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1.
Chemosphere ; 242: 125289, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896204

RESUMO

Selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) are essential microelements for humans with crucial biological functions. In this study, we determined Se and Zn concentrations in soils and rice grains on Hainan Island and investigated how their spatial distributions are related to soil mineral elements, topography, and vegetation coverage. Overall, the concentrations of Se and Zn in soils were higher than the background values for Chinese soil; the Se concentrations in rice grains were higher than the threshold value for Se deficiency in grains, but Zn concentrations were lower than the proposed critical concentration. Both Spearman's correlation and stepwise regression analysis showed that the concentrations of soil Fe and Ca significantly affected soil Se and Zn: a difference of 1 g kg-1 in soil Fe changed soil Se by 2.820 µg kg-1 and soil Zn by 0.785 mg kg-1, respectively, while a difference of 1 g kg-1 in soil Ca changed soil Se by 3.249 µg kg-1 and soil Zn by 0.356 mg kg-1, respectively. For rice grains, Se and Zn concentrations decreased with increasing elevation; every 100 m increase in elevation could decrease Se by 0.022 mg kg-1 and Zn by 0.912 mg kg-1. Moreover, the impact of Fe and Ca on soil Zn was relatively strong in the northeast region, while the influence of elevation on rice grain Se was more significant in the central region. The findings contribute to a better understanding of factors driving the distribution of Se and Zn in soils and crops.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/química , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Oryza/química , Selênio/análise , Solo/química , Zinco/análise , Altitude , Cálcio/análise , China , Humanos , Ferro/análise , Ilhas , Análise de Regressão , Análise Espacial
2.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 295(1): 31-46, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414227

RESUMO

The buff-throated partridge (Tetraophasis szechenyii) is a hypoxia-tolerant bird living in an extremely inhospitable high-altitude environment, which has high ultraviolet (UV) radiation as well as a low oxygen supply when compared with low-altitude areas. To further understand the molecular genetic mechanisms of the high-altitude adaptation of the buff-throated partridges, we de novo assembled the complete genome of the buff-throated partridge. Comparative genomics revealed that positively selected hypoxia-related genes in the buff-throated partridge were distributed in the HIF-1 signaling pathway (map04066), response to hypoxia (GO:0001666), response to oxygen-containing compound (GO:1901700), ATP binding (GO:0005524), and angiogenesis (GO:0001525). Of these positively selected hypoxia-related genes, one positively selected gene (LONP1) had one buff-throated partridge-specific missense mutation which was classified as deleterious by PolyPhen-2. Moreover, positively selected genes in the buff-throated partridge were enriched in cellular response to DNA damage stimulus (corrected P value: 0.028006) and DNA repair (corrected P value: 0.044549), which was related to the increased exposure of the buff-throated partridge to UV radiation. Compared with other avian genomes, the buff-throated partridge showed expansion in genes associated with steroid hormone receptor activity and contractions in genes related to immune and olfactory perception. Furthermore, comparisons between the buff-throated partridge genome and red junglefowl genome revealed a conserved genome structure and provided strong evidence of the sibling relationship between Tetraophasis and Lophophorus. Our data and analysis contributed to the study of Phasianidae evolutionary history and provided new insights into the potential adaptation mechanisms to the high altitude employed by the buff-throated partridge.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Aves/genética , Altitude , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Genoma/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Hipóxia/genética , Masculino , Seleção Genética/genética
3.
Am J Rhinol Allergy ; 34(1): 141-142, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31510758
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 698: 133960, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493573

RESUMO

Disentangling the processes that drive plant community assembly is critical for understanding the patterns of plant diversity. We studied how different abiotic and biotic factors shape the interplay between the facets of alpine plant diversity, functional (FD), phylogenetic (PD) and taxonomic diversity (TD), in three different mountain ranges with contrasting evolutionary histories and climate conditions (Pyrenees and Mediterranean-type mountains in central Spain and Chilean Andes). We hypothesized that the causal links vary in strength and sign across regions. We used species inventories, functional trait data, and a phylogeny from 84 plant communities spread throughout three high-mountain alpine grasslands. Structural equation models were used to test our causal hypotheses on the relationships observed between the three diversity facets, and the abiotic (elevation, potential solar radiation and soil total nitrogen) and biotic factors (C-score). Despite our causal model presented a high variability in each mountain range, TD always decreased with increasing elevation (sum of direct and indirect effects). We also found some patterns suggesting that assembly processes could be climatically/biogeographically structured such as the negative relationship between FD and elevation found in Mediterranean mountains and the negative relationship between FD and TD found in both Spanish mountain ranges (independently of their different climates). A remarkable finding of this study is that ecological factors such as soil total nitrogen and elevation indirectly alter the relationships between the diversity facets. Our results suggest that diversity facets are simultaneously affected by different ecological and biogeographical/evolutionary processes, resulting in some general trends but also in parallel idiosyncratic patterns. Our findings highlight that although FD stand out by its explanatory power of community processes, TD and PD provide a complementary and necessary view that should not be disregarded in the attempt to globally explain community assembly processes.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Clima , Filogenia , Altitude , Chile , Mudança Climática , Ecologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Plantas , Solo , Espanha
5.
Ecol Lett ; 23(1): 172-180, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31724293

RESUMO

Global change influences species' seasonal occurrence, or phenology. In cold-adapted insects, the activity is expected to start earlier with a warming climate, but contradictory evidence exists, and the reactions may be linked to species-specific traits. Using data from the GBIF database, we selected 105 single-brooded Holarctic butterflies inhabiting broad latitudinal ranges. We regressed patterns of an adult flight against latitudes of the records, controlling for altitude and year effects. Species with delayed flight periods towards the high latitudes, or stable flight periods across latitudes, prevailed over those that advanced their flight towards the high latitudes. The responses corresponded with the species' seasonality (flight of early season species was delayed and flight of summer species was advanced at high latitudes) and oceanic vs. continental climatic niches (delays in oceanic, stability in continental species). Future restructuring of butterfly seasonal patterns in high latitudes will reflect climatic niches, and hence the evolutionary history of participating species.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Altitude , Animais , Mudança Climática , Ecologia , Estações do Ano , Temperatura Ambiente
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(1): 315-322, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851503

RESUMO

This study assesses whether the distinct altitudinal cline in leaf morphology (decreased leaf width and length with increased altitude) in Tasmanian mountain pepper (Tasmannia lanceolata) is associated with changes in the leaf chemistry of wild populations from different ecological landscapes and altitudes. The presence of distinct pungent drimane sesquiterpenoid chemotypes was identified: subalpine woodland and wet sclerophyll forest chemotypes. Isolation studies and analysis of extracts revealed that wet sclerophyll forest T. lanceolata populations featured polygodial as the principal terpenoid, with profiles similar to the commercial cultivars sampled. In contrast, the subalpine woodland populations contained the drimane sesquiterpenoids 1ß-acetoxy-9-deoxyisomuzigadial and 3ß-acetoxydrimenin and the conspicuous absence of the pungent principle polygodial.


Assuntos
Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Winteraceae/química , Altitude , Folhas de Planta/química , Sesquiterpenos/química , Tasmânia , Terpenos/química
7.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(12): 4012-4020, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31840445

RESUMO

Foliar stoichiometry provides information on the biotic and abiotic changes of environment. We examined the stoichiometric characteristics of plant leaves at different altitudes to understand how plants adapt to environmental changes. Foliar stoichiometry of Leontopodium leontopodioides at various altitudes (2400, 2600, 2800, 3000 and 3200 m) were analyzed in the Qilian Mountains of China. Across the altitude gradient, mean value of leaf carbon content (LC), nitrogen content (LN), and phosphorous content (LP) of L. leontopodioides was 401.27, 23.99 and 1.22 g·kg-1, respectively. The mean value of LC:LN, LC:LP and LN:LP was 16.8, 352.5 and 20.7, respectively. LC, LC:LN, LC:LP and LN:LP initially increased with increases in altitude, rea-ching the maximum at 2600 m, then decreased, reaching the minimum at 3000 m, and finally increased again. LP exhibited the opposite trend. LN demonstrated an initial decrease with altitude, reaching the minimum at 2800 m, followed by an increase at higher altitudes. LC did not correlate with LN, but was significantly negatively correlated with LP. LN was significantly positively correlated with LP. There was no correlation between LN and any other stoichiometry ratios. LP showed a significantly negative correlation with other stoichiometry ratios. LC:LN, LC:LP, and LN:LP were positively correlated with each other. Both soil total nitrogen and total phosphorus affected LC and LN, whereas LP was significantly negatively correlated with soil total phosphorus. The results suggested that the growth of L. leontopodioides in the study region was mainly limited by P availability.


Assuntos
Altitude , Solo , Carbono , China , Nitrogênio , Nutrientes , Fósforo , Folhas de Planta
8.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(11): 3689-3696, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833681

RESUMO

Soil enzymes play critical roles in material cycle and energy flow of ecosystems. Understanding soil enzyme activities is of great significance for exploring ecosystem functions. In this study, we investigated soil enzyme activities, stoichiometry and their driving factors at six different altitudes (4300-5100 m) on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau alpine meadow using Biolog microplate analysis. The results showed that ß-1,4-glucosidase (ßG) closely related to C cycle, ß-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG) and L-leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) closely related to N cycle and the activity of acid phosphatase (AP), which was closely related to P cycle, all exhibited unimodal trends with increasing altitude, with the order of 4800 m>4950 m>4400 m>4650 m>5100 m>4300 m. Soil N:P enzyme activity ratio showed the same trend as soil enzyme activity, and reached the highest value at 4950 m, however, soil C:N and C:P enzyme activities ratios increased along the altitude. Pearson correlation analysis showed that SOC, TN and soil water content were significantly positively correlated with the activities of four types of enzymes. Mean annual precipitation was significantly negatively associated with the activities of NAG and AP. Mean annual precipitation, mean annual temperature, Shannon diversity, vegetation richness, vegetation coverage and TN affected ratios of soil C:P and N:P enzymes. Soil C:N activity ratio correlated with mean annual temperature, mean annual precipitation, vegetation richness, vegetation coverage, SOC and TN. In summary, soil enzyme activities and stoichiometry had remarkable difference along the altitude gradient on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau alpine meadow, with certain N limitation in high altitude areas. Soil water content, TN, SOC, mean annual precipitation and mean annual temperature were key factors driving such differences.


Assuntos
Altitude , Solo , China , Ecossistema , Pradaria , Tibet
9.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(11): 3833-3843, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833697

RESUMO

Climate change seriously affects the geographical distribution of plants. Regional diffe-rences in plant response to climate change will provide important guidance for species introduction and conservation. Based on ArcGIS and MaxEnt model, we used 176 geographic information of Carpinus cordata and 13 climatic variables to reconstruct its current and future niche. The results showed that the model had a high credibility in simulating contemporary potential distribution areas. The AUC values of the test set and the training set of the model were 0.973 and 0.957, respectively. The main core suitable areas were concentrated in Qinling, Changbai Mountain and their adjacent areas, with other sporadic "island" distribution. C. cordata is not distributed in Guizhou, Jiangxi, Yunnan and Fujian, but the model predicted some suitable distribution areas in those provinces. With climate warming in the future, ecologically suitable areas of C. cordata would increase significantly, mainly as "shrinking to high altitude areas", "expanding northward", and "expanding eastward". However, core suitable areas would be slightly reduced, which would be manifested as "shrinking southward", "moderate stability", and "expanding northward". The response of C. cordata distribution to climate warming was obviously regional. Eastern Jiangsu, Anhui, and other places would become ecologically suitable areas for C. cordata because of their unique geographical location and climatic environment. The lower latitudes of the south, the original low-altitude areas might no longer be suitable for survival. The central Qinling region was a transition region from north to south, with strong buffer capacity, and climate warming had little effect on its distribution area. The Changbai Mountain and its adjacent areas at higher latitudes were more suitable for C. cordata.


Assuntos
Altitude , Mudança Climática , Betulaceae , China
10.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(19): 4095-4100, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872682

RESUMO

The study is aimed to effectively obtain the planting area of traditional Chinese medicine resources. The herbs used as the material for traditional Chinese medicine are mostly planted in natural environment suitable mountainous areas. The UAV low altitude remote sensing data were used as the samples and the GF-2 remote sensing images were applied for the data source to extract the planting area of Salvia miltiorrhiza and Artemisia argyi in Luoning county combined with field investigation. Remote sensing satellite data of standard processing obtain specific remote sensing data coverage. The UAV data were pre-processed to visually interpret the species and distribution of traditional Chinese medicine resources in the sample quadrat. Support vector machine( SVM) was used to classify and estimate the area of traditional Chinese medicine resources in Luoning county,confusion matrix was used to determine the accuracy of spatial distribution of traditional Chinese medicine resources. The result showed that the application of UAV of low altitude remote sensing technology and remote sensing image of satellite in the extraction of S. miltiorrhiza and other varieties planting area was feasible,it also provides a scientific reference for poverty alleviation policies of the traditional Chinese medicine Industry in local areas.Meanwhile,research on remote sensing classification of Chinese medicinal materials based on multi-source and multi-phase high-resolution remote sensing images is actively carried out to explore more effective methods for information extraction of Chinese medicinal materials.


Assuntos
Altitude , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto , Recursos Naturais , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte
11.
Sheng Li Xue Bao ; 71(6): 833-838, 2019 Dec 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31879738

RESUMO

Exposure to a high altitude hypoxia environment has significant negative effects on human central nervous system. Many previous studies have explored the influence of the high altitude environment on human color perception in a simulated high altitude environment or in an environment acutely exposed to high altitude, but little has been done in migrators and natives exposed to high altitude and low oxygen for a long period of time. In this study, the minimal-change method was used to examine whether the color perception of red, green, blue and yellow was affected by the high altitude in 30 plain residents, 30 Han migrators who have lived in the high altitude for 2 years, and 28 high-altitude-adapted Tibetan natives. The results showed that long-term high altitude exposure had the most significant effect on the blue and red color perception in the natives and the migrators, with the effect on the blue color being significantly greater than that on the red color. However, the effects on green color processing only happened to the natives. The results suggest that there is an internal correlation between blood supply and selectivity changes of visual color processing caused by exposure to the plateau environment.


Assuntos
Altitude , Percepção de Cores , China , Percepção de Cores/fisiologia , Humanos , Hipóxia , Oxigênio/metabolismo
13.
Rom J Ophthalmol ; 63(3): 217-221, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31687622

RESUMO

Background. At high altitude changes in corneal thickness and intraocular pressure (IOP) has been a subject of investigation for decades. The mechanism of action of these changes is still unknown. Extensive research is carried out to know effect of hypoxia on humans at high altitude. Corneal thickness and intraocular pressure are important parameter in ophthalmology with both diagnostic and therapeutic implications. We studied the corneal thickness and intraocular pressure in highlanders and compared the same with lowlanders. Methods. This observational study included two groups, each consisting of 500 individuals residing at high altitude (more than 10,000 ft above sea level). Three measurements of intraocular pressure of both eyes in each group were noted with Goldmann applanation tonometer and mean of the three readings was taken. Central Corneal Thickness (CCT) was measured by ultra sound pachymetry. The parameters of two groups were compared statistically. Results. There was a statistically significant difference between corneal thicknesses of the two groups studied, however no overall statistically significant difference in intraocular pressure of both these groups was found. Conclusion. The highlanders have a thinner cornea as compared to lowlanders. The IOP is significantly higher in the highlander males as compared to lowlander males. However, the mean IOP is comparable between the overall population of the high altitude and that of low altitude.


Assuntos
Altitude , Córnea/diagnóstico por imagem , Edema da Córnea/diagnóstico , Paquimetria Corneana/métodos , Pressão Intraocular/fisiologia , Adulto , Edema da Córnea/etiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Tonometria Ocular/métodos
14.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 16(1): 51, 2019 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707995

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Altitude training is a common practice among middle-distance and marathon runners. During acclimatization, sympathetic drive may increase resting metabolic rate (RMR), therefore implementation of targeted nutritional interventions based on training demands and environmental conditions becomes paramount. This single case study represents the first nutritional intervention performed under hypobaric hypoxic conditions (3900 m) in Paralympic sport. These results may elucidate the unique nutritional requirements of upper body endurance athletes training at altitude. CASE PRESENTATION: This case study examined the effects of a nutritional intervention on the body mass of a 36-year-old professional wheelchair athlete (silver medalist at the Paralympic Games and 106 victories in assorted road events) during a five-week altitude training camp, divided into pre-altitude at sea level (BN), acclimatization to altitude (Puno, 3860 m) (BH), specific training (W1,2,3,4) and return to sea level (Post) phases. Energy intake (kcal) and body mass (kg) were recorded daily. Results demonstrated significant decrease in body mass between BN and BH (52.6 ± 0.4 vs 50.7 ± 0.5 kg, P < 0.001) which returned to pre-altitude values, upon returning to sea level at Post (52.1 ± 0.5 kg). A greater daily intake was observed during BH (2899 ± 670 kcal) and W1,2,3 (3037 ± 490; 3116 ± 170; 3101 ± 385 kcal) compared to BN (2397 ± 242 kcal, P < 0.01) and Post (2411 ± 137 kcal, P < 0.01). No differences were reported between W4 (2786 ± 375 kcal), BN and Post. The amount of carbohydrates ingested (g · kg- 1) was greater in W1,2,3, (9.6 ± 2.1; 9.9 ± 1.2; 9.6 ± 1.2) than in BN (7.1 ± 1.2) and Post (6.3 ± 0.8, P < 0.001). Effect sizes (Cohen's d) for all variables relative to BN (all time points) exceed a large effect (d > 0.80). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest an elite wheelchair marathoner training at 3860 m required increased nutrient requirements as well as the systematic control needed to re-adapt a nutritional program. Moreover, our findings highlight training and nutritional prescription optimization of elite wheelchair athletes, under challenging environmental conditions.


Assuntos
Aclimatação , Desempenho Atlético , Dieta , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva , Adulto , Altitude , Humanos , Masculino , Cadeiras de Rodas
15.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(4): e20180181, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721915

RESUMO

Management of remnants in Atlantic Forest is an alternative for their conservation, however, information on the growth and ecology of those species is lacking. This study aimed to describe diametric growth of Balfourodendron riedelianum, Cordia trichotoma and Ocotea diospyrifolia based on its growth rings and to verify the relationship between this growth with the environmental characteristics in different altitude levels and forest types. Diametric growth was higher for the largest tree diameters of the three species. Based on the fitted growth model, the age in which mean annual increment in diameter becomes greater than the current annual increment was 55 years for B. riedelianum (DBH = 18.27 cm), 45 years for C. trichotoma (DBH = 26.56 cm) and 44 years for O. diospyrifolia (DBH = 26.05 cm). Environmental conditions and forest types affected diametric growth of these species. B. riedelianum and O. diospyrifolia showed higher diametric growth in plain regions with higher fertility soil and few frosts. C. trichotoma was negatively affected by low water availability in winter at lower altitudes and showed higher diametric growth at higher altitudes, where soil fertility is low but there is well-drainage, high rainfall and high relative humidity during the dry season.


Assuntos
Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Altitude , Brasil , Umidade , Estações do Ano , Solo , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Zootaxa ; 4568(2): zootaxa.4568.2.7, 2019 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715861

RESUMO

The zerconid mites collected from Afyonkarahisar, Kütahya and Usak provinces between February 2014 and August 2016 are evaluated and the following species are recorded: Zercon afyonensis, Z. alattini, Z. anatolicus, Z. arslani, Z. beleviensis, Z. burdurensis, Z. cabylus, Z. carpathicus, Z. cokelezicus, Z. colligans, Z. delicatus, Z. denizliensis, Z. domanicensis, Z. ekizi, Z. emirdagicus, Z. hispanicus, Z. huseyini, Z. inonuensis, Z. insperatus, Z. juvarae, Z. karacamehmeti, Z. laczii, Z. longisetosus, Z. magdae, Z. marinae, Z. mehmeturhani, Z. osmaneliensis, Z. plumatopilus, Z. quadricavum, Z. similifoveolatus, Z. soguticus, Z. tefenniensis, Z. turcicus, Z. yusufi, Prozercon balikesirensis, P. banazensis, P. denizliensis, P. bulbiferus, P. erdogani, P. graecus, P. morazae, P. plumosus, P. tragardhi and P. yavuzi. Of these, Z. hispanicus was recorded as a new record for Turkey. The measurements of 44 species and their geographic distributions are are given, and their altitude and habitat preferences of zerconid species are presented.


Assuntos
Ácaros e Carrapatos , Ácaros , Altitude , Animais , Ecossistema , Turquia
17.
Undersea Hyperb Med ; 46(5): 673-683, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683367

RESUMO

Gas can enter arteries (arterial gas embolism, AGE) due to alveolar-capillary disruption (caused by pulmonary over-pressurization, e.g. breath-hold ascent by divers) or veins (venous gas embolism, VGE) as a result of tissue bubble formation due to decompression (diving, altitude exposure) or during certain surgical procedures where capillary hydrostatic pressure at the incision site is subatmospheric. Both AGE and VGE can be caused by iatrogenic gas injection. AGE usually produces stroke-like manifestations, such as impaired consciousness, confusion, seizures and focal neurological deficits. Small amounts of VGE are often tolerated due to filtration by pulmonary capillaries; however VGE can cause pulmonary edema, cardiac "vapor lock" and AGE due to transpulmonary passage or right-to-left shunt through a patient foramen ovale. Intravascular gas can cause arterial obstruction or endothelial damage and secondary vasospasm and capillary leak. Vascular gas is frequently not visible with radiographic imaging, which should not be used to exclude the diagnosis of AGE. Isolated VGE usually requires no treatment; AGE treatment is similar to decompression sickness (DCS), with first aid oxygen then hyperbaric oxygen. Although cerebral AGE (CAGE) often causes intracranial hypertension, animal studies have failed to demonstrate a benefit of induced hypocapnia. An evidence based review of adjunctive therapies is presented.


Assuntos
Embolia Aérea/terapia , Oxigenação Hiperbárica/métodos , Algoritmos , Altitude , Artérias , Pressão Atmosférica , Descompressão/efeitos adversos , Doença da Descompressão/complicações , Mergulho/efeitos adversos , Embolia Aérea/diagnóstico , Embolia Aérea/etiologia , Forame Oval Patente/complicações , Humanos , Embolia Intracraniana/etiologia , Embolia Intracraniana/terapia , Posicionamento do Paciente/métodos , Veias
18.
Zootaxa ; 4565(1): zootaxa.4565.1.6, 2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716492

RESUMO

O. juani n. sp. and O. alexei n. sp. are described as new species of the genus Oxytrechus Jeannel, 1927, from the southeastern Peruvian Andes, at altitudes between 4,646 and 4,888 m.


Assuntos
Besouros , Altitude , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Peru
19.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4787, 2019 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31636257

RESUMO

Protected areas (PA) are refugia of biodiversity. However, anthropogenic climate change induces a redistribution of life on Earth that affects the effectiveness of PAs. When species are forced to migrate from protected to unprotected areas to track suitable climate, they often face degraded habitats in human-dominated landscapes and a higher extinction threat. Here, we assess how climate conditions are expected to shift within the world's terrestrial PAs (n = 137,432). PAs in the temperate and northern high-latitude biomes are predicted to obtain especially high area proportions of climate conditions that are novel within the PA network at the local, regional and global scale by the end of this century. These PAs are predominantly small, at low elevation, with low environmental heterogeneity, high human pressure, and low biotic uniqueness. Our results guide adaptation measures towards PAs that are strongly affected by climate change, and of low adaption capacity and high conservation value.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Mudança Climática , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Refúgio , Altitude , Animais , Ecossistema , Florestas , Pradaria , Humanos
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