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1.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(19): 4719-4724, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33164438

RESUMO

To investigate the effect of salidroside on the proteomics of erythrocyte membrane in high altitude erythrocytosis(HAPC) rats, in order to explore the mechanism of salidroside in improving HAPC based on the proteomics analysis. First, HPAC rat models were established, and 16 rats were randomly divided into HAPC model group and salidroside(100 mg·kg~(-1)) treatment group(8 rats per group). Saline was administered to the HAPC model group, while salidroside treatment group was given 100 mg·kg~(-1) salidroside once a day. After continuous oral administration with salidroside for 40 days(once a day), blood was collected from the femoral artery to obtain total red blood cell membrane proteins. Two-dimensional electrophoresis was used to separate total proteins. The two-dimensional electrophoresis of erythrocyte membrane proteins was analyzed before and after salidroside intervention, and the proteins with significant differences were identified by mass spectrometry. Finally, biological functions were analyzed using bioinformatics. A two-dimensional electrophoresis method was used to establish a protein expression profile with a high resolution and reproducibility of erythrocyte membranes in HAPC rats. Salidroside treatment significantly changed 18 protein spots in the 2-DE map of erythrocyte membranes, of which 13 proteins were up-regulated and 5 proteins were down-regulated. Eight differential proteins were successfully identified by mass spectrometry. Moreover, bioinformatics analysis found that these differential proteins were involved in such biological processes as oxidative stress, redox, and peroxisome pathway, which are mainly associated with peroxisome and MAPK signaling pathways. Therefore, salidroside could significantly change the expressions of erythrocyte membrane proteins in HAPC rats. Eight differential proteins were identified by a proteomic-based approach. The differential proteins were involved in such biological processes as oxidative stress, redox, peroxisome pathway.


Assuntos
Policitemia , Altitude , Animais , Eritrócitos , Glucosídeos , Fenóis , Proteômica , Ratos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
2.
Malar J ; 19(1): 410, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33198754

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the past decade substantial reduction in malaria morbidity and mortality has been observed through well-implemented case management and vector control strategies. India has also achieved a significant reduction in malaria burden in 2018 and has committed to eliminate malaria by 2030. The Mandla Malaria Elimination Demonstration Project (MEDP) was started in 2017 in 1233 villages of District Mandla to demonstrate malaria elimination in a tribal district with hard-to-reach areas was possible using active and passive surveillance, case management, vector control, and targeted information, education and communication campaigns. An operational plan was developed to strengthen the existing surveillance and malaria elimination systems, through fortnightly active case detection to ensure that all cases including those that are introduced into the communities are rapidly identified and treated promptly. The plan also focused on the reduction of human-mosquito contact through the use of Long-Lasting Insecticial Nets (LLINs) and Indoor Residual Spray (IRS). The operational plan was modified in view of the present COVID-19 pandemic by creating systems of assistance for the local administration for COVID-related work while ensuring the operational integrity of malaria elimination efforts. RESULTS: The use of MEDP study design and operational plan, with its built-in management control systems, has yielded significant (91%) reduction of indigenous cases of malaria during the period from June 2017 to May 2020. The malaria positivity rate was 0.33% in 2017-18, 0.13% in 2018-19, and 0.06% in 2019-20. Mass screening revealed 0.18% malaria positivity in September-October 2018, followed by 0.06% in June 2019, and 0.03% in December 2019, and these were mostly asymptomatic cases in the community. The project has been able to sustain the gains of the past three years during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSION: This paper provides the study design and the operational plan for malaria elimination in a high-burden district of Central India, which presented difficulties of hard to reach areas, forest malaria, and complex epidemiology of urban and rural malaria. The lessons learned could be used for malaria elimination efforts in rest of the country and other parts of South Asia with comparable demography and epidemiology.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Doenças Endêmicas/prevenção & controle , Malária/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Vigilância da População/métodos , Altitude , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Doenças Endêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Florestas , Instalações de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Mosquiteiros Tratados com Inseticida , Malária/epidemiologia , Controle de Mosquitos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Chuva , População Rural , População Urbana
3.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(4): e20200012, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33206789

RESUMO

Professional athletes conduct high-intensitive hypoxic training often accompanied by the increase of many inflammatory-related cytokines and immunosuppression. Cucurbitacin E (CucE), as a triterpenoid isolated from Cucurbitaceae plants, exert potential anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory. However, it is unknown whether that the CucE could be used as dietary supplement for athletes to improve inflammatory response and immunosuppression. In this study, we established the simulative hypoxic training rat and monkey models and evaluated the effects of CucE on immune- and inflammation-related factors. Obvious improvement on pro-inflammatory factors and pro-lymphocyte proliferation activities were showed in CucE treated rats compared with the control. Further supplement of CucE in professional meals for cynomolgus monkeys with 4-weeks high-intensitive hypoxic training also exert effects on altitude-induced oxidative stress, inflammation and immunologic function. Furtherly, we explored the underlying mechanism of CucE in human Jurkat T cells and results showed that CucE may exhibit immunosuppressive effect by attenuating critical cytokine expression through down-regulating the NF-κB signaling pathway. In conclusion, CucE is expected to be a potential dietary supplement for athletes to ameliorate the inflammation and immunosuppression caused by high-intensitive exercise.


Assuntos
Altitude , Triterpenos , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos , Triterpenos/farmacologia
4.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(suppl 2): e20190058, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146275

RESUMO

Elevation creates a variety of physical conditions in a relatively short distance, which makes mountains suitable for studying the effects of climate change on biodiversity. We investigated the importance of climate and vegetation for the distribution of butterflies from 800 to 1400 m elevation. We sampled butterflies, and woody and rosette plants and measured air temperature and humidity, wind speed and gust, and solar radiation. We partitioned diversity to assess the processes underlying community shifts across altitudes - species loss versus replacement. We assessed the strength of the association among butterfly, vegetation, and climate. Butterfly richness and abundance decreased with altitude, and species composition changed along the elevation. Changes in butterfly composition with altitude were mainly through species replacement and by abundance increases in some species being compensated by decreases in others. Since the floristic diversity decreased with altitude due to soil conditions, and butterflies are closely related to their host plants, this could explain species replacement with altitude. Overall, we found a stronger association of butterfly community with vegetation than climate, but plant community and climate were also strongly associated between them. Butterfly richness was more strongly associated with plant richness than with temperature, while the reverse was true for butterfly abundance, which was more strongly associated with temperature than with plant richness. We must consider the complementary roles of resource and conditions in species distribution.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Altitude , Animais , Biodiversidade , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Solo
5.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(suppl 2): e20190953, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146276

RESUMO

This study aimed to examine spatiotemporal variations in chironomid assemblages and to detect how environmental variables affect their structure. We sampled seven streams at low and high altitudes in Northwest Argentina under contrasting climate conditions (Puna and Chaco Serrano) during high- and low-water periods. The environmental variables that affected Chironomidae community structure were water temperature, conductivity, hardness, current velocity and type of substrate. Fine substrates, gravel and low water temperature favoured cold stenothermal fauna, composed of Orthocladiinae, Diamesinae and Podonominae specimens in the high-altitude streams, whereas warm waters with low conductivity and higher velocity favoured increased species diversity in lowland streams, where there was greater abundance of Chironominae (which corresponds to warm eurythermal fauna). The studied environments belong to a transition zone that should be preserved where cold stenothermic and warm eurythermal Chironomidae overlap.


Assuntos
Chironomidae , Altitude , Animais , Argentina , Ecossistema , Rios , Temperatura
6.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0237233, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035225

RESUMO

A morphologically unusual Cryptini, Cryptoxenodon gen. nov. Supeleto, Santos & Aguiar, is described and illustrated, with a single species, C. metamorphus sp. nov. Supeleto, Santos & Aguiar, apparently occurring in two disjunct populations in northern and southeastern South America. The highly dimorphic female and male are described and illustrated. The phylogenetic relationships of the new genus are investigated using a matrix with 308 other species of Cryptini in 182 genera, based on 109 morphological characters and molecular data from seven loci. The analyses clearly support Cryptoxenodon gen. nov. as a distinct genus, closest to Debilos Townes and Diapetimorpha Viereck. Species limits and definition are investigated, but despite much morphological variation the analyses at the specimen level do not warrant the division of the studied populations into separate species. The considerable morphological variation is explored with principal component analyses of mixed features, and a new procedure is proposed for objective analysis of colors. The relationship of color and structural variation with altitude and latitude is demonstrated and discussed, representing an important case study for Ichneumonidae. Externally, Cryptoxenodon gen. nov. can be recognized mainly by its unusually large mandibles, but other diagnostic features include clypeus wide; sternaulus complete, distinct and crenulate throughout; areolet closed, about as long as pterostigma width; petiole anteriorly with distinct triangular projection on each side, spiracle near posterior 0.25; propodeum without posterior transverse carina; and propodeal apophyses conspicuously projected.


Assuntos
Altitude , Distribuição Animal , Himenópteros/classificação , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Animais , Cor , Especificidade da Espécie
7.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(11): 737, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33128082

RESUMO

In order to estimate the impact of climate change on the phenological parameters and to compare them with the historical record, a decision support system (DSS) has been applied employing a Phenological Modelling Platform. Biological observations of two willow species (Salix acutifolia and smithiana Willd) in 3 gardens at different altitudes located in Central Italy were utilized to identify suitable phenological models related to four main vegetative phase timings (BBCH11, BBCH91, BBCH 94, BBCH95), and male full flowering (BBCH 65) clearly identifiable in these species. The present investigation identifies the best phenological models for the main phenophases allowing their practical application as real-time monitoring and plant development prediction tools. Sigmoid model revealed high performances in simulating spring vegetative phases, BBCH11 (First leaves unfolded), and BBCH91 (Shoot and foliage growth completed). Salix acutifolia Willd. development appeared to be more related to temperature amount interpreted by phenological models in comparison to Salix smithiana Willd. above all during spring (BBCH11 and 91), probably due to a different grade of phenotypic plasticity between the 2 considered species.


Assuntos
Salix , Altitude , Mudança Climática , Monitoramento Ambiental , Itália , Estações do Ano , Temperatura
8.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239209, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002077

RESUMO

Recent decades have been marked by unprecendented environmental changes which threaten the integrity of freshwater systems and their ecological value. Although most of these changes can be attributed to human activities, disentagling natural and anthropogenic drivers remains a challenge. In this study, surface sediments from Lake Ighiel, a mid-altitude site in the Carpathian Mts (Romania) were investigated following high-resolution sedimentological, geochemical, environmental magnetic and diatom analyses supported by historical cartographic and documentary evidence. Our results suggest that between 1920 and 1960 the study area experienced no significant anthropogenic impact. An excellent correspondence is observed between lake proxy responses (e.g., growth of submerged macrophytes, high detrital input, shifts in diatom assemblages) and parameters tracking natural hydroclimate variability (e.g., temperature, NAO). This highlights a dominant natural hydroclimatic control on the lacustrine system. From 1960 however, the depositional regime shifted markedly from laminated to homogenous clays; since then geochemical and magnetic data document a trend of significant (and on-going) subsurface erosion across the catchment. This is paralleled by a shift in lake ecosystem conditions denoting a strong response to an intensified anthropogenic impact, mainly through forestry. An increase in detrital input and marked changes in the diatom community are observed over the last three decades, alongside accelerated sedimentation rates following enhanced grazing and deforestation in the catchment. Recent shifts in diatom assemblages may also reflect forcing from atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition, a key recent drive of diatom community turnover in mountain lakes. In general, enhanced human pressure alongside intermittent hydroclimate forcing drastically altered the landscape around Lake Ighiel and thus, the sedimentation regime and the ecosystem's health. However, paleoenvironmental signals tracking natural hydroclimate variability are also clearly discernible in the proxy data. Our work illustrates the complex link between the drivers of catchment-scale impacts on one hand, and lake proxy responses on the other, highlighting the importance of an integrated historical and palaeolimnological approach to better assess lake system changes.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Lagos , Altitude , Mudança Climática/história , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Diatomáceas , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Lagos/análise , Recursos Naturais , Nitrogênio/análise , Romênia
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4928, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004791

RESUMO

High-altitude adaptation of Tibetans represents a remarkable case of natural selection during recent human evolution. Previous genome-wide scans found many non-coding variants under selection, suggesting a pressing need to understand the functional role of non-coding regulatory elements (REs). Here, we generate time courses of paired ATAC-seq and RNA-seq data on cultured HUVECs under hypoxic and normoxic conditions. We further develop a variant interpretation methodology (vPECA) to identify active selected REs (ASREs) and associated regulatory network. We discover three causal SNPs of EPAS1, the key adaptive gene for Tibetans. These SNPs decrease the accessibility of ASREs with weakened binding strength of relevant TFs, and cooperatively down-regulate EPAS1 expression. We further construct the downstream network of EPAS1, elucidating its roles in hypoxic response and angiogenesis. Collectively, we provide a systematic approach to interpret phenotype-associated noncoding variants in proper cell types and relevant dynamic conditions, to model their impact on gene regulation.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/genética , Cromatina/metabolismo , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Modelos Genéticos , Altitude , Doença da Altitude/etnologia , Doença da Altitude/genética , Doença da Altitude/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Hipóxia Celular/genética , Células Cultivadas , Cromatina/genética , Sequenciamento de Cromatina por Imunoprecipitação , Resistência à Doença/genética , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Hipóxia/genética , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Gravidez , Cultura Primária de Células , RNA-Seq , Elementos Reguladores de Transcrição/genética , Seleção Genética , Tibet/etnologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5085, 2020 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33033250

RESUMO

Tibetan wheat is grown under environmental constraints at high-altitude conditions, but its underlying adaptation mechanism remains unknown. Here, we present a draft genome sequence of a Tibetan semi-wild wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. tibetanum Shao) accession Zang1817 and re-sequence 245 wheat accessions, including world-wide wheat landraces, cultivars as well as Tibetan landraces. We demonstrate that high-altitude environments can trigger extensive reshaping of wheat genomes, and also uncover that Tibetan wheat accessions accumulate high-altitude adapted haplotypes of related genes in response to harsh environmental constraints. Moreover, we find that Tibetan semi-wild wheat is a feral form of Tibetan landrace, and identify two associated loci, including a 0.8-Mb deletion region containing Brt1/2 homologs and a genomic region with TaQ-5A gene, responsible for rachis brittleness during the de-domestication episode. Our study provides confident evidence to support the hypothesis that Tibetan semi-wild wheat is de-domesticated from local landraces, in response to high-altitude extremes.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Altitude , Triticum/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Domesticação , Ecótipo , Genoma de Planta , Geografia , Metagenômica , Fenótipo , Análise de Componente Principal , Tibet , Triticum/genética
11.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(suppl 2): e20190459, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33084759

RESUMO

In order to characterize Patagonian (Argentina) ecoregions using non-marine ostracods, their associations in 69 environments were assessed. Twenty eight taxa were recorded, including 12 endemic of the Neotropical region. Our results indicate that Patagonian ostracods are mainly influenced by electrical conductivity (EC), altitude, pH, and temperature; and shows a correlation with Argentinian ecoregions. Assemblage I is composed of sites located at high altitude in the Andean Patagonian forest ecoregion. Host waters have low temperature, EC and pH, and support as representative species Cypris pubera, Eucypris virens, Bradleystrandesia fuscata, Tonacypris lutaria and Amphicypris nobilis. Assemblage II, related to mid-altitude environments in the Patagonian Steppe ecoregion, thrived in waters with moderate to high EC, and alkaline pH values. Dominant species includes Limnocythere rionegroensis, L. patagonica, E. virgata, Riocypris whatleyi, Riocypris sarsi, Newnhamia patagonica, Kapcypridopsis megapodus, Ilyocypris ramirezi and Penthesinelula incae. Assemblage III inhabited environments within Monte and Espinal ecoregions, situated in the eastern part of the study area at low altitude, EC moderate and temperate waters, supporting Heterocypris hyalinus, Amphicypris argentinensis, Sarscypridopsis aculeata, Cypridopsis vidua, Herpetocypris intermedia and Chlamidotheca incisa. Our results indicates that Argentinian Patagonia hosts a diverse ostracod fauna and highlights their capacity as proxies in ecological and palaeoenvironmental studies.


Assuntos
Crustáceos , Florestas , Altitude , Animais , Argentina
12.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239194, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966320

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aircrew members are required to attend hypoxia awareness training regularly to strengthen their memory of their personal hypoxia symptoms by undergoing training inside a hypobaric chamber. The aim of this study was to examine the association between hypoxia symptoms experienced during two training sessions that were 4 years apart. METHODS: This was a crossover study to compare hypoxia symptoms and self-reported physiological effects of trapped gas between a previous training session and a current training session in an altitude chamber. The subjects were military crew members who undertook a 25,000-feet refresher training course in 2018. We used a structured questionnaire to obtain the target information before and during hypoxia exposure. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. RESULTS: A total of 341 trainees participated in this survey and completely filled out the questionnaire. Gastrointestinal tract discomfort caused by the expansion of trapped gas was the main physiological reaction during the previous and current training sessions. Frequently reported symptoms were poor concentration (30.5%), impaired cognitive function (20.5%), visual disturbances (16.4%), hot flashes (15.8%), and paresthesia (12.6%) during both exposures. However, the proportions of participants reporting poor concentration (P = 0.378) and visual disturbances (P = 0.594) were not significantly different between the recalled and current training sessions. The five most common symptoms among the subjects with less than 1,000 flight hours were poor concentration (29.8%), visual disturbance (27.3%), impaired cognitive function (14.9%), dizziness/lightheadedness (11.6%), and hot flashes (9.9%), which overlapped substantially with the symptoms reported by other subjects. The occurrence of those five most common symptoms in the group with more than 1,000 flight hours did not significantly differ between the recalled training session and the current training session. CONCLUSIONS: The most common hypoxia symptoms reported were similar between the recalled and current training sessions in an environment with a low oxygen concentration. This finding was also clearly affected by the duration of flight experience. Moreover, GI effects of the expansion of trapped gas were commonly observed at low atmospheric pressure.


Assuntos
Hipóxia , Rememoração Mental , Adulto , Medicina Aeroespacial , Altitude , Pressão Atmosférica , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , Hipóxia/fisiopatologia , Hipóxia/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Militares , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
BMC Med Genet ; 21(1): 185, 2020 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962661

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic eye diseases constitute a large and heterogeneous group of childhood ocular morbidity. Individual diseases may cause multiple structural anomalies and developmental features. Nepal Pediatric Ocular Disease Study (NPODS) was a population-based epidemiological study conducted across three ecological regions of Nepal to determine the prevalence and etiology of childhood ocular morbidity and blindness. In Phase II of this study, genetic analysis was performed for children who were found to have congenital ocular anomalies. METHOD: It was a cross sectional descriptive study. A total of 10,270 children across three different ecological regions in Nepal (Low lands, hills, and mountains) underwent ocular examinations in NPODS. Out of 374 (3.6%) of children with ocular abnormalities, 30 were thought to be congenital in nature. Targeted genetic analysis, including genotyping for genes specific to presenting phenotype, was performed for 25 children using serum samples. RESULTS: Out of 25 children, 18 had meaningful genetic results. Analysis revealed one missense alteration G12411T of Zinc Finger Homeobox 4 (ZFHX4) gene in one participant among 10 with congenital ptosis and another missense variation T > C P. Y374 C of Signaling Receptor and Transporter Retinol 6 (STRA6) gene in one participant among 3 with microphthalmos. CONCLUSION: The study is first of its kind from Nepal and mutant genes were unique to Nepalese Population. Further analysis of genetic factors is crucial to better understand genetic association with ocular diseases and conditions. This helps further in genetic counseling and probably gene therapy to prevent blindness from these conditions.


Assuntos
Cegueira/genética , Anormalidades Congênitas/genética , Oftalmopatias/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Adolescente , Altitude , Cegueira/diagnóstico , Cegueira/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Anormalidades Congênitas/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Congênitas/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Oftalmopatias/diagnóstico , Oftalmopatias/epidemiologia , Feminino , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Nepal/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
14.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238117, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911517

RESUMO

High altitude (HA) conditions induce several physiological and molecular changes, prevalent in individuals who are unexposed to this environment. Individuals exposed towards HA hypoxia yields physiological and molecular orchestration to maintain adequate tissue oxygen delivery and supply at altitude. This study aimed to understand the temporal changes at altitude of 4,111m. Physiological parameters and transcriptome study was conducted at high altitude day 3, 7, 14 and 21. We observed changes in differentially expressed gene (DEG) at high altitude time points along with altered BP, HR, SpO2, mPAP. Physiological changes and unsupervised learning of DEG's discloses high altitude day 3 as distinct time point. Gene enrichment analysis of ontologies and pathways indicate cellular dynamics and immune response involvement in early day exposure and later stable response. Major clustering of genes involved in cellular dynamics deployed into broad categories: cell-cell interaction, blood signaling, coagulation system, and cellular process. Our data reveals genes and pathways perturbed for conditions like vascular remodeling, cellular homeostasis. In this study we found the nodal point of the gene interactive network and candidate gene controlling many cellular interactive pathways VIM, CORO1A, CD37, STMN1, RHOC, PDE7B, NELL1, NRP1 and TAGLN and the most significant among them i.e. VIM gene was identified as top hub gene. This study suggests a unique physiological and molecular perturbation likely to play a critical role in high altitude associated pathophysiological condition during early exposure compared to later time points.


Assuntos
Altitude , Comunicação Celular/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
15.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(5): 679-684, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915240

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to assess the current chemistry of trace elements in upland headwater lakes in Ireland and determine their trends during the last decade in response to decreasing emissions. Twenty-nine upland lakes were sampled in 2017-2018; 19 were previously sampled in 2007-2008. The 2017-2018 samples were analyzed for conductivity, pH, DOC, and 18 trace elements. The lakes had low element concentrations; only 7 of 18 trace elements were > 1 µg/L (Fe, Al, Zn, Mn, B, Sr and Ba). Nine elements were assessed for significant decadal changes; four elements decreased (B, Co, Mn, and Sr) and one increased (Pb). Their correlation with conductivity, pH, and DOC and the associated changes in those variables partially explained the observed trends. In general, elements that were correlated with DOC did not decrease, while those that were not correlated decreased between the two periods. Despite decreased anthropogenic emissions, ecosystem recovery and climate perturbations can confound or mask the benefits of emissions reductions.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Lagos/química , Metais Pesados/análise , Oligoelementos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Altitude , Ecossistema , Irlanda
17.
Life Sci ; 260: 118408, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32926931

RESUMO

AIMS: Baseline elevated B-type Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) has been found in high altitude pulmonary edema susceptible population. Exaggerated pulmonary vascular response to hypoxia may be related to endothelial dysfunction in hypoxia susceptible. We hypothesize that baseline BNP levels can predict hypoxia susceptibility in healthy individuals. MAIN METHODS: The pulmonary vascular response to hypoxia was compared in 35 male healthy individuals divided into two groups based on BNP levels (Group 1 ≤ 15 and Group 2 > 15 pg/ml). Acute normobaric hypoxia was administered to both the groups, to confirm hypoxia susceptibility in Group 2. KEY FINDINGS: Unlike Group 1, Group 2 had elevated post hypoxia BNP levels (26 vs 33.5 pg/ml, p = 0.002) while pulmonary artery pressure was comparable. A negative correlation with tissue oxygen consumption (delta pO2) and compartmental fluid shift was seen in Group 1 only. Endothelial dysfunction in Group 2 resulted in reduced vascular compliance leading to elevation of mean blood pressure on acute hypoxia exposure. BNP showed a positive correlation with endothelial dysfunction in Group 2 and has been linked to pre-diabetic disorder (HbA1c 6 ± 0.44%) and may additionally represent a lower cross-sectional area of vascular bed related to vascular remodeling mediated by chronic hypoxia. SIGNIFICANCE: Hypoxia susceptibility in healthy individuals may be related to endothelial dysfunction that limits vascular compliance during hypoxic stress. BNP level showed positive correlation with HbA1c (r = 0.49, p = 0.04) and negative correlation with delta pO2 (r = -0.52, p = 0.04) can predict reduced microvascular compliance due to endothelial dysfunction contributing to hypoxia susceptibility in healthy individuals. BNP levels≤15 pg/ml at sea level is indicative of hypoxia resistance.


Assuntos
Altitude , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Hipóxia/fisiopatologia , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/metabolismo , Artéria Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Edema Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Função Respiratória
18.
Clin Dermatol ; 38(4): 485-488, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32972607

RESUMO

Many factors affect the health and physiology of human skin, with some of them arising from outer space. This contribution explores four celestial influences on the skin: (1) the sun's ultraviolet light, which has both beneficial and deleterious dermatologic effects, (2) meteorite injuries, (3) possible lunar effects on the body's health, and (4) cosmic radiation as a risk factor for skin cancer and pregnancy-related complications. Some of these extraterrestrial influences on skin health have taken on added significance as human beings increasingly spend more time at higher altitudes in aircraft, spaceships, and space stations.


Assuntos
Radiação Cósmica/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/etiologia , Pele/lesões , Pele/efeitos da radiação , Luz Solar/efeitos adversos , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Aeronaves , Altitude , Dermatite de Contato/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Meteoroides , Lua , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/etiologia
19.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239272, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32976507

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study was to investigate how cerebral and splanchnic oxygen saturation (rSO2-C and rSO2-A) in critically ill children transported in air ambulance was affected by flight with cabin pressurization corresponding to ≥ 5000 feet. A second aim was to investigate any differences between cyanotic and non-cyanotic children in relation to cerebral and splanchnic oxygen saturation during flight ≥ 5000 feet. The variability of the cerebral and splanchnic Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) sensors was evaluated. DESIGN: NIRS was used to measure rSO2-C and rSO2-A during transport of critically ill children in air ambulance. rSO2 data was collected and stored by the NIRS monitor and extracted and analyzed off-line after the transport. Prior to evaluation of the NIRS signals all zero and floor-effect values were removed. SETTING: The Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) at Astrid Lindgren Children's Hospital, Karolinska University Hospital in Stockholm, Sweden. PATIENTS: In total, 44 critically ill children scheduled for inter-hospital transport by a specialized pediatric transport team were included in the study between January 2014 and January 2019 (convenience sampling). INTERVENTION: No interventions were conducted. MEASUREMENTS: All study patients were monitored with a cerebral NIRS-sensor placed over the forehead and an abdominal NIRS-sensor placed in the infra-umbilical area for cerebral and splanchnic regional oxygen saturation monitoring, rSO2-C and rSO2-A, respectively. MAIN RESULTS: Complete rSO2-C and rSO2-A data was obtained in 39 patients. Median age was 12 days. Cyanotic congenital heart malformations were present in 9 patients (23%). In 22 patients (56%) rSO2-C decreased at altitude ≥ 5000 feet and in 24 patients (61%) rSO2-A decreased at altitude ≥ 5000 feet compared to baseline (p<0.0001). In 25 patients (64%) the rSO2-C/rSO2-A ratio was greater at altitude ≥ 5000 feet than at baseline. A ratio ≥ 1 was seen in 77% of patients at altitude ≥ 5000 feet compared to in 67% of patients at baseline. CONCLUSION: Both cerebral and splanchnic oxygen saturation decreased at altitude ≥ 5000 feet compared to baseline. In most patients, both cyanotic and non-cyanotic, cerebral oxygen saturation was preserved more than splanchnic oxygen saturation.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Cardiopatias Congênitas/epidemiologia , Monitorização Fisiológica , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Resgate Aéreo , Altitude , Encéfalo/patologia , Pré-Escolar , Estado Terminal/epidemiologia , Feminino , Cardiopatias Congênitas/metabolismo , Cardiopatias Congênitas/patologia , Humanos , Lactente , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica , Masculino , Oximetria , Suécia/epidemiologia
20.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 36(11): 2139-2144, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32767023

RESUMO

Use of echocardiography to evaluate the characteristics of right heart and pulmonary artery of Tibetans with hepatic hydatidosis living in a high plateau area. We recruited 222 Tibetan adults diagnosed with hydatidosis from June 2016 to June 2017 in Shiqu and Seda areas of Tibet; 40 healthy control from the same area, denoted as the high plateau group. We also include 755 Healthy adults of Han nationality living in the plain from the EMINCA study as the low altitude group. Compared to high plateau group, hydatidosis individuals showed decreased RVADed, RVTDed, increased E(T)/A(T) and reduced RVFAC and TAPSE (p < 0.05). The 2 groups did not differ in the incidence rate of tricuspid regurgitation (TR) and pulmonary regurgitation (PR) (63.9% vs. 55.0%, p = 0.281 and 15.3% vs. 5.0%, p = 0.135, respectively) or incidence of pulmonary hypertension (PH) (13.9% vs. 20.5%, p = 0.167). PH risk did not differ between hydatidosis individuals and high plateau controls (OR 0.559, 95% CI 0.243-1.287). The RVADed and TAPSE were higher and E(T)/A(T) was lower for high plateau group than low altitude group (p < 0.05). The decreased right ventricular size and reduced diastolic and systolic function were found in Tibetans with hydatidosis. Hepatic hydatidosis had no significant effect on the incidence of pulmonary hypertension in Tibetans. Healthy Tibetans showed increased right ventricular size, decreased diastolic function, and increased systolic function compared to the Han counterparts.


Assuntos
Aclimatação , Altitude , Equinococose Hepática/diagnóstico , Ecocardiografia Doppler em Cores , Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Pressão Arterial , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Cateterismo Cardíaco , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Equinococose Hepática/etnologia , Equinococose Hepática/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/etnologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Fatores Raciais , Tibet/epidemiologia , Função Ventricular Direita , Remodelação Ventricular , Adulto Jovem
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