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2.
Lancet Haematol ; 8(10): e732-e743, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481549

RESUMO

The epidemiology of iron deficiency anaemia in sub-Saharan Africa differs from that in other parts of the world. The low-quality diets prevalent in this region are a poor source of iron, the population is frequently exposed to infection, and demographic characteristics result in a greater prevalence of people at high risk of iron deficiency anaemia than in other parts of the world. We herein review the causes, disease burden, and consequences of iron deficiency anaemia in the general population in this region, and current policies and interventions for its control. The current debate is dominated by concerns about the safety of iron interventions, namely regarding its effects on malaria and other infectious diseases. However, universal antenatal iron supplementation and delayed cord clamping are safe interventions and stand out for their potential to improve maternal and infant health. Effective infection control is a precondition to safe and efficacious iron interventions in children. Greater emphasis should be given to approaches aiming to reduce iron loss due to helminth infections and menstruation, alongside interventions to increase iron intake. TRANSLATION: For the French translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Assuntos
Anemia Ferropriva/epidemiologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Humanos , Risco
3.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444943

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Micronutrient malnutrition is a form of undernutrition that causes diseases, and this is mainly due to insufficient intake of nutrients in daily foods. The status of micronutrients for people in Sudan remains scarce, and information is limited. The aim of this study is to highlight the status of micronutrients among women of reproductive age (15-49 years of age) and their children in Sudan. METHODS: This manuscript is a quantitative descriptive study, based on the data from Sudan Micronutrient Survey (SMS); it is part of the second round of the Simple Spatial Survey Method (S3M II) in Sudan (a total of 93,882 households). RESULTS: The level of consumption of vitamin A-rich foods was found to be moderate at 67.36% for reproductive-age women and low at 23.44% for under-five children. Similarly, consumption rate of vitamin B-rich foods among reproductive-age women was 62.13%, and low for children at 11.02%. The consumption of iron-, calcium-, and zinc-rich foods was moderate among women (66.75%, 47.69%, 69.72%, respectively) and very low in children (12.28%, 17.62%, 14.99%, respectively). The iron deficiency prevalence was 47% in non-pregnant women, 58% in pregnant women, and 54% in children. The prevalence of anemia was 30% in non-pregnant women, 37% in pregnant women, and 48% in children. Generally, urinary iodine concentration was inadequate in lactating and non-pregnant women as well as in pregnant women. Most indicators of micronutrients in Sudan for children and women of reproductive age were highly significant. Sudan needs more efforts to create an enabling environment through legislation, policies, and strategies to strengthen the nutrition-sensitive and specific interventions and improving status of micronutrients among women and children, focusing on food fortification, food supplements, and counseling on micronutrients intake for mothers during antenatal and postnatal services as well as raising community awareness.


Assuntos
Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Micronutrientes/deficiência , Estado Nutricional , Adolescente , Adulto , Anemia/epidemiologia , Anemia Ferropriva/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Dieta/métodos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Alimentos Fortificados , Humanos , Lactente , Ferro/administração & dosagem , Ferro/sangue , Masculino , Desnutrição/sangue , Desnutrição/urina , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Reprodução , Sudão/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vitamina A/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/sangue , Adulto Jovem , Zinco/administração & dosagem , Zinco/deficiência
4.
Rev Port Cardiol (Engl Ed) ; 40(8): 525-536, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392892

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Iron deficiency (IDef) is a prevalent condition in patients with heart disease and in those with heart failure (HF). Evidence has shown that this deficit is associated with worse prognosis. Data in literature are scarce on the prognostic impact of IDef in acute coronary syndromes (ACS), which is the main objective of this study. METHODS: Observational, retrospective study which included 817 patients admitted for ACS. Two groups were defined according to the presence (n=298) or absence of IDef (n=519) on admission. The clinical event under study was the occurrence of death or severe HF in the long term. Independent predictors of prognosis were determined with logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Thirty-six percent of patients had IDef. There was higher mortality (p=0.004), higher incidence of HF (p=0.011) during follow-up and a higher rate of hospital readmissions (p=0.048) in this group. IDef was an independent predictor of death or severe HF in follow-up, along with anemia, left ventricular dysfunction, renal dysfunction and the absence of revascularization. IDef also enabled us to further stratify the prognosis of patients without anemia based on the occurrence of death or severe HF and those with lower Killip classes (≤2) based on the occurrence of death. CONCLUSION: IDef was an independent predictor of death or severe HF in patients admitted with ACS and enabled additional stratification for those without anemia on admission and in those with Killip classes ≤2.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda , Anemia Ferropriva , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Anemia Ferropriva/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 374, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34367453

RESUMO

Introduction: the problem of malnutrition among children is a phenomenon associated with a rapid nutrition transition in Morocco and all developing countries. The objective of this study is to evaluate the nutritional status by anthropometry, food consumption and iron deficiency anemia among primary school children aged 6-12 years in Kenitra city (Morocco). Methods: the survey covered 271 students (55% of boys and 45% girls) aged 6 to 12. Information concerning food consumption patterns, socioeconomic status and other lifestyle factors was obtained using questionnaires and interviews. Anemia was defined when haemoglobin < 11.5 g/dl. Results: the results showed that, 6.3%, 2.2% and 17.3% children were stunted, thin and overweight respectively. No significant association was found between gender and nutritional status of children. 16.2% children were anemic and food consumption found not to be varied and below recommendations. Conclusion: the finding in this study showed that overweight and obesity occurred more frequently than the various forms of under nutrition in the population studied. The finding support the urgent need to improve the nutritional status of children by implementing preventive strategy for the problem of malnutrition among school-aged children.


Assuntos
Anemia Ferropriva/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/epidemiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Estado Nutricional , Adolescente , Antropometria , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 44: 445-448, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34330503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Iron deficiency anemia is a public health problem affecting both developing and developed countries, with devastating consequences on health as well as social and economic development. However, there are scarce data regarding community awareness in Saudi Arabia; therefore, this study was conducted to assess the awareness of the community about the relationship between black tea consumption and iron deficiency anemia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted, with 231 participants from Al-Ahsa region agreeing to participate voluntarily. The study instrument gathered sociodemographic data on the participants and asked them awareness-related questions. RESULTS: None of the study participants was completely aware of iron-rich foods, although the majority of the participants had a decent awareness level. Statistically significant differences were found between age, educational level, and type, the number of cups of black tea consumed per day, and awareness of the relationship between black tea consumption and iron deficiency anemia. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: Based on the finding that the majority of the participants had moderate awareness, education and awareness-raising strategies should be planned and offered to improve nutritional habits and to encourage refraining from the consumption of food and drinks that hinder iron bioavailability.


Assuntos
Anemia Ferropriva , Anemia Ferropriva/epidemiologia , Anemia Ferropriva/prevenção & controle , Disponibilidade Biológica , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Ferro , Chá
7.
Acta Paediatr ; 110(10): 2842-2849, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34196983

RESUMO

AIM: The combination of iron deficiency and anaemia is a major health problem, and adolescents are an at-risk group. The main aim of this study was to explore the magnitude of these conditions among adolescents aged 15-19 and identify possible associated risk factors. METHODS: This population-based longitudinal study of adolescents in North Norway was conducted in 2010-2011, with a follow-up two years later. Repeated measurements of iron deficiency and anaemia and its possible risk factors were studied in 309 girls and 273 boys. RESULTS: Iron deficiency and anaemia were found in 18.1% and 19.9% of girls and 1.6% and 2.9% of boys in the first study and about half of the cases were chronic two years later. Most girls had moderate iron deficiency (14.5%) and mild anaemia (16.0%). Daily milk consumption was associated with increased iron deficiency in girls (odds ratio 2.3, 95% confidence interval 1.1-4.9), and the most physically active girls had the lowest levels of iron deficiency (odds ratio 0.4, 95% confidence intervaI 0.2-0.9). Iron deficiency was the most important risk factor for chronic anaemia in girls. CONCLUSION: The results of this study highlight the importance of iron deficiency screening and treatment for adolescent girls.


Assuntos
Anemia Ferropriva , Anemia , Adolescente , Anemia/epidemiologia , Anemia Ferropriva/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Noruega/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
8.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201821

RESUMO

Fortification with multiple micronutrient powder has been proposed as a public health intervention able to reduce micronutrient deficiencies in children. Our objective was to compare the effectiveness of fortification with multiple micronutrient powder with drug supplementation in the prevention and treatment of iron deficiency and anaemia. This was a cluster trial with anemic and non-anaemic children between six and 42 months old, in randomization data. Non anaemic children received fortification with multiple micronutrient powder or standard drug supplementation of ferrous sulfate associated with folic acid in a prevention dose. Anaemic children who were randomized to receive multiple micronutrient powder also received the recommended iron complementation for anaemia treatment. A total of 162 children were evaluated. The prevalence of anaemia decreased from 13.58 to 1.85%. Iron deficiency decreased from 21.74% to 7.89% (by serum ferritin) and iron deficiency decreased from 66.81 to 38.27% (by soluble transferrin receptor). No difference was identified between interventions for hemoglobin (p = 0.142), serum ferritin (p = 0.288), and soluble transferrin receptor (p = 0.156). Fortification with multiple micronutrient powder was effective in preventing iron deficiency and anaemia in children aged six to 48 months. In anaemic children; it was necessary to supplement the dose of multiple micronutrient powder with ferrous sulfate.


Assuntos
Anemia Ferropriva/prevenção & controle , Anemia Ferropriva/terapia , Alimentos Fortificados , Micronutrientes/farmacologia , Anemia Ferropriva/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Ferritinas/sangue , Alimentos Fortificados/efeitos adversos , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Micronutrientes/efeitos adversos , Pós , Prevalência
9.
Georgian Med News ; (314): 107-110, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34248037

RESUMO

Anemia and iron deficiency (ID) are important and common comorbidities that often coexist in patients with heart failure (HF). Both conditions, together or independently, are associated with poor clinical status and worse outcomes. The aim of our research was to study prevalence and clinical impact of ID and anemia in HF patients attending cardiology department of our hospital. We studied 133 patients with HF who have been admitted to hospital since September 2019: 78 (58.6%) patient had ID, 55 (42.4%) with HF and without ID were included in the control group. Patient baseline assessment included a standardized HF history regarding HF etiology (classified as ischemic or non-ischemic) and co-morbidities. All patients underwent a standardized clinical evaluation, including physical examination, determination of NYHA class. Blood samples were drawn for the assessment of a full blood count and clinical chemistry, including iron and serum ferritin and kidney function (creatinine). Assessment of exercise capacity was performed by a 6-min walk test. ID was present in 78(58.6%) patients. 70(52.6%) patients from 133 presented with anemia. Most patients in both groups are men, patients with ID were elderly, in both groups, most patients had arterial hypertension, more patients with ID had diabetes mellitus, HF etiology was predominantly ischemic in both groups, most patients were with NYHA class III, patients with ID had significantly low LVEF. No differences were recorded for body weight, diastolic blood pressure, platelets, eGFR or serum creatinine, no such differences were found regarding hypertension and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. There was a highly significant association between hemoglobin and serum ferritin in patients with ID, but in patients without ID, this association was only of borderline significance. The presence of anemia, ID, or both was associated with significantly higher NYHA class. We found that gender, NYHA class, LVEF, the presence of anemia, eGFR all predicted lower exercise capacity.


Assuntos
Anemia Ferropriva , Anemia , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Idoso , Anemia/complicações , Anemia/epidemiologia , Anemia Ferropriva/complicações , Anemia Ferropriva/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência
10.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(3): 609-612, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226445

RESUMO

Adolescent girls are vulnerable in underdeveloped and developing countries due to having public health problems regarding iron deficiency anaemia. As zinc acts as a cofactor in iron metabolism, so the deficiency of this trace element is associated with iron deficiency anaemia. This study was done to evaluate the changes of serum iron and serum zinc levels among iron deficient anaemic adolescent girls in comparison to healthy adolescent girls in Bangladesh. This prospective type of analytical cross sectional study was carried out in the Department of Physiology, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh, Bangladesh from July 2019 to December 2020. Total number of 140 adolescent girl's age ranged from10-19 years included in this study. Among them, 70 healthy adolescent girls, were taken as control group (Group I). Remaining 70 Adolescent girls with iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) were taken as study group (Group II). Estimation of serum iron was determined by Ferrozine method using Globals iron kit, UK. Serum zinc levels were determined by colorimetric method with reagents. All data were expressed as mean (±SD) and statistical significance of difference among the group I ( healthy adolescent girls) and group II (adolescent girls with iron deficiency anaemia) were calculated by unpaired students' 't' test. Correlation of serum iron with serum zinc was done by Pearson's correlation coefficient test. The mean values (±SD) of serum iron level of Group I and Group II were 69.06±18.11µg/dl & 15.61±9.12µg/dl respectively. Mean values (±SD) of serum iron significantly lower in study group (Group II) in comparison with control group (Group I). The mean (±SD) of serum zinc level of Group I and Group II were 75.48±14.26µg/dl & 33.27±12.94µg/dl respectively. Mean value (±SD) of serum zinc levels were significantly lower in study group (Group II) in comparison with control group (Group I). Serum zinc level was positively correlated with serum iron and that was statistically significant. The deficiency of iron does not occur alone; rather it is typically associated and developed with hypozincemia. The study suggests on supplementing iron along with zinc to correct the deficiency especially in adolescent girls when their metabolic demand is high.


Assuntos
Anemia Ferropriva , Adolescente , Adulto , Anemia Ferropriva/epidemiologia , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Ferro , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem , Zinco
11.
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e046865, 2021 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226221

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Serum iron results are not indicative of iron deficiency yet may be incorrectly used to diagnose iron deficiency instead of serum ferritin results. Our objective was to determine the association between serum iron test results and iron-deficiency diagnosis in children by general practitioners. DESIGN, SETTING, PATIENTS AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: A retrospective observational study of 14 187 children aged 1-18 years with serum ferritin and serum iron test results from 137 general practices in Victoria, Australia, between 2008 and 2018. Generalised estimating equation models calculating ORs were used to determine the association between serum iron test results (main exposure measure) and iron-deficiency diagnosis (outcome measure) in the following two population groups: (1) iron-deplete population, defined as having a serum ferritin <12 µg/L if aged <5 years and <15 µg/L if aged ≥5 years and (2) iron-replete population, defined as having a serum ferritin >30 µg/L. RESULTS: 3484 tests were iron deplete and 15 528 were iron replete. Iron-deplete children were less likely to be diagnosed with iron deficiency if they had normal serum iron levels (adjusted OR (AOR): 0.73; 95% CI 0.57 to 0.96). Iron-replete children had greater odds of an iron-deficiency diagnosis if they had low serum iron results (AOR: 2.59; 95% CI 1.72 to 3.89). Other contributors to an iron-deficiency diagnosis were female sex and having anaemia. CONCLUSION: Serum ferritin alone remains the best means of diagnosing iron deficiency. Reliance on serum iron test results by general practitioners is leading to significant overdiagnosis and underdiagnosis of iron deficiency in children.


Assuntos
Anemia Ferropriva , Anemia Ferropriva/diagnóstico , Anemia Ferropriva/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Ferritinas , Humanos , Ferro , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vitória
12.
Salud Publica Mex ; 63(3 May-Jun): 412-421, 2021 May 03.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098612

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the current status of anemia and iron deficiency (ID), as well as associated sociodemographic characteristics, in older adults (OA). Materials and meth-ods. Serum and capillary blood samples from a sample of OA participants (n=2 902) from the Ensanut 2018-19 were analyzed. ID was defined as s-ferritin<15 µg/L, and anemia was defined according to World Health Organization stan-dards. Logistic regression models were used to associate the characteristics of OA with anemia and ID. RESULTS: Of the OA analyzed, anemia was present in 28.4%, ID in 5% and iron deficiency anemia in 2.07%. Diabetes (OR=2.14), renal insuf-ficiency (OR=10.4), higher age, and urban dwelling (OR=1.35) were conditions associated with higher odds for anemia (p<0.05). Belonging to the 70-79 year age group was the only condition associated with higher odds for ID (OR=1.86, p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Anemia affects a high proportion of OA, and ID is not the main contributor to anemia. Chronic comorbidities help explain the anemia problem in OA.


Assuntos
Anemia , Ferro , Idoso , Anemia/epidemiologia , Anemia Ferropriva/epidemiologia , Humanos , Ferro/deficiência , México/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Nutricionais
13.
Salud Publica Mex ; 63(3 May-Jun): 401-411, 2021 May 03.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098613

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence of women 20-49 years of age with iron deficiency anemia (IDA), iron deficiency with no anemia (IDNA), and non-ID anemia (NIDA) in com-parison during 2006, 2012 and 2018, and their association with sociodemographic characteristics and nutritional status. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ensanut 2006, 2012 and 2018- 19 are comparable for measurements of anemia (hemoglobin) and Iron deficiency (ID, by ferritin). Both measurements combined were compared with year of surveys and other dependent variables using a multinomial regression. RESULTS: In 2006, the total prevalence of anemia was 14.9% and ID 29.0%, the prevalence of IDA was 8.35%, of IDNA 20.5%, and NIDA 6.6%; in 2012, the total prevalence of anemia was 13.3%, ID was 9.6%, IDA 8.6%, IDNA 21.0% y NIDA 4.7%; in 2018 total prevalence of anemia was 21.4%, of ID 25.7%, IDA 10.5%, IDNA 15.2% and NIDA 10.9%. CONCLUSIONS: The total prevalence of anemia increased 6.5 pp between 2006 and 2018, IDNA reduced, IDA had no significant changes, the mayor increase (4.3 pp) occurred in NIDA.


Assuntos
Anemia , Ferro , Adulto , Anemia/epidemiologia , Anemia Ferropriva/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Ferro/deficiência , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
14.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 114(3): 986-996, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34113969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prevention of iron deficiency in African children is a public health priority. Current WHO/FAO estimations of iron requirements are derived from factorial estimates based on healthy, iron-sufficient "model" children using data derived mainly from adults. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we aimed to quantify iron absorption, loss, and balance in apparently healthy 5- to 7-y-old children living in rural Africa. METHODS: We directly measured long-term iron absorption and iron loss in a 2-y observational study in Malawian children (n = 48) using a novel stable iron isotope method. RESULTS: Of the 36 children with height-for-age and weight-for-age z scores ≥-2, 13 (36%) were iron deficient (soluble transferrin receptor >8.3 mg/L) and 23 were iron sufficient. Iron-deficient children weighed more than iron-sufficient children [mean difference (95% CI): +2.1 (1.4, 2.7) kg; P = 0.01]. Mean iron losses did not differ significantly between iron-deficient and iron-sufficient children and were comparable to WHO/FAO median estimates of 19 µg/(d × kg). In iron-sufficient children, median (95% CI) dietary iron absorption was 32 (28, 34) µg/(d × kg), comparable to WHO/FAO-estimated median requirements of 32 µg/(d × kg). In iron-deficient children, absorption of 28 (25, 30) µg/(d × kg) was not increased to correct their iron deficit, likely because of a lack of bioavailable dietary iron. Twelve children (25%) were undernourished (underweight, stunted, or both). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that WHO/FAO iron requirements are adequate for healthy iron-sufficient children in this rural area of Malawi, but iron-deficient children require additional bioavailable iron to correct their iron deficit.


Assuntos
Anemia Ferropriva/epidemiologia , Isótopos de Ferro , Ferro/administração & dosagem , Anemia Ferropriva/diagnóstico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Ferro/metabolismo , Malaui , Masculino , Necessidades Nutricionais
15.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072813

RESUMO

Anemia is a worldwide concern. This cross-sectional population-based study examined the prevalence of iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) among residents of São Paulo (n = 898; 12-93 years), considering sociodemographic factors, dietary iron inadequacy, and food contributors to iron intake. Blood cell count and iron biomarkers were quantified. Dietary iron intake was measured using two 24-h dietary recalls. Iron intake inadequacy was estimated using a probabilistic approach. The prevalence of anemia was 6.7%, depleted iron stores 5.1%, and IDA 1.1%. Women of all age groups, older adults, and those who were underweight or obese had the highest prevalence of anemia, and female adolescents had the highest prevalence of depleted iron stores. Female adolescents and adults were more vulnerable to depleted iron stores. Male adults and older adults had a considerable prevalence of iron overload. Except for female adolescents and adults, all groups had mild probabilities of inadequate iron intake. The main food iron contributor was wheat flour. Hemoglobin concentrations were directly associated with being an adult, having a higher income, and inversely associated with being female. Serum ferritin concentrations were directly associated with age and inversely correlated with female sex. Residents of São Paulo had a low prevalence of anemia, iron deficiency, and IDA, and sociodemographic factors interfered with these parameters.


Assuntos
Anemia Ferropriva/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066577

RESUMO

Prevalence of anaemia among Nigerian toddlers is reported to be high, and may cause significant morbidity, affects brain development and function, and results in weakness and fatigue. Although, iron fortification can reduce anaemia, yet the effect on gut microbiota is unclear. This open-label randomised study in anaemic malnourished Nigerian toddlers aimed to decrease anaemia without affecting pathogenic gut bacteria using a multi-nutrient fortified dairy-based drink. The test product was provided daily in different amounts (200, 400 or 600 mL, supplying 2.24, 4.48 and 6.72 mg of elemental iron, respectively) for 6 months. Haemoglobin, ferritin, and C-reactive protein concentrations were measured to determine anaemia, iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) prevalence. Faecal samples were collected to analyse gut microbiota composition. All three dosages reduced anaemia prevalence, to 47%, 27% and 18%, respectively. ID and IDA prevalence was low and did not significantly decrease over time. Regarding gut microbiota, Enterobacteriaceae decreased over time without differences between groups, whereas Bifidobacteriaceae and pathogenic E. coli were not affected. In conclusion, the multi-nutrient fortified dairy-based drink reduced anaemia in a dose-dependent way, without stimulating intestinal potential pathogenic bacteria, and thus appears to be safe and effective in treating anaemia in Nigerian toddlers.


Assuntos
Anemia Ferropriva/prevenção & controle , Bebidas , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/prevenção & controle , Compostos Ferrosos/administração & dosagem , Alimentos Fortificados , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Anemia Ferropriva/epidemiologia , Anemia Ferropriva/microbiologia , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/microbiologia , Pré-Escolar , Laticínios , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência
17.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067098

RESUMO

Low-grade inflammation is often present in people living with obesity. Inflammation can impact iron uptake and metabolism through elevation of hepcidin levels. Obesity is a major public health issue globally, with pregnant women often affected by the condition. Maternal obesity is associated with increased pregnancy risks including iron deficiency (ID) and iron-deficiency anaemia (IDA)-conditions already highly prevalent in pregnant women and their newborns. This comprehensive review assesses whether the inflammatory state induced by obesity could contribute to an increased incidence of ID/IDA in pregnant women and their children. We discuss the challenges in accurate measurement of iron status in the presence of inflammation, and available iron repletion strategies and their effectiveness in pregnant women living with obesity. We suggest that pre-pregnancy obesity and overweight/obese pregnancies carry a greater risk of ID/IDA for the mother during pregnancy and postpartum period, as well as for the baby. We propose iron status and weight gain during pregnancy should be monitored more closely in women who are living with overweight or obesity.


Assuntos
Anemia Ferropriva/epidemiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Obesidade/complicações , Sobrepeso/complicações , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto , Anemia Ferropriva/etiologia , Feminino , Ganho de Peso na Gestação , Humanos , Incidência , Ferro/sangue , Obesidade/sangue , Sobrepeso/sangue , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/etiologia , Fatores de Risco
18.
Saudi Med J ; 42(6): 643-648, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34078726

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate prevalence and association between iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 79 participants with unexplained IDA. The study was carried out between November 2018 to April 2020 in the College of Medicine, Umm Al-Qura University in collaboration with Al-Noor Specialist Hospital, Makkah, Saudi Arabia. Complete blood count (CBC), serum iron, and ferritin levels were measured. Anti-H. pylori antibody was detected using anti-H. pylori immunoglobulin G enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS: The prevalence of H. pylori infection among IDA patients was 62%. There was a significant difference between female and male subjects with a positive H. pylori status (p=0.001). There was also a significant difference between females and males with a positive H. pylori infection according to red blood cell count, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, and mean cor-puscular hemoglobin (p=0.001). CONCLUSION: The current study shows an association between H. pylori infection and unexplained IDA with significant difference between postmenopausal Saudi females and males. This will lead to more effective treatment in IDA and the eradication of H. pylori, as well as the prevention of recurrence, which are necessary and may provide a significant reduction in the overall disease burden.


Assuntos
Anemia Ferropriva , Infecções por Helicobacter , Helicobacter pylori , Anemia Ferropriva/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por Helicobacter/complicações , Infecções por Helicobacter/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia
20.
Matern Child Nutr ; 17(4): e13205, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34036744

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to identify serum ferritin (SF) cut-off points (COPs) in a cohort of healthy full-term normal birth weight infants who had repeated measurements of SF and haemoglobin every 3 months during the first year of life. The study included 746 full-term infants with birth weight ≥2,500 g, having uncomplicated gestations and births. Participants received prophylactic iron supplementation (1 mg/day of iron element) from the first to the 12th month of life and did not develop anaemia during the first year of life. Two statistical methods were considered to identify COPs for low iron stores at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of age: deviation from mean and cluster analysis. According to the K-means cluster analysis results by age and sex, COPs at 3 and 6 months for girls were 39 and 21 µg/L and for boys 23 and 11 µg/L, respectively. A single COP of 10 µg/L was identified, for girls and boys, at both 9 and 12 months. Given the physiological changes in SF concentration during the first year of life, our study identified dynamic COPs, which differed by sex in the first semester. Adequate SF COPs are necessary to identify low iron stores at an early stage of iron deficiency, which represents one of the most widespread public health problems around the world, particularly in low- and middle-income countries.


Assuntos
Anemia Ferropriva , Ferritinas , Anemia Ferropriva/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hemoglobinas , Humanos , Lactente , Ferro/metabolismo , Masculino
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