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1.
Siglo cero (Madr.) ; 54(4): 49-64, oct.-dic. 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-229228

RESUMO

El paradigma de apoyos y el de calidad de vida se han transformado en guías fundamentales para los avances en el ámbito de la discapacidad intelectual (DI). Con base en una muestra de 93 personas adultas con DI, se analiza, desde un enfoque cuantitativo no experimental, la relación entre la calidad de vida y las necesidades de apoyo, aplicando la escala INICO-FEAPS y la escala de Intensidad de Apoyos (SIS) para cada constructo. Los principales resultados evidencian que existe una relación fuerte e indirecta entre calidad de vida y necesidades de apoyos, y también la relevancia de analizar dichos resultados desde variables como grado de discapacidad, sexo o nivel socioeconómico. La discusión permite inferir la necesidad de discutir nuevas estrategias en torno a categorías como el grado de discapacidad, la autodeterminación e inclusión social, como elementos facilitadores de la calidad de vida y apoyos desde un enfoque integral que contribuya al desarrollo de estrategias de programas sociales para la población con DI. (AU)


The support paradigm and the quality of life paradigm have become fundamental guides for progress in the field of Intellectual Disability (ID). Based on a sample of 93 adults with ID, the relationship between Quality of Life and Support Needs is analyzed from a non-experimental quantitative approach, applying the INICO-FEAPS scale and the SIS Support Intensity scale for each construct. The main results show that there is a strong and indirect relationship between quality of life and support needs, and the relevance of analyzing these results from variables such as the degree of disability, sex or socioeconomic level. The discussion allows us to infer the need to discuss new strategies around categories such as the degree of disability, self-determination and social inclusion, as facilitating elements of quality of life and supporting a comprehensive approach that contributes to the development of social program strategies for the population with ID. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Deficiência Intelectual , Qualidade de Vida , Pessoas com Deficiência , Chile , Amostragem
2.
Siglo cero (Madr.) ; 54(4): 49-64, oct.-dic. 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-EMG-558

RESUMO

El paradigma de apoyos y el de calidad de vida se han transformado en guías fundamentales para los avances en el ámbito de la discapacidad intelectual (DI). Con base en una muestra de 93 personas adultas con DI, se analiza, desde un enfoque cuantitativo no experimental, la relación entre la calidad de vida y las necesidades de apoyo, aplicando la escala INICO-FEAPS y la escala de Intensidad de Apoyos (SIS) para cada constructo. Los principales resultados evidencian que existe una relación fuerte e indirecta entre calidad de vida y necesidades de apoyos, y también la relevancia de analizar dichos resultados desde variables como grado de discapacidad, sexo o nivel socioeconómico. La discusión permite inferir la necesidad de discutir nuevas estrategias en torno a categorías como el grado de discapacidad, la autodeterminación e inclusión social, como elementos facilitadores de la calidad de vida y apoyos desde un enfoque integral que contribuya al desarrollo de estrategias de programas sociales para la población con DI. (AU)


The support paradigm and the quality of life paradigm have become fundamental guides for progress in the field of Intellectual Disability (ID). Based on a sample of 93 adults with ID, the relationship between Quality of Life and Support Needs is analyzed from a non-experimental quantitative approach, applying the INICO-FEAPS scale and the SIS Support Intensity scale for each construct. The main results show that there is a strong and indirect relationship between quality of life and support needs, and the relevance of analyzing these results from variables such as the degree of disability, sex or socioeconomic level. The discussion allows us to infer the need to discuss new strategies around categories such as the degree of disability, self-determination and social inclusion, as facilitating elements of quality of life and supporting a comprehensive approach that contributes to the development of social program strategies for the population with ID. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Deficiência Intelectual , Qualidade de Vida , Pessoas com Deficiência , Chile , Amostragem
3.
J Chem Inf Model ; 64(6): 2101-2111, 2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38451822

RESUMO

It is hoped that artificial enzymes designed in laboratories can be efficient alternatives to chemical catalysts that have been used to synthesize organic molecules. However, the design of artificial enzymes is challenging and requires a detailed molecular-level analysis to understand the mechanism they promote in order to design efficient variants. In this study, we computationally investigate the mechanism of proficient Morita-Baylis-Hillman enzymes developed using a combination of computational design and directed evolution. The powerful transition path sampling method coupled with in-depth post-processing analysis has been successfully used to elucidate the different chemical pathways, transition states, protein dynamics, and free energy barriers of reactions catalyzed by such laboratory-optimized enzymes. This research provides an explanation for how different chemical modifications in an enzyme affect its catalytic activity in ways that are not predictable by static design algorithms.


Assuntos
Amostragem , Catálise
4.
Ann Epidemiol ; 92: 17-24, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38382771

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To estimate the association between COVID-19 vaccination status at the time of COVID-19 onset and long COVID prevalence. METHODS: We used data from the Michigan COVID-19 Recovery Surveillance Study, a population-based probability sample of adults with COVID-19 (n = 4695). We considered 30-day and 90-day long COVID (illness duration ≥30 or ≥90 days, respectively), using Poisson regression to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs) comparing vaccinated (completed an initial series ≥14 days before COVID-19 onset) to unvaccinated individuals (received 0 doses before COVID-19 onset), accounting for differences in age, sex, race and ethnicity, education, employment, health insurance, and rurality/urbanicity. The full unvaccinated comparison group was further divided into historic and concurrent comparison groups based on timing of COVID-19 onset relative to vaccine availability. We used inverse probability of treatment weights to account for sociodemographic differences between groups. RESULTS: Compared to the full unvaccinated comparison group, the adjusted prevalence of 30-day and 90-day long COVID were lower among vaccinated individuals [PR30-day= 0.57(95%CI:0.49,0.66); PR90-day= 0.42(95%CI:0.34,0.53)]. Estimates were consistent across comparison groups (full, historic, and concurrent). CONCLUSIONS: Long COVID prevalence was 40-60% lower among adults vaccinated (vs. unvaccinated) prior to their COVID-19 onset. COVID-19 vaccination may be an important tool to reduce the burden of long COVID.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Síndrome Pós-COVID-19 Aguda , Adulto , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/uso terapêutico , Prevalência , Amostragem , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação
5.
Biometrics ; 80(1)2024 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38364804

RESUMO

Researchers interested in understanding the relationship between a readily available longitudinal binary outcome and a novel biomarker exposure can be confronted with ascertainment costs that limit sample size. In such settings, two-phase studies can be cost-effective solutions that allow researchers to target informative individuals for exposure ascertainment and increase estimation precision for time-varying and/or time-fixed exposure coefficients. In this paper, we introduce a novel class of residual-dependent sampling (RDS) designs that select informative individuals using data available on the longitudinal outcome and inexpensive covariates. Together with the RDS designs, we propose a semiparametric analysis approach that efficiently uses all data to estimate the parameters. We describe a numerically stable and computationally efficient EM algorithm to maximize the semiparametric likelihood. We examine the finite sample operating characteristics of the proposed approaches through extensive simulation studies, and compare the efficiency of our designs and analysis approach with existing ones. We illustrate the usefulness of the proposed RDS designs and analysis method in practice by studying the association between a genetic marker and poor lung function among patients enrolled in the Lung Health Study (Connett et al, 1993).


Assuntos
Modelos Estatísticos , Humanos , Simulação por Computador , Tamanho da Amostra , Probabilidade , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Amostragem , Estudos Longitudinais
6.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 80, 2024 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38172756

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary healthcare centers (PHCs) serve as the cornerstone of accessible medical services in society, playing a crucial role in screening, detecting, and treating various health issues. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in middle-aged individuals who refer to PHCs and the potential of PHCs in diagnosing mental disorders. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was implemented at PHCs under the supervision of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences (MUMS) in northeast Iran in 2018. The enrolled subjects were middle-aged adults who had electronic medical records in SINA, an integrated health management system, and the electronic medical records of MUMS. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders by type and their relationship with demographic information was evaluated by a Chi-square test using SPSS 22. RESULTS: This study involved 218,341 middle-aged participants. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders was 8.59%, and depression (53.72%) and anxiety (42.02%) were the most common psychiatric disorders in both males and females. The prevalence of mental disorders was significantly higher in females than in males (88.18% vs. 18.81%; P < 0.0001). Indeed, a significant higher prevalence of depression, anxiety, somatoform, childhood psychiatric disorder, and bipolar disorders was observed in females compared to males (P < 0.05). In addition, individuals between the age of 45-60 years, and those from rural areas showed more prevalence of mental disorders than others, but these differences were not significant. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the previous studies in Iran, the prevalence of mental disorders among patients presenting to PHCs was noticeably lower than expected rates. It seems probable that this huge difference is due to poor screening and detection of mental illness in PHCs of MUMS. It is recommended that health policymakers pursue specific measures to make PHCs more helpful for people with mental health problems in the community.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Saúde Mental , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Criança , Nível de Saúde , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Prevalência , Previsões , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , População Rural , População Urbana , Distribuição por Idade , Distribuição por Sexo , Modelos Logísticos , Amostragem , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde
7.
Analyst ; 149(3): 895-908, 2024 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38189100

RESUMO

Dried blood microsampling is increasingly used for home-sampling and epidemiological studies because of its multiple advantages, including an often greatly improved analyte stability. However, a critical assessment of the stability under realistic conditions should always be performed as part of the validation, especially for unstable molecules like folates (vitamin B9). Here, the objective was to determine whether folate stability in dried blood microsamples is sufficient to allow the set-up of home-sampling studies for the monitoring of folate status in e.g., women of reproductive age. An extensive set of stability experiments was performed to evaluate the stability of the main folate vitamer 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5MTHF), its oxidation product MeFOX and the minor non-methyl folate vitamers 10-formylfolic acid (10FoFA), 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate (5,10CH+THF) and tetrahydrofolate (THF) in dried blood microsamples using volumetric absorptive microsampling (VAMS) or regular dried blood spots (DBS). The evaluations included (EDTA-anticoagulated blood was collected from a single donor measured in four replicates per condition and time point): (i) the effect of temperature (-20 °C, 4 °C, ambient temperature and 37 °C), (ii) the effect of light (during drying and storage) and humidity, and (iii) the effect of storage under vacuum and pretreatment of the microsamples with stabilizing agents on folate stability. At -20 °C and 4 °C, all folate levels were within 85 to 115% of the baseline value up till two weeks of storage in both VAMS samples and DBS. However, at room temperature the stability of the analyzed folates was only consistently observed up till three days in VAMS samples, and for none of the folates at 37 °C. Humidity had a major impact on 5,10CH+THF stability, but this could be easily improved by using desiccant. Both vacuum treatment and pretreatment of microsamples with 0.1% DL-dithiothreitol and 5% butylated hydroxytoluene improved the stability at room temperature in VAMS samples, but these effects were limited at 37 °C and in DBS. Overall, the stability of the individual folate vitamers proved to be challenging and strongly temperature- and time-dependent. Nonetheless, if controlled transport (temperature and duration) can be assured, the set-up of home-sampling studies to evaluate the folate status using dried blood microsamples can still be beneficial.


Assuntos
Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Humanos , Feminino , Amostragem , Manejo de Espécimes , Temperatura
8.
Behav Sleep Med ; 22(2): 179-189, 2024 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37246794

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To obtain insight in the spectrum of narcolepsy symptoms and associated burden in a large cohort of patients. METHODS: We used the Narcolepsy Monitor, a mobile app, to easily rate the presence and burden of 20 narcolepsy symptoms. Baseline measures were obtained and analyzed from 746 users aged between 18 and 75 years with a reported diagnosis of narcolepsy. RESULTS: Median age was 33.0 years (IQR 25.0-43.0), median Ullanlinna Narcolepsy Scale 19 (IQR 14.0-26.0), 78% reported using narcolepsy pharmacotherapy. Excessive daytime sleepiness (97.2%) and lack of energy were most often present (95.0%) and most often caused a high burden (79.7% and 76.1% respectively). Cognitive symptoms (concentration 93.0%, memory 91.4%) and psychiatric symptoms (mood 76.8%, anxiety/panic 76.4%) were relatively often reported to be present and burdensome. Conversely, sleep paralysis and cataplexy were least often reported as highly bothersome. Females experienced a higher burden for anxiety/panic, memory, and lack of energy. CONCLUSIONS: This study supports the notion of an elaborate narcolepsy symptom spectrum. Each symptom's contribution to the experienced burden varied, but lesser-known symptoms did significantly add to this as well. This emphasizes the need to not only focus treatment on the classical core symptoms of narcolepsy.


Assuntos
Cataplexia , Distúrbios do Sono por Sonolência Excessiva , Narcolepsia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Amostragem , Narcolepsia/diagnóstico , Cataplexia/diagnóstico , Cataplexia/epidemiologia , Ansiedade
9.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 33(2): 261-269, 2024 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38032218

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Structural racism is how society maintains and promotes racial hierarchy and discrimination through established and interconnected systems. Structural racism is theorized to promote alcohol and tobacco use, which are risk factors for adverse health and cancer-health outcomes. The current study assesses the association between measures of state-level structural racism and alcohol and tobacco use among a national sample of 1,946 Black Americans. METHODS: An existing composite index of state-level structural racism including five dimensions (subscales; i.e., residential segregation and employment, economic, incarceration, and educational inequities) was merged with individual-level data from a national sample dataset. Hierarchical linear and logistic regression models, accounting for participant clustering at the state level, assessed associations between structural racism and frequency of alcohol use, frequency of binge drinking, smoking status, and smoking frequency. Two models were estimated for each behavioral outcome, one using the composite structural racism index and one modeling dimensions of structural racism in lieu of the composite measure, each controlling for individual-level covariates. RESULTS: Results indicated positive associations between the incarceration dimension of the structural racism index and binge drinking frequency, smoking status, and smoking frequency. An inverse association was detected between the education dimension and smoking status. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that state-level structural racism expressed in incarceration disparities, is positively associated with alcohol and tobacco use among Black Americans. IMPACT: Addressing structural racism, particularly in incarceration practices, through multilevel policy and intervention may help to reduce population-wide alcohol and tobacco use behaviors and improve the health outcomes of Black populations.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Negro ou Afro-Americano , Racismo Sistêmico , Uso de Tabaco , Humanos , Consumo Excessivo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo Excessivo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/etnologia , Negro ou Afro-Americano/estatística & dados numéricos , Racismo , Amostragem , Racismo Sistêmico/etnologia , Racismo Sistêmico/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Uso de Tabaco/etnologia , Uso de Tabaco/prevenção & controle , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/etnologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , /estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 31: e3813, Jan.-Dec. 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1424055

RESUMO

Abstract Objective: the purpose of this pre-feasibility study was to examine perceptions and experiences of a Sit-to-stand activity with urban Brazilian community-dwelling older people in their homes. Method: the exploration method was focused ethnography. Purposive sampling was used to recruit 20 older people. Five means of data generation were used, namely: socio-demographic surveys, participant observations, informal interviews, formal semi-structured interviews, and field notes. Data analysis was qualitative content analysis. Results: the experience of mobility-challenged older people with the Sit-to-stand activity was dependent on their mobility expectations involving many factors that worked together to influence their beliefs and attitudes towards the activity, preferences, behaviors, and cultural perceptions. The participants of this study seemed to find the activity enjoyable; however, the most noticeable shortcomings for their engagement in the Sit-to-stand activity emerged as gaps in their personal and intrapersonal needs. Conclusion: the recommendations generated from the study findings call for the design of implementation strategies for the Sit-to-stand intervention that are tailored to this particular population's needs.


Resumo Objetivo: o objetivo deste estudo de pré-viabilidade foi examinar percepções e experiências da atividade de Sit-to-stand com idosos brasileiros residentes em suas casas, no meio urbano. Método: o método exploratório foi etnografia focada. Foi utilizada a amostragem intencional para recrutar 20 idosos. Foram utilizados cinco meios de geração de dados: inquéritos sociodemográficos, observações participantes, entrevistas informais, entrevistas formais semiestruturadas e notas de campo. Os dados foram analisados mediante análise de conteúdo qualitativo. Resultados: a experiência dos idosos com problemas de mobilidade na realização da atividade Sit-to-stand dependia de suas expectativas de mobilidade envolvendo muitos fatores coordenados que, de forma conjunta, influenciaram suas crenças e atitudes em relação à atividade, suas preferências, seus comportamentos e percepções culturais. Os participantes deste estudo pareciam considerar a atividade aprazível; no entanto, as deficiências mais perceptíveis para o engajamento dos participantes na atividade Sit-to-stand surgiram de falhas em suas necessidades pessoais e intrapessoais. Conclusão: as recomendações geradas a partir dos achados do estudo convocam a concepção de estratégias de implementação da intervenção Sit-to-stand adaptadas às necessidades dessa população em particular.


Resumen Objetivo: el propósito de este estudio de viabilidad previa fue examinar percepciones y experiencias con respecto a la actividad Sit-to-stand entre los adultos mayores de Brasil que viven en sus hogares en comunidades urbanas. Método: el método de exploración se enfocó en la etnografía. Se utilizó muestreo intencional para reclutar 20 adultos mayores. Se emplearon cinco medios para generar datos, a saber: encuestas sociodemográficas, observaciones participantes, entrevistas informales, entrevistas formales semiestructuradas y notas de campo. Para el análisis de los datos se recurrió a análisis de contenido cualitativo. Resultados: la experiencia de los adultos mayores con problemas de movilidad en relación con la actividad Sit-to-stand dependió de sus expectativas en torno a la movilidad, las cuales implicaron muchos factores que actuaron en conjunto para influenciar sus creencias y actitudes con respecto a la actividad, al igual que preferencias, conductas y percepciones culturales. Aparentemente, a los participantes de este estudio la actividad les resultó amena; sin embargo, los inconvenientes más notorios para adoptar la actividad Sit-to-stand surgió en la forma de déficits en sus necesidades personales e intrapersonales. Conclusión: las recomendaciones resultantes de los hallazgos del estudio indican la necesidad de diseñar estrategias de implementación para la intervención Sit-to-stand a la medida de las necesidades de este grupo poblacional específico.


Assuntos
Humanos , Idoso , Brasil , Estudos de Viabilidade , Amostragem , Limitação da Mobilidade , Vida Independente , Antropologia Cultural
11.
Acta otorrinolaringol. esp ; 76(6): 365-371, Noviembre - Diciembre 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-227216

RESUMO

Background and objectives Evidence has shown a cause-and-effect relationship between type 1 diabetes mellitus and auditory and cognitive dysfunctions. This study aimed to investigate the effect of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) on central auditory and cognitive functions in school-age children and adolescents. Methods The study sample consisted of 101 children and adolescents, 50 with T1DM, of both sexes, aged between 7 and 18 years. All participants were selected for a structured interview on hearing, behavioral, and cognitive health and assessment of brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) and event-related potentials (P300). Results Significant differences were observed in memory (p=0.002) and attention (p=0.021) complaints between participants with and without T1DM. In the BAEP responses, there were differences between wave III latencies in the right (p=0.017) and left (p=0.019) ears and in wave V latencies in the left ear (p=0.001) between the evaluated groups. In addition, there was an association between BAEP findings and metabolic control in the T1DM group in the left ear in waves III (p=0.006) and V (p=0.005) and in the right ear in wave V (p=0.026). No differences were observed in the latencies of P300 between the evaluated groups. Conclusion This study demonstrated the existence of a subclinical finding in the central auditory pathway, offering an increased risk for retrocollear alterations, which may be a consequence of poor metabolic control. (AU)


Justificación y objetivos La evidencia ha demostrado una relación de causa y efecto entre la diabetes mellitus tipo 1 y las disfunciones auditivas y cognitivas. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo investigar el efecto de la diabetes mellitus tipo 1 (DM1) en las funciones cognitivas y auditivas centrales en niños y adolescentes en edad escolar. Métodos La muestra del estudio estuvo constituida por 101 niños y adolescentes, 50 con DM1, de ambos sexos, con edades entre 7 y 18 años. Todos los participantes fueron seleccionados para una entrevista estructurada sobre la salud auditiva, conductual y cognitiva y la evaluación de los potenciales evocados auditivos del tronco encefálico (BAEP) y los potenciales relacionados con eventos (P300). Resultados Se observaron diferencias significativas en quejas de memoria (p=0,002) y atención (p=0,021) entre participantes con y sin DM1. En las respuestas BAEP, hubo diferencias entre las latencias de la onda III en el oído derecho (p=0,017) e izquierdo (p=0,019) y en las latencias de la onda V en el oído izquierdo (p=0,001) entre los grupos evaluados. Además, hubo asociación entre los hallazgos de PEATC y el control metabólico en el grupo de DM1 en el oído izquierdo en las ondas III (p=0,006) y V (p=0,005) y en el oído derecho en la onda V (p=0,026). No se observaron diferencias en las latencias de P300 entre los grupos evaluados. Conclusión Este estudio demostró la existencia de un hallazgo subclínico en la vía auditiva central, ofreciendo un mayor riesgo de alteraciones retrocollar, lo que puede ser consecuencia de un mal control metabólico. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Perda Auditiva , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos , Disfunção Cognitiva , Amostragem
12.
Lancet ; 402 Suppl 1: S2, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37997059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence on workplace bullying and harassment (WBH) in the UK has not used probability-sample surveys with robust mental health assessments. This study aimed to profile the prevalence and nature of WBH in England, identify inequalities in WBH exposure, and quantify adjusted associations with mental health. METHODS: Data were from the 2014 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, a cross-sectional probability-sample survey of the household population in England, interviewed with verbal informed consent. Criteria for inclusion in the secondary analysis were being aged 16-70 years and in paid work in the past month (n=3838). Common mental disorders were assessed using the Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised and mental wellbeing using the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale. Analyses were weighted. We examined associations between past-year WBH and current common mental disorders using multivariable regression modelling, adjusting for demographic and socioeconomic factors. Interaction terms tested for gender differences in associations. The study received ethics approval (ETH21220-299). FINDINGS: One in ten employees (10·6% (weighted), n=444/3838) reported past-year experience of WBH, with rates higher in women (12·2%, n=284/2189); those of mixed, multiple, and other ethnicity (21·0%, n=15/92); and people in debt (15·2%, n=50/281) or living in cold homes (14·6%, n=42/234). Most commonly identified perpetrators of WBH were line managers (53·6%, n=244/444) or colleagues (42·8%, n=194/444). Excessive criticism (49·3%, n=212/444), verbal abuse (42·6%, n=187/444), and humiliation (31·4%, n=142/444) were the most common types. WBH was associated with all adverse mental health indicators, including common mental disorders (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2·65, 95% CI 2·02-3·49), and 11 of 14 mental wellbeing indicators, including lower levels of confidence (aOR 0·57, 0·46-0·72) and of closeness to others (aOR 0·57, 0·46-0·72). Patterns of association between WBH and mental health were similar in men and women. INTERPRETATION: These findings reinforce a need for more cohesive UK legislation at the national level; guidance on recognition of bullying behaviours for employees, managers, and human resources at the organisational level, focusing on prevention and early intervention, and increased awareness of the impact of WBH on mental health among health-service practitioners. Study limitations include reliance on cross-sectional data collected before pandemic-related and other major changes in workplace practices. Longitudinal data are needed to improve evidence on causality and the longevity of mental health impacts. FUNDING: UK Prevention Research Partnership.


Assuntos
Bullying , Estresse Ocupacional , Adulto , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Saúde Mental , Prevalência , Estudos Transversais , Amostragem , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 23(1): 217, 2023 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37784020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is a peer chain-recruitment method for populations without a sampling frame or that are hard-to-reach. Although RDS is usually done face-to-face, the online version (WebRDS) has drawn a lot of attention as it has many potential benefits, despite this, to date there is no clear framework for its implementation. This article aims to provide guidance for researchers who want to recruit through a WebRDS. METHODS: Description of the development phase: guidance is provided addressing aspects related to the formative research, the design of the questionnaire, the implementation of the coupon system using a free software and the diffusion plan, using as an example a web-based cross-sectional study conducted in Spain between April and June 2022 describing the working conditions and health status of homecare workers for dependent people. RESULTS: The application of the survey: we discuss about the monitoring strategies throughout the recruitment process and potential problems along with proposed solutions. CONCLUSIONS: Under certain conditions, it is possible to obtain a sample with recruitment performance similar to that of other RDS without the need for monetary incentives and using a free access software, considerably reducing costs and allowing its use to be extended to other research groups.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Nível de Saúde , Internet , Amostragem
14.
Rev. Ciênc. Saúde ; 13(2): 11-18, Junho 2023.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1444163

RESUMO

Objetivo: Estimar a prevalência e investigar fatores associados aos problemas do sono em adultos cadastrados na Estratégia de Saúde da Família em 2016.Métodos: Estudo transversal, amostral, com 791 indivíduos, com idade igual ou superior a 18 anos, realizado entre 2017 e 2018. Os problemas de sono foram mensurados pelo Mini Sleep Questionnaire, questionário validado no Brasil.Resultados: A prevalência de problemas de sono foi de 49,6%. Destes, 10,4% tiveram alterações leves, 7,6% moderadas e 31,6% graves. Observou-se associação estatisticamente significante entre não ter uma atividade de trabalho remunerada, não ter atividade de lazer, hábito de fumar, presença de doença crônica e autoavaliação negativa da saúde com os problemas do sono.Conclusão: Observou-se elevada prevalência de problemas de sono. Esses resultados podem contribuir para uma melhor compreensão dos problemas do sono na população adulta e, assim, colaborar com a adoção de medidas mais eficazes para o enfrentamento desse problema


Objective: To estimate the prevalence and investigate factors associated with sleep problems in adults enrolled in the Family Health Strategy in 2016. Methods: Cross-sectional sample study with 791 individuals aged 18 years or over, carried out between 2017 and 2018. Sleep problems were measured using the Mini Sleep Questionnaire, a questionnaire validated in Brazil. Results: The prevalence of sleep problems was 49.6%. Of these, 10.4% had mild, 7.6% moderate, and 31.6% severe alterations. There was a statistically significant association between not having a paid work activity, not having leisure activities, smoking, chronic disease, and negative self-assessment of health with sleep problems. Conclusion: There was a high prevalence of sleep problems. These results can contribute to a better understanding of sleep problems in the adult population and, thus, collaborate with adopting more effective measures to treat them


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Sono , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tabaco , Estudos Transversais , Amostragem , Atividades de Lazer/psicologia
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(32): e2301491120, 2023 08 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37523571

RESUMO

The highly influential theory of "Motivated System 2 Reasoning" argues that analytical, deliberative ("System 2") reasoning is hijacked by identity when considering ideologically charged issues-leading people who are more likely to engage in such reasoning to be more polarized, rather than more accurate. Here, we fail to replicate the key empirical support for this theory across five contentious issues, using a large gold-standard nationally representative probability sample of Americans. While participants were more accurate in evaluating a contingency table when the outcome aligned with their politics (even when controlling for prior beliefs), we find that participants with higher numeracy were more accurate in evaluating the contingency table, regardless of whether or not the table's outcome aligned with their politics. These findings call for a reconsideration of the effect of identity on analytical reasoning.


Assuntos
Política , Resolução de Problemas , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Amostragem
16.
Psychiatry Res ; 326: 115339, 2023 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37429172

RESUMO

Transgender individuals experience numerous health disparities relative to cisgender individuals. However, most transgender-health studies have focused on convenience samples with limited generalizability. This study utilized data from the 2016-2018 TransPop Study, the first national probability sample of transgender adults (n=274) with a cisgender comparison sample (n=1162). Using multivariable logistic regression, adjusted for demographics, we compared the prevalence of hazardous drinking, problematic drug use, serious psychological distress, suicidality, and non-suicidal self-injury between transgender and cisgender individuals and among transgender men (n=78), transgender women (n=120), and transgender nonbinary individuals (n=76). Among transgender individuals, 28.2% (95%CI 21.2-35.2) and 31.2% (95%CI 23.8-38.7) reported hazardous drinking and problematic drug use, respectively; 44.4% (95% CI 35.8-53.0) reported recent suicidal ideation, 6.9% (95% CI 2.3-11.5) reported a recent suicide attempt, and 21.4% (95% CI 14.5%-28.4%) reported recent non-suicidal self-injury. In their lifetime, 81.3% (95%CI 75.1-87.5) of transgender respondents had suicidal ideation, 42.0% (95%CI 34.2-49.8) had attempted suicide, and 56.0% (95% CI 48.2-63.8) reported non-suicidal self-injury. Most (81.5%; 95%CI 75.5-87.5) had utilized formal mental health care and 25.5% (95%CI 18.5-32.4) had sought informal mental health support. There were no differences in alcohol or drug-use outcomes between transgender and cisgender adults. Compared to cisgender adults, transgender adults had higher odds of serious psychological distress (aOR=3.1; 95%CI 1.7-5.7), suicidal ideation (recent: aOR=5.1, 95%CI 2.7-9.6); lifetime: aOR=6.7, 95%CI 3.8-11.7), lifetime suicide attempts (aOR=4.4, 95%CI 2.4-8.0), and non-suicidal self-injury (recent: aOR=13.0, 95%CI 4.8-35.1); lifetime: aOR=7.6, 95%CI 4.1-14.3). Transgender nonbinary adults had the highest odds for all outcomes, including substance use outcomes. Findings from these national probability samples support those of earlier convenience-sample studies showing mental health disparities among transgender adults relative to cisgender adults, with nonbinary individuals at highest risk. These findings also highlight variations in risk across sub-groups of transgender individuals.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Pessoas Transgênero , Masculino , Humanos , Adulto , Feminino , Pessoas Transgênero/psicologia , Amostragem , Saúde Mental , Prevalência , Ideação Suicida , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia
17.
Environ Int ; 178: 108104, 2023 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37490788

RESUMO

Municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) not only is deemed one of the uppermost sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), but also produces substantial amount of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PBDD/Fs) owing to the existence of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in the waste. So far, however, PBDD/Fs in the vicinal environments of MSWI and their associated risks remain rarely studied. Based on a one-year passive air sampling (PAS) scheme, we investigated airborne PBDD/Fs and PCDD/Fs around a large-scale MSWI that has been operated for multi-years. Both the concentrations of PBDD/Fs and PCDD/Fs showed spatially decreasing trends with the distance away from the MSWI, confirming the influence of the MSWI on the dioxin levels in its ambient air. But its influence on PBDD/Fs was less because PBDD/Fs exhibit lower volatility and therefore lower gaseous concentrations than PCDD/Fs. Compared to the existing global data of airborne PCDD/Fs and PBDD/Fs, our data of the MSWI vicinity were at medium levels, despite PAS samples only represent the concentrations of gaseous dioxins in theory. The seasonal data suggest that meteorological conditions exerted apparent influences over the concentrations and sources of airborne dioxins around the MSWI. As for PCDD/Fs, the MSWI was diagnosed as their uppermost source, followed by local traffic and volatilization/deposition. Whereas the top three PBDD/F sources were related to PBDEs, bromophenol/bromobenzene, and traffic vehicles, respectively. The bioassay-derived TEQs based on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor activation of airborne dioxins around the MSWI were one or two orders of magnitudes higher than their concentration-based TEQs, and the corresponding carcinogenic risks at some MSWI-vicinal sites exceeded the acceptable threshold proposed by the U. S. EPA (10-6 âˆ¼ 10-4) and deserve continuous attention.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Dioxinas , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas , Dioxinas/análise , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise , Resíduos Sólidos , Dibenzofuranos/análise , Carcinógenos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Amostragem , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Incineração , Gases/análise , Dibenzofuranos Policlorados/análise
19.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 23(1): 136, 2023 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37296373

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Engage Study is a longitudinal biobehavioral cohort study of gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (GBM) in Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver. Baseline data (2,449 participants) were collected from February 2017 - August 2019 using respondent-driven sampling (RDS). Recruitment in Montreal required fewer seeds, had a much shorter recruitment period, and recruited the largest sample. METHODS: To better understand why RDS recruitment was more successful in Montreal compared to other sites, we conducted an analysis to examine RDS recruitment characteristics for GBM in each of the three study sites, explore demographic characteristics and measures of homophily, that is, the tendency of individuals to recruit other study participants who are like themselves, and compared motivations for study participation. RESULTS: Montreal had the greatest proportion of participants over the age of 45 (29.1% in Montreal, 24.6% in Vancouver, and 21.0% in Toronto) and the highest homophily for this age group, but homophily was high across the three cities. Montreal also reported the lowest percentage of participants with an annual income greater or equal to $60,000 (7.9% in Montreal, 13.1% in Vancouver and 10.6% in Toronto), but homophily was similar across all three cities. The majority of participants indicated interest in sexual health and HIV as the main reason for participating (36.1% in Montreal, 34.7% in Vancouver, and 29.8% in Toronto). Financial interest as the main reason for participation was low (12.7% in Montreal, 10.6% in Vancouver, and 5.7% in Toronto). CONCLUSION: Taken together, although we found some differences in study demographic characteristics and homophily scores, we were unable to fully explain the different recruitment success based on the data available. Our study underlines the fact that success of RDS implementation may vary by unknown factors, and that researchers should be proactive and flexible to account for variability.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina , Amostragem , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Span. j. psychol ; 26: [e17], May - Jun 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-222002

RESUMO

Work engagement is a scientifically consolidated variable, due to its fundamental role in business practice. To increase work engagement in companies, it is necessary to know which variables are antecedents and how they relate to each other. These variables include job autonomy, job crafting, and psychological capital. This research evaluates the relationships between job autonomy, job crafting, psychological capital, and work engagement. Specifically, based on the job demands and resources model and the conservation of resources theory, the study examines these relationships in a sample of 483 employees, through a serial mediation model. The results show that job crafting, and psychological capital mediates the relationship between job autonomy and work engagement. These results have practical implications for interventions to promote employee work engagement. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Engajamento no Trabalho , Negociação/psicologia , Amostragem
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