para evaluarlo; existen diferentes estándares y referencias. Debido a la variabilidad de la distribución del PN en relación con la altura en la provincia de Jujuy (Argentina), este trabajo analiza la distribución percentilar del PN para tierras altas (TA) y tierras bajas (TB) jujeñas según edad gestacional (EG) y sexo, y su comparación con una referencia nacional y el estándar internacional INTERGROWTH-21st (IG-21). Población y métodos. Se analizaron los registros de 78 524 nacidos vivos en Jujuy en el período 20092014. Utilizando el método LMS, se estimaron los percentiles 3, 10, 50, 90 y 97 de PN/EG por sexo, para TA (≥2000 msnm), TB (<2000 msnm) y el total provincial, y se compararon gráficamente con la referencia poblacional argentina de Urquía y el estándar IG-21. La significación estadística se determinó mediante la prueba de Wilcoxon. Resultados. El PN en Jujuy presentó distribución heterogénea, con diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p <0,05) entre TB y TA. Al comparar con la referencia nacional y el estándar IG-21, se observaron diferencias por altitud, principalmente en los percentiles 90 y 97 para ambas regiones, y en los percentiles 3 y 10 en TA comparados con el estándar. Conclusiones. Se observó variabilidad de la distribución del PN asociada a la altura geográfica, por lo que, para evaluar el crecimiento intrauterino, resulta fundamental incluir la EG y el contexto donde transcurre la gestación.


Introduction. Size at birth is subject to genetic and environmental influences; altitude is highly influential. Birth weight (BW) is the most widely used indicator to assess size at birth; different standards and references are available. Due to the variability in BW distribution in relation to altitude in the province of Jujuy (Argentina), the purpose of this study is to analyze the percentile distribution of BW in the highlands (HL) and the lowlands (LL) of Jujuy based on gestational age (GA) and sex and compare it with a national reference and the INTERGROWTH-21 st (IG-21) international standard. Population and methods. The records of 78 524 live births in Jujuy in the 2009­2014 period were analyzed. Using the LMS method, the 3 rd, 10 th, 50 th, 90 th, and 97 th percentiles of BW/GA by sex were estimated for the HL (≥ 2000 MASL), the LL (< 2000 MASL), and the total for Jujuy, and compared with the Argentine population reference by Urquía and the IG-21 standard using growth charts. The statistical significance was established using the Wilcoxon test. Results. BW in Jujuy showed a heterogeneous distribution, with statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) between the LL and the HL. When compared with the national reference and the IG-21 standard, differences in terms of altitude were observed, mainly in the 90 th and 97 th percentiles for both regions and the 3 rd and 10 th percentiles in the HL compared with the international standard. Conclusions. BW distribution varied in association with altitude; therefore, to assess intrauterine growth, it is critical to include GA and the environment in which the pregnancy takes place.


Assuntos
Humanos , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Altitude , Gráficos de Crescimento , Valores de Referência , Peso ao Nascer , Idade Gestacional
2.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1336674, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38590804

RESUMO

Background: Hyperuricemia is a common metabolic disorder linked to various health conditions. Its prevalence varies among populations and genders, and high-altitude environments may contribute to its development. Understanding the connection between blood cell parameters and hyperuricemia in high-altitude areas can shed light on the underlying mechanisms. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between blood cell parameters and hyperuricemia in high-altitude areas, with a particular focus on gender differences. Methods: We consecutively enrolled all eligible Tibetan participants aged 18-60 who were undergoing routine medical examinations at the People's Hospital of Chaya County between January and December 2022. During this period, demographic and laboratory data were collected to investigate the risk factors associated with hyperuricemia. Results: Among the participants, 46.09% were diagnosed with hyperuricemia. In the male cohort, significant correlations were found between serum uric acid (SUA) levels and red blood cell (RBC) count, creatinine (Cr). Urea, alanine transaminase (ALT), and albumin (ALB). Notably, RBC exhibited the strongest association. Conversely, in the female cohort, elevated SUA levels were associated with factors such as white blood cell (WBC) count. Urea, ALT, and ALB, with WBC demonstrating the most significant association. Further analysis within the female group revealed a compelling relationship between SUA levels and specific white blood cell subtypes, particularly neutrophils (Neu). Conclusion: This study revealed gender-specific associations between SUA levels and blood cell parameters in high-altitude areas. In males, RBC count may play a role in hyperuricemia, while in females, WBC count appears to be a significant factor. These findings contribute to our understanding of metabolic dynamics in high-altitude regions but require further research for comprehensive mechanistic insights.


Assuntos
Hiperuricemia , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Hiperuricemia/epidemiologia , Altitude , Ácido Úrico , Células Sanguíneas , Ureia
3.
Microbiome ; 12(1): 70, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38581016

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gut microbiota is significantly influenced by altitude. However, the dynamics of gut microbiota in relation to altitude remains undisclosed. METHODS: In this study, we investigated the microbiome profile of 610 healthy young men from three different places in China, grouped by altitude, duration of residence, and ethnicity. We conducted widely targeted metabolomic profiling and clinical testing to explore metabolic characteristics. RESULTS: Our findings revealed that as the Han individuals migrated from low altitude to high latitude, the gut microbiota gradually converged towards that of the Tibetan populations but reversed upon returning to lower altitude. Across different cohorts, we identified 51 species specifically enriched during acclimatization and 57 species enriched during deacclimatization to high altitude. Notably, Prevotella copri was found to be the most enriched taxon in both Tibetan and Han populations after ascending to high altitude. Furthermore, significant variations in host plasma metabolome and clinical indices at high altitude could be largely explained by changes in gut microbiota composition. Similar to Tibetans, 41 plasma metabolites, such as lactic acid, sphingosine-1-phosphate, taurine, and inositol, were significantly elevated in Han populations after ascending to high altitude. Germ-free animal experiments demonstrated that certain species, such as Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, which exhibited altitude-dependent variations in human populations, might play crucial roles in host purine metabolism. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides insights into the dynamics of gut microbiota and host plasma metabolome with respect to altitude changes, indicating that their dynamics may have implications for host health at high altitude and contribute to host adaptation. Video Abstract.


Assuntos
População do Leste Asiático , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Masculino , Humanos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Altitude , Multiômica , Metaboloma
4.
Sci Data ; 11(1): 350, 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589476

RESUMO

Maintaining sufficient cerebral oxygen metabolism is crucial for human survival, especially in challenging conditions such as high-altitudes. Human cognitive neural activity is sensitive to fluctuations in oxygen levels. However, there is a lack of publicly available datasets on human behavioural responses and cerebral dynamics assessments during the execution of conflicting tasks in natural hypoxic environments. We recruited 80 healthy new immigrant volunteers (males, aged 20 ± 2 years) and employed the Stroop cognitive conflict paradigm. After a two-week exposure to both high and low-altitudes, the behavioural performance, prefrontal oxygen levels, and electroencephalography (EEG) signals were recorded. Comparative analyses were conducted on the behavioural reaction times and accuracy during Stroop tasks, and statistical analyses of participants' prefrontal oxygen levels and EEG signals were performed. We anticipate that our open-access dataset will contribute to the development of monitoring devices and algorithms, designed specifically for measuring cerebral oxygen and EEG dynamics in populations exposed to extreme environments, particularly among individuals suffering from oxygen deficiency.


Assuntos
Altitude , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Masculino , Oxigênio/análise , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Teste de Stroop , Adulto Jovem , Emigrantes e Imigrantes
5.
Cells ; 13(7)2024 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38607031

RESUMO

Preclinical research has provided compelling evidence indicating that exposure to hypobaric hypoxia (HH) results in a deterioration of spermatogenesis. This adverse effect extends to the underlying molecular mechanisms, progressively leading to impairments in the seminiferous epithelium and germ cells and alterations in semen parameters. Indeed, several studies have demonstrated that animals exposed to HH, whether in natural high-altitude environments or under simulated hypoxic conditions, exhibit damage to the self-renewal and differentiation of spermatogenesis, an increase in germline cell apoptosis, and structural alterations in the seminiferous tubules. One of the primary mechanisms associated with the inhibition of differentiation and an increase in apoptosis among germ cells is an elevated level of oxidative stress, which has been closely associated with HH exposure. Human studies have shown that individuals exposed to HH, such as mountaineers and alpinists, exhibit decreased sperm count, reduced motility, diminished viability, and increased sperm with abnormal morphology in their semen. This evidence strongly suggests that exposure to HH may be considered a significant risk factor that could elevate the prevalence of male infertility. This literature review aims to provide a comprehensive description and propose potential mechanisms that could elucidate the infertility processes induced by HH. By doing so, it contributes to expanding our understanding of the challenges posed by extreme environments on human physiology, opening new avenues for research in this field.


Assuntos
Altitude , Sêmen , Animais , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Hipóxia , Espermatogênese , Espermatozoides
6.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0300457, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38608222

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of hypertension in Peru has increased over the years. Approximately one third of the Peruvian population lives at high altitudes. This population presents particular physiological, genetic and environmental characteristics that could be related to the prevalence of hypertension and its subtypes. OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between altitude and hypertension in the Peruvian population through an analysis of a nationally representative survey. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the Demographic and Family Health Survey for the period 2016-2019. We included 122,336 individuals aged 18 years and older. Hypertension was defined according to the JNC-7 guidelines. High-altitude location was defined as a residential cluster located above 2,500 meters above sea level. We utilized generalized linear models from the Poisson family with a log-link function to assess the magnitude of the association between high altitude and hypertension. Additionally, we employed multinomial regression models to analyze the association between high altitude and subtypes of hypertension, including isolated systolic hypertension (ISH), isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH), and systolic-diastolic hypertension (SDH). RESULTS: In the adjusted Poisson regression model, we found that the prevalence of hypertension among participants living at high altitudes was lower compared to those living at low altitudes (aPR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.86-0.93). In the adjusted multinomial regression model, we observed a lower prevalence rate of ISH among participants residing at high altitudes (aRPR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.61-0.73) and a higher prevalence rate of IDH among participants residing at high altitudes (aRPR: 1.60; 95% CI: 1.32-1.94). CONCLUSIONS: Residents at high altitudes in Peru have a lower prevalence rate of ISH and a higher prevalence rate of IDH compared to those living at low altitudes. Further studies are needed to determine the influence of other biological, environmental, and healthcare access factors on this relationship.


Assuntos
Altitude , Hipertensão , Humanos , Peru/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Demografia
7.
BMC Biol ; 22(1): 82, 2024 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38609969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As an endemic shrub of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP), the distribution of Hippophae tibetana Schlecht. ranges between 2800 and 5200 m above sea level. As the most basal branch of the Hippophae genus, H. tibetana has an extensive evolutionary history. The H. tibetana is a valuable tree for studying the ecological evolution of species under extreme conditions. RESULTS: Here, we generated a high-quality chromosome-level genome of H. tibetana. The total size of the assembly genome is 917 Mb. The phylogenomic analysis of 1064 single-copy genes showed a divergence between 3.4 and 12.8 Mya for H. tibetana. Multiple gene families associated with DNA repair and disease resistance were significantly expanded in H. tibetana. We also identified many genes related to DNA repair with signs of positive selection. These results showed expansion and positive selection likely play important roles in H. tibetana's adaptation to comprehensive extreme environments in the QTP. A comprehensive genomic and transcriptomic analysis identified 49 genes involved in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway in H. tibetana. We generated transgenic sea buckthorn hairy root producing high levels of flavonoid. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, this H. tibetana high-quality genome provides insights into the plant adaptation mechanisms of plant under extreme environments and lay foundation for the functional genomic research and molecular breeding of H. tibetana.


Assuntos
Hippophae , Humanos , Altitude , Reparo do DNA , Flavonoides , Cromossomos
8.
J Environ Manage ; 357: 120697, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38565031

RESUMO

Global ecosystems are facing anthropogenic threats that affect their ecological functions and biodiversity. However, we still lack an understanding of how biodiversity can mediate the responses of ecosystems or communities to human disturbance across spatial gradients. Here, we examined how existing, spatial patterns of biodiversity influence the ecological effects of small hydropower plants (SHPs) on macroinvertebrates in river ecosystems. This study found that levels of biodiversity (e.g., number of species) can influence the degrees of its alterations by SHPs occurring along elevational gradients. The results of the study reveal that the construction of SHPs has various effects on biodiversity. For example, low-altitude areas with low biodiversity (species richness less than 12) showed a small increase in biodiversity compared to high-altitude areas (species richness more than 12) under SHP disturbances. The increases in the effective habitat area of the river segment could be a driver of the enhanced biodiversity in response to SHP effects. Changes in the numerically dominant species contributed to the overall level of community variation from disturbances. Location-specific strategies may mitigate the effects of SHPs and perhaps other disturbances.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Rios , Humanos , Biodiversidade , Altitude
9.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1365470, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38562254

RESUMO

Introduction: Research on the outdoor thermal comfort (OTC) of a university campus is beneficial to the physical and mental health of college students. Methods: In this study, the OTC of students attending Tibet University in Lhasa, which experiences high-altitude cold climate conditions, under different activity intensities was studied using field measurements and a questionnaire survey. Results: With the increase in activity intensity, the comfort physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) value gradually increased in summer, while the comfortable PET value gradually decreased in winter. The most comfortable PET value is 17.6°C in summer and 11.5°C in winter. The neutral PET of Tibetan college students during outdoor activities in summer was 16.3°C, and the neutral PET of outdoor activities in winter was 12.1°C. Gender and ethnicity had different effects on thermal sensation under different activity intensities. Under vigorous-intensity activities, PET in winter and summer had the greatest influence on thermal sensation. The situation was different under moderate-intensity activity. PET had the greatest influence on thermal sensation in summer, and Tmrt had the greatest influence on thermal sensation in winter. Discussion: These findings provide a basis for an improved design of the outdoor environment under different outdoor activity intensities in high-altitude areas.


Assuntos
Altitude , Clima , Humanos , Estações do Ano , Temperatura , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
PeerJ ; 12: e17166, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38563004

RESUMO

Objectives: To test the hypothesis that 'live high-base train high-interval train low' (HiHiLo) altitude training, compared to 'live low-train high' (LoHi), yields greater benefits on performance and physiological adaptations. Methods: Sixteen young male middle-distance runners (age, 17.0 ± 1.5 y; body mass, 58.8 ± 4.9 kg; body height, 176.3 ± 4.3 cm; training years, 3-5 y; training distance per week, 30-60 km.wk-1) with a peak oxygen uptake averaging ~65 ml.min-1.kg-1 trained in a normobaric hypoxia chamber (simulated altitude of ~2,500 m, monitored by heart rate ~170 bpm; thrice weekly) for 3 weeks. During this period, the HiHiLo group (n = 8) stayed in normobaric hypoxia (at ~2,800 m; 10 h.day-1), while the LoHi group (n = 8) resided near sea level. Before and immediately after the intervention, peak oxygen uptake and exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia responses (incremental cycle test) as well as running performance and time-domain heart rate variability (5-km time trial) were assessed. Hematological variables were monitored at baseline and on days 1, 7, 14 and 21 during the intervention. Results: Peak oxygen uptake and running performance did not differ before and after the intervention in either group (all P > 0.05). Exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia responses, measured both at submaximal (240 W) and maximal loads during the incremental test, and log-transformed root mean square of successive R-R intervals during the 4-min post-run recovery period, did not change (all P > 0.05). Hematocrit, mean reticulocyte absolute count and reticulocyte percentage increased above baseline levels on day 21 of the intervention (all P < 0.001), irrespective of group. Conclusions: Well-trained runners undertaking base training at moderate simulated altitude for 3 weeks, with or without hypoxic residence, showed no performance improvement, also with unchanged time-domain heart rate variability and exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia responses.


Assuntos
Altitude , Tolerância ao Exercício , Masculino , Humanos , Adolescente , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Hipóxia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Oxigênio
11.
Glob Chang Biol ; 30(4): e17260, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38563236

RESUMO

The impact of anthropogenic global warming has induced significant upward dispersal of trees to higher elevations at alpine treelines. Assessing vertical deviation from current uppermost tree distributions to potential treeline positions is crucial for understanding ecosystem responses to evolving global climate. However, due to data resolution constraints and research scale limitation, comprehending the global pattern of alpine treeline elevations and driving factors remains challenging. This study constructed a comprehensive quasi-observational dataset of uppermost tree distribution across global mountains using Google Earth imagery. Validating the isotherm of mean growing-season air temperature at 6.6 ± 0.3°C as the global indicator of thermal treeline, we found that around two-thirds of uppermost tree distribution records significantly deviated from it. Drought conditions constitute the primary driver in 51% of cases, followed by mountain elevation effect which indicates surface heat (27%). Our analyses underscore the multifaceted determinants of global patterns of alpine treeline, explaining divergent treeline responses to climate warming. Moisture, along with temperature and disturbance, plays the most fundamental roles in understanding global variation of alpine treeline elevation and forecasting alpine treeline response to ongoing global warming.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Árvores , Árvores/fisiologia , Temperatura , Temperatura Baixa , Clima , Altitude
12.
Genet Sel Evol ; 56(1): 26, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38565986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chinese indigenous sheep are valuable resources with unique features and characteristics. They are distributed across regions with different climates in mainland China; however, few reports have analyzed the environmental adaptability of sheep based on their genome. We examined the variants and signatures of selection involved in adaptation to extreme humidity, altitude, and temperature conditions in 173 sheep genomes from 41 phenotypically and geographically representative Chinese indigenous sheep breeds to characterize the genetic basis underlying environmental adaptation in these populations. RESULTS: Based on the analysis of population structure, we inferred that Chinese indigenous sheep are divided into four groups: Kazakh (KAZ), Mongolian (MON), Tibetan (TIB), and Yunnan (YUN). We also detected a set of candidate genes that are relevant to adaptation to extreme environmental conditions, such as drought-prone regions (TBXT, TG, and HOXA1), high-altitude regions (DYSF, EPAS1, JAZF1, PDGFD, and NF1) and warm-temperature regions (TSHR, ABCD4, and TEX11). Among all these candidate genes, eight ABCD4, CNTN4, DOCK10, LOC105608545, LOC121816479, SEM3A, SVIL, and TSHR overlap between extreme environmental conditions. The TSHR gene shows a strong signature for positive selection in the warm-temperature group and harbors a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) missense mutation located between positions 90,600,001 and 90,650,001 on chromosome 7, which leads to a change in the protein structure of TSHR and influences its stability. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of the signatures of selection uncovered genes that are likely related to environmental adaptation and a SNP missense mutation in the TSHR gene that affects the protein structure and stability. It also provides information on the evolution of the phylogeographic structure of Chinese indigenous sheep populations. These results provide important genetic resources for future breeding studies and new perspectives on how animals can adapt to climate change.


Assuntos
Genoma , Seleção Genética , Ovinos/genética , Animais , China , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Altitude , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
13.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 6276, 2024 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38491102

RESUMO

The morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics of leaves result from the long-term adaptation of plants to their environment and are closely related to plant growth and development. In this study, 37 prickly ash germplasm resources from 18 production areas were utilized as the subjects of research. Logistic equations, principal component analysis, and cluster analysis were employed to comprehensively evaluate the leaf traits of prickly ash germplasm resources, with an analysis of their correlation with ecological and geographical factors in the production areas. The results showed that the leaf traits of prickly ash germplasms of different origins are substantially different and diverse. The coefficient of variation for the 14 leaf traits was greater than 10%. The coefficient of variation of the compound leaflet number was the highest among all the considered leaf traits, and the coefficient of variation of leaf thickness was the lowest, at 49.86% and 11.37%, respectively. The leaf traits of the prickly ash germplasm originating from Chongqing in Yongchuan, Chongqing in Rongchang, and Yunnan in Honghe ranked highest, whereas the leaf traits of the prickly ash germplasm from Henan in Jiaozuo, Gansu in Tianshui, and Shanxi in Yuncheng ranked lowest. The results of the correlation analysis showed that among the ecological and geographical factors of the origins, latitude had the strongest correlation with the leaf traits of the prickly ash germplasm. As latitude increased, the leaves of prickly ash gradually decreased in size, weight, and leaf shape index. The factor with the second strongest correlation was temperature. The leaves of the prickly ash germplasm originating from warmer climate areas were larger and heavier than those from areas with colder climates. Altitude and longitude did not significantly affect the leaf traits of the prickly ash germplasm, but at similar latitudes, the leaves of the prickly ash germplasm in high-altitude areas were smaller, and the leaves of the prickly ash germplasm in low-altitude areas were larger. These findings can provide valuable references for breeding and the sustainable utilization of new varieties of prickly ash resources.


Assuntos
Altitude , Melhoramento Vegetal , Humanos , China , Geografia , Folhas de Planta
14.
FEMS Microbiol Ecol ; 100(4)2024 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38439700

RESUMO

The increasing global concern of antimicrobial resistance and shortage of new antimicrobials necessitates exploring untapped terrestrial environments for new bioactive microbiome diversity. The low-temperature and oligotrophic North Western Himalaya (NWH) region has a vast diversity of Streptomyces with potential antimicrobial properties that remain largely unexplored. This study evaluates the diversity of culturable Streptomyces from high-altitude NWH and their potential as a source of new antimicrobials through genus-specific isolation and identification. The results demonstrate a distinct phylogenetic clustering of Streptomyces from different sampling regions of NWH, site-specific variation in culturable ß-diversity and species commonness with varying intersite bioactivity among different sites. Further, the study optimized the media selection for large-scale culture cultivation in antibiotic production processes and demonstrated the antimicrobial efficacy of Streptomyces against a range of pathogens through in vitro bioassays using minimum inhibitory concentration determination and antibiofilm activity. Untargeted label-free proteomic profiling also revealed variable expression of stress-response proteins and antibiotic regulators as a competitive survival strategy for selective antagonistic Streptomyces. The findings highlight the potential of NWH in augmenting antimicrobial discovery and combating antimicrobial resistance through the isolation and study of novel bioactive Streptomyces.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Streptomyces , Filogenia , Proteoma , Streptomyces/genética , Streptomyces/metabolismo , Altitude , 60479 , Proteômica , Anti-Infecciosos/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
15.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1321580, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38510346

RESUMO

Objective: The population is aging exponentially and the resulting frailty is becoming increasingly evident. We aimed to explore the association between altitude and frailty, and to identify associated factors for frailty. Methods: This is a community-based cross-sectional survey. 1,298 participants aged ≥60 years from three different altitudes were included in the study. To quantify frailty, we constructed a frailty index (FI) and a frailty score (FS). The FI was divided into non-frailty, prefrailty, and frailty. The Odds Ratios and confidence intervals (ORs, 95%CIs) were used to evaluate the association between altitude and FI and FS in multivariate ordinal logistic regression and linear regression. Results: There were 560 (53.1%) participants in the prefrailty and 488 (37.6%) in the frailty group. The FS increased with higher altitude (P for trend <0.001). Multivariate ordinal logistic regression analysis revealed an association between altitude and frailty, OR = 1.91 (95% CI: 1.38-2.64) in mid-high altitude and 2.49 (95% CI:1.40-4.45) in high altitude. The same trend of association was found in the univariate analysis. The FS increased by 1.69 (95% CI: 0.78-2.60) at mid-high altitude and 3.24 (95%CI:1.66-4.81) at high altitude compared to medium altitude. Conclusion: The study indicates that high altitude exposure is an associated factor for frailty in older adults. This association become stronger with higher altitudes. As a result, it is essential to conduct early frailty screening for residents living at high altitudes.


Assuntos
Fragilidade , Humanos , Idoso , Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Altitude , Estudos Transversais , Vida Independente , China/epidemiologia
16.
Indian J Med Res ; 159(2): 241-245, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38517219

RESUMO

BACKGROUND OBJECTIVES: High-altitude headache (HAH) and headache in acute mountain sickness (AMS) are common among lowlanders ascending to the high altitude and are often confused with one another. A pilot study was undertaken to analyze HAH and AMS cases in Indian lowlanders ascending to Leh city (3500 m) in western Himalayas. METHODS: A total number of 1228 Indian lowlanders, who ascended (fresh and re-inductees) by air and acclimatized, participated in this pilot study. The intensity of headache was assessed by the Visual Analogue Score. The parameters of HAH as per the International Classification of Headache Disorders-3 and 2018 Revised Lake Louise Questionnaire (LLQ) were used to differentiate HAH and AMS. RESULTS: Out of 1228 cases, 78 (6.4%) cases had headache, of which 24 (1.95%) cases were HAH only, 40 (3.25%) cases AMS only and 14 (1.14%) cases were defined as both HAH and AMS. There was a significant difference in heart rate [F (2,51) = (4.756), P =0.01] between these groups. It also showed a difference in the correlation between the parameters within the groups. The Odd's Ratio of AMS in fresh and re-inductees was found to be 4.5 and for HAH it was 4.33. INTERPRETATION CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study suggest that LLQ has a tendency of overestimating AMS by including HAH cases. Furthermore differential parameters exhibit differences when AMS and HAH are considered separately. Re-inductees showed a lower incidence of HAH and AMS.


Assuntos
Doença da Altitude , Humanos , Doença da Altitude/complicações , Doença da Altitude/diagnóstico , Doença da Altitude/epidemiologia , Altitude , 60479 , Projetos Piloto , Doença Aguda , Cefaleia/epidemiologia , Cefaleia/etiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 708: 149770, 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38518722

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-altitude de-acclimatization (HADA) significantly impacts physiological functions when individuals acclimatize to high altitudes return to lower altitudes. This study investigates HADA's effects on renal function and structure in rats, focusing on oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress as potential mechanisms of renal injury. OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms of renal damage in HADA and evaluate the efficacy of antioxidants Vitamin C (Vit C) and tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) in mitigating these effects. METHODS: 88 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a control group, a high-altitude (HA) group, a high-altitude de-acclimatization (HADA) group, and a treatment group. The control group was housed in a sea level environment (500 m), while the HA, HADA, and treatment groups were placed in a simulated high-altitude chamber (5000 m) for 90 days. After this period, the HA group completed the modeling phase; the HADA group was further subdivided into four subgroups, each continuing to be housed in a sea level environment for 3, 7, 14, and 30 days, respectively. The treatment group was split into the Vit C group, the TUDCA group, and two placebo groups, receiving medication for 3 consecutive days, once daily upon return to the sea level. The Vit C group received 100 mg/kg Vit C solution via intravenous injection, the TUDCA group received 250 mg/kg TUDCA solution via intraperitoneal injection, and the placebo groups received an equivalent volume of saline similarly. Serum, urine, and kidney tissues were collected immediately after the modeling phase. Renal function and oxidative stress levels were assessed using biochemical and ELISA methods. Renal histopathology was observed with H&E, Masson's trichrome, PAS, and PASM staining. Transmission electron microscopy was used to examine the ultrastructure of glomeruli and filtration barrier. TUNEL staining assessed cortical apoptosis in the kidneys. Metabolomics was employed for differential metabolite screening and pathway enrichment analysis. RESULTS: Compared to the control and HA groups, the HADA 3-day group (HADA-3D) exhibited elevated renal function indicators, significant pathological damage, observable ultrastructural alterations including endoplasmic reticulum expansion and apoptosis. TUNEL-positive cells significantly increased, indicating heightened oxidative stress levels. Various differential metabolites were enriched in pathways related to oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Early intervention with Vit C and TUDCA markedly alleviated renal injury in HADA rats, significantly reducing the number of apoptotic cells, mitigating endoplasmic reticulum stress, and substantially lowering oxidative stress levels. CONCLUSION: This study elucidates the pivotal roles of oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress in the early-stage renal injury in rats undergoing HADA. Early intervention with the Vit C and TUDCA significantly mitigates renal damage caused by HADA. These findings provide insights into the pathophysiological mechanisms of HADA and suggest potential therapeutic strategies for its future management.


Assuntos
Altitude , Rim , Ácido Tauroquenodesoxicólico , Ratos , Masculino , Animais , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Rim/patologia , Apoptose , Estresse Oxidativo , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático
18.
J Environ Manage ; 356: 120679, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38531141

RESUMO

Introduction of alpine grasses to low altitude regions has long been a crucial strategy for enriching germplasm diversity, cultivating and acclimating high-quality species, enhancing ecosystem resilience and adaptability, as well as facilitating ecosystem restoration. However, there is an urgent need to investigate the impacts of planting Gramineae seeds on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, particularly during the critical stage of early plant growth. In this study, four species of grass seeds (Stipa breviflora, Poa pratensis, Achnatherum splendens, Elymus nutans) were collected from 19 high-altitude regions surrounding the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and sown at low-altitude. Measurements of GHG emissions at early seedling growth in the mesocosm experiment using static chamber method showed a strong increase in the cumulative emissions of CO2 (5.71%-9.19%) and N2O (11.36%-13.64%) (p < 0.05), as well as an elevated CH4 uptake (2.75%-5.50%) in sites where the four grass species were introduced, compared to bare soil. Consequently, there was a substantial rise in global warming potential (13.87%-16.33%) (p < 0.05) at grass-introduced sites. Redundancy analysis showed that seed traits, plant biomass, and seedling emergence percentage were the main driving biotic factors of three GHGs fluxes. Our study unveils the potential risk of escalating GHG emissions induced by introducing high altitude grasses to low altitude bare soil, elucidating the mechanism through linking seed traits with seedling establishment and environmental feedback. Furthermore, this offers a new perspective for assessing the impact of grass introduction on ecological environment of introduced site.


Assuntos
Aquecimento Global , Gases de Efeito Estufa , Ecossistema , Plântula/química , Poaceae , Altitude , Solo , Metano/análise , Óxido Nitroso/análise , Dióxido de Carbono/análise
19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 31(16): 24492-24511, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38441742

RESUMO

High-altitude lakes (HALs) can be used as a supplement or alternative source of water in areas where there is a water shortage. When these lakes are efficiently managed, they can supply more water resources to fulfil the increasing demand. Water quality assessment aids in the identification of adequate and safe drinking water sources. It minimizes threats to the public's health by making sure that lake water extraction fulfills safety and health regulations. Water quality and hydrogeochemical study was conducted on six HALs of the Tawang district of Arunachal Pradesh during the year 2022. The water quality index (WQI) values varied from excellent to poor (33.87 to 101.95). Lake 6 stands out with its exceptional water quality as it had the minimum average WQI value of 52.98. In contrast, Lake 5 had the lowest water quality among the studied lakes with the maximum average WQI value of 95.31. However, the water might not be safe to drink due to the elevated levels of fluoride in these lakes. It is crucial to address and minimize the high fluoride levels to ensure the safety and acceptability of the water for consumption. The Piper diagram showed that Ca2+ > Mg2+ > Na+ > K+ and HCO3- > Cl- > SO42-, respectively, were the primary cations and anions present in these lakes. The Gibbs diagram also demonstrated the effect of rock weathering and precipitation dominance on the water chemistry in the research area. These results provide insightful information about the water quality of HALs, which is essential information for concerned government departments and agencies to manage water issues more efficiently. Based on current research, the HALs in this region have a lot of potential to meet the growing demand for drinking water.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Água Subterrânea , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Humanos , Qualidade da Água , Lagos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Fluoretos/análise , Altitude , Facies , 60479 , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Índia
20.
J Proteomics ; 299: 105156, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38467267

RESUMO

Plants exhibit phenotypic plasticity in response to environmental variations, which can lead to stable genetic and physiological adaptations if exposure to specific conditions is prolonged. Myrsine coriacea demonstrates this through its ability to thrive in diverse environments. The objective of the article is to investigate potential differences in protein accumulation and physiological responses of M. coriacea by cultivating plants from seeds collected from four populations at different altitudes in a common garden experiment. Additionally, we aim to evaluate whether these differences exhibit genetic fixation. Through integrated physiological and proteomic analyses, we identified 170 differentially accumulated proteins and observed significant physiological differences among the populations. The high-altitude population (POP1) exhibited a unique proteomic profile with significant down-regulation of proteins involved in carbon fixation and energy metabolism, suggesting a potential reduction in photosynthetic efficiency. Physiological analyses showed lower leaf nitrogen content, net CO2 assimilation rate, specific leaf area, and relative growth rate in stem height for POP1, alongside higher leaf carbon isotopic composition (δ13C) and leaf carbon (C) content. These findings provide insight into the complex interplay between proteomic and physiological adaptations in M. coriacea and underscore the importance of local adaptations. SIGNIFICANCE: We investigate the adaptive responses of M. coriacea, a shrub with a broad phenotypic range, by cultivating plants from seeds collected at four different altitudes in a common garden experiment. These findings provide insight into the complex interplay between proteomic and physiological adaptations in M. coriacea and underscore the importance of local adaptations in the face of climate change. This study contributes to advancing our understanding of the influence of altitude-specific selection pressures on the molecular biology and physiology of plants in natural populations. Our findings provide valuable insights that enhance our ability to predict and comprehend how plants respond to climate change.


Assuntos
Altitude , Myrsine , Proteômica , Adaptação Fisiológica , Plantas , Carbono
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...