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1.
Forensic Sci Int ; 306: 110054, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778924

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To study age estimation performance of combined magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data of all four third molars, the left wrist and both clavicles in a reference population of females and males. To study the value of adding anthropometric and sexual maturation data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three Tesla MRI of the three anatomical sites was prospectively conducted from March 2012 to May 2017 in 14- to 26-year-old healthy Caucasian volunteers (160 females, 138 males). Development was assessed by allocating stages, anthropometric measurements were taken, and self-reported sexual maturation data were collected. All data was incorporated in a continuation-ratio model to estimate age, applying Bayes' rule to calculate point and interval predictions. Two performance aspects were studied: (1) accuracy and uncertainty of the point prediction, and (2) diagnostic ability to discern minors from adults (≥18 years). RESULTS: Combining information from different anatomical sites decreased the mean absolute error (MAE) compared to incorporating only one site (P<0.0001). By contrast, adding anthropometric and sexual maturation data did not further improve MAE (P=0.11). In females, combining all three anatomical sites rendered a MAE equal to 1.41 years, a mean width of the 95% prediction intervals of 5.91 years, 93% correctly classified adults and 91% correctly classified minors. In males, the corresponding results were 1.36 years, 5.49 years, 94%, and 90%, respectively. CONCLUSION: All aspects of age estimation improve when multi-factorial MRI data of the three anatomical sites are incorporated. Anthropometric and sexual maturation data do not seem to add relevant information.


Assuntos
Determinação da Idade pelo Esqueleto/métodos , Determinação da Idade pelos Dentes/métodos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Adolescente , Adulto , Teorema de Bayes , Clavícula/diagnóstico por imagem , Clavícula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Antropologia Forense , Odontologia Legal , Humanos , Masculino , Dente Serotino/diagnóstico por imagem , Dente Serotino/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estudos Prospectivos , Rádio (Anatomia)/diagnóstico por imagem , Rádio (Anatomia)/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Amostragem , Ulna/diagnóstico por imagem , Ulna/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Adulto Jovem
2.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22Suppl 1(Suppl 1): e190002, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576978

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Respondent-Driven Sampling (RDS) has been used in surveys with key populations at risk of HIV infection, such as female sex workers (FSW). This article describes the application of the RDS method among FSW in 12 Brazilian cities, during a survey carried out in 2016. METHODOLOGY: A biological and behavioral surveillance study carried out in 12 Brazilian cities, with a minimum sample of 350 FSW in each city. Tests were performed for HIV, syphilis, and hepatitis B and C infections. A social-behavioral questionnaire was also applied. RESULTS: The sample was comprised of 4,328 FSW. For data analysis, the sample was weighted according to each participant's network size (due consideration to the implications of RDS complex design and to the effects of homophilia are recommended). DISCUSSION: Although RDS methods for obtaining a statistical sample are based on strong statistical assumptions, allowing for an estimation of statistical parameters, with each new application the method has been rethought. In the analysis of whole-sample data, estimators were robust and compatible with those found in 2009. However, there were significant variations according to each city. CONCLUSION: The achieved sample size was of great relevance for assessing progress and identifying problems regarding the prevention and treatment of Sexually Transmitted Infections. New RDS studies with more time and operational resources should be envisaged. This could further network development.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População/métodos , Profissionais do Sexo/estatística & dados numéricos , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cidades , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Tamanho da Amostra , Amostragem , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Int Heart J ; 60(5): 1201-1205, 2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484869

RESUMO

Right-sided accessary pathways in patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome may cause cardiac dyssynchrony and dilated cardiomyopathy, with a characteristic septal shape, irrespective of any supraventricular tachycardia episodes. We report on two infants (13 and 5 months), whose right-sided accessary pathway-induced dilated cardiomyopathy was successfully treated by flecainide for the first time. After the flecainide administration, an abnormal aneurysmal dilation of the basal interventricular septum was almost restored to normal, and the decreased ejection fraction recovered. Flecainide use may be an important therapeutic option for this entity to avoid catheter ablation during infancy.


Assuntos
Feixe Acessório Atrioventricular/diagnóstico por imagem , Feixe Acessório Atrioventricular/tratamento farmacológico , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/diagnóstico por imagem , Flecainida/uso terapêutico , Síndrome de Wolff-Parkinson-White/diagnóstico por imagem , Feixe Acessório Atrioventricular/complicações , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/tratamento farmacológico , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/etiologia , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/terapia , Ecocardiografia Doppler/métodos , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Injeções Intravenosas , Masculino , Medição de Risco , Amostragem , Resultado do Tratamento , Síndrome de Wolff-Parkinson-White/complicações , Síndrome de Wolff-Parkinson-White/fisiopatologia
5.
Int Heart J ; 60(5): 1192-1195, 2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447464

RESUMO

Here we report two young patients with atrial fibrillation/atrial flutter complicated with cardiogenic cerebral embolism. Electrophysiological study revealed a large area of low-voltage zone or area of electric silence in both sides of the atrium during restoration of sinus rhythm, and the echocardiogram showed loss of mechanical function of the atrium. The electrical-mechanical dysfunction of the atrium was considered to be the cause of embolic event in this type of patient who was "very low" stroke risk atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter. The idiopathic, fibrotic atrial cardiomyopathy may be underlying in these patients.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Flutter Atrial/complicações , Ablação por Cateter/métodos , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/cirurgia , Flutter Atrial/diagnóstico , Flutter Atrial/cirurgia , Mapeamento Potencial de Superfície Corporal/métodos , China , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Raras , Medição de Risco , Amostragem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia
6.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(8): 524, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31363924

RESUMO

Some environmental studies use non-probabilistic sampling designs to draw samples from spatially distributed populations. Unfortunately, these samples can be difficult to analyse statistically and can give biased estimates of population characteristics. Spatially balanced sampling designs are probabilistic designs that spread the sampling effort evenly over the resource. These designs are particularly useful for environmental sampling because they produce good-sample coverage over the resource, they have precise design-based estimators and they can potentially reduce the sampling cost. The most popular spatially balanced design is Generalized Random Tessellation Stratified (GRTS), which has many desirable features including a spatially balanced sample, design-based estimators and the ability to select spatially balanced oversamples. This article considers the popularity of spatially balanced sampling, reviews several spatially balanced sampling designs and shows how these designs can be implemented in the statistical programming language R. We hope to increase the visibility of spatially balanced sampling and encourage environmental scientists to use these designs.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Estatísticos , Biometria , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos , Distribuição Aleatória , Projetos de Pesquisa , Amostragem , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Fisioterapia (Madr., Ed. impr.) ; 41(4): 185-191, jul.-ago. 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-183094

RESUMO

Antecedentes y objetivo: Diferentes estudios han defendido la relación entre la pronación del pie y el dolor lumbar crónico (DLC). Sin embargo, no se hallan artículos que analicen la repercusión que puede existir entre la postura en pronación de un solo pie y su influencia en el DLC frente a la pronación en ambos pies. Por ello, se ha planteado evaluar la intensidad del dolor lumbar en sujetos pronadores con un índice de postura del pie (IPP) superior a+6 en un pie comparado con sujetos con pronación superior a+6 en ambos pies. Material y método: Estudio observacional transversal con muestreo por conveniencia en una muestra total de 116 sujetos. Se comparó el DLC en un grupo con dolor lumbar crónico y posición pronada de un pie (IPP, superior a+6), frente a un grupo de sujetos con DLC e IPP superior a+6 en ambos. Como herramientas de valoración de la variable dependiente se utilizó la escala visual analógica (EVA) y el Índice de discapacidad de Oswestry (IDO) para dolor lumbar. Resultados: No se encontró correlación entre la posición unilateral o bilateral en pronación y la intensidad del DLC. La pronación de un solo pie no pareció mostrarse como mayor factor de riesgo en el DLC que la bilateral (IDO p = 0,700; EVA p = 0,235). Conclusiones: No se encuentran diferencias estadísticas en el DLC en el grupo de pacientes con un IPP del pie en pronación frente a los sujetos con posición en pronación bilateral. Futuros estudios son necesarios


Background and objectives: Different studies have defended the relationship between the pronated foot and chronic low back pain (CLBP). Nevertheless, according to current knowledge, there is no evidence on the possible influence of pronation of one foot or both feet and the intensity of the CLBP. The aim of this study was to evaluate the intensity of the CLBP in subjects with one or two pronated feet with a foot posture index (FPI, superior to +6) in one foot compared with subjects with CLBP and FPI of+6 in both feet. Material and method: A cross-sectional study was conducted with convenience sampling, composed of 116 subjects who presented with CLBP and with two or at least one pronated foot. The CLBP was compared in one group with CLBP and one foot in the pronated position (foot posture index (FPI)>+6), against a group of subjects with CLBP and an FPI>+6 in both feet. The visual analogue scale (VAS) and the Oswestry low back pain index (ODI) were used as tools for assessing the dependent variable. Results: There were no significant differences between the unilateral or bilateral foot pronation and the intensity of the CLBP. The pronation of only one foot does not seem to be a greater risk factor in CLBP than bilateral pronation (ODI: p = .700; VAS: p = .235). Conclusions: There is no evidence of a higher rate of chronic low back pain in the group of patients with a pronated position of one foot compared to subjects with both feet pronated, as assessed with the VAS and ODI scale. Further studies are necessary


Assuntos
Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor Lombar/terapia , Pronação/fisiologia , Medição da Dor/métodos , Avaliação da Deficiência , Estudos Transversais , Fatores de Risco , Amostragem , Posição Ortostática , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Dor Lombar/prevenção & controle
8.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(4): 343-354, July-Aug. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012341

RESUMO

Peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) is an important prognostic marker and its classification helps the cardiologist in the therapeutic decision-making process. The most commonly used cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) classification has not been validated for the Brazilian population. Objective: To elaborate a CRF classification using a Brazilian sample and to compare it with the American Heart Association (AHA), Cooper and UNIFESP classifications. Methods: A total of 6,568 healthy subjects were analyzed through cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). They were distributed by sex and the following age groups (years): 7-12, 13-19, 20-79 (per decades) and > 80 years. After measurement of the VO2peak, participants were distributed into quintiles of CRF in very poor, poor, moderate, high and very high (AEMA Table). The CRF classifications by AEMA, AHA, Cooper, and UNIFESP were compared using the Wilcoxon, Kappa and concordance percentages. Results: VO2peak presented an inverse and moderate correlation with age considering both sexes (R = -0.488, p < 0.001). All paired comparisons between CRF classification systems showed differences (p < 0.001) and disagreement percentage - AEMA versus AHA (k = 0.291, 56.7%), AEMA versus Cooper (k = 0.220, 62.4%) and AEMA versus UNIFESP (k = 0.201, 63.9 %). Conclusion: The AEMA table showed important discrepancies in the classification of CRF when compared to other tables widely used in our setting. Because it was obtained from a large sample of the Brazilian population, the AEMA table should be preferred over other classification systems in our population


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Brasil , Amostragem , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Consumo de Oxigênio , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Exercício , Fatores Sexuais , Análise Estatística , Fatores Etários , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Saúde da População
9.
Int J Nurs Pract ; 25(5): e12768, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31328394

RESUMO

AIMS: This study analysed whether beliefs about medicines mediated the relationship between illness representations and medication adherence. BACKGROUND: Adherence to medication is required in diabetes treatment, contributing to decreased blood glycaemic levels. The knowledge and perception of patients about diabetes as well as the beliefs about medicines are considered to be key factors for medication adherence. DESIGN: The study used a cross-sectional design that included 387 patients recently diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Participants were assessed, between 2010 and 2013, and answered the Medication Adherence Scale, the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire, and the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire. RESULTS: The results of the path analysis showed that beliefs about medicines had a mediating role on self-report medication adherence with the exception of beliefs about specific concerns with medicines. Therefore, both general beliefs and specific needs about medicines mediated the relationship between diabetes consequences and self-report medication adherence as well as between treatment control and self-report medication adherence. Needs about medicines mediated the relationship between personal control and self-report medication adherence. CONCLUSION: Health professionals should target beliefs about medicines besides illness representations regarding medication adherence. The current study may help optimize adherence to medication in early-diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Adesão à Medicação , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Portugal , Amostragem , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Int J Nurs Pract ; 25(5): e12762, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31297932

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of urinary incontinence on body image, self-esteem, and quality of life. METHODS: The study was conducted with 218 women with urinary incontinence. The study data were collected using the Socio-Demographic Characteristics Questionnaire, Body Cathexis Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and Incontinence Quality of Life Questionnaire. RESULTS: There was a weak, statistically significant, positive relationship found between the Body Cathexis Scale total average scores and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale total average scores of the women and a weak, statistically significant, negative relationship with the Incontinence Quality of Life Questionnaire total average scores. In addition, a weak, statistically significant, negative relationship was found between the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale total score averages and Incontinence Quality of Life Questionnaire total score averages. Significant effects were seen for body image score with pad usage; for self-esteem in relation to number of deliveries, duration, and frequency of urinary incontinence; and for incontinence quality of life and duration and frequency of urinary incontinence and pad usage. CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded that most of the women with urinary incontinence had negative body image and that more than half of them had moderate or low self-esteem and a moderate quality of life.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal , Qualidade de Vida , Autoimagem , Incontinência Urinária/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Tampões Absorventes para a Incontinência Urinária , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Amostragem , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 65: 124-127, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300100

RESUMO

Brucellosis caused by Brucella spp. is an important zoonosis and constitutes a serious public health hazard. In India, the disease is increasingly prevalent among bovine population with high zoonotic potential and negative impact on national economy. The investigation was conducted to study seroprevalence of brucellosis through random sample survey using survey tool box software. A total of 12,054 [cattle-9236, buffaloes-2818] bovine serum samples sourced from 15 states of India were tested by protein G indirect ELISA. The true prevalences of brucellosis observed in cattle and buffaloes were 8.3% and 3.6%, respectively. The highest prevalence of brucellosis was observed in the state of Punjab in both cattle and buffaloes (23.51 and 10.2%). Comparatively higher prevalence was recorded in cattle than the buffaloes in all the states except Manipur. The true prevalence greater than 5% was recorded in 8 and 3 states for cattle and buffaloes, respectively [(cattle- Punjab, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat and Kerala) and (buffaloes-Punjab, Gujarat and Manipur)] indicating wider prevalence of brucellosis. This study conclusively highlighted the seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis at state level which might be useful for prioritizing regions for vaccination, designing control strategies and improvisation of clinical surveillance system.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Brucelose/veterinária , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Animais , Brucella , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Búfalos/microbiologia , Bovinos/microbiologia , Índia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Distribuição Aleatória , Amostragem , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Software , Análise Espacial
12.
Int J Nurs Pract ; 25(5): e12765, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313445

RESUMO

AIM: The purposes of this study were to describe the degree of knowledge and explore the factors associated with knowledge of infertility among women of childbearing age with breast cancer. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we recruited women of childbearing age with a diagnosis of breast cancer who had completed chemotherapy at a hospital in Taipei from 2015 through 2016. Face-to-face interviews were completed with 201 (62%) of 324 eligible women, asking about sociodemographic variables, disease and treatment characteristics, fertility intention, and infertility-related knowledge. RESULTS: The result showed one in 10 women had thought about becoming pregnant after completion of breast cancer chemotherapy. The mean score of infertility knowledge among participants was low, especially for general knowledge. Women with higher levels of education had better knowledge scores. Fertility intention score, especially for the domain of the pregnant risk, was negatively associated with infertility knowledge score. CONCLUSION: Women with breast cancer lacked knowledge about infertility and underestimated the possibility of infertility. We suggest future patient education on infertility after cancer treatment and about reproductive technology in oncologic practice before treatment begins.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Infertilidade Feminina/etiologia , Adulto , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Amostragem , Taiwan , Adulto Jovem
13.
Int J Health Care Qual Assur ; 32(6): 1022-1033, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282258

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to investigate managers' leadership styles, from the perspective of registered nurses, and its effects on the quality of nursing care in both the private and public healthcare sectors. An additional aim is to assess the relationship between leadership styles and particular organisational outcomes. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: The sample for this quantitative research study was comprised of 400 respondents, among which 50 were nurse managers, 150 were staff nurses and the remaining respondents were patients. Two questionnaires were used in this study: the multi-factor leadership questionnaire (MLQ) 5X short and a patient satisfaction with nursing care quality questionnaire (PSNCQQ). FINDINGS: A positive correlation was found between the transformational leadership style with leadership outcomes and the quality of nursing care (r=0.811**, 0.759**, 0.789** and 0.877** for extra effort, job satisfaction, leader effectiveness and quality, respectively). PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Although the sample study was extensive, a possible limitation is that the research utilised convenient sample who are working in the private and public healthcare sectors thus limiting the generalisability of the study. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: This study was proposed as a baseline for upcoming studies in areas of education, nursing practice, research and quality. Moreover, this study was expected to be imperative to the hospital's management, in order to improve the current level of leadership, education models and advancement programs for the healthcare sector's senior staff.


Assuntos
Relações Interprofissionais/ética , Liderança , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidados de Enfermagem/organização & administração , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Feminino , Administração Hospitalar/métodos , Humanos , Jordânia , Masculino , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/organização & administração , Amostragem , Arábia Saudita
14.
Int J Nurs Pract ; 25(5): e12757, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261444

RESUMO

AIM: To assess the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of a culturally sensitive nurse-led structured education programme for patients with type 2 diabetes. BACKGROUND: A nurse-led satisfactory diabetes education programme might be feasible. The structured education programme is considered a potential model that helps patients manage diabetes. DESIGN: A mixed-method design. METHODS: A convenience sample of 44 participants received the programme. Feasibility was assessed using the recruitment rate and the retention rate. Acceptability was assessed by interviews to obtain the perception and experience of participants. Also, preliminary efficacy on diabetes knowledge, self-efficacy, self-management behaviours, and clinical outcomes was assessed. Finally, data were collected from April to December 2015. RESULTS: The recruitment rate and the retention rate were acceptable. Participants thought that the programme contributed to their positive changes. They enjoyed and accepted the programme, and they wanted to gain the ongoing support. Significant improvements in diabetes knowledge, self-efficacy, self-management behaviours, A1C , fasting blood glucose, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, weight, body mass index, and waist circumference were reported in 12-week follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: This programme is feasible and acceptable, and its preliminary efficacy is promising. Ongoing support, a control group, and long-term follow-up are required in future studies to assess its effectiveness.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Educação em Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adulto , Idoso , China , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Amostragem , Autoeficácia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 354, 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311590

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The analysis of large mosquito samples is expensive and time-consuming, delaying the efficient timing of vector control measurements. Processing a fraction of a sample using a subsampling method can significantly reduce the processing effort. However, a comprehensive evaluation of the reliability of different subsampling methods is missing. METHODS: A total of 23 large mosquito samples (397-4713 specimens per sample) were compared in order to evaluate five subsampling methods for the estimation of the number of specimens and species: area, volume, weight, selection of 200 random specimens and analyses with an image processing software. Each sample was distributed over a grid paper (21.0 × 29.7 cm; 25 grid cells of 4.2 × 5.9 cm) with 200 randomly distributed points. After taking pictures, mosquito specimens closest to each of the 200 points on the paper were selected. All mosquitoes per grid cell were identified by morphology and transferred to scaled tubes to estimate the volume. Finally, the fresh and dry weights were determined. RESULTS: The estimated number of specimens and species did not differ between the area-, volume- and weight-based method. Subsampling 20% of the sample gave an error rate of approximately 12% for the number of specimens, 6% for the proportion of the most abundant species and between 6-40% for the number of species per sample. The error for the estimated number of specimens using the picture processing software ImageJ gave a similar error rate when analyzing 15-20% of the total sample. By using 200 randomly selected specimens it was possible to give a precise estimation of the proportion of the most abundant species (r = 0.97, P < 0.001), but the number of species per sample was underestimated by 28% on average. Selecting adjacent grid cells instead of sampling randomly chosen grid cells and using dry weight instead of wet weight did not increase the accuracy of estimates. CONCLUSIONS: Different subsampling methods have various advantages and disadvantages. However, the area-based analysis of 20% of the sample is probably the most suitable approach for most kinds of mosquito studies, giving sufficiently precise estimations of the number of specimens and species, which is slightly less laborious compared to the other methods tested.


Assuntos
Culicidae , Amostragem , Animais , Mosquitos Vetores , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estatística como Assunto
16.
Prehosp Disaster Med ; 34(4): 449-453, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322497

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite United States national learning objectives referencing research fundamentals and the critical appraisal of medical literature, many paramedic programs are not meeting these objectives with substantive content. PROBLEM: The objective was to develop and implement a journal club educational module for paramedic training programs, which is all-inclusive and could be distributed to Emergency Medical Services (EMS) educators and EMS medical directors to use as a framework to adapt to their program. METHODS: Four two-hour long journal club sessions were designed. First, the educator provided students with four types of articles on a student-chosen topic and discussed differences in methodology and structures. Next, after a lecture about peer-review, students used search engines to verify references of a trade magazine article. Third, the educator gave a statistics lecture and critiqued the results section of several articles found by students on a topic. Finally, students found an article on a topic of personal interest and presented it to their classmates, as if telling their paramedic partner about it at work. Before and after the series, students from two cohorts (2017, 2018) completed a survey with questions about demographics and perceptions of research. Students from one cohort (2017) received a follow-up survey one year later. RESULTS: For the 2016 cohort, 13 students participated and provided qualitative feedback. For the 2017 and 2018 cohorts, 33 students participated. After the series, there was an increased self-reported ability to find, evaluate, and apply medical research articles, as well as overall positive trending opinions of participating in and the importance of prehospital research. This ability was demonstrated by every student during the final journal club session. McNemar's and Related-Samples Cochran's Q testing of questionnaire responses suggested a statistically significant improvement in student approval of exceptions from informed consent. CONCLUSION: The framework for this paramedic journal club series could be adapted by EMS educators and medical directors to enable paramedics to search for, critically appraise, and discuss the findings of medical literature.


Assuntos
Pessoal Técnico de Saúde/educação , Currículo , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/organização & administração , Fator de Impacto de Revistas , Medicina na Literatura , Retroalimentação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Amostragem , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos
17.
Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech ; 29(4): e53-e56, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31259866

RESUMO

The formation of an advancement rectal flap could be technically demanding in the presence of high perianal of rectovaginal fistula, and the outcomes could be frustrated by the inadequate view, bleeding and a poor exposure through the standard transanal approach. The application of the transanal minimally invasive surgery (TAMIS) to the advancement rectal flap procedure could overcome these difficulties. In the lithotomy position, a partial fistulectomy was performed and the internal opening was closed. A full-thickness flap was mobilized initially through the classic transanal approach. Subsequently, the TAMIS port was inserted and the mobilization of the flap was carried on proximally for as long as required. The laparoscopic visualization allowed a perfect view, a proper orientation of the flap and accurate hemostasis. The TAMIS-flap procedure seems a promising technique to perform a long advancement rectal flap to treat high perianal or rectovaginal fistulae (Video, Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/SLE/A208).


Assuntos
Segurança do Paciente , Fístula Retal/cirurgia , Fístula Retovaginal/diagnóstico , Fístula Retovaginal/cirurgia , Retalhos Cirúrgicos/transplante , Cirurgia Endoscópica Transanal/métodos , Idoso , Feminino , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Humanos , Laparoscopia/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Duração da Cirurgia , Posicionamento do Paciente , Prognóstico , Fístula Retal/diagnóstico , Amostragem , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Int J Rehabil Res ; 42(3): 263-269, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31210649

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to examine the metric properties of the Prosthetic Mobility Questionnaire, an outcome measure of mobility following lower-limb amputation, in Slovene outpatients undergoing rehabilitation. The 12-item Prosthetic Mobility Questionnaire was administered to 148 Slovene adults (74% men) with unilateral lower-limb amputation since >12 months and regularly wearing a prosthesis. The psychometric analysis included classical test theory methods and Rasch models. Rasch analysis disclosed two pairs of locally dependent items (same task but in opposite directions: walk up/down stairs; walk up/down a hill). Thus, we devised a new version (PMQ 2.0) assessing all 12 Prosthetic Mobility Questionnaire items but calculating the global score on only 10, i.e. considering-for each pair of locally dependent items-just the item with worst performance. The PMQ 2.0 demonstrated correct functioning of rating scale categories, construct validity (item fit, hierarchy of item difficulties), convergent validity, high-reliability indices and unidimensionality. In conclusion, the new 10-item PMQ 2.0 shows good reliability and validity, and an excellent overall metric quality for measuring perceived mobility capabilities in people with lower-limb amputation.


Assuntos
Amputação/reabilitação , Membros Artificiais , Extremidade Inferior/cirurgia , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Caminhada/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Amostragem , Eslovênia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
20.
N Z Med J ; 132(1496): 20-30, 2019 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170130

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Communication has an essential role in the therapeutic relationship between a patient and healthcare professionals (HCPs) with terminology playing an important role. The terminology used by HCPs can significantly impact on an individual's perceptions of weight and experience of stigma. This is the first quantitative research study in Aotearoa New Zealand to explore weight-related terminology. METHOD: A self-completion questionnaire was administered to a convenience sample of adults aged 18 years and over, residing in New Zealand across four different geographical regions (Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch and Dunedin) in 2016. RESULTS: Seven hundred and seventy-five participants completed questionnaires, with 330 identifying as HCPs or HCP students, 440 as lay persons and five not specified. 'Weight' or 'high BMI' were the most preferred terms for describing excess adiposity for participants. The term 'bariatric' is poorly understood in New Zealand. There was dissonance in responses relating to the terms considered most blaming and those considered to be motivating terms to lose weight. CONCLUSION: The terms 'weight' or 'high BMI' are the terms most commonly preferred across this and other surveys, although neither term is meaningful in describing accurately the clinical relevance of the person's size during the HCP-patient interaction. Whichever term is selected, HCP-patient conversations need to be respectful, appropriate and support meaningful non-stigmatising dialogue.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adiposidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Estudos de Avaliação como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Nova Zelândia , Medição de Risco , Amostragem , Estigma Social , Terminologia como Assunto , Adulto Jovem
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