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1.
Ann Epidemiol ; 78: 68-73, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36509343

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) uses long-chain referral whereby members of the target population recruit other members. We describe the use of RDS for a mixed-methods sexual and reproductive health (SRH) study in Kisumu, Kenya. METHODS: Initial seeds for the cross-sectional surveys were selected from adolescents aged 15-19 residing in urban informal settlements. Participants were provided up to five referral coupons to distribute. RESULTS: Across four communities, 18 seeds were selected, 13,489 coupons distributed, and 3381 adolescents referred, yielding a 25% coupon return rate. We enrolled 3061 participants for a 23% survey rate. Median referral lag time was three days (IQR 1, 7). Demographic characteristics reached equilibrium between recruitment waves 5 to 8 in three communities, and waves 7 to 15 in the fourth. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated that RDS is a feasible and efficient approach for recruiting a large sample of adolescents. Though our research focused on SRH, many adolescents residing in the impoverished urban environments where our study was implemented also experience food insecurity, housing instability and violence. RDS can therefore be a valuable recruitment approach for future studies to reach vulnerable adolescents and design interventions that address the variety of health-related challenges that affect this underserved population.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Comportamento Sexual , Humanos , Adolescente , Quênia/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Seleção de Pacientes , Amostragem , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia
2.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 8(12): e38045, 2022 12 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36480253

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Estimation of abortion incidence, particularly in settings where most abortions occur outside of health facility settings, is critical for understanding information gaps and service delivery needs in different settings. However, the existing methods for measuring out-of-facility abortion incidence are plagued with methodological challenges. Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) may offer a methodological improvement in the estimation of abortion incidence. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we tested the feasibility of using RDS to recruit participants into a study about abortion and estimated the proportion of people who ever attempted abortion as well as 1-year and 5-year incidence of abortion (both in-facility and out-of-facility settings) among women of reproductive age in Soweto, South Africa. METHODS: Participants were eligible if they identified as a woman; were aged between 15 and 49 years; spoke English, Tswana, isiZulu, Sotho, or Xhosa; and lived in Soweto. Working with community partners, we identified 11 seeds who were provided with coupons to refer eligible peers to the study. Upon arrival at the study site, the recruits completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire that solicited information about demographic characteristics, social network composition, health behaviors, sexual history, pregnancy history, and experience with abortion; recruits also received 3 recruitment coupons. Recruitment was tracked using coupon numbering. We used the RDS-II estimator to estimate the population proportions of demographic characteristics and our primary outcome, the proportion of people who ever attempted abortion. RESULTS: Between April 4, 2018, and December 17, 2018, 849 eligible participants were recruited into the study. The estimated proportion of people who ever attempted abortion was 12.1% (95% CI 9.7%-14.4%). A total of 7.1% (95% CI 5.4%-8.9%) reported a facility-based abortion, and 4.4% (95% CI 3.0%-5.8%) reported an out-of-facility abortion. CONCLUSIONS: The estimated proportion of people who ever attempted abortion of 12% (102/849) in our study likely represents a substantial underestimation of the actual proportion of abortion attempts among this study population-representing a failure of the RDS method to generate more reliable estimates of abortion incidence in our study. We caution against the use of RDS to measure the incidence of abortion because of persistent concerns with underreporting but consider potential alternative applications of RDS with respect to the study of abortion.


Assuntos
Amostragem , Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , África do Sul/epidemiologia
3.
Rev. biol. trop ; 70(1)dic. 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1407242

RESUMO

Abstract Introduction: Inventories are essential for forest management, but, in the Amazon region, the absence of standardization produces information loss, low accuracy, and inconsistent measurements. This prevents valid comparisons and compromises the use of information in networks and software. Sampling unit size is of key importance in the inventory of native forests, particularly regarding accuracy and costs. Objective: To identify a plot size that provides adequate precision for dendrometric parameters in the Amazon. Methods: In Cotriguaçu, Mato Grosso, Brazil, we tested four plot sizes with six repetitions each: 2 500, 5 000, 7 500, and 10 000 m². We measured diameter at breast height, population density, basal area, and biomass. We applied Shannon and Jaccard indexes; Weibull 2P and Gamma functions to fit the diametric distribution; and the Akaike Information Criterion for the best model. Results: There was a directly proportional relationship between plot area and population similarity, but diversity did not indicate significant alterations. Plot size did not affect dendrometric attributes and diametric distribution. Larger plot areas led to lower coefficients of variation and smaller confidence intervals. The Gamma function was the best model to represent the distributions of different plot sizes. Conclusions: For similar forests, we recommend the 2 500 m² plot to evaluate diameter at breast height, population density, basal area, and biomass.


Resumen Introducción: Los inventarios son fundamentales para la gestión forestal, pero en la Amazonía la ausencia de estandarización produce pérdida de información, baja precisión y mediciones inconsistentes. Esto impide comparaciones válidas y compromete el uso de información en redes y programas. El tamaño de la unidad de muestreo es de importancia clave en el inventario de bosques nativos, particularmente en lo que respecta a la precisión y los costos. Objetivo: Identificar un tamaño de parcela que proporcione una precisión adecuada para los parámetros dendrométricos en la Amazonía. Métodos: En Cotriguaçu, Mato Grosso, Brasil, probamos cuatro tamaños de parcela con seis repeticiones cada una: 2 500, 5 000, 7 500 y 10 000 m². Medimos diámetro a la altura del pecho, densidad de población, área basal y biomasa. Se aplicaron los índices de Shannon y Jaccard; Funciones Weibull 2P y Gamma para adaptarse a la distribución diametral; y el Criterio de Información de Akaike para el mejor modelo. Resultados: Hubo una relación directamente proporcional entre el área de parcela y la similitud poblacional, pero la diversidad no indicó alteraciones significativas. El tamaño de la parcela no afectó los atributos dendrológicos y la distribución diametral. Las áreas de parcela más grandes dieron lugar a coeficientes de variación más bajos e intervalos de confianza más pequeños. La función Gamma fue el mejor modelo para representar las distribuciones de diferentes tamaños de parcela. Conclusiones: Para bosques similares, recomendamos la parcela de 2 500 m² para evaluar diámetro a la altura del pecho, densidad de población, área basal y biomasa.


Assuntos
Florestas , Amostragem , Ecossistema Amazônico , Brasil
4.
PLoS One ; 17(12): e0279692, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36584132

RESUMO

Female Sex Workers (FSWs) are a hard-to-reach and understudied population, especially those who begin selling sex at a young age. In one of the most economically disadvantaged regions in Malawi, a large population of women is engaged in sex work surrounding predominantly male work sites and transport routes. A cross-sectional study in February and April 2019 in Nsanje district used respondent driven sampling (RDS) to recruit women ≥13 years who had sexual intercourse (with someone other than their main partner) in exchange for money or goods in the last 30 days. A standardized questionnaire was filled in; HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia tests were performed. CD4 count and viral load (VL) testing occurred for persons living with HIV (PLHIV). Among 363 study participants, one-quarter were adolescents 13-19 years (25.9%; n = 85). HIV prevalence was 52.6% [47.3-57.6] and increased with age: from 14.7% (13-19 years) to 87.9% (≥35 years). HIV status awareness was 95.2% [91.3-97.4], ART coverage was 98.8% [95.3-99.7], and VL suppression 83.2% [77.1-88.0], though adolescent FSWs were less likely to be virally suppressed than adults (62.8% vs. 84.4%). Overall syphilis prevalence was 29.7% [25.3-43.5], gonorrhea 9.5% [6.9-12.9], and chlamydia 12.5% [9.3-16.6]. 72.4% had at least one unwanted pregnancy, 17.9% had at least one abortion (40.1% of which were unsafe). Half of participants reported experiencing sexual violence (SV) (47.6% [42.5-52.7]) and more than one-tenth (14.2%) of all respondents experienced SV perpetrated by a police officer. Our findings show high levels of PLHIV-FSWs engaged in all stages of the HIV cascade of care. The prevalence of HIV, other STIs, unwanted pregnancy, unsafe abortion, and sexual violence remains extremely high. Peer-led approaches contributed to levels of ART coverage and HIV status awareness similar to those found in the general district population, despite the challenges and risks faced by FSWs.


Assuntos
Gonorreia , Infecções por HIV , Delitos Sexuais , Profissionais do Sexo , Sífilis , Gravidez , Adulto , Feminino , Adolescente , Masculino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Amostragem , Malaui/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Prevalência
5.
Rev. biol. trop ; 70(1)dic. 2022.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1387700

RESUMO

Resumen Introducción: Tradicionalmente, los estudios de escarabajos coprófagos en los bosques secos tropicales (BST) del Caribe colombiano han aplicado metodologías diseñadas para zonas húmedas y andinas del país, lo cual podría estar incidiendo en el rendimiento y la eficiencia del muestreo. Objetivo: Con el fin de aportar a esta discusión, se analizó cómo la cantidad de cebo y el tiempo de operación de la trampa de caída inciden en la efectividad de captura de escarabajos coprófagos en un fragmento de BST en La Reserva Campesina la Flecha, San Jacinto, Colombia. Métodos: Para la captura de los escarabajos, se utilizó trampas de caída, cebadas con tres cantidades diferentes de atrayente: pequeño (34.6 g), mediano (53.8 g) y grande (114.9 g), las cuales permanecieron activas en campo durante 48 h. Cuatro muestreos fueron realizados entre marzo y septiembre de 2015, abarcando por igual la época seca y de lluvia. Resultados: Se registró un total de 4 563 individuos, agrupados en 10 géneros y 27 especies de escarabajos coprófagos. Los mayores valores de riqueza, abundancia y biomasa se presentaron en el cebo grande, a las 48 h, durante la época de lluvias. Sin embargo, el tiempo de operación de la trampa no tuvo efecto en la estimación de la riqueza, abundancia y biomasa de escarabajos independientemente de los tamaños de cebo. Los tres órdenes de la diversidad ( 0 D, 1 D y 2 D), presentaron valores similares entre las cantidades de cebo durante la época de lluvia, pero en la época seca, los cebos de mayor tamaño presentaron los valores de diversidad más altos. Por su parte con el cebo de mayor tamaño se capturó significativamente más riqueza, abundancia y biomasa de escarabajos de cuerpo pequeño y grande siendo esta situación más notaria durante la época seca. Conclusiones: Los resultados de este trabajo evidencian que para el estudio de los ensamblajes de escarabajos en el BST la utilización de un cebo de mayor tamaño contribuye a una mejor estimación de riqueza, abundancia, diversidad y biomasa, sobre todo durante la época seca, cuando las condiciones ambientales propician que los cebos pierdan su atractividad con mayor rapidez.


Abstract Introduction: Typically, research on dung beetles in the Tropical Dry Forests (TDF) of Colombian Caribbean region, have applied methodologies designed for wet or Andean areas of the country, which could be influencing the performance and efficiency of sampling. Objective: In order to contribute to this discussion, we analyzed how the bait amount and pitfall trap operating time influence the collection effectiveness of dung beetles in a TDF fragment at Reserva Campesina La Flecha, San Jacinto, Colombia. Methods: For the collection of beetles, we utilized pitfall traps baited with three different amounts of attractants: small (34.6 g), medium (53.8 g), and large (114.9 g), which remained active in the field for 48 h., 4 samplings between March and September 2015 were carried out, covering both, dry and rainy seasons. Results: A total of 4 563 individuals were recorded, grouped into 10 genera and 27 species of dung beetles. The highest values of richness, abundance and biomass were registered in the large bait, at 48 h, during the rainy season. However, the trap operating time had no effect on the estimation of beetles' richness, abundance, and biomass, regardless of bait sizes. The three diversity orders ( 0 D, 1 D y 2 D) showed similar values between the bait amounts during rainy season, but in the dry season, the largest baits displayed the highest diversity values. On the other hand, with the largest bait, significantly more richness, abundance, and biomass of small and large body beetles were registered, especially during the dry season. Conclusions: The results of this research show that, for the study of beetles' assemblages in the BST, the use of a larger bait contributes to a better estimate of richness, abundance, diversity and biomass, especially during the dry season, when environmental conditions promote a more rapidly loss of baits attractiveness.


Assuntos
Animais , Besouros , Biomassa , Amostragem
6.
Arch Iran Med ; 25(7): 460-472, 2022 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36404514

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The determinants and correlates of severe mental disorders are less understood compared to the common mental disorders, both in the world and in Iran. In this study, we aimed to identify a wide range of determinants of severe stress, severe anger, and severe sadness among Iranian population. METHODS: This study is part of a large nationwide cross-sectional survey entitled STEPs conducted using a comprehensive questionnaire to determine the prevalence of main preventable risk factors of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in Iran by age and sex groups in 2016. In total, 30541 people aged 18+participated in this study. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations between the dependent variable, which is severe mental disorders, and independent variables including socio-economic factors, lifestyle and selected NCDs. RESULTS: The prevalence of severe stress, severe anger and sever sadness in the Iranian society was 33%, 35%, and 25%, respectively. Of the investigated socio-economic factors, being men, older, never married and living in rural areas were associated with significantly lower experience of severe mental disorders compared to other groups. For education, income and wealth index, there was no linear and clear pattern. Among lifestyle factors, being nonsmoker, having low physical activities, and higher intake of fruits and vegetables were found to be preventive of severe mental disorders. Additionally, having NCDs including hypertension, high cholesterol, diabetes and heart attacks were also significantly correlated with severe mental disorders. CONCLUSION: determining factors associated with severe mental disorders in this study would help in raising people's awareness on avoiding harmful factors, and taking healthier lifestyle such as quitting smoke, and consuming enough vegetables and fruits. Screening high risk people in terms of mental health could contribute to the reduction of mental disorders in the Iranian community.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Prevalência , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , População Urbana , População Rural , Distribuição por Idade , Nível de Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Distribuição por Sexo , Amostragem , Previsões , Modelos Logísticos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia
7.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 2120, 2022 11 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36401261

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The HIV epidemic still high among key-populations in Brazil, especially among transgender women (TGW). The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HIV infection among TGW and to analyze factors associated with HIV seropositivity across two cross-sectional surveys conducted in Salvador, Bahia, one of the largest urban centers of Brazil. METHODS: The studies were conducted between 2014 and 2016 and 2016-2017 and employed Respondent-Driven Sampling (RDS) sampling, comprising 127 and 161 TGW residents of Salvador, Bahia. The outcome was the positive rapid antigen testing for HIV infection. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were obtained using binomial logistic regression. RESULTS: The HIV prevalence was 9.0% (95%CI: 4.2-18.2) and 24.3% (95%CI: 16.2-34.9). In the first study, factors associated with HIV prevalence were experiencing discrimination by the family (OR 8.22; 95%CI: 1.49-45.48) and by neighbors (OR 6.55; 95%CI: 1.12-38.14) as well as having syphilis (OR 6.56; 95%CI:1.11-38.65); in the subsequent study gender-based discrimination (OR 8.65; 95%CI:1.45-51.59) and having syphilis (OR 3.13; 95%CI: 1.45-51.59) were associated with testing positive for HIV. CONCLUSION: We found disproportionately high HIV prevalence among TGW, which underscores the context of vulnerability for this population. The data point to the urgency for intensification and expansion of access to HIV prevention and strategies to stop discrimination in health care and services for this population.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Sífilis , Pessoas Transgênero , Feminino , Humanos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Amostragem , Prevalência , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Eur Psychiatry ; 65(1): e76, 2022 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36325825

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study aims to delineate the role of preexisting depression for changes in common mental health problems during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Using mixed-effects linear regression models, we analyzed data on the course of depressive (Patient Health Questionnaire-2) and anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder-2) symptoms as well as loneliness (three-item UCLA Loneliness Scale) in a subset of the Socio-Economic Panel Study, a large and nationally representative household panel study from Germany. Participants were assessed during the first COVID-19 wave in Germany (March 31 to July 4, 2020; n = 6,694) and prospectively followed up at the peak of the second COVID-19 wave (January 18 to February 15, 2021; n = 6,038). RESULTS: Overall, anxiety and depressive symptoms decreased, whereas loneliness increased from the first to the second COVID-19 wave. However, depressive symptoms increased and the surge in loneliness was steeper in those with versus without clinically relevant depressive symptoms in 2019 or a history of a depressive disorder before the COVID-19 pandemic. Anxiety symptoms remained stable throughout the pandemic in individuals with versus without clinically relevant depressive symptoms in 2019. Pre-pandemic depression was associated with overall higher depressive and anxiety symptoms and loneliness across both assessments. The stringency of lockdown measures did not affect the results. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that individuals with a history of depressive symptoms before the COVID-19 pandemic are at increased risk to experience an escalation of mental health problems due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, they might particularly profit from targeted prevention and early intervention programs.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Adulto , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Solidão/psicologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Amostragem , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia
9.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 20(Suppl 1): 114, 2022 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36443760

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a major cause of morbidity among older adults. We investigated older adults' access to health services in Myanmar by focusing on unmet needs in diagnosing hypertension. This study aims to identify factors associated with the unmet needs for hypertension diagnosis in the study areas of Myanmar. METHODS: This is a secondary data analysis of the survey which is a cross-sectional study conducted with older adults (aged ≥ 60 years) in the Yangon and Bago regions of Myanmar. Objective indicators of health were collected, including blood pressure, height and weight. The diagnosis of hypertension was considered an unmet need when a participant's blood pressure measurement met the diagnostic criteria for hypertension but the disease had not yet been diagnosed. Bivariate and multivariate analyses using logistic regression were performed to identify factors associated with the unmet need for hypertension diagnosis. Factors related to lifestyle habits and medical-seeking behaviour were selected and put into the multivariate model. RESULTS: Data from 1200 people, 600 from each of the two regions, were analysed. Altogether 483 (40.3%) participants were male, 530 (44.2%) were aged ≥ 70 years, and 857 were diagnosed with hypertension based on their measured blood pressure or diagnostic history, or both, which is a 71.4% prevalence of hypertension. Moreover, 240 (20.0%) participants had never been diagnosed with hypertension. In the multivariate analysis, these unmet needs for hypertension diagnosis were significantly associated with male sex (odds ratio [OR] 1.46, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-2.05), residence in the Bago region (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.09-2.45) and better self-rated health (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.24-2.33), but not with education, category on the wealth index or living arrangement. CONCLUSIONS: There are barriers to accessing health services for hypertension diagnosis, as evidenced by the regional disparities found in this study, and charitable clinics may decrease the financial barrier to this diagnosis.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Humanos , Masculino , Idoso , Feminino , Amostragem , Mianmar , Estudos Transversais , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida
10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 16820, 2022 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36207460

RESUMO

With the rapid expansion of data, the problem of data imbalance has become increasingly prominent in the fields of medical treatment, finance, network, etc. And it is typically solved using the oversampling method. However, most existing oversampling methods randomly sample or sample only for a particular area, which affects the classification results. To solve the above limitations, this study proposes an imbalanced data oversampling method, SD-KMSMOTE, based on the spatial distribution of minority samples. A filter noise pre-treatment is added, the category information of the near-neighbouring samples is considered, and the existing minority class sample noise is removed. These conditions lead to the design of a new sample synthesis method, and the rules for calculating the weight values are constructed on this basis. The spatial distribution of minority class samples is considered comprehensively; they are clustered, and the sub-clusters that contain useful information are assigned larger weight values and more synthetic sample numbers. The experimental results show that the experimental results outperform existing methods in terms of precision, recall, F1 score, G-mean, and area under the curve values when the proposed method is used to expand the imbalanced dataset in the field of medicine and other fields.


Assuntos
Confiabilidade dos Dados , Amostragem , Humanos
11.
Arch Iran Med ; 25(4): 201-208, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35942991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mental disorders are the most common health problems that affect different population groups. According to the national survey in 2015 based on General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28), 23.44% of Iranians older than 15 years were suspected of having a mental disorder. The study aimed to determine the mental health status of the population over 15 years of age in the Islamic Republic of Iran, one year after the outbreak of COVID-19 in 2020. METHODS: The population-based study was performed on 24584 individuals over 15 years of age in Iran between December and February, 2020. The GHQ-28 was completed through telephone interviews. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, chi-square test, independent t-test, and multiple logistic regression at 95% confidence level. RESULTS: The results showed that the mean age of participants was 44.18±16.47 years. The prevalence of mental disorders was 29.7%. Mental disorder was associated with female gender (OR=1.195, 95% CI 1.10-1.29), 25-44 years (OR=1.206, 95% CI 1.06-1.36), urban life (OR=1.116, 95% CI 1.04-1.19), illiteracy (OR=1.286, 95% CI 1.11-1.48), being divorced (OR=1.924, 95% CI 1.50- 2.45), and unemployment (OR=1.657, 95% CI 1.40-1.94). Among the participants and their families, 14.7% and 32.3% were infected with the disease, respectively. The COVID-19 mortality rate in their families was 13.2%. The prevalence of mental disorders in infected people (40% vs. 27.3%) and bereaved families (39.6% vs. 35.3%) was more than the non-infected groups. CONCLUSION: Our results showed that in Iran, the mental health of the general population had a rising trend compared to 2015, especially in people infected with COVID-19 and bereaved families. The observed difference may be due to the prevalence of the COVID-19 epidemic and rapid demographic, social, and economic changes in Iran. Planning to improve mental health in the mentioned population should be considered for the post COVID-19 era.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos Mentais , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Previsões , Nível de Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , População Rural , Amostragem , Distribuição por Sexo , Inquéritos e Questionários , População Urbana
12.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 43(8): 1333-1337, 2022 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35981999

RESUMO

Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is a method of sampling specifically for hidden populations, often applied to transgender women, female sex workers, men who have sex with men, and other groups that are difficult to identify and contact because of stigma and legal constraints. However, this method is gradually applied to the general population. With the continuous improvement of RDS, studies find that the network size of RDS samples can be weighted to estimate the overall situation and population size. This article summarizes the current application progress of RDS in population size estimation and provides ideas for the development of RDS and the use of RDS to carry out relevant research.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Profissionais do Sexo , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Densidade Demográfica , Amostragem , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Lancet Microbe ; 3(11): e814-e823, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36029775

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Assessing transmission of SARS-CoV-2 by children in schools is of crucial importance to inform public health action. We assessed frequency of acquisition of SARS-CoV-2 by contacts of pupils with COVID-19 in schools and households, and quantified SARS-CoV-2 shedding into air and onto fomites in both settings. METHODS: We did a prospective cohort and environmental sampling study in London, UK in eight schools. Schools reporting new cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection to local health protection teams were invited to take part if a child index case had been attending school in the 48 h before a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR test. At the time of the study, PCR testing was available to symptomatic individuals only. Children aged 2-14 years (extended to <18 years in November, 2020) with a new nose or throat swab SARS-CoV-2 positive PCR from an accredited laboratory were included. Incidents involving exposure to at least one index pupil with COVID-19 were identified (the prevailing variants were original, α, and δ). Weekly PCR testing for SARS-CoV-2 was done on immediate classroom contacts (the so-called bubble), non-bubble school contacts, and household contacts of index pupils. Testing was supported by genome sequencing and on-surface and air samples from school and home environments. FINDINGS: Between October, 2020, and July, 2021 from the eight schools included, secondary transmission of SARS-CoV-2 was not detected in 28 bubble contacts, representing ten bubble classes (participation rate 8·8% [IQR 4·6-15·3]). Across eight non-bubble classes, 3 (2%) of 62 pupils tested positive, but these were unrelated to the original index case (participation rate 22·5% [9·7-32·3]). All three were asymptomatic and tested positive in one setting on the same day. In contrast, secondary transmission to previously negative household contacts from infected index pupils was found in six (17%) of 35 household contacts rising to 13 (28%) of 47 household contacts when considering all potential infections in household contacts. Environmental contamination with SARS-CoV-2 was rare in schools: fomite SARS-CoV-2 was identified in four (2%) of 189 samples in bubble classrooms, two (2%) of 127 samples in non-bubble classrooms, and five (4%) of 130 samples in washrooms. This contrasted with fomites in households, where SARS-CoV-2 was identified in 60 (24%) of 248 bedroom samples, 66 (27%) of 241 communal room samples, and 21 (11%) 188 bathroom samples. Air sampling identified SARS-CoV-2 RNA in just one (2%) of 68 of school air samples, compared with 21 (25%) of 85 air samples taken in homes. INTERPRETATION: There was no evidence of large-scale SARS-CoV-2 transmission in schools with precautions in place. Low levels of environmental contamination in schools are consistent with low transmission frequency and suggest adequate cleaning and ventilation in schools during the period of study. The high frequency of secondary transmission in households associated with evident viral shedding throughout the home suggests a need to improve advice to households with infection in children to prevent onward community spread. The data suggest that SARS-CoV-2 transmission from children in any setting is very likely to occur when precautions are reduced. FUNDING: UK Research and Innovation and UK Department of Health and Social Care, National Institute for Health and Care Research.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Criança , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Amostragem , Estudos Prospectivos , Londres/epidemiologia , RNA Viral , Instituições Acadêmicas
14.
Obstet Gynecol ; 140(1): 77-81, 2022 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35849459

RESUMO

Although visibility of nonbinary gender identities continues to improve in the United States, there is still a paucity of medical literature on the unique needs and experiences of nonbinary individuals. Using the TransPop survey, we compared gender-affirming treatment preferences and societal affirmation among nonbinary individuals, transmen, and transwomen using bivariate analysis and multivariable linear regression. Nonbinary individuals had or desired surgery and hormones at lower rates compared with binary transgender individuals. Nonbinary respondents had lower rates of adjusted and nonadjusted societal affirmation. This study showed variation in both treatment preferences and societal affirmation, which should be considered in clinical care and research studies clustering transgender and nonbinary individuals in analysis.


Assuntos
Pessoas Transgênero , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Amostragem , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
15.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0270673, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35862382

RESUMO

Producing statistically robust profiles of small or 'hard-to-reach' populations has always been a challenge for researchers. Since surveying the wider population in order to capture a large enough sample of cases is usually too costly or impractical, researchers have been opting for 'snowballing' or 'time-location sampling'. The former does not allow for claims to representativeness, and the latter struggles with under-coverage and estimating confidence intervals. Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS) is a method that combines snowballing sampling with an analytical algorithm that corrects for biases that arise in snowballing. For all its advantages, a major weakness of RDS has been around data collection. Traditionally done on-site, the process is costly and lengthy. When done online, it is cheaper and faster but under a serious threat from fraud, compromising data quality and validity of findings. This paper describes a real-life application of a RDS data collection system that maximizes fraud prevention while still benefiting from low cost and speedy data collection.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Smartphone , Viés , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Amostragem , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
LGBT Health ; 9(8): 564-570, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35856801

RESUMO

Purpose: This study examined the health profile of a national probability sample of three cohorts of sexual minority people, and the ways that indicators of health vary among sexual minority people across age cohorts and other defining sociodemographic characteristics, including sexual identity, gender identity, and race/ethnicity. Methods: The Generations Study, the first national probability sample of three age cohorts of sexual minority people (n = 1507) in the United States collected in 2016-2017, was used to examine general health profiles across several broad domains: alcohol and drug abuse; general health, physical health, and health disability; mental health and psychological distress; and positive well-being, including general happiness, social well-being, and life satisfaction. Results: There were no cohort differences in substance abuse or positive well-being. The younger cohort was physically healthier, but had worse psychological health than both the middle and older cohorts. Conclusions: Cohort differences in physical health were consistent with patterns of aging, whereas for mental health, there were distinct cohort differences among sexual minority people. Given that compromised mental health in the early life course creates trajectories of vulnerability, these results point to the need for mental health prevention and intervention for younger cohorts of sexual minority people.


Assuntos
Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adulto , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Identidade de Gênero , Amostragem , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia
17.
Med J Aust ; 217 Suppl 2: S6-S18, 2022 07 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35842912

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe smoking characteristics, quitting behaviour and other factors associated with longest quit attempt and the use of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and stop-smoking medication (SSM) in a population of Indigenous Australian women of reproductive age. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A national cross-sectional survey of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women aged 16-49 years who were smokers or ex-smokers was conducted online during the period July to October 2020. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Quitting experience: attempt to cut down, time since last quit attempt, longest period without smoking, attempt to cut down during last quit attempt, any use of NRT and/or SSM. RESULTS: Most of the 428 participating women (302 [70.6%]) reported using an Aboriginal health service. Younger women (16-20-year-olds) smoked fewer cigarettes daily (24/42 [57.1%], 0-5 cigarettes per day), waited longer to smoke after waking (20/42 [47.6%], > 60 minutes after waking), and were categorised as low smoking dependency compared with those aged 35 years and over. One-third of women (153 [35.7%]) had ever used NRT and/or SSM. A greater proportion of older women (35-49-year-olds) had sustained a quit attempt for years (62/149 [45.6%]) and reported trying NRT and/or SSM (78/149 [52.4%]) than women in younger age groups. Quitting suddenly rather than gradually was significantly associated with sustained abstinence (prevalence ratio, 1.27 [95% CI, 1.10-1.48]). Among women who had never used NRT or SSM, most (219/275 [79.6%]) reported reasons for this in the category of attitudes and beliefs. NRT and SSM use was also more likely among women who were confident talking to their doctor about quitting (odds ratio, 2.50 [95% CI, 1.23-5.10]) and those who received most of their information from a health professional (odds ratio, 1.71 [95% CI, 1.11-2.63]). CONCLUSION: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women want to quit smoking and are making attempts to quit. Quitting suddenly, rather than reducing cigarette consumption, is associated with increased sustained abstinence. Health providers can enable access and uptake of NRT and/or SSM and should recognise that NRT and/or SSM use may change over time. Consistent messaging, frequent offers of smoking cessation support, and access to a range of smoking cessation supports should be provided to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women to enable them to be smoke-free.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde do Indígena , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Idoso , Austrália/epidemiologia , Pesquisa Participativa Baseada na Comunidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Havaiano Nativo ou Outro Ilhéu do Pacífico , Estudos Prospectivos , Amostragem , Fumar/epidemiologia , Dispositivos para o Abandono do Uso de Tabaco
18.
Aten. prim. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 54(7): 102364, Jul 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-205877

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the evolution of the stages of CKD and the progression of the estimation of glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in patients with newly diagnosed hypertension. Design-: Retrospective cohort.SiteFamily Medicine Unit No. 31, Mexican Social Security Institute, Mexico City. Participants: Patients with hypertension who have been diagnosed in primary care and have developed chronic kidney disease .Main measurements: The eGFR was calculated with the CKD Epi formula in three moments, the first measurement was at the time of diagnosis of hypertension, the second measurement was made when it arrived a change in CKD stage and the last one at the end of the study, with which the evolution time from one stage to another was obtained, as well as the drop in eGFR. Results: The sample consisted of 207 electronic health records of patients, with an average follow-up of 10.2 years from the moment of diagnosis of hypertension until the end of the study. The average time to go from one baseline stage of CKD to another was 7 years (average decline in eGFR of 5.8ml/min/year) and to have a second stage change was 3.2 years (average decline in eGFR of 6.8ml/min/year), with a statistically significant repeated measures ANOVA (p<0.001). Conclusions: Patients with newly diagnosed hypertension remain longer in the initial stages of CKD, to later evolve and change more quickly.(AU)


Objetivo: Analizar la evolución de los estadios de la enfermedad renal crónica (ERC) y la progresión de la estimación de la tasa de filtración glomerular (eTFG) en pacientes con hipertensión arterial de nuevo diagnóstico. Diseño: Cohorte retrospectiva. Emplazamiento: Unidad de Medicina Familiar N.° 31, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Ciudad de México. Participantes: Pacientes hipertensos que hayan sido diagnosticados en atención primaria y hayan desarrollado ERC. Mediciones principales: La eTFG se calculó con la fórmula CKD Epi en 3 momentos. La primera medición fue al momento del diagnóstico de hipertensión arterial, la segunda medición se realizó cuando se presentó un cambio de estadio de la ERC y la última, al final del estudio, con el que se obtuvo el tiempo de evolución de un estadio a otro, así como el descenso de la eTFG. Resultados: La muestra estuvo constituida por 207 historias clínicas electrónicas de pacientes, con un seguimiento promedio de 10,2 años desde el momento del diagnóstico de hipertensión arterial hasta el final del estudio. El tiempo promedio para pasar de una etapa inicial de la ERC a otra fue de 7 años (disminución promedio de la eTFG de 5,8ml/min/año) y para tener un cambio de segunda etapa fue de 3,2 años (disminución promedio de la eTFG de 6,8ml/min/año), con un ANOVA de medidas repetidas estadísticamente significativo (p < 0,001). Conclusiones: Los pacientes con hipertensión arterial de nuevo diagnóstico permanecen más tiempo en los estadios iniciales de la ERC, para luego evolucionar y cambiar más rápidamente.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Distúrbio Mineral e Ósseo na Doença Renal Crônica , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Registros Médicos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Amostragem
19.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0268785, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35767540

RESUMO

The study purpose was to assess, in a U.S. probability sample of women, the specific ways women have discovered to experience pleasure from anal touch. Through qualitative pilot research with women that informed the development of the survey instrument used in this study, we identified three previously unnamed, but distinct, anal touch techniques that many women find pleasurable and that expand the anal sexual repertoire beyond the more commonly studied anal intercourse behaviors: Anal Surfacing, Anal Shallowing, and Anal Pairing. This study defines each technique and describes its prevalence among U.S. adult women. Weighted frequencies were drawn from the Second OMGYES Pleasure Report-a cross-sectional, online, national probability survey of 3017 American women's (age 18-93) sexual experiences and discoveries. Participants were recruited via the Ipsos KnowledgePanel®. Data suggest that 40% of women find 'Anal Surfacing' pleasurable: sexual touch by a finger, penis, or sex toy on and around the anus. Approximately 35% of women have experienced pleasure using 'Anal Shallowing': penetrative touch by a finger, penis, or sex toy just inside the anal opening, no deeper than a fingertip/knuckle. Finally, 40% of women make other forms of sexual touch more pleasurable using 'Anal Pairing': touch on or inside the anus that happens at the same time as other kinds of sexual touch such as vaginal penetration or clitoral touching. These data provide techniques that women can and do use to explore the anus as a pleasurable region for touch-which can enable women to better identify their own preferences, communicate about them and advocate for their sexual pleasure.


Assuntos
Canal Anal , Prazer , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Amostragem , Comportamento Sexual , Tato , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 9(7): 574-583, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35688172

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a recognised risk factor for psychiatric disorders. There is little current evidence on IPV and self-harm and suicidality, and we therefore aimed to investigate the associations between experience of lifetime and past-year IPV with suicidal thoughts, suicide attempt, and self-harm in the past year. METHODS: We analysed the 2014 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, a cross-sectional survey of 7058 adults (aged ≥16 years) in England, which used a multistage random probability sampling design and involved face-to-face interviews. Participants were asked about experience of physical violence and sexual, economic, and emotional abuse from a current or former partner, and about suicidal thoughts, suicide attempts, and self-harm. Other adversities were recorded through an adapted version of the List of Threatening Experiences. Multivariable logistic regression models quantified associations between different indicators of lifetime and past-year IPV, with past-year non-suicidal self-harm, suicidal thoughts, and suicide attempts. All analyses were weighted. FINDINGS: Using weighted percentages, we found that a fifth (21·4%) of 7058 adults reported lifetime experience of IPV, and that 27·2% of women and 15·3% of men had experienced IPV. Among women, 19·6% had ever experienced emotional IPV, 18·7% physical IPV, 8·5% economic IPV, and 3·7% sexual IPV, which was higher than in men (8·6%, 9·3%, 3·6%, and 0·3%, respectively). Findings for ethnicity were unclear. Lifetime prevalence of IPV was higher in those living in rented accommodation or deprived neighbourhoods. Among people who had attempted suicide in the past year, 49·7% had ever experienced IPV and 23·1% had experienced IPV in the past year (including 34·8% of women and 9·4% of men). After adjusting for demographics, socioeconomics, and lifetime experience of adversities, the odds ratio of a past-year suicide attempt were 2·82 (95% CI 1·54-5·17) times higher in those who have ever experienced IPV, compared with those who had not. Fully adjusted odds ratios for past-year self-harm (2·20, 95% CI 1·37-3·53) and suicidal thoughts (1·85, 1·39-2·46) were also raised in those who had ever experienced IPV. INTERPRETATION: IPV is common in England, especially among women, and is strongly associated with self-harm and suicidality. People presenting to services in suicidal distress or after self-harm should be asked about IPV. Interventions designed to reduce the prevalence and duration of IPV might protect and improve the lives of people at risk of self-harm and suicide. FUNDING: UK Prevention Research Partnership.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Suicídio , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Amostragem , Ideação Suicida
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