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1.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 245, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575879

RESUMO

Seed germination is an important development process in plant growth. The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a critical role during seed germination. However, the mechanism of rapeseed in response to ABA is still elusive. In order to understand changes of rapeseed under exogenous ABA treatment, we explored differentially expressed metabolites (DEMs) and the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between mock- and ABA-treated seedlings. A widely targeted LC-MS/MS based metabolomics were used to identify and quantify metabolic changes in response to ABA during seed germination, and a total of 186 significantly DEMs were identified. There are many compounds which are involved in ABA stimuli, especially some specific ABA transportation-related metabolites such as starches and lipids were screened out. Meanwhile, a total of 4440 significantly DEGs were identified by transcriptomic analyses. There was a significant enrichment of DEGs related to phenylpropanoid and cell wall organization. It suggests that exogenous ABA mainly affects seed germination by regulating cell wall loosening. Finally, the correlation analysis of the key DEMs and DEGs indicates that many DEGs play a direct or indirect regulatory role in DEMs metabolism. The integrative analysis between DEGs and DEMs suggests that the starch and sucrose pathways were the key pathway in ABA responses. The two metabolites from starch and sucrose pathways, levan and cellobiose, both were found significantly down-regulated in ABA-treated seedlings. These comprehensive metabolic and transcript analyses provide useful information for the subsequent post-transcriptional modification and post germination growth of rapeseed in response to ABA signals and stresses.


Assuntos
Brassica napus , Brassica rapa , Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Plântula/metabolismo , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Germinação/genética , Brassica rapa/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Amido/metabolismo , Sacarose/metabolismo , Sementes , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Transcriptoma
2.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0297334, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38574179

RESUMO

Potato tubers are rich sources of various nutrients and unique sources of starch. Many genes play major roles in different pathways, including carbohydrate metabolism during the potato tuber's life cycle. Despite substantial scientific evidence about the physiological and morphological development of potato tubers, the molecular genetic aspects of mechanisms underlying tuber formation have not yet been fully understood. In this study, for the first time, RNA-seq analysis was performed to shed light on the expression of genes involved in starch biosynthesis during potato tuber development. To this end, samples were collected at the hook-like stolon (Stage I), swollen tips stolon (Stage II), and tuber initiation (Stage III) stages of tuber formation. Overall, 23 GB of raw data were generated and assembled. There were more than 20000 differentially expressed genes (DEGs); the expression of 73 genes involved in starch metabolism was further studied. Moreover, qRT-PCR analysis revealed that the expression profile of the starch biosynthesis DEGs was consistent with that of the RNA-seq data, which further supported the role of the DEGs in starch biosynthesis. This study provides substantial resources on potato tuber development and several starch synthesis isoforms associated with starch biosynthesis.


Assuntos
Solanum tuberosum , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Tubérculos/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/genética , Amido/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
3.
Plant Cell Rep ; 43(4): 112, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38568250

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Purine permease PUP11 is essential for rice seed development, regulates the seed setting rate, and influences the cytokinin content, sugar transport, and starch biosynthesis during grain development. The distribution of cytokinins in plant tissues determines plant growth and development and is regulated by several cytokinin transporters, including purine permease (PUP). Thirteen PUP genes have been identified within the rice genome; however, the functions of most of these genes remain poorly understood. We found that pup11 mutants showed extremely low seed setting rates and a unique filled seed distribution. Moreover, seed formation arrest in these mutants was associated with the disappearance of accumulated starch 10 days after flowering. PUP11 has two major transcripts with different expression patterns and subcellular locations, and further studies revealed that they have redundant positive roles in regulating the seed setting rate. We also found that type-A Response Regulator (RR) genes were upregulated in the developing grains of the pup11 mutant compared with those in the wild type. The results also showed that PUP11 altered the expression of several sucrose transporters and significantly upregulated certain starch biosynthesis genes. In summary, our results indicate that PUP11 influences the rice seed setting rate by regulating sucrose transport and starch accumulation during grain filling. This research provides new insights into the relationship between cytokinins and seed development, which may help improve cereal yield.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte de Nucleobases , Oryza , Oryza/genética , Sementes/genética , Grão Comestível/genética , Citocininas , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras , Amido , Sacarose
4.
Funct Plant Biol ; 512024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38588720

RESUMO

Reproductive development of fruiting trees, including mango (Mangifera indica L.), is limited by non-structural carbohydrates. Competition for sugars increases with cropping, and consequently, vegetative growth and replenishment of starch reserves may reduce with high yields, resulting in interannual production variability. While the effect of crop load on photosynthesis and the distribution of starch within the mango tree has been studied, the contribution of starch and sugars to different phases of reproductive development requires attention. This review focuses on mango and examines the roles of non-structural carbohydrates in fruiting trees to clarify the repercussions of crop load on reproductive development. Starch buffers the plant's carbon availability to regulate supply with demand, while sugars provide a direct resource for carbon translocation. Sugar signalling and interactions with phytohormones play a crucial role in flowering, fruit set, growth, ripening and retention, as well as regulating starch, sugar and secondary metabolites in fruit. The balance between the leaf and fruit biomass affects the availability and contributions of starch and sugars to fruiting. Crop load impacts photosynthesis and interactions between sources and sinks. As a result, the onset and rate of reproductive processes are affected, with repercussions for fruit size, composition, and the inter-annual bearing pattern.


Assuntos
Frutas , Mangifera , Animais , Amido/metabolismo , Aves , Árvores , Carbono/metabolismo , Açúcares/metabolismo
5.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301920, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38593129

RESUMO

The use of anthelminthic drugs has several drawbacks, including the selection of resistant parasite strains. Alternative avenues to mitigate the negative effects of helminth infection involve dietary interventions that might affect resistance and/or tolerance by improving host immunity, modulating the microbiota, or exerting direct anthelmintic effects. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of diet on strongyle infection in horses, specifically through immune-mediated, microbiota-mediated, or direct anthelmintic effects. Horses that were naturally infected with strongyles were fed either a high-fiber or high-starch diet, supplemented with either polyphenol-rich pellets (dehydrated sainfoin) or control pellets (sunflower and hay). When horses were fed a high-starch diet, they excreted more strongyle eggs. Adding sainfoin in the high-starch diet reduced egg excretion. Additionally, sainfoin decreased larval motility whatever the diet. Moreover, the high-starch diet led to a lower fecal bacterial diversity, structural differences in fecal microbiota, lower fecal pH, lower blood acetate, and lower hematocrit compared to the high-fiber diet. Circulating levels of Th1 and Th2 cytokines, lipopolysaccharides, procalcitonin, and white blood cells proportions did not differ between diets. Overall, this study highlights the role of dietary manipulations as an alternative strategy to mitigate the effect of helminth infection and suggests that, in addition to the direct effects, changes in the intestinal ecosystem are the possible underlying mechanism.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos , Microbiota , Animais , Cavalos , Dieta/veterinária , Intestino Grosso , Fezes/microbiologia , Amido , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia
6.
BMC Plant Biol ; 24(1): 256, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594627

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Climate change has led to severe cold events, adversely impacting global crop production. Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.), a significant economic crop, is highly susceptible to cold damage, affecting both yield and quality. Unraveling the molecular mechanisms governing cold resistance, including the identification of key genes and comprehensive transcriptional regulatory pathways, is crucial for developing new varieties with enhanced tolerance. RESULTS: In this study, we conducted a comparative analysis of leaf physiological indices and transcriptome sequencing results. The orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) highlighted peroxidase (POD) activity and soluble protein as crucial physiological indicators for both varieties. RNA-seq data analysis revealed that a total of 7024 and 6209 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified from variety "A" and variety "B", respectively. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment of DEGs demonstrated that the significant roles of starch and sucrose metabolism, glutathione metabolism, terpenoid synthesis, and energy metabolism (sucrose and starch metabolism) were the key pathways in eggplant. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) shown that the enrichment of numerous cold-responsive genes, pathways, and soluble proteins in the MEgrep60 modules. Core hub genes identified in the co-expression network included POD, membrane transporter-related gene MDR1, abscisic acid-related genes, growth factor enrichment gene DELLA, core components of the biological clock PRR7, and five transcription factors. Among these, the core transcription factor MYB demonstrated co-expression with signal transduction, plant hormone, biosynthesis, and metabolism-related genes, suggesting a pivotal role in the cold response network. CONCLUSION: This study integrates physiological indicators and transcriptomics to unveil the molecular mechanisms responsible for the differences in cold tolerance between the eggplant cold-tolerant variety "A" and the cold-sensitive variety "B". These mechanisms include modulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), elevation in osmotic carbohydrate and free proline content, and the expression of terpenoid synthesis genes. This comprehensive understanding contributes valuable insights into the molecular underpinnings of cold stress tolerance, ultimately aiding in the improvement of crop cold tolerance.


Assuntos
Solanum melongena , Transcriptoma , Solanum melongena/genética , Solanum melongena/metabolismo , Fisiologia Comparada , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Resposta ao Choque Frio/genética , Amido/metabolismo , Sacarose/metabolismo , Terpenos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
7.
Food Res Int ; 181: 114098, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38448107

RESUMO

Quantitative changes at different length scales (molecular, microscopic, and macroscopic levels) during cooking were evaluated to better understand the cooking behavior of common beans. The microstructural evolution of presoaked fresh and aged red kidney beans during cooking at 95 °C was quantified using light microscopy coupled with image analysis. These data were related to macroscopic properties, being hardness and volume changes representing texture and swelling of the beans during cooking. Microstructural properties included the cell area (Acell), the fraction of intercellular spaces (%Ais), and the fraction of starch area within the cells (%As/c), reflecting respectively cell expansion, cell separation, and starch swelling. A strong linear correlation between hardness and %Ais (r = -0.886, p = 0.07), along with a significant relative change in %Ais (∼5 times), suggests that softening is predominantly due to cell separation rather than cell expansion. Regarding volume changes, substantial cell expansion (Acell increased by ∼1.5 times) during the initial 30 min of cooking was greatly associated with the increase in the cotyledon volume, while the significance of cell separation became more prominent during the later stages of cooking. Furthermore, we found that the seed coat, rather than the cotyledon, played a major role in the swelling of whole beans, which became less pronounced after aging. The macroscopic properties did not correlate with %As/c. However, the evolution of %As/c conveyed information on the swelling of the starch granules during cooking. During the initial phase, the starch granule swelling mainly filled the cells, while during the later phase, the further swelling was confined by the cell wall. This study provides strong microscopic evidence supporting the direct involvement of the cell wall/ middle lamella network in microstructural changes during cooking as affected by aging, which is in line with the results of molecular changes.


Assuntos
Phaseolus , Verduras , Culinária , Amido
8.
Physiol Plant ; 176(2): e14232, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38450746

RESUMO

Grafting onto pumpkin rootstock is widely applied in cucumber production to improve growth and yield, as well as to overcome soil-borne diseases and enhance resistance to abiotic stresses. In this study, we constructed the cucumber-pumpkin heterografts with the one-cotyledon grafting method, and examined the effects of heterografting on biomass allocation and sugar partitioning, with cucumber and pumpkin self-grafts used as control. Compared with cucumber self-grafts, heterografting onto pumpkin rootstock promoted photosynthesis in cucumber scion, and led to higher sucrose contents in the 1st true leaf (source) and newly emerged leaf (sink). Thereby, the scion part of heterografts accumulated more biomass than cucumber self-grafts. In contrast, when compared to pumpkin self-grafts, grafting with cucumber scion reduced root vigor and biomass but promoted cotyledon growth in pumpkin rootstock. The roots (sink) of heterografts contained less sucrose and hexoses, and showed reduced sucrose synthase (SuSy) and hexokinase (HXK) activities. However, the rootstock cotyledon (source) contained more sucrose and starch, and showed higher activities of HXK, cell-wall invertase (CWIN), and enzymes for starch synthesis and degradation. Furthermore, removal or shade of rootstock cotyledon led to reduced growth of root and scion. Silencing of CmoMEX1a gene in rootstock cotyledon inhibited maltose export and reduced root growth of heterografts. These results indicated that rootstock cotyledon, especially its starch content, played a buffering role in the growth regulation of cucumber-pumpkin heterografts. Taken together, our results provided a major contribution to our understanding of source-sink sugar partitioning and scion-rootstock growth balancing in cucumber-pumpkin heterografts.


Assuntos
Cucumis sativus , Cucurbita , Cucumis sativus/genética , Cucurbita/genética , Xenoenxertos , Cotilédone , Açúcares , Amido , Sacarose
9.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e273999, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38451628

RESUMO

The production of seedlings of the passion fruit tree, usually, is sexual, and the seeds are not uniform in the seedling emergence, and soaking treatments of seeds can provide faster and more uniform germination. It was aimed to study the action of plant growth regulators and the mobilization of reserves in the stages of soaking of yellow passion fruit seeds. The seeds were soaked for five hours in solutions containing plant growth regulators, in a completely randomized design, in a factorial 8 x 4, with four replications. The first factor corresponds to eight plant growth regulators: T1 - distilled water (control); T2 - 6-benzylaminepurine ​​500 mg L-1; T3 - 4-(3-indolyl) butyric acid 500 mg L-1; T4 - gibberellic acid 500 mg L-1; T5 - spermine 250 mg L-1; T6 - spermine 750 mg L-1; T7 - spermidine 750 mg L-1; T8 - spermidine 1250 mg L-1; and the second factor, to the four soaking times: zero, four, 72 and 120 hours, corresponding, respectively, to the dry seed, and to phases I, II, and III of the imbibition curve. It was evaluated the biochemical composition of seeds (lipids, soluble sugars and starch). The seeds showed accumulation of lipids in phase III; the content of soluble sugars increased in phase I and decreased in phase II. The starch content increased until the phase II and decreased in phase III. Starch is the main reserve in the seeds and the main source of energy used in phase III; soaking the seeds in polyamines generates an accumulation of lipids in the seeds and soaking in plant growth regulators increases the burning of starch.


Assuntos
Passiflora , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Frutas , Espermidina , Espermina , Ácido Butírico , Plântula , Amido , Açúcares
10.
Nutrients ; 16(5)2024 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38474877

RESUMO

In this study, the roles of kiwifruit soluble/insoluble dietary fiber (SDF/IDF, respectively) in the pasting characteristics and in vitro digestibility of wheat starch were explored. According to RVA and rheological tests, the IDF enhanced the wheat starch viscosity, decreased the gelatinization degree of the starch granules, and exacerbated starch retrogradation. The addition of SDF in high quantities could reduce the starch gelatinization level, lower the system viscosity, and exacerbate starch retrogradation. Through determining the leached amylose content and conducing scanning electron microscopy, the IDF and SDF added in high quantities was combined with the leached amylose wrapped around the starch granules, which reduced the leached amylose content and decreased the gelatinization degree of the starch granules. The Fourier transform infrared results showed that the addition of both the IDF and SDF resulted in an enhancement in hydrogen bonding formed by the hydroxyl groups of the system. The in vitro digestion results strongly suggested that both the IDF and SDF reduced the wheat starch digestibility. The above findings are instructive for the application of both IDF and SDF in starchy functional foods.


Assuntos
Amilose , Amido , Triticum , Fibras na Dieta , Viscosidade
11.
BMC Genomics ; 25(1): 274, 2024 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38475714

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuber starch and steroidal glycoalkaloid (SGA)-related traits have been consistently prioritized in potato breeding, while allelic variation pattern of genes that underlie these traits is less explored. RESULTS: Here, we focused on the genes involved in two important metabolic pathways in the potato: starch metabolism and SGA biosynthesis. We identified 119 genes consisting of 81 involved in starch metabolism and 38 in the biosynthesis of steroidal glycoalkaloids, and discovered 96,166 allelic variants among 2,169 gene haplotypes in six autotetraploid potato genomes. Comparative analyses revealed an uneven distribution of allelic variants among gene haplotypes and that the vast majority of deleterious mutations in these genes are retained in heterozygous state in the autotetraploid potato genomes. Leveraging full-length cDNA sequencing data, we find that approximately 70% of haplotypes of the 119 genes are transcribable. Population genetic analyses identify starch and SGA biosynthetic genes that are potentially conserved or diverged between potato varieties with varying starch or SGA content. CONCLUSIONS: These results deepen the understanding of haplotypic diversity within functionally important genes in autotetraploid genomes and may facilitate functional characterization of genes or haplotypes contributing to traits related to starch and SGA in potato.


Assuntos
Solanum tuberosum , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Amido/metabolismo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Alelos , Fenótipo , Esteroides
12.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 16(10): 12321-12331, 2024 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38431875

RESUMO

Apart from single hemostasis, antibacterial and other functionalities are also desirable for hemostatic materials to meet clinical needs. Cationic materials have attracted great interest for antibacterial/hemostatic applications, and it is still desirable to explore rational structure design to address the challenges in balanced hemostatic/antibacterial/biocompatible properties. In this work, a series of cationic microspheres (QMS) were prepared by the facile surface modification of microporous starch microspheres with a cationic tannic acid derivate, the coating contents of which were adopted for the first optimization of surface structure and property. Thermoresponsive gels with embedded QMS (F-QMS) were further prepared by mixing a neutral thermosensitive polymer and QMS for second structure/function optimization through different QMS and loading contents. In vitro and in vivo results confirmed that the coating content plays a crucial role in the hemostatic/antibacterial/biocompatible properties of QMS, but varied coating contents of QMS only lead to a classical imperfect performance of cationic materials. Inspiringly, the F-QMS-4 gel with an optimal loading content of QMS4 (with the highest coating content) achieved a superior balanced in vitro hemostatic/antibacterial/biocompatible properties, the mechanism of which was revealed as the second regulation of cell-material/protein-material interactions. Moreover, the optimal F-QMS-4 gel exhibited a high hemostatic performance in a femoral artery injury model accompanied by the easy on-demand removal for wound healing endowed by the thermoresponsive transformation. The present work offers a promising approach for the rational design and facile preparation of cationic materials with balanced hemostatic/antibacterial/biocompatible properties.


Assuntos
Hemostáticos , Polifenóis , Hemostáticos/farmacologia , Hemostáticos/química , Microesferas , Hemostasia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Géis/farmacologia , Amido/química
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(5)2024 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38474210

RESUMO

Malus sieversii is considered the ancestor of the modern cultivated apple, with a high value for apple tolerance breeding. Despite studies on the temperature adaptability of M. sieversii carried out at a physiological response and the genome level, information on the proteome changes of M. sieversii during dormancy is limited, especially about the M. sieversii subtypes. In this study, a DIA-based approach was employed to screen and identify differential proteins involved in three overwintering periods of flower buds in two M. sieversii subtypes (Malus sieversii f. luteolus, GL; Malus sieversii f. aromaticus, HC) with different overwintering adaptabilities. The proteomic analysis revealed that the number of the down-regulated differential expression proteins (DEPs) was obviously higher than that of the up-regulated DEPs in the HC vs. GL groups, especially at the dormancy stage and dormancy-release stage. Through functional classification of those DEPs, the majority of the DEPs in the HC vs. GL groups were associated with protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum, oxidative phosphorylation, starch and sucrose metabolism and ribosomes. Through WGCNA analysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle and pyruvate metabolism were highly correlated with the overwintering stages; oxidative phosphorylation and starch and sucrose metabolism were highly correlated with the Malus sieversii subtypes. This result suggests that the down-regulation of DEPs, which are predominantly enriched in these pathways, could potentially contribute to the lower cold tolerance observed in HC during overwintering stage.


Assuntos
Malus , Malus/genética , Proteômica , Melhoramento Vegetal , Flores/genética , Sacarose/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo
14.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(10): 5391-5402, 2024 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38427803

RESUMO

α-Glucanotransferases of the CAZy family GH70 convert starch-derived donors to industrially important α-glucans. Here, we describe characteristics of a novel GtfB-type 4,6-α-glucanotransferase of high enzyme activity (60.8 U mg-1) from Limosilactobacillus reuteri N1 (LrN1 GtfB), which produces surprisingly large quantities of soluble protein in heterologous expression (173 mg pure protein per L of culture) and synthesizes the reuteran-like α-glucan with (α1 → 6) linkages in linear chains and branch points. Protein structural analysis of LrN1 GtfB revealed the potential crucial residues at subsites -2∼+2, particularly H265, Y214, and R302, in the active center as well as previously unidentified surface binding sites. Furthermore, molecular dynamic simulations have provided unprecedented insights into linkage specificity hallmarks of the enzyme. Therefore, LrN1 GtfB represents a potent enzymatic tool for starch conversion, and this study promotes our knowledge on the structure-function relationship of GH70 GtfB α-glucanotransferases, which might facilitate the production of tailored α-glucans by enzyme engineering in future.


Assuntos
Sistema da Enzima Desramificadora do Glicogênio , Limosilactobacillus reuteri , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Glucanos/química , Amido/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
15.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 16(11): 13411-13421, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38456838

RESUMO

The development of sustainable biomaterials and surfaces to prevent the accumulation and proliferation of viruses and bacteria is highly demanded in healthcare areas. This study describes the assembly and full characterization of two new bioactive silver(I) coordination polymers (CPs) formulated as [Ag(aca)(µ-PTA)]n·5nH2O (1) and [Ag2(µ-ada)(µ3-PTA)2]n·4nH2O (2). These products were generated by exploiting a heteroleptic approach based on the use of two different adamantoid building blocks, namely 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane (PTA) and 1-adamantanecarboxylic (Haca) or 1,3-adamantanedicarboxylic (H2ada) acids, resulting in the assembly of 1D (1) and 3D (2). Antiviral, antibacterial, and antifungal properties of the obtained compounds were investigated in detail, followed by their incorporation as bioactive dopants (1 wt %) into hybrid biopolymers based on acid-hydrolyzed starch polymer (AHSP). The resulting materials, formulated as 1@AHSP and 2@AHSP, also featured (i) an exceptional antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 and human adenovirus (HAd-5) and (ii) a remarkable antibacterial activity against Gram-negative bacteria. Docking experiments, interaction with human serum albumin, mass spectrometry, and antioxidation studies provided insights into the mechanism of antimicrobial action. By reporting these new silver CPs driven by adamantoid building blocks and the derived starch-based materials, this study endows a facile approach to access biopolymers and interfaces capable of preventing and reducing the proliferation of a broad spectrum of different microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi, and viruses.


Assuntos
Prata , Vírus , Humanos , Prata/farmacologia , Prata/química , Polímeros/farmacologia , Polímeros/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Bactérias , Antivirais/farmacologia , Amido , Proteínas Sanguíneas , Chaperonas Moleculares
16.
Carbohydr Polym ; 333: 121953, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38494204

RESUMO

The importance of gastric digestion in starch-based emulsion is often overshadowed compared to intestinal digestion, despite acknowledging the activity of salivary α-amylase in the stomach. This study aimed to address this gap by investigating the digestion of starch-based emulsions through orogastrointestinal digestion experiments. Our observations revealed the crucial role of salivary α-amylase, which hydrolyzed ∼8 %, ∼56 %, and âˆ¼ 28 % of starch in emulsions stabilized by octenylsuccinylated maize starch (OMS-E), gelatinized OMS (GOMS-E), and retrograded OMS (ROMS-E), respectively, during the gastric phase. Consequently, ∼23 % of the oil in GOMS-E underwent lipolysis during this phase, whereas ∼13 and âˆ¼ 6 % of the oil was lipolyzed in OMS-E and ROMS-E, respectively. These phenomena significantly influenced their small intestinal digestion and the bioaccessibility of encapsulated curcumin. Notably, GOMS-E exhibited ∼28 % lower curcumin bioaccessibility than that of curcumin encapsulated in OMS-E or ROMS-E. This difference was attributed to premature gastric digestion and subsequent encapsulant release in the case of GOMS-E. This understanding can be utilized to manipulate the delivery and digestion of starch-based emulsions. Importantly, our findings highlight the necessity of considering gastric amylolysis and lipolysis when investigating the gastrointestinal fate of starch-based emulsions.


Assuntos
Curcumina , alfa-Amilases Salivares , Emulsões , Amido , Estômago , Digestão , Tamanho da Partícula
17.
Carbohydr Polym ; 333: 121967, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38494222

RESUMO

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is a carbohydrate-rich diet-regulated ailment with carbohydrates digested and absorbed rapidly. Hence, modulating carbohydrate digestion is warranted; to this end, polyphenols from plant sources are handy. However, polyphenols' instability and low bioavailability limit their wholesome use, and thus, encapsulating them into an inexpensive and suitable wall material would be the best strategy. Herein, the potential of porous starch granules is demonstrated. Curcumin and resveratrol were chosen as the test polyphenols due to their proven health benefits, and porous corn starch granules were chosen as the wall material. Porous corn starch granules were prepared through enzymatic modification with 11, 22, and 33 units of amyloglucosidase at three reaction times of 2, 4, and 6 h. The polyphenols were loaded at 100, 200, and 500 mg concentrations in 1 g of starch for 21 days and were characterized through Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses. The encapsulation efficiency was determined, the rate of starch digestion was calculated through the Englyst test, and polyphenols' in vitro release behavior in gastric and intestinal fluids was measured. Results suggest that 33 enzyme units for a 2 h reaction time were optimal for forming spherical-oval pores on corn starch granules with the maximum encapsulation efficiency of 80.16 % and 88.33 % for curcumin and resveratrol, respectively. The FTIR results suggest the entrapment of polyphenols inside the starch matrix. The inclusion significantly reduced starch digestion and increased the percentage of resistant starch up to 41.11 % and 66.36 % with curcumin and resveratrol, respectively. The in vitro release behavior demonstrated good stability in the simulated gastric fluids and sustained release in simulated intestinal fluids. The encapsulated polyphenols showed a complex Fickian type of diffusion mechanism. Overall, the results suggest that porous corn starch granules could be a potential delivery system for curcumin and resveratrol and will aid in developing novel functional foods to address the T2DM concerns.


Assuntos
Curcumina , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Resveratrol , Curcumina/química , Zea mays , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Porosidade , Polifenóis/química , Amido/química , Carboidratos
18.
Food Res Int ; 182: 114156, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38519183

RESUMO

Food texture perception is dynamic, influenced by food properties and oral processing. Using the Repeatable Dual Extrusion Cell (RDEC), the oral processing dynamics of surimi gel with different corn starch concentrations (0-15%) in the presence of 1 ml artificial saliva or water were studied. The force-time curve showed increased peak forces with higher corn starch concentrations, peaking significantly at 10%, then decreasing at 15%. Salivary amylase played a crucial role in gel sample degradation, especially in samples with 5% starch, with a work value depletion ratio of 0.535 for sample with 1 ml water (SGW-5) and 0.406 for sample with 1 ml saliva (SGS-5). SEM analysis confirmed the formation of a continuous starch network with reduced intermolecular spaces in SGS-5. The starch-iodine complex showed decreasing order with increasing starch concentration, and SGS-5 exhibited the highest degradation rate (61.61 ± 0.92%). Mathematical modeling revealed that initial decay rates (k1) in gel sample decreased with increasing starch concentration, and samples with starch and artificial saliva had higher initial degradation rates. These findings highlight the intricate interplay between saliva and starch in the surimi gel matrix under continuous compressive motions by RDEC apparatus, providing insights for formulating food products with tailored textures properties.


Assuntos
Saliva , Amido , Amido/química , Saliva Artificial , Saliva/metabolismo , Géis/química , Água
19.
Food Res Int ; 182: 114178, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38519192

RESUMO

To explore the feasibility of substituting waxy rice with waxy or sweet-waxy corn, eight varieties of waxy and sweet-waxy corns were selected, including three self-cultivated varieties (Feng nuo 168, Feng nuo 211, and Feng nuo 10). Their starches were isolated and used as research objects, and commercially available waxy rice starch (CAWR) and waxy corn starch (CAWC) were used as controls. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, rapid viscosity analyzer, and rotational rheometer were used to analyze their physicochemical and structural characteristics. The morphologies of all corn starch granules were generally oval or round, with significant differences in particle size distributions. All ten starches exhibited a typical A-type crystal structure; however, their relative crystallinity varied from 20.08% to 31.43%. Chain length distribution analysis showed that the A/B ratio of Jing cai tian nuo 18 and Feng nuo 168 was similar to that of CAWR. Peak viscosities of corn starches were higher than that of CAWR, except for Feng nuo 10, while their setback values were lower than that of CAWR. Except for Feng nuo 10, the paste transparency of corn starches was higher than that of CAWR (10.77%), especially for Jing cai tian nuo 18 (up to 24%). In summary, Jing cai tian nuo 18 and Feng nuo 168 are promising candidates to replace CAWR in developing various rice-based products.


Assuntos
Oryza , Zea mays , Zea mays/química , Oryza/química , Ceras/química , Estudos de Viabilidade , Amido/química , Amilopectina/química
20.
PeerJ ; 12: e17052, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38464751

RESUMO

Tuber plants are of great significance in the world as human food crops. Polysaccharides, important metabolites in tuber plants, also serve as a source of innovative drugs with significant pharmacological effects. These drugs are particularly known for their immunomodulation and antitumor properties. To fully exploit the potential value of tuber plant polysaccharides and establish a synthetic system for their targeted synthesis, it is crucial to dissect their metabolic processes and genetic regulatory mechanisms. In this article, we provide a comprehensive summary of the basic pathways involved in the synthesis of various types of tuber plant polysaccharides. We also outline the key research progress that has been made in this area in recent years. We classify the main types and functions of tuber plant polysaccharides and analyze the biosynthetic processes and genetic regulation mechanisms of key enzymes involved in the metabolic pathways of starch, cellulose, pectin, and fructan in tuber plants. We have identified hexokinase and glycosyltransferase as the key enzymes involved in the polysaccharide synthesis process. By elucidating the synthesis pathway of polysaccharides in tuber plants and understanding the underlying mechanism of action of key enzymes in the metabolic pathway, we can provide a theoretical framework for enhancing the yield of polysaccharides and other metabolites in plant culture cells. This will ultimately lead to increased production efficiency.


Assuntos
Plantas , Polissacarídeos , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Frutanos/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Amido
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