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1.
Food Chem ; 303: 125346, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446364

RESUMO

The effect of a respiratory quotient dynamic controlled atmosphere (DCA - RQ), which induces ethanol production through low oxygen storage, and ethanol application on softening of Braeburn apples stored at different temperatures was investigated. DCA - RQ storage was associated with the activation of the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and greater anaerobic metabolism in comparison with DCA - CF (chlorophyll fluorescence) and controlled atmosphere (CA) storage. Greater anaerobic metabolism resulted in lower ethylene production, ACC oxidase activity, membrane permeability, -galactosidase activity and, therefore, less softening after long-term storage. Ethanol application after CA storage decreased ethylene biosynthesis, respiration rate and membrane permeability. Storage at 3 °C resulted in the lowest soluble solids and acidity, but not softening. In conclusion, Braeburn apples could be stored at 3 °C under DCA - RQ1.5. Additionally, ethanol produced by the fruit, or applied externally, had a significant effect on inhibiting softening during and after storage.


Assuntos
Atmosfera , Etanol/farmacologia , Malus/efeitos dos fármacos , Malus/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Anaerobiose/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/metabolismo
2.
Water Res ; 168: 115099, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604174

RESUMO

Cow manure (CM) was added to a dynamic membrane bioreactor (DMBR) operated under anaerobic condition for enhancing food waste (FW) digestion for over 300 days with stepwise increase of organic loading rates (OLRs) from 1.07 to 11.9 g COD/L/day. At a FW/CM ratio of 3.5:1 (based on volatile solids), the mixed liquor pH was always above 8.0 and no apparent volatile fatty acids (VFAs) accumulation occurred even at the highest OLR of 11.9 g COD/L/day (hydraulic retention time as 10 days and solid retention time as 15.5 days, correspondingly), indicating a very stable operation condition which resulted in an average CH4 yield as high as 250 mL/g COD and CH4 production as high as 2.71 L CH4/L/day. The hardly biodegradable organic components, such as cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, were effectively degraded by 78.3%, 58.8%, and 47.5%, respectively. Significantly high anaerobic digestion reaction ratios, especially the hydrolysis ratio which is usually the limiting factor, were calculated based on experimental results. Furthermore, the high lignocellulase contents and coenzyme F420 levels, along with the decrease of cellulose crystallinity from 72.6% to 16.4% in the feedstock, provided strong evidence of an enhanced biological activity by CM addition. By high-throughput sequencing analysis, more abundant and diverse bacterial, archaeal, and fungal genera were identified from the DMBR sludge. With CM addition, the biodegradation of lignocellulose might have produced sufficient H2 and CO2 for the hydrogenotrophic methanogens such as Methanoculleus, Methanomassiliicoccus, and Methanobacterium, which were highly tolerant to ammonium inhibition, and then the elevated ammonium level would have provided high buffering capacity in the DMBR thus ensuring a stable condition for high rate FW digestion and CH4 production.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Eliminação de Resíduos , Anaerobiose , Animais , Biocombustíveis , Reatores Biológicos , Bovinos , Feminino , Alimentos , Esterco , Metano
3.
Water Res ; 168: 115195, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639590

RESUMO

Membrane fouling or flux limitation is the major bottleneck that hinders anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) application. An AnMBR with a working volume of 15 L was operated for 180 days to investigate the maximum sustainable flux at different high solid concentrations during the anaerobic treatment of food waste. A total of eight filtration-to-relaxation (F/R) ratios were incorporated, with a fixed filtration time of 3 min and varied relaxation times (decreased from 12 to 1 min). Besides, a total of five instantaneous fluxes were applied: 12, 14, 16, 18 and 20 L/m2/h (LMH). Results showed that sustainable flux was greatly enhanced by filtration mode optimization. The optimal F/R ratios were 3:1, 3:1, 3:1 and 3:6 at mixed liquor total solid (MLTS) concentrations of 10, 15, 20 and 25 g/L, respectively. The corresponding sustainable flux values were 13.2 ±â€¯0.3, 10.1 ±â€¯0.4, 9.3 ±â€¯0.2 and 4.0 ±â€¯0.3 LMH, respectively. These values were 29%, 35%, 52% and 21% higher than the critical flux determined by the flux-stepping technique. The results of this study were used to perform a mathematical simulation. The obtained regression equation between the maximum sustainable flux and MLTS concentration can be used to predict the sustainable flux at other MLTS concentrations. This work provides valuable insight into the design and operation of high-solid AnMBRs, and is expected to contribute to further advances in the application of AnMBRs in industry.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Anaerobiose , Reatores Biológicos , Filtração , Alimentos , Membranas Artificiais , Águas Residuárias
4.
Water Res ; 168: 115199, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655439

RESUMO

The critical challenge of hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) for bio-oil production from biomass is the production of large amounts of aqueous products (HTL-AP) with high organic contents. The present study investigated the anaerobic digestion (AD) performances of HTL-AP under both thermophilic and mesophilic conditions, and molecular and metabolic analysis were conducted to provide insights into the different performances. The results showed that thermophilic AD had lower COD removal efficiency compared to mesophilic AD (45.0% vs. 61.6%). Liquid chromatography coupled with organic carbon detection and organic nitrogen (LC-OCD-OND) analysis showed that both high molecular weight (HMW) and low molecular weight (LMW) compounds were degraded to some extent and more LMW acids (LMWA) and recalcitrant aromatic compounds were degraded in the mesophilic reactor, which was the main reason of higher COD removal efficiency. Phenyl compounds (e.g. phenol and 2 methoxyphenol), furans and pyrazines were the recalcitrant chemicals detected through GC-MS analysis. Fourier transform ion cyclone resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) analysis demonstrated the complexity of HTL-AP and the proportions of phenolic or condensed aromatic compounds increased especially in the thermophilic effluents. Metabolites analysis showed that the reasons contributing to the differences of mesophilic and thermophilic AD were not only related to the degradation of organic compounds (e.g. benzoate degradation via CoA ligation) in HTL-AP but also related to the microbial autogenesis (e.g. fatty acid biosynthesis) as well as the environmental information processing. In addition, the enrichment of Mesotoga, responsible for the high degradation efficiency of LMWA, and Pelolinea, involved in the degradation of phenyl compounds, were found in mesophilic reactor, which was consistent with higher removal of corresponding organics.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Reatores Biológicos , Anaerobiose , Biocombustíveis , Biomassa , Temperatura Ambiente
5.
Water Sci Technol ; 80(3): 418-425, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596253

RESUMO

There are hundreds of full-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors in operation in various parts of the tropical world, notably in India and Latin America, Brazil being the holder of the largest park of anaerobic reactors for sewage treatment in the world. Despite the recognized advantages of UASB reactors, there are problems that have prevented their maximum operational performance. Neglecting the existence and delaying the solution of these challenges can jeopardize the important advances made to date, impacting the future of anaerobic technology in Brazil and in other countries. This work aims to evaluate the operational performance of five full-scale UASB reactors in Brazil, taking into account a monitoring period ranging between two and six years. The main observed design, construction, and operational constraints are discussed. Some outlooks for important upcoming developments are also provided, considering that most of the observed drawbacks can be tackled without significant increases on reactor costs.


Assuntos
Esgotos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Anaerobiose , Reatores Biológicos , Brasil , Índia
6.
Bioresour Technol ; 294: 122188, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31569044

RESUMO

In this work, wrapped granular activated carbon (GAC) and acclimated sludge were employed to enhance the efficiency of the dry anaerobic digestion of swine manure in semi-continuous tests. The addition of wrapped GAC increased the volumetric biogas production rate by 10.6%, and the removal efficiencies of TS and VS were enhanced by 5.3% and 6.6%, respectively. The concentration of total volatile fatty acids (TVFA) was 30.3% lower in the GAC reactor, but the total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) content was 15.3% higher. Inoculating with acclimated sludge helped the system survive unfavorable conditions, where the TAN and TVFA contents were around 5,200 mg/L and 8,800 mg/L, respectively, but it failed to improve the biogas production efficiency. The mechanisms that allowed GAC to increase the production of biogas were related to the improved hydrolysis process, enhanced microbial adhesion, the provision of electronic bridges, and enrichment of functional microorganism.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Esterco , Anaerobiose , Animais , Reatores Biológicos , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Metano , Suínos
7.
Bioresour Technol ; 294: 122220, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606597

RESUMO

The present study was aimed to examine the Bio-Hythane production in a single and two-stage anaerobic digestion (AD) systems from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) along with its quantification by gas chromatography (GC). The Bio-Hythane produced in a single-stage is a blend of 6% H2, 20% CH4 and 30% CO2 in the first run and 5% H2, 25% CH4 and 34% CO2 in the second run whereas 6% H2, 15% CH4 and 56% CO2 in the two-stage AD. Statistical analysis concluded that there is a significant difference between both the methods.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos , Resíduos Sólidos , Anaerobiose , Reatores Biológicos , Metano
8.
Bioresour Technol ; 294: 122238, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610486

RESUMO

The anaerobic digestion (AD) performance of corn stover was investigated under low hydrothermal pretreatment (HP) severity. Pretreated corn stover, with and without ammonia was examined at the three temperatures (50, 70, and 90 °C) coupled with different pretreatment time (24-72 h). The results showed that the pH value decreased with increasing pretreatment time for the same temperature. The highest volatile fatty acids (VFAs) concentration (4616.23 mg/L) was achieved at a HP severity of 4.56. The highest removal rate of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin were 19.62%, 25.53%, and 32.91% for HP with ammonia (HPA) severities of 3.34, 3.34, and HP severity of 4.35, respectively. The maximum methane yield of corn stover was 148.19 mL/g∙VS under 50 °C held for 24 h (HPA severity of 2.59), which was 31.35% higher than that of the untreated corn stover. The research results suggest that properly pretreatment severity can play an important role in promoting methane production.


Assuntos
Lignina , Zea mays , Anaerobiose , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Hidrólise , Metano
9.
Bioresour Technol ; 294: 122235, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610493

RESUMO

This study compared the effects of sewage sludge-derived pyrochar (PC300, PC500, and PC700) and hydrochar (HC180, HC240, and HC300) on mesophilic anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS). It was demonstrated that hydrochar can better promote the methane production compared with pyrochar. The highest accumulative methane yield of 132.04 ±â€¯4.41 mL/g VSadded was obtained with HC180 addition. In contrast, the PC500 and PC700 showed a slightly negative effect on methane production. Sludge-derived HC not only accelerated the solubilization and hydrolysis of sludge floc, but also improved the production of acetic acid and propionate, further resulting in improved methane production. Simultaneously, the syntrophic microbes facilitating direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) such as Syntrophomonas, Peptococcaceae, Methanosaeta and Methanobacterium bred rapidly with the addition of HCs. These results indicated that the hydrochar is more ideal as the accelerant to promote the methane production from mesophilic anaerobic digestion of WAS than the pyrochar.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal , Esgotos , Anaerobiose , Reatores Biológicos , Metano
10.
Bioresour Technol ; 294: 122193, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610495

RESUMO

A novel hybrid anaerobic-aerobic baffled reactor (HAOBR) with four compartments was constructed to treat manure-free piggery wastewater with an average COD/TN ratio as low as 0.98, without any supplement of external carbon source. Inoculated with aerobic activated sludge and operated at hydraulic retention time 36 h, 32 °C and reflux ratio 2.0, the reactor could perform steadily within 24 days. The removal of COD, NH4+-N and TN within the 21-days steady phase averaged 87.0%, 100% and 91.3%, respectively. Analysis of stoichiometry and results of high-throughput pyrosequencing revealed that the excellent nitrogen removal in the HAOBR was achieved by the cooperation of heterotrophic and autotrophic denitrification with anammox as the dominant approach. Compared with the previously developed microaerobic treatment processes and the recently reported modified A/O process, the HAOBR was more cost-efficient in treating manure-free piggery wastewater because of the less energy consumption, rapid startup process and efficient nutrients removal.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio , Águas Residuárias , Anaerobiose , Reatores Biológicos , Desnitrificação , Nitrogênio , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
11.
J Environ Manage ; 252: 109684, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622794

RESUMO

In the present study, an artificial neural network (ANN) was implemented to estimate the hydrogen production from confectionery wastewater. From the experimental investigation, it could be concluded that maximum COD removal efficiency of 99% and hydrogen production rate of 6570 mL/d was achieved at 7.00 kg COD/m3d and 24 h HRT. To validate this, a back propagation ANN configuration of 4-12-4-2 was opted. The modelling was performed using the input parameters like time, influent chemical oxygen demand (COD), effluent pH and volatile fatty acids (VFA). The correlation coefficient between the experimental and predicted hydrogen production rate was 0.996. The result of the tested data for hydrogen production rate was successful. The calculated average percentage error (APE) for hydrogen production rate was 0.0004. As the APE values were closer to zero, the trained ANN model fitted well with the experimental data.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias , Anaerobiose , Reatores Biológicos , Hidrogênio , Redes Neurais (Computação) , Esgotos
12.
Water Sci Technol ; 80(4): 659-664, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661445

RESUMO

Low intensity ultrasonication (US) was applied to stimulate the biological activities in anaerobic digestion (AD) process. The enhancement in methane production was used to investigate the sono-biostimulation effects on the process performance. The 32% higher CH4 production was observed over control at best US intensity and irradiation time of 0.0028 W/mL and 120 s, respectively. The sono-biostimulation effects in terms of higher CH4 generation over control lasted for 45 h. The increase in the concentration of NH4+-N and K+ considered the indication of cell lysis under applied US conditions. At best US intensity and irradiation time, the NH4+-N and K+ fraction in the medium remained similar as of control, which indicated that no cell lysis occurred. The preliminary findings of the study showed that low intensity US can be a promising solution to enhance the process efficiency in terms of higher methane production with minimal energy requirement.


Assuntos
Metano , Esgotos , Anaerobiose
13.
Bioresour Technol ; 292: 122052, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473038

RESUMO

This work studied the effects of ammonium carbonate pretreatment on biogas production during sequential anaerobic digestion. The results showed that the addition of ammonium bicarbonate (8%, w/w) obtained the highest biogas production of 14,690 mL with a yield of 222.6 mL g-1, which was 31% higher than that of un-pretreated (control experiment). Interestingly, the COD removal was increased by 100%. Furthermore, it was also helpful in stabilizing the pH of anaerobically digested corn stalk. Based on the results, the modified Gompertz equation fitted the cumulative biogas production curves very well, with high correlation coefficients (>0.994).


Assuntos
Metano , Zea mays , Anaerobiose , Bicarbonatos , Biocombustíveis
14.
Waste Manag ; 99: 122-134, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476637

RESUMO

Sewage sludge production in European countries has widely raised in the last decade and its fate is currently landfilling, incinerators, composting or land application. To explore its agronomic potential, the main target of this work is to understand the effects of anaerobic digestates from sewage sludge (SSAD). To this aim, four different SSADs (two liquids and two dewatered) were characterized. On the liquid ones, Germination Index was evaluated through a plate bioassay with Lepidium sativum L. seeds; low concentrations of SSAD (2.5%) improved GI in one case, while at higher concentrations phytotoxic effects occurred in both. Then, pot experiments were set in climate chamber with Cucumis sativus L. grown for 30 days on two different substrates: a sandy, alkaline and poor soil, and peat substrate. All SSADs and a mineral fertilizer were used at three increasing dosages: 85, 170, 255 kg of nitrogen per hectare (kg N/ha). Results in terms of germination, dry biomass, chlorophyll content, net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, CO2 concentration in substomatal cavity and root development were compared to a not treated control. All treatments gave results significantly higher or similar to control on all the parameters evaluated. Moreover, the intermediate nitrogen dosage (170 kg N/ha) generally showed the highest results compared to other dosages, especially for dewatered SSADs. All these results were much more evident for cucumber plants grown on an the alkaline, sandy and poor soil than on peat substrate, such demonstrating that SSADs have a fertilizing effect for plants growing on this kind of soil.


Assuntos
Esgotos , Solo , Anaerobiose , Europa (Continente) , Fertilizantes
15.
Bioresour Technol ; 292: 122058, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488335

RESUMO

Anaerobic digestion (AD) and pyrolysis are two promising technologies used worldwide for waste biomass treatment. Interests on intensification techniques of AD has been increasing to obtain sufficient and sustainable methane production with stable digester performance. For instance, considerable attention has been devoted to the coupling of AD with biochar, which is produced by biomass thermochemical conversion. This manuscript presents a comprehensive review about recent achievements in enhancing AD efficiency with the utilization of biochar. The key roles of biochar include enhancing and equilibrating hydrolysis, acidogenesis-acetogenesis, and methanogenesis, as well as alleviating inhibitor stress were summarized. Biochar can promote biomethane process mainly by serving as a provision for bioelectrical connections between fermentative bacteria and methanogens, a support for microbial colonies, and a reinforcer for buffer capacity. Through an overview of the early applications, this paper aims to pinpoint the potential mechanism and future explorative directions of biochar enhancing AD performance.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal , Metano , Anaerobiose , Biomassa , Hidrólise
16.
Bioresour Technol ; 293: 122051, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472405

RESUMO

In this work, a 30-days batched mesophilic assay on pretreated food waste (PFW) under different inoculum/substrate (I/S) ratios (1:5, 1:2, 1:1, 2:1, 4:1 and 1:0) was carried out, to target the most important parameters in AD matrix on regulating iron (Fe) chemical speciation. Correlation coefficients were calculated within four Fe chemical forms and AD parameters of pH, volatile fatty acids (VFAs), inorganic acid radicals (IARs), and alkalinity. Results showed that IARs were not key factors on regulating Fe speciation. Without acidification, IARs showed weak correlations (coefficients < 0.40) with Fe chemical dynamics while other parameters showed stronger correlations (coefficients ≥ 0.60). Under acidification, VFAs initiated the conversion of exchangeable Fe into water soluble fraction. Residual fraction might play important role in regulating Fe shifting to more bioavailable states.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Ferro , Anaerobiose , Reatores Biológicos , Alimentos
17.
Bioresour Technol ; 293: 122043, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472406

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of particle size reduction (20, 1, 0.15, and 0.075 mm) on biogas production from rice straw waste through batch anaerobic digestion experiments. To clarify the digestion mechanisms, the microbial community and rice straw properties including fractal dimension, dissolution abilities and the bio-liquefaction degree were determined. Particle size reduction of rice straw improved methane yield from 107 mL g-1 VS to 197 mL g-1 VS. The elevated digestion efficiency was attributed to the cellulose degradation (degradation rate from 27% to 93%) rather than hemicellulose or lignin. The comminution pretreatment improved the basic morphology, dissolution abilities and bio-liquefaction degree, which associated with the shifts in the bacterial community and the decreased bacterial diversity. These results suggested that particle size reduction of the rice straw in conjunction with optimized microbial growth could improve the methane yield in anaerobic digestion processes.


Assuntos
Oryza , Anaerobiose , Biocombustíveis , Metano , Tamanho da Partícula
18.
Bioresour Technol ; 293: 122042, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473374

RESUMO

In excess sludge digestion, organic matters cannot be digested adequately due to its high lignocellulose content. This study attempted to comprehensively evaluate the digestive performances of sludge with different lignocellulosic components (hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin). Results show that hemicellulose/dealkaline lignin addition (S6) presents the highest methane yield of 203.6 mL/gVS. Compared to hemicellulose, dealkaline lignin is hardly degraded (lower than 10%), while its participation can promote the degradation of other organics in the system. Additionally, solo cellulose feedstock is difficult to be hydrolyzed (only 40.1%) without hemicellulose and dealkaline lignin addition. VFAs composition analysis indicates that VFA inhibition occurs in the digester with hemicellulose, cellulose and dealkaline lignin addition (S8). Microbial diversities of different digestive systems show that the relative abundance of Euryarchaeota in the digester S6 (7.2%) is much higher than others, and some specific microbes (Bacteroidetas and Firmicutes) are enriched in the S5 (74.1%) and S8 (54.7%) digesters.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Esgotos , Anaerobiose , Lignina , Metano
19.
Bioresour Technol ; 293: 122039, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476562

RESUMO

An anaerobic ammonium oxidation-upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (anammox-UASB) reactor was operated without temperature control during the four seasons and was therefore subjected to natural periodic temperature variations between 9 and 28 ℃. The anammox reactor had a high nitrogen removal ability at intermediate and low temperatures. The total nitrogen (TN) concentration of the influent increased from 200 to 1200 mg/L, the nitrogen removal efficiency was maintained at 90%, and the nitrogen removal rate (NRR) increased to 9.15 ±â€¯0.35 kg N/m3/d. The enrichment of anammox bacteria in the UASB granular sludge reached 53.8%, and the dominant bacteria changed from Candidatus Brocadia to Candidatus Kuenenia after several seasons of cultivation. Dynamics analysis revealed that the maximum reaction rate of the anammox-UASB sludge was 62.5 kg N/m3/d, reflecting the high potential nitrogen removal ability of the reactor.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio , Esgotos , Anaerobiose , Reatores Biológicos , Nitrogênio , Oxirredução , Temperatura Ambiente
20.
Bioresour Technol ; 293: 122070, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491648

RESUMO

Bioaugmentation to alleviate ammonia inhibition under thermophilic anaerobic digestion has never been reported, as well as the working mechanism that allows a fast and successful bioaugmentation. Thus two bioaugmentation inocula (an enriched culture, and a mixed culture composed 50/50 by Methanoculleus thermophilus and the enriched culture) on the recovery of ammonia-inhibited thermophilic continuous reactors was assessed. The results showed that bioaugmentation improved methane yield by 11-13% and decreased the volatile fatty acids (VFA) by 45-52% compared to the control reactor (abiotic augmentation). Moreover, the importance of hydrogenotrophic methanogens to a fast and successful bioaugmentation was recognized. Specifically, the instant hydrogen partial pressure reduction by the bioaugmented hydrogenotroph created thermodynamically favourable conditions for the acetate oxidation process and consequently, the catabolism of other VFA. High-throughput sequencing results strengthened this explanation by showing that the bioaugmented M. thermophilus stimulated the growth of syntrophic acetate oxidising bacterium Thermacetogenium phaeum, immediately after bioaugmentation.


Assuntos
Amônia , Euryarchaeota , Anaerobiose , Reatores Biológicos , Metano
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