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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256242, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360226

RESUMO

Binders are the products that are used to bind, glue or hold the various feed ingredients together in order to maintain pellet integrity. For aqua-culturists, feed manufacturing is an expensive exercise due to the high cost of ingredients along with traditional artificial binders. The use of grain starches as aqua feed binders have advantages which include availability of that binder, nutritional contribution, and minimization of feed cost. A research trial was conducted to test physical properties such as palatability, water stability, dustiness, friability, settling velocity and floatation time of locally available starch i.e. wheat gluten, pea starch and guar gum and to assist their incorporation in on-farm aqua feed. Results revealed that among these three starch, the starch from pea source was proved superior over other two (wheat gluten and guar gum) as all physical quality parameters (dustiness, water stability and friability) revealed better performance of pea starch except pelletability in which guar gum performed best. Although not a single diet proved best in case of flotation time (Tf) and settling velocity (Vset) at varying lengths (6mm, 9mm and 12 mm). This finding indicates the significance of suitable binders for optimal water pollution and sustainable aquaculture. The use of these binders i.e. wheat gluten, pea starch and guar gum in fish feed pellets may also reduce dependence on synthetic binders and minimizes cost.


Aglutinantes são produtos usados para unir, colar ou manter juntos os vários ingredientes da ração, a fim de conservar a integridade do pellet. Para os aquicultores, a fabricação de ração é uma atividade difícil e cara por causa do alto preço dos aglutinantes artificiais tradicionais. O uso de amidos de grãos como aglutinantes de rações aquáticas tem vantagens que incluem acessibilidade, disponibilidade, contribuição nutricional e minimização do custo da ração. Um ensaio de pesquisa foi conduzido para testar propriedades físicas, como palatabilidade, estabilidade em água, pulverulência, friabilidade, velocidade de sedimentação e tempo de flutuação de amido disponível localmente, ou seja, glúten de trigo, amido de ervilha e goma de guar, e para auxiliar sua incorporação em rações aquáticas. Os resultados revelaram que, entre esses três amidos, o amido de ervilha se mostrou superior aos outros dois (glúten de trigo e goma de guar), pois todos os parâmetros de qualidade física (pulverulência, estabilidade da água e friabilidade) obtiveram melhor desempenho, exceto peletabilidade, em que a goma de guar se destacou. Nenhuma dieta se mostrou melhor no caso de tempo de flotação (Tf) e velocidade de sedimentação em comprimentos variados (6 mm, 9 mm e 12 mm). Essa descoberta indica a importância de aglutinantes adequados para a poluição ótima da água e a aquicultura sustentável. O uso desses aglutinantes, ou seja, glúten de trigo, amido de ervilha e goma de guar, em pellets de ração para peixes também pode reduzir a dependência de aglutinantes sintéticos e minimizar o custo.


Assuntos
Amido , Aquicultura , Glutens , Ração Animal/economia
2.
J Environ Manage ; 330: 117060, 2023 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36587550

RESUMO

Chrysanthemum waste (CW) is an agricultural and industrial by-product produced during chrysanthemum harvesting, drying, preservation, and deep processing. Although it is nutritious, most CW is discarded, wasting resources and contributing to serious environmental problems. This work explored a solid-state fermentation (SSF) strategy to improve CW quality for use as an alternative feed ingredient. Orthogonal experiment showed that the optimal conditions for fermented chrysanthemum waste (FCW) were: CW to cornmeal mass ratio of 9:1, Pediococcus cellaris + Candida tropicalis + Bacillus amyloliquefaciens proportions of 2:2:1, inoculation amount of 6%, and fermentation time of 10 d. Compared with the control group, FCW significantly increased the contents of crude protein, ether extract, crude fiber, acid detergent fiber, neutral detergent fiber, ash, calcium, phosphorus, and total flavonoids (p < 0.01), and significantly decreased pH and saponin content (p < 0.01). SSF improved the free and hydrolyzed amino acid profiles of FCW, increased the content of flavor amino acids, and improved the amino acid composition of FCW protein. Overall, SSF improved CW nutritional quality. FCW shows potential use as a feed ingredient, and SSF helps reduce the waste of chrysanthemum processing.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos , Detergentes , Fermentação , Amido , Ração Animal/análise
3.
Carbohydr Polym ; 303: 120477, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36657850

RESUMO

The effects of starch granule-associated surface lipids removal on hull-less barley starch structure formed by heat-moisture treatment were investigated. Removing surface lipids made the peak at 2θ of 13° disappear and resulted in higher lamellar peak intensity after harsh treatment and a lower reduction in mass fractal dimension (from 2.49 to 2.43) and radius of gyration (from 24.3 to 24.0) when temperature increased from 100 to 120 °C at 20 % moisture. Treatment at 25 % moisture and 120 °C decreased relative crystallinity (from 15.73 % to 7.43 %) and Gaussian peak area (from 646.7 to 137.7) of native starch, and decreased relative crystallinity (from 14.24 % to 12.56 %) and Gaussian peak area (from 604.1 to 539.6) for starch without surface lipids. Different trends of change in lamellar thickness, linear crystallinity, peak temperatures, and enthalpy of gelatinization were observed among modified starches with increasing temperature and/or moisture content. These results demonstrate that removing surface lipids changes structure of heat-moisture treated starch.


Assuntos
Hordeum , Amido , Amido/química , Temperatura Alta , Temperatura , Lipídeos
4.
Carbohydr Polym ; 303: 120458, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36657856

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to compare the structural, thermal, rheological and digestive properties of highland barley starch (HBS) by different extraction methods. Five techniques were used to extract HBS: Alkali extraction, Ultrasound extraction, double enzyme extraction (DE), three enzyme extraction (TE) and ultrasonic assisted TE (U-TE). The results indicated that the Ultrasound extracted HBS had fewer Maltese crosses, lower molecular weight (Mw), and higher content of damaged starch (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, DE extracted HBS had higher Mw, and the content of short amylopectin than that of Alkali extracted HBS (P < 0.05). Additionally, the DE extracted HBS showed the highest relative crystallinity and good short-range ordered structure, which led to the outcome of stronger thermal stability and higher values of G' and G'' (P < 0.05). These results indicated that enzymatic extraction could better protect the resistance of HBS by protecting its physicochemical properties.


Assuntos
Hordeum , Amido , Amido/química , Hordeum/química , Amilopectina/química , Peso Molecular , Digestão
5.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 402, 2023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36624301

RESUMO

Coagulation/flocculation is one of the most widely used and cost-effective pretreatment methods for improving the dewaterability of sludge. In this study, a cationic modified starch-based flocculant (St-CTA) in conjunction with a popular clay, attapulgite (ATP), was used for the conditioning of waste-activated sludge. The dewatering properties, including the filter cake moisture content, filtration specific resistance, capillary suction time, filtration rate and compressibility coefficient, were measured and compared by varying the doses of St-CTA and ATP. By combination of the apparent dewatering performance and the changes in the contents and distributions of the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) fractions and components, sludge flocs, and microstructures of sludge cakes, the dewatering mechanisms were discussed in detail. St-CTA in conjunction with ATP can exhibit an enhanced dewaterability of sludge and the water content in final sludge cake can be stably reduced below 80% owing to the synergistic effects of St-CTA and ATP. In addition to the efficient charge neutralization of St-CTA, ATP not only acts as a skeleton builder in the sludge dewatering process which makes the sludge flocs more compact and improves the filterability and permeability, but also tightly interacts with the proteins in EPS of the sludge which reduces the protein content and further enhances the dewatering effect. This study provides an economical, green, and effective way to further improve the dewaterability of sludge.


Assuntos
Esgotos , Amido , Esgotos/química , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Matriz Extracelular de Substâncias Poliméricas , Proteínas/química , Água/química , Filtração , Trifosfato de Adenosina
6.
Molecules ; 28(2)2023 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36677556

RESUMO

A study was conducted on selected physicochemical properties of blackberry jelly-like desserts (kissel) prepared from physically modified starches (with various degrees of inhibition) and chemically modified starches (with various degrees of cross-linking). The desserts were conventionally sweetened with saccharose (S) or, as a dietary alternative, xylitol (X). The characteristics of changes in the viscosity of the kissels as a function of temperature and time were determined. It was noted that regardless of the sweetener used, the viscosity of the kissels increased with the decreasing degree of inhibition (high < medium < low). Regardless of the kind of modification of the starch used for the preparation of the kissels and of the kind of sweetener, thixotropy was observed. Desserts prepared from inhibited starch with xylitol (CL + X) were characterised by the biggest range of their hysteresis loop. Progressing retrogradation was noted with the decrease in the temperature of the experiment (+20 °C and +4 °C). After 7 days of storage, kissels sweetened with saccharose were characterised by a low transparency, which may indicate retarded retrogradation; however, on day 28, the transparency significantly increased, exceeding the values of transmittance for samples sweetened with xylitol. The tendency towards syneresis was tested at +4 °C and -22 °C. The substitution of saccharose with xylitol only caused a slight modification of viscosity. Regardless of the sweetener used and of the level of starch inhibition, lower ranges of the hysteresis loop were noted (apart from CL + X) than in the case of kissels obtained from chemically modified starches. Distinctly lower values of kissel "aging" indices were noted in the case of samples obtained from inhibited starches, and their colour did not significantly differ in relation to the dessert prepared from native starch.


Assuntos
Rubus , Amido , Amido/química , Zea mays/química , Edulcorantes , Xilitol , Excipientes , Viscosidade , Sacarose
7.
Molecules ; 28(2)2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36677758

RESUMO

The quality standards for the export of chestnuts generate large quantities of rejected fruits, which require novel processing technologies for their safe industrial utilization. This study aimed to investigate the impact of high-pressure processing (HPP) and hydrothermal treatments (HT) on the physicochemical properties of rejected chestnut starch. Chestnuts were treated by HPP at 400, 500, and 600 MPa for 5 min and HT at 50 °C for 45 min. In general, all HPP treatments did not induce starch gelatinization, and their granules preserved the integrity and Maltese-cross. Moreover, starch granules' size and resistant starch content increased with the intensity of pressure. Native and HT chestnut starches were the most susceptible to digestion. HPP treatments did not affect the C-type crystalline pattern of native starch, but the crystalline region was gradually modified to become amorphous. HPP-600 MPa treated starch showed modified pasting properties and exhibited the highest values of peak viscosity. This study demonstrates for the first time that after HPP-600 MPa treatment, a novel chestnut starch gel structure is obtained. Moreover, HPP treatments could increase the slow-digesting starch, which benefits the development of healthier products. HPP can be considered an interesting technology to obtain added-value starch from rejected chestnut fruits.


Assuntos
Amilose , Amido , Amido/química , Amilose/química , Viscosidade , Nozes/química , Amido Resistente/análise
8.
Molecules ; 28(2)2023 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36677864

RESUMO

Emulsion systems are widely used in various industries, including the cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and food industries, because they require emulsifiers to stabilize the inherently unstable contact between oil and water. Although emulsifiers are included in many products, excessive use of emulsifiers destroys skin barriers and causes contact dermatitis. Accordingly, the consumer demand for cosmetic products made from natural ingredients with biocompatibility and biodegradability has increased. Starch in the form of solid nanosized particles is considered an attractive emulsifier that forms and stabilizes Pickering emulsion. Chemical modification of nanosized starch via acid hydrolysis can effectively provide higher emulsion stability. However, typical acid hydrolysis limits the industrial application of starch due to its high time consumption and low recovery. In previous studies, the effects of starch nanoparticles (SNPs) prepared by treatment with acidic dry heat, which overcomes these limitations, on the formation and stability of Pickering emulsions were reported. In this study, we evaluated the safety of SNPs in skin cell lines, 3D cultured skin, and human skin. We found that the cytotoxicity of SNPs in both HaCaT cells and HDF cells could be controlled by neutralization. We also observed that SNPs did not induce structural abnormalities on 3D cultured skin and did not permeate across micropig skin tissue or human skin membranes. Furthermore, patches loaded with SNPs were found to belong in the "No irritation" category because they did not cause any irritation when placed on human skin. Overall, the study results suggest that SNPs can be used as a safe emulsifier in various industries, including in cosmetics.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Pele Artificial , Humanos , Emulsões/química , Amido/química , Emulsificantes/química , Nanopartículas/química , Tamanho da Partícula
9.
Molecules ; 28(2)2023 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36677869

RESUMO

The large amount of waste generated by the orange juice industry has sparked the interest of many researchers in incorporating recycling systems and following a much more sustainable circular economy model. This work proposes the valorization of the co-product generated in the orange juice extraction industry after freeze-drying for its subsequent reuse as a natural ingredient in the food industry. In addition, the possible protective effect of gum Arabic and corn starch esterified with octenyl succinic groups, in proportions optimised in previous studies 0.25 and 0.45 g/g orange co-product dry solutes, on the main bioactive compounds of orange peel during the freeze-drying process has been studied. The samples were characterised for their content of vitamin C (ascorbic and dehydroascorbic acids), flavonoids (hesperidin and narirutin), total phenols and total carotenoids, as well as their antioxidant capacity (DPPH and FRAP assays). In addition, samples were digested, mimicking the human enzymatic oral gastro-intestinal digestion process, and the bioaccessibility of the bioactive compounds was evaluated. It was observed that the addition of both biopolymers improved the stability of the hydrophilic compounds during freeze-drying. This conservative effect was more remarkable for higher biopolymer concentrations. However, no protective effect on carotenoid compounds was observed. This trend was reflected in the antioxidant activity of the different samples. In addition, the incorporation of biopolymers improved the bioaccessibility of the bioactive compounds studied. In conclusion, the results supported the feasibility of the freeze-dried orange juice co-product as a natural, sustainable source of health-promoting compounds.


Assuntos
Citrus sinensis , Humanos , Citrus sinensis/química , Goma Arábica/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/química , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(2)2023 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674988

RESUMO

Plastic waste is a serious problem in modern society. Every day, mankind produces tons of waste that must be disposed of or recycled. The most common types of plastic waste are disposable tableware, bags, packaging, bottles, and containers, and not all are recycled. Therefore, there is a great interest in producing environmentally friendly disposable materials. In this study, modified gelatin blends using polysaccharides (e.g., agarose, starch) were produced to obtain a stable coating. Various techniques were used to characterize the obtained bioplastics, including FTIR spectroscopy (Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy), TGA (thermogravimetric analysis)/DSC (differential scanning calorimetry), contact angle measurements, and surface energy characterization. We also investigated the influence of thermal and microbiological degradation on the properties of the biocomposite. The addition of agarose increased the hardness of the blend by 27% compared to the control sample without added polysaccharides. Increases were also observed in the surface energy (24%), softening point (15%), and glass transition temperature (14%) compared to the control sample. The addition of starch to the biopolymer increased the softening point by 15% and the glass transition temperature by 6%. After aging, both blends showed an increase in hardness of 26% and a decrease in tensile strength of 60%.


Assuntos
Gelatina , Amido , Amido/metabolismo , Gelatina/química , Sefarose , Solventes , Polissacarídeos , Plásticos , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
11.
BMC Med ; 21(1): 27, 2023 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36691017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Salivary amylase, encoded by the AMY1 gene, initiate the digestion of starch. Whether starch intake or AMY1 copy number is related to disease risk is currently rather unknown. The aim was to investigate the association between starch intake and AMY1 copy number and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality and whether there is an interaction. In addition, we aim to identify CVD-related plasma proteins associated with starch intake and AMY1 copy number. METHODS: This prospective cohort study used data from 21,268 participants from the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study. Dietary data were collected through a modified diet history method and incident CVD and mortality were ascertained through registers. AMY1 gene copy number was determined by droplet digital polymerase chain reaction, a risk score of 10 genetic variants in AMY1 was measured, and a total of 88 selected CVD-related proteins were measured. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to analyze the associations of starch intake and AMY1 copy number with disease risk. Linear regression was used to identify plasma proteins associated with starch intake and AMY1 copy number. RESULTS: Over a median of 23 years' follow-up, 4443 individuals developed CVD event and 8125 died. After adjusting for potential confounders, a U-shape association between starch intake and risk of CVD (P-nonlinearity = 0.001) and all-cause mortality (P-nonlinearity = 0.03) was observed. No significant association was found between AMY1 copy number and risk of CVD and mortality, and there were no interactions between starch intake and AMY1 copy number (P interaction > 0.23). Among the 88 plasma proteins, adrenomedullin, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist protein, fatty acid-binding protein, leptin, and C-C motif chemokine 20 were associated with starch intake after adjusting for multiple testing. CONCLUSIONS: In this large prospective study among Swedish adults, a U-shaped association between starch intake and risk of CVD and all-cause mortality was found. Several plasma proteins were identified which might provide information on potential pathways for such association. AMY1 copy number was not associated with CVD risk or any of the plasma proteins, and there was no interaction between starch intake and AMY1 copy number on disease risk.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , alfa-Amilases Salivares , Humanos , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Amido/metabolismo , Estudos Prospectivos , Amilases/genética , alfa-Amilases Salivares/genética , alfa-Amilases Salivares/metabolismo , Dosagem de Genes , Proteínas Sanguíneas/genética
12.
Carbohydr Polym ; 304: 120514, 2023 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36641161

RESUMO

We developed layered silicate nanocomposite films based on corn starch (CS) and bentonite nanoclay, plasticized with glycerol. The films were elastomeric with stretchability of ca. 60-90 % and Tg = -75 to -85 °C. The nanocomposites were exfoliated if cbentonite < 2 wt%, and intercalated if cbentonite > 3 wt%. The exfoliated morphology induced thermal stability as shown by TGA. Interestingly, bentonite induced a reduction of Tg while increasing the Young's modulus E and reducing the extensibility. The fracture energy was a decreasing function of cbentonite except at 2.9 wt%, where the nanocomposite exhibited maximum Young's modulus and toughness, as demonstrated by the Ashby-style plot. The nanocomposite films were biodegradable in anaerobic and aerobic conditions, and in anaerobic conditions the intercalated nanocomposite of cbentonite = 2.9 wt% exhibited slower rate of degradation. These results provide insights into the development of bio-degradable elastomeric food packaging and coatings suitable for sub-ambient conditions.


Assuntos
Bentonita , Nanocompostos , Amido , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Módulo de Elasticidade , Resistência à Tração
13.
Carbohydr Polym ; 304: 120511, 2023 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36641159

RESUMO

The development of sustainable and eco-friendly leather industry requires green tanning agents because of unbounded chromium (easily converted into hazardous Cr-VI) in chrome tanned leather. In this study, a chrome-free tanning agent (OS-LDHs) was established by integrating layered double hydroxide (magnesium aluminum zirconium hydrotalcite, LDHs) with starch derivatives. A series of oxidized starch (OS) were prepared as masking agents for LDHs tanning process. Among them, the weight-average molecular weight (Mw) of 1685 g/mol could be reached, which will promise the well-distribution of OS. The SEM and EDS analysis confirmed the uniform penetration of OS-LDHs, avoiding accumulation on the surface of crust leather. Notably, leather tanned by OS-LDHs achieved shrinkage temperature of 66.7 °C, porosity of 75.51 % and tear strength of 66.7 N/mm. Not only the hydrogen bond but also the coordination between NH2, COOH in collagen and OS-2-LDHs improved the thermal stability of leather without destroying the collagen triple helix.


Assuntos
Amido , Curtume , Indústrias , Cromo/química , Colágeno/química
14.
Carbohydr Polym ; 304: 120474, 2023 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36641191

RESUMO

A novel flocculation strategy for simultaneously removing Microcystis aeruginosa and algal organic matter (AOM) was proposed using chitosan-amphoteric starch (C-A) dual flocculants in an efficient, cost-effective and ecologically friendly way, providing new insights for harmful algal blooms (HABs) control. A dual-functional starch-based flocculant, amphoteric starch (AS) with high anion degree of substitution (DSA) and cation degree of substitution (DSC), was prepared using a cationic moiety of 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTA) coupled with an anion moiety of chloroacetic acid onto the backbone of starch simultaneously. In combination of the results of FTIR, XPS, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, GPC, EA, TGA and SEM, it was evidenced that the successfully synthesized AS with excellent structural characteristics contributed to the enhanced flocculation of M. aeruginosa. Furthermore, the novel C-A dual flocculants could achieve not only the removal of >99.3 % of M. aeruginosa, but also the efficacious flocculation of algal organic matter (AOM) at optimal concentration of (0.8:24) mg/L, within a wide pH range of 3-11. The analysis of zeta potential and cellular morphology revealed that the dual effects of both enhanced charge neutralization and notable netting-bridging played a vital role in efficient M. aeruginosa removal.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Microcystis , Amido , Floculação , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Cátions
15.
Carbohydr Polym ; 304: 120513, 2023 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36641194

RESUMO

This work studied effects of different amounts of rice glutelin (RG) on physicochemical and structural properties of extruded rice starch (ERS) and explored the underlying mechanism of interaction between rice starch and RG upon extrusion processing. The results showed that the addition of RG altered the pasting properties, improved the viscoelastic, and increased the water mobility of ERS. The weight loss of ERS decreased from 71.40 % to 62.61 %, while the degradation temperature increased from 290.48 °C to 296.25 °C as the RG content increased from 0 % to 12 %. The complex index of extruded starch-glutelin complexes significantly elevated from 10.40 % to 35.81 % when RG content increased from 6 % to 12 %. Fourier-transform infrared spectra confirmed that RG interacted with starch via Maillard reactions, and the binding strength between RG and starch was enhanced at a higher RG content. Furthermore, results of rheological property and chemical interactions demonstrated that hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic, and electrostatic interaction were formed between RG and starch during extrusion. In summary, the obtained results of this study can further enrich the theory of starch-protein interactions and show the possibility of RG applied in the extruded starchy foods.


Assuntos
Oryza , Amido , Amido/química , Glutens/química , Temperatura , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Reação de Maillard , Oryza/química
16.
BMC Microbiol ; 23(1): 32, 2023 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36707764

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interactions between diet, stress and the gut microbiome are of interest as a means to modulate health and performance. Here, in vitro fermentation was used to explore the effects of a sudden change in diet, 21 days sole sustenance on the Meal, Ready-to-Eat (MRE) U.S. military combat ration, on inter-species competition and functional potential of the human gut microbiota. Human fecal samples collected before and after MRE intervention or consuming a habitual diet (HAB) were introduced to nutrient-rich media supplemented with starch for in vitro fermentation under ascending colon conditions. 16S rRNA amplicon and Whole-metagenome sequencing (WMS) were used to measure community composition and functional potential. Specific statistical analyses were implemented to detect changes in relative abundance from taxa, genes and pathways. RESULTS: Differential changes in relative abundance of 11 taxa, Dorea, Lachnospira, Bacteroides fragilis, Akkermansia muciniphila, Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Betaproteobacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, Bacteroides egerthii, Ruminococcus bromii, Prevotella, and Slackia, and nine Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes, specifically GH13_14, over the 24 h fermentation were observed as a function of the diet intervention and correlated to specific taxa of interest. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that consuming MRE for 21 days acutely effects changes in gut microbiota structure in response to carbohydrate but may induce alterations in metabolic capacity. Additionally, these findings demonstrate the potential of starch as a candidate supplemental strategy to functionally modulate specific gut commensals during stress-induced states.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Dieta , Fezes/microbiologia , Carboidratos , Amido/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais
17.
Food Res Int ; 163: 112155, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36596106

RESUMO

Inhibiting carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes has been considered as an effective approach for controlling starch digestion and postprandial blood glucose level. α-Amylase and amyloglucosidase (AMG) are commonly applied in analysis of starch digestion behaviour. Catechins have been shown with the inhibiting effects on α-amylase. However, the inhibitory activity of catechins against AMG needs to be further studied. Therefore, AMG inhibition of 8 catechins and the mechanisms were studied in this work through substrate depletion, inhibition kinetics, molecular docking, fluorescence quenching, differential scanning calorimetry, and isothermal titration calorimetry. The inhibitory activity of catechins with galloyl moiety (CGMs) was found to be lower than the corresponding catechins without the moiety (Cs). All catechins were anti-competitive inhibitors, indicating that they tended to bind with AMG-starch complex in the digestion system, rather than with AMG directly. Interestingly, CGMs had higher quenching effects on AMG fluorescence than Cs, due to the additional π-stacking between aromatic rings of GM and AMG fluorophores. Also, CGMs had a higher binding affinity to AMG, due to the tendency of GM to AMG active site, although the affinity was much weaker than that of starch to AMG. Besides, catechins did not affect AMG thermostability. Therefore, there was an inconsistency between catechins-AMG binding interactions and the enzyme inhibition because the predominant sites for catechins binding were the non-active sites on AMG-starch complex, rather than the enzyme active ones. Conclusively, inhibition mode should also be considered when evaluating the inhibitory activity of a polyphenol based on the polyphenol-enzyme binding affinity.


Assuntos
Catequina , Polifenóis , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Catequina/química , Glucana 1,4-alfa-Glucosidase , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo , Amido/química
18.
J Mater Chem B ; 11(4): 852-864, 2023 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36594734

RESUMO

Death caused by excessive blood loss has always been a global concern. Timely control of bleeding in incompressible penetrated wounds remains a great challenge. Here, we developed a shape memory sponge (SQG) based on modified starch and gelatin (Gel) to control the hemorrhage of penetrating wounds. The porous structure of SQG greatly enhanced the absorption of blood, and the adhesion of erythrocytes and platelets. The water absorption rate of SQG reached 1178.72 ± 12.18% in 10 s. SQG quickly recovered its shape in water (∼3 s) and exhibited high mechanical strength (∼38 kPa), acting as a physically packed barrier to facilitate hemostasis. Furthermore, the positively charged sponges were conducive to activating platelets and promoting the release of coagulation factors. SQG sponges possessed the lowest blood coagulation index (BCI) of 21.32 ± 0.19%, and presented good biocompatibility and obvious inhibitory effect on Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Moreover, SQG sponges controlled complete bleeding in 69 ± 20 s and a bleeding loss of 334 ± 138 mg was observed, nearly 50% lower than that of gelatin sponge in rabbit liver penetrating wounds. Overall, SQG possesses a combination of potent shape recovery, rapid hemostasis, and excellent antibacterial and degradation ability, enabling promising applications for hemostasis in non-compressible penetrating wounds.


Assuntos
Gelatina , Ferimentos Penetrantes , Animais , Coelhos , Gelatina/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus , Amido , Escherichia coli , Hemostasia , Hemorragia/tratamento farmacológico
19.
Food Res Int ; 163: 112184, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36596124

RESUMO

Sauce-flavor Daqu is an important source of fermentation power in baijiu brewing. Revealing carbohydrate metabolism will help to explore the underlying reasons for the difference in fermentation performance of Daqu. In this study, metagenomic and metaproteomic technologies were performed to explore the carbohydrate metabolism network and its active functional microorganisms of Sauce-flavor Daqu. The sugar profile was analyzed using LC-MS to confirm the metabolic network. The results showed that 23 fungi and 5 bacteria were involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Starch metabolism, cellulose metabolism, and glucan metabolism were the main metabolic pathways, in which fungi especially Aspergillus were more involved than bacteria. Among these active microorganisms, Saccharomycopsis fibuligera, Aspergillus oryzae, Monascus purpureus, Byssochlamys spectabilis, Lichtheimia ramosa, Thermomyces lanuginosus, and Thermoascus aurantiacus were significant functional microorganisms with the ability to produce multiple enzymes. Lichtheimia ramosa, Lichtheimia corymbifera and Kroppenstedtia eburnea were biomarkers of Daqu in the first round, granting it a better liquefaction ability. ß-amylase derived from wheat also played an important role in starch degradation, and the synergistic effect with α-amylase endowed Daqu with higher liquefaction power in the first two rounds. The results of this study are of great significance for the analysis of the mechanism of Daqu fermentation and provide a reliable theoretical basis for strengthening the fermentation performance of Daqu.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas , Bactérias , Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Carboidratos , Amido
20.
Food Res Int ; 163: 112193, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36596133

RESUMO

Nitrogen fertilization is one of the most important cultivation practices that affects the eating quality of rice. During the cooking process, nitrogen fertilizer application in the field changed the structure of protein and starch during cooking, which eventually reduced the rice eating quality. However, the morphology and structure of rice during cooking under high nitrogen fertilizer application in the field have not been explored. The relationship between the morphological and structural changes of rice protein and starch during cooking and the rice eating quality has not been studied. In this study, we conducted field trials at two nitrogen fertilizer levels (0 N and 350 N), and the rice was cooked after harvest. Our results showed that the peak viscosity of rice flour was 3326 cp and 2453 cp at 0 N and 350 N, respectively, and the peak viscosity of rice starch was 3424 cp and 3378 cp, respectively. Rice proteins played an important role in the starch gelatinization properties and thermodynamic properties. High nitrogen fertilizer application increased the protein content of rice from 5.97 % to 11.32 %, and more protein bodies adhered to the surface of amyloplasts eventually inhibiting starch gelatinization. The rice proteins could bind to amylose-lipid complexes during cooking, promoting the formation of V-type diffraction peaks. What is more, under high nitrogen fertilizer, rice protein had more ß-sheets, which slowed the entry of water into the interior of starch molecules and prevented the destruction of the short-range ordered structure of starch. Our study provides the possibility to further improve the eating quality of rice under nitrogen fertilizer treatment.


Assuntos
Oryza , Amido , Amido/química , Oryza/química , Fertilizantes , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Culinária
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