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1.
Life Sci ; 258: 118175, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750436

RESUMO

AIMS: Human podocytes (hPC) play an important role in the pathogenesis of renal diseases. In this context, angiotensin II (Ang II) and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB) play a crucial role in podocyte injury. Recently, transmembrane protein (Tmem) 63c, a member of the Tmem-family was found to be expressed in kidney and associated with podocyte function. In this study, we analysed the expression regulation and functional impact of Tmem63c on cell viability and apoptosis in hPC in the context of Ang II activation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Expression of Tmem63c in response to Ang II and the NFκB inhibitor Bay 11-7082 was analysed by Real-Time PCR and Western blotting. Cellular functions were determined by functional assays. KEY FINDINGS: We found Ang II to induce Tmem63c expression in hPC in a concentration-dependent manner. Inhibition of NFκB by Bay 11-7082 reduced basal as well as Ang II-induced Tmem63c expression. SiRNA-mediated down-regulation of Tmem63c diminished cell viability and protein kinase B (Akt) signaling and increased cell apoptosis of resting as well as Ang II-activated hPC. SIGNIFICANCE: These data show that Ang II induced the expression of Tmem63c in hPC, possibly via NFκB-dependent mechanisms. Moreover, down-regulation of Tmem63c was associated with reduced cell viability, indicating Tmem63c to be a potential pro-survival factor in hPC.


Assuntos
Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Canais de Cálcio/metabolismo , Podócitos/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Podócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
PLoS Biol ; 18(8): e3000808, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817651

RESUMO

Although dysregulation of mitochondrial dynamics has been linked to cellular senescence, which contributes to advanced age-related disorders, it is unclear how Krüppel-like factor 5 (Klf5), an essential transcriptional factor of cardiovascular remodeling, mediates the link between mitochondrial dynamics and vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) senescence. Here, we show that Klf5 down-regulation in VSMCs is correlated with rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), an age-related vascular disease. Mice lacking Klf5 in VSMCs exacerbate vascular senescence and progression of angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced AAA by facilitating reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. Klf5 knockdown enhances, while Klf5 overexpression suppresses mitochondrial fission. Mechanistically, Klf5 activates eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5a (eIF5a) transcription through binding to the promoter of eIF5a, which in turn preserves mitochondrial integrity by interacting with mitofusin 1 (Mfn1). Accordingly, decreased expression of eIF5a elicited by Klf5 down-regulation leads to mitochondrial fission and excessive ROS production. Inhibition of mitochondrial fission decreases ROS production and VSMC senescence. Our studies provide a potential therapeutic target for age-related vascular disorders.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/genética , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/genética , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Fatores de Iniciação de Peptídeos/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Idoso , Angiotensina II/genética , Angiotensina II/metabolismo , Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Animais , Aorta/diagnóstico por imagem , Aorta/metabolismo , Aorta/patologia , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/metabolismo , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/patologia , Senescência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ecocardiografia , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Feminino , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/genética , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/metabolismo , Humanos , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/deficiência , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Dinâmica Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Iniciação de Peptídeos/deficiência , Cultura Primária de Células , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Ligação Proteica , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
4.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235553, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614927

RESUMO

Aortic aneurysm refers to dilatation of the aorta due to loss of elasticity and degenerative weakening of its wall. A preventive role for osteoprotegerin (Opg) in the development of abdominal aortic aneurysm has been reported in the CaCl2-induced aneurysm model, whereas Opg was found to promote suprarenal aortic aneurysm in the AngII-induced ApoE knockout mouse aneurysm model. To determine whether there is a common underlying mechanism to explain the impact of Opg deficiency on the vascular structure of the two aneurysm models, we analyzed suprarenal aortic tissue of 6-month-old ApoE-/-Opg-/- mice after AngII infusion for 28 days. Less aortic dissection and aortic lumen dilatation, more adventitial thickening, and higher expression of collagen I and Trail were observed in ApoE-/-Opg-/- mice relative to ApoE-/-Opg+/+ mice. An accumulation of α-smooth muscle actin and vimentin double-positive myofibroblasts was noted in the thickened adventitia of ApoE-/-Opg-/- mice. Our results suggest that fibrotic remodeling of the aorta induced by myofibroblast accumulation might be an important pathological event which tends to limit AngII-induced aortic dilatation in ApoE -/-Opg-/- mice.


Assuntos
Túnica Adventícia/patologia , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/patologia , Osteoprotegerina/genética , Túnica Adventícia/fisiologia , Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Animais , Aorta Abdominal/patologia , Aorta Abdominal/fisiologia , Apolipoproteínas E/deficiência , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Colesterol/sangue , Colágeno Tipo I/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fibrose , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Miofibroblastos/citologia , Miofibroblastos/metabolismo , Osteoprotegerina/deficiência , Ligante Indutor de Apoptose Relacionado a TNF/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol ; 319(2): F345-F357, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32715763

RESUMO

Angiotensin II (ANG II) is the key contributor to renal fibrosis and injury. The present study investigated the role of endothelium prolyl hydroxylase 2 (PHD2) in ANG II-mediated renal fibrosis and injury. In vitro, endothelial cells (ECs) were isolated from PHD2f/f control [wild-type (WT)] mice or PHD2 EC knockout (PHD2ECKO) mice. In vivo, WT and PHD2ECKO mice were infused with ANG II (1,000 ng·kg-1·min-1) for 28 days. Renal fibrosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and iron contents were measured. Knockout of PHD2 resulted in a significant increase in the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α and HIF-2α in ECs. Intriguingly, knockout of PHD2 significantly reduced expression of the ANG II type 1 receptor (AT1R) in ECs. WT mice infused with ANG II caused increases in renal fibrosis, ROS formation, and iron contents. ANG II treatment led to a downregulation of PHD1 expression and upregulation of HIF-1α and HIF-2α in the renal cortex and medulla. Knockout of PHD2 in EC blunted ANG II-induced downregulation of PHD1 expression. Furthermore, knockout of PHD2 in ECs attenuated ANG II-induced expression of HIF-1α, HIF-2α, transforming growth factor-ß1, p47phox, gp91phox, heme oxygenase-1, and ferroportin. This was accompanied by a significant suppression of renal fibrosis, ROS formation, and iron accumulation. In summary, knockout of endothelial PHD2 suppressed the expression of AT1R in ECs and blunted ANG II-induced downregulation of PHD1 and upregulation of HIF-α in the kidney. Our study, for the first time, demonstrates a necessary role of endothelial PHD2 in ANG II-mediated renal fibrosis and injury.


Assuntos
Angiotensina II/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Fibrose/metabolismo , Prolina Dioxigenases do Fator Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Nefropatias/enzimologia , Rim/lesões , Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Animais , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Endotélio/metabolismo , Prolina Dioxigenases do Fator Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Rim/enzimologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Pró-Colágeno-Prolina Dioxigenase/genética , Pró-Colágeno-Prolina Dioxigenase/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo
6.
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol ; 319(2): F178-F191, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32567349

RESUMO

Kidney injury in hypertension and diabetes entails, among in other structures, damage in a key cell of the glomerular filtration barrier, the podocyte. Podocytes are polarized and highly differentiated cells in which vesicular transport, partly driven by Rab GTPases, is a relevant process. The aim of the present study was to analyze Rab GTPases of the Rab-Rabphilin system in human immortalized podocytes and the impact of high glucose and angiotensin II. Furthermore, alterations of the system in urine cell pellets from patients with hypertension and diabetes were studied. Apoptosis was analyzed in podocytes, and mRNA level quantification, Western blot analysis, and immunofluorescence were developed to quantify podocyte-specific molecules and Rab-Rabphilin components (Rab3A, Rab27A, and Rabphilin3A). Quantitative RT-PCR was performed on urinary cell pellet from patients. The results showed that differentiated cells had reduced protein levels of the Rab-rabphillin system compared with undifferentiated cells. After glucose overload and angiotensin II treatment, apoptosis was increased and podocyte-specific proteins were reduced. Rab3A and Rab27A protein levels were increased under glucose overload, and Rabphilin3A decreased. Furthermore, this system exhibited higher levels under stress conditions in a manner of angiotensin II dose and time treatment. Immunofluorescence imaging indicated different expression patterns of podocyte markers and Rab27A under treatments. Finally, Rab3A and Rab27A were increased in patient urine pellets and showed a direct relationship with albuminuria. Collectively, these results suggest that the Rab-Rabphilin system could be involved in the alterations observed in injured podocytes and that a mechanism may be activated to reduce damage through the vesicular transport enhancement directed by this system.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Glucose/efeitos adversos , Podócitos/metabolismo , Proteínas rab de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Albuminúria/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/metabolismo
7.
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol ; 319(2): F192-F201, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597687

RESUMO

We have previously shown that hypertensive female rats have more regulatory T cells (Tregs), which contribute more to blood pressure (BP) control in female versus male rats. Based on known protective properties of Tregs, the goal of the present study was to investigate the mechanisms by which female rats maintain Tregs. The present study was designed to 1) compare the impact of three hypertension models on the percentage of renal Tregs and 2) test the hypothesis that nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition prevents increases in renal Tregs and exacerbates renal damage in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats (11-14 wk old) were randomized to one of the following four groups: control, norepinephrine (NE) infusion, angiotensin II infusion, or the NOS inhibitor Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) in drinking water. BP was measured via tail cuff. After 2 wk of treatment, kidneys were isolated and processed to measure Tregs via flow cytometric analysis and renal injury via urinary albumin excretion, plasma creatinine, and histological analyses. Hypertensive treatments increased BP in all experimental animals. Increases in BP in norepinephrine-and angiotensin II-treated rats were associated with increases in renal Tregs versus control. In contrast, l-NAME treatment decreased Tregs compared with all groups. l-NAME treatment modestly increased albumin excretion. However, plasma creatinine was comparable among the groups, and there was no histological evidence of glomerular or tubular injury. This study provides insights into the mechanisms regulating renal Tregs and supports that an intact NOS system is crucial for female rats to have BP-related increases in renal Tregs.


Assuntos
Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase/antagonistas & inibidores , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Rim/patologia , Rim/fisiopatologia , Testes de Função Renal , Masculino , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
8.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(8): 1918-1934, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32522006

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase) 15-a membrane-bound metalloprotease from the ADAM (disintegrin and metalloproteinase) family-has been linked to endothelial permeability, inflammation, and metastasis. However, its function in aortic aneurysm has not been explored. We aimed to determine the function of ADAM15 in the pathogenesis of aortic remodeling and aneurysm formation. Approach and Results: Male Adam15-deficient and WT (wild type) mice (10 weeks old), on standard laboratory diet, received Ang II (angiotensin II; 1.5 mg/kg per day) or saline (Alzet pump) for 2 or 4 weeks. Ang II increased ADAM15 in WT aorta, while Adam15-deficiency resulted in abdominal aortic aneurysm characterized by loss of medial smooth muscle cells (SMCs), elastin fragmentation, inflammation, but unaltered Ang II-mediated hypertension. In the abdominal aortic tissue and primary aortic SMCs culture, Adam15 deficiency decreased SMC proliferation, increased apoptosis, and reduced contractile properties along with F-actin depolymerization to G-actin. Ang II triggered a markedly greater increase in THBS (thrombospondin) 1 in Adam15-deficient aorta, primarily the medial layer in vivo, and in aortic SMC in vitro; increased SSH1 (slingshot homolog 1) phosphatase activity and cofilin dephosphorylation that promoted F-actin depolymerization and G-actin accumulation. rhTHBS1 (recombinant THBS1) alone was sufficient to activate the cofilin pathway, increase G-actin, and induce apoptosis of aortic SMCs, confirming the key role of THBS1 in this process. Further, in human abdominal aortic aneurysm specimens, decreased ADAM15 was associated with increased THBS1 levels and loss of medial SMCs. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to demonstrate a key role for ADAM15 in abdominal aortic aneurysm through regulating the SMC function, thereby placing ADAM15 in a critical position as a potential therapeutic target for abdominal aortic aneurysm.


Assuntos
Proteínas ADAM/fisiologia , Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Aorta Abdominal/patologia , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/etiologia , Proteínas de Membrana/fisiologia , Remodelação Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas ADAM/deficiência , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Inflamação/etiologia , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/deficiência , Camundongos , Músculo Liso Vascular/citologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/fisiologia , Trombospondina 1/análise , Vasoconstrição
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(9)2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-175942

RESUMO

Coronaviruses (CoVs), including Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), and the novel coronavirus disease-2 (SARS-CoV-2) are a group of enveloped RNA viruses that cause a severe respiratory infection which is associated with a high mortality [...].


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/mortalidade , Lesão Renal Aguda/virologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Túbulos Renais Proximais/metabolismo , Túbulos Renais Proximais/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/fisiopatologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/prevenção & controle , Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Catepsinas/metabolismo , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Creatinina/sangue , Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Endossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Endossomos/enzimologia , Endossomos/metabolismo , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Incidência , Túbulos Renais Proximais/fisiopatologia , Lisossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lisossomos/enzimologia , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/sangue , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/mortalidade , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/fisiopatologia , Internalização do Vírus , Replicação Viral
10.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents ; 34(1): 57-67, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32466632

RESUMO

Klotho is a putative aging suppressor gene that is primarily expressed in renal tubular epithelial cells. Its expression has been reported to protect against fibrosis in human chronic kidney disease. However, the roles of klotho in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and renal fibrosis are yet to be elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the putative roles of klotho in angiotensin (Ang) II-induced damage of renal tubular epithelial cells. NRK-52E rat cells were treated with various combinations of Ang II, the Ang-converting enzyme inhibitor fosinopril (Fos) and the Ang II receptor antagonist valsartan (Val). The levels of transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß1, soluble klotho, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and E-cadherin in NRK-52E culture supernatants were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Furthermore, the mRNA and protein expression of TGF-ß1, klotho, α-SMA and E-cadherin was detected using semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, immunocytochemistry and Western blot analysis. The results demonstrated that Ang II inhibited the expression of klotho and E-cadherin, while it upregulated the expression of TGF-ß1 and α-SMA, in NRK52E cells. Fos and/or Val were revealed to enhance klotho and E-cadherin expression, and suppress the expression of TGF-ß1 and α-SMA, compared with the Ang II-only group. Furthermore, a positive linear correlation was detected between the expression of klotho and E-cadherin, while negative linear correlations with klotho expression were detected for TGF-ß1 and α-SMA expression. In conclusion, the expression of klotho was demonstrated to be enhanced following treatment with Fos and Val in Ang II-treated NRK-52E cells. The present results indicate that klotho may be involved in the inhibition of Ang II-induced EMT in renal tubular epithelial cells. Therefore, klotho may serve as a protective factor in renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis and aid the treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients using precision therapy.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais/citologia , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Glucuronidase/fisiologia , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina , Actinas/metabolismo , Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Animais , Caderinas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Fibrose , Fosinopril/farmacologia , Humanos , Túbulos Renais/citologia , Ratos , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Valsartana/farmacologia
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(9)2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32380787

RESUMO

Coronaviruses (CoVs), including Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), and the novel coronavirus disease-2 (SARS-CoV-2) are a group of enveloped RNA viruses that cause a severe respiratory infection which is associated with a high mortality [...].


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/mortalidade , Lesão Renal Aguda/virologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Túbulos Renais Proximais/metabolismo , Túbulos Renais Proximais/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/fisiopatologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/prevenção & controle , Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Catepsinas/metabolismo , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Creatinina/sangue , Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Endossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Endossomos/enzimologia , Endossomos/metabolismo , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Incidência , Túbulos Renais Proximais/fisiopatologia , Lisossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lisossomos/enzimologia , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/sangue , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/mortalidade , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/fisiopatologia , Internalização do Vírus , Replicação Viral
13.
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol ; 318(6): F1513-F1519, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32390510

RESUMO

Angiotensin II (ANG II) stimulates proximal nephron transport via activation of classical protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms. Acute fructose treatment stimulates PKC and dietary fructose enhances ANG II's ability to stimulate Na+ transport, but the mechanisms are unclear. We hypothesized that dietary fructose enhances ANG II's ability to stimulate renal proximal tubule Na+ reabsorption by augmenting PKC-α activation and increases in intracellular Ca2+. We measured total and isoform-specific PKC activity, basal and ANG II-stimulated oxygen consumption, a surrogate of Na+ reabsorption, and intracellular Ca2+ in proximal tubules from rats given either 20% fructose in their drinking water (fructose group) or tap water (control group). Total PKC activity was measured by ELISA. PKC-α, PKC-ß, and PKC-γ activities were assessed by measuring particulate-to-soluble ratios. Intracelluar Ca2+ was measured using fura 2. ANG II stimulated total PKC activity by 53 ± 15% in the fructose group but not in the control group (-15 ± 11%, P < 0.002). ANG II stimulated PKC-α by 0.134 ± 0.026 but not in the control group (-0.002 ± 0.020, P < 0.002). ANG II increased PKC-γ activity by 0.008 ± 0.003 in the fructose group but not in the control group (P < 0.046). ANG II did not stimulate PKC-ß in either group. ANG II increased Na+ transport by 454 ± 87 nmol·min-1·mg protein-1 in fructose group, and the PKC-α/ß inhibitor Gö6976 blocked this increase (-96 ± 205 nmol·min-1·mg protein-1, P < 0.045). ANG II increased intracellular Ca2+ by 148 ± 53 nM in the fructose group but only by 43 ± 10 nM in the control group (P < 0.035). The intracellular Ca2+ chelator BAPTA blocked the ANG II-induced increase in Na+ transport in the fructose group. We concluded that dietary fructose enhances ANG II's ability to stimulate renal proximal tubule Na+ reabsorption by augmenting PKC-α activation via elevated increases in intacellular Ca2+.


Assuntos
Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Açúcares da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Frutose/administração & dosagem , Túbulos Renais Proximais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Quinase C-alfa/metabolismo , Reabsorção Renal/efeitos dos fármacos , Sódio/metabolismo , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Ativação Enzimática , Túbulos Renais Proximais/enzimologia , Masculino , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e923025, 2020 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32279067

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Cardiac hypertrophy usually results in heart failure and is an important cause of mortality worldwide. Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway hyper-activation is involved in the pathogenesis and progression of cardiac hypertrophy. Wnt-C59 is a small molecular compound, which strongly and specifically targets at Porcupine to pharmacologically inhibit Wnt palmitoylation, secretion, and other biological activities. However, the role of Wnt-C59 in cardiac hypertrophy remains unknown. MATERIAL AND METHODS We performed transverse aortic constriction (TAC) in adult male mice to induce pressure overload and establish an in vivo model of cardiac hypertrophy. Angiotensin II (Ang-II) was utilized to culture cardiomyocyte to establish a model of in vitro cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Daily administration of Porcupine inhibitor Wnt-C59 was performed for 4 weeks after TAC surgery. RESULTS Wnt-C59 significantly improved cardiac function and enhanced survival of mice subjected to TAC surgery. Histologically, Wnt-C59 attenuated TAC-induced increase in heart mass, cross-section area of cardiomyocyte, cardiac fibrosis, cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and expression of the hypertrophic biomarkers ß-MHC, ANP, and BNP. TAC-induced oxidative stress was also ameliorated by Wnt-C59. Wnt-C59 attenuated Ang-II-induced in vitro cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, as indicated by decreased cell size and lower expression of ANP, BNP, and ß-MHC. Moreover, Wnt/ß-catenin activation was blocked by Wnt-C59 in cardiac hypertrophy, as indicated by decreased protein expression of Wnt3a and ß-catenin and the Wnt target genes cyclin D1 and c-Myc. CONCLUSIONS Collectively, Porcupine inhibitor Wnt-C59 attenuates pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophic via interruption of the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway, and it might be a promising drug for patients with cardiac hypertrophy.


Assuntos
Benzenoacetamidas/farmacologia , Cardiomegalia/tratamento farmacológico , Piridinas/farmacologia , Via de Sinalização Wnt , Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Animais , Aorta/patologia , Aorta/cirurgia , Células Cultivadas , Constrição , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos
15.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(6): 1523-1532, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321308

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Although the molecular components of circadian rhythms oscillate in discrete cellular components of the vasculature and many aspects of vascular function display diurnal variation, the cellular connections between the molecular clock and inflammatory cardiovascular diseases remain to be elucidated. Previously we have shown that pre- versus postnatal deletion of Bmal1 (brain and muscle aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like 1), the nonredundant core clock gene has contrasting effects on atherogenesis. Here we investigated the effect of myeloid cell Bmal1 deletion on atherogenesis and abdominal aortic aneurysm formation in mice. Approach and Results: Mice lacking Bmal1 in myeloid cells were generated by crossing Bmal1 flox/flox mice with lysozyme 2 promoter-driven Cre recombinase mice on a hyperlipidemic low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient background and were fed on a high-fat diet to induce atherosclerosis. Atherogenesis was restrained, concomitant with a reduction of aortic proinflammatory gene expression in myeloid cell Bmal1 knockout mice. Body weight, blood pressure, blood glucose, triglycerides, and cholesterol were unaltered. Similarly, myeloid cell depletion of Bmal1 also restrained Ang II (angiotensin II) induced formation of abdominal aortic aneurysm in hyperlipidemic mice. In vitro, RNA-Seq analysis demonstrated a proinflammatory response in cultured macrophages in which there was overexpression of Bmal1. CONCLUSIONS: Myeloid cell Bmal1 deletion retards atherogenesis and restrains the formation of abdominal aortic aneurysm and may represent a potential therapeutic target for inflammatory cardiovascular diseases.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição ARNTL/deficiência , Fatores de Transcrição ARNTL/fisiologia , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/prevenção & controle , Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Hiperlipidemias/complicações , Células Mieloides/química , Fatores de Transcrição ARNTL/genética , Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Animais , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/induzido quimicamente , Aterosclerose/etiologia , Aterosclerose/patologia , Células Cultivadas , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Deleção de Genes , Expressão Gênica , Hiperlipidemias/etiologia , Inflamação , Integrases/genética , Macrófagos Peritoneais/química , Macrófagos Peritoneais/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Muramidase/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Receptores de LDL/deficiência , Receptores de LDL/genética
16.
Physiol Rev ; 100(3): 1119-1147, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32347156

RESUMO

Intercalated cells (ICs) are found in the connecting tubule and the collecting duct. Of the three IC subtypes identified, type B intercalated cells are one of the best characterized and known to mediate Cl- absorption and HCO3- secretion, largely through the anion exchanger pendrin. This exchanger is thought to act in tandem with the Na+-dependent Cl-/HCO3- exchanger, NDCBE, to mediate net NaCl absorption. Pendrin is stimulated by angiotensin II and aldosterone administration via the angiotensin type 1a and the mineralocorticoid receptors, respectively. It is also stimulated in models of metabolic alkalosis, such as with NaHCO3 administration. In some rodent models, pendrin-mediated HCO3- secretion modulates acid-base balance. However, of probably more physiological or clinical significance is the role of these pendrin-positive ICs in blood pressure regulation, which occurs, at least in part, through pendrin-mediated renal Cl- absorption, as well as their effect on the epithelial Na+ channel, ENaC. Aldosterone stimulates ENaC directly through principal cell mineralocorticoid hormone receptor (ligand) binding and also indirectly through its effect on pendrin expression and function. In so doing, pendrin contributes to the aldosterone pressor response. Pendrin may also modulate blood pressure in part through its action in the adrenal medulla, where it modulates the release of catecholamines, or through an indirect effect on vascular contractile force. In addition to its role in Na+ and Cl- balance, pendrin affects the balance of other ions, such as K+ and I-. This review describes how aldosterone and angiotensin II-induced signaling regulate pendrin and the contribution of pendrin-positive ICs in the kidney to distal nephron function and blood pressure.


Assuntos
Rim/citologia , Rim/fisiologia , Transportadores de Sulfato/metabolismo , Equilíbrio Ácido-Base/efeitos dos fármacos , Equilíbrio Ácido-Base/fisiologia , Aldosterona/farmacologia , Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Animais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Humanos
17.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 134(9): 1049-1061, 2020 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32309850

RESUMO

Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is an important cause of mortality in older adults. Chronic inflammation and excessive matrix remodelling are considered important in AAA pathogenesis. Kinins are bioactive peptides important in regulating inflammation. Stimulation of the kinin B2 receptor has been previously reported to promote AAA development and rupture in a mouse model. The endogenous B2 receptor agonist, bradykinin, is generated from the kallikrein-kinin system following activation of plasma kallikrein by Factor XII (FXII). In the current study whole-body FXII deletion, or neutralisation of activated FXII (FXIIa), inhibited expansion of the suprarenal aorta (SRA) of apolipoprotein E-deficient mice in response to angiotensin II (AngII) infusion. FXII deficiency or FXIIa neutralisation led to decreased aortic tumor necrosis factor-α-converting enzyme (TACE/a disintegrin and metalloproteinase-17 (aka tumor necrosis factor-α-converting enzyme) (ADAM-17)) activity, plasma kallikrein concentration, and epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) phosphorylation compared with controls. FXII deficiency or neutralisation also reduced Akt1 and Erk1/2 phosphorylation and decreased expression and levels of active matrix metalloproteinase (Mmp)-2 and Mmp-9. The findings suggest that FXII, kallikrein, ADAM-17, and EGFR are important molecular mediators by which AngII induces aneurysm in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. This could be a novel pathway to target in the design of drugs to limit AAA progression.


Assuntos
Aorta Abdominal/efeitos dos fármacos , Aorta Abdominal/patologia , Apolipoproteínas E/deficiência , Fator XII/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína ADAM17/metabolismo , Angiotensina II/metabolismo , Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Animais , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fator XII/metabolismo , Camundongos
18.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0228385, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134954

RESUMO

Our earlier studies proved that RIPK3-mediated necroptosis might be an important mode of renal tubular cell death in rats with chronic renal injury and the necroptotic cell death can be triggered by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in vitro, but the triggering role of angiotensin II (AngII), which exerts notable effects on renal cells for the initiation and progression of renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis, is largely unknown. Here, we identified the presence of necroptotic cell death in the tubular cells of AngII-induced chronic renal injury and fibrosis mice and assessed the percentage of necroptotic renal tubular cell death with the disruption of this necroptosis by the addition of necrostatin-1 (Nec-1). Furthermore, the observation was further confirmed in HK-2 cells treated with AngII and RIPK1/3 or MLKL inhibitors. The detection of Fas and FasL proteins led us to investigate the contribution of the Fas/FasL signaling pathway to AngII-induced necroptosis. Disruption of FasL decreased the percentage of necroptotic cells, suggesting that Fas and FasL are likely key signal molecules in the necroptosis of HK-2 cells induced by AngII. Our data suggest that AngII exposure might trigger RIPK3-MLKL-mediated necroptosis in renal tubular epithelial cells by activating the Fas/FasL signaling pathway in vivo and in vitro.


Assuntos
Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Proteína Ligante Fas/metabolismo , Túbulos Renais/citologia , Necroptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Proteína Serina-Treonina Quinases de Interação com Receptores/metabolismo , Receptor fas/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Fibrose , Humanos , Túbulos Renais/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130025

RESUMO

Blood pressure dipping at night is mediated by sleep-inherent, active downregulation of sympathetic vascular tone. Concomitantly, activity of the renin-angiotensin system is reduced, which might contribute to the beneficial effect of baroreflex downward resetting on daytime blood pressure homeostasis. To evaluate whether experimental nondipping mediated by angiotensin II during sleep would alter blood pressure and baroreflex function the next day in healthy humans, angiotensin-II or placebo (saline) was infused for a 7-h period at night, preventing blood pressure dipping in 11 sleeping normotensive individuals (5 males, balanced, crossover design). Baroreflex function was assessed about 1 h upon awakening and stop of infusion via microneurographic recordings of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), showing that resting MSNA was significantly increased following angiotensin II nondipping compared with placebo (P = 0.029), whereas blood pressure and heart rate remained unchanged. Baroreflex sensitivity in response to vasoactive drug challenge was preserved, and neuroendocrine markers of fluid balance and electrolytes did not differ between conditions. Ambulatory blood pressure during subsequent daytime was not altered. Data were compared with analog experiments previously performed within the same subjects during awake daytime (ANCOVA). We conclude that angiotensin-II mediated nocturnal nondipping did not induce blood pressure elevation at subsequent daytime in healthy humans but was linked to increased vasoconstrictive sympathetic activity. This is in contrast to a prolonged increase in blood pressure in corresponding daytime experiments of the same individuals. Evidently, sleep strongly preserves normotensive blood pressure homeostasis in healthy humans.


Assuntos
Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Barorreflexo/efeitos dos fármacos , Sono/efeitos dos fármacos , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Sono/fisiologia , Vigília , Adulto Jovem
20.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0226053, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040481

RESUMO

Hypertension is a major public health problem among the aging population worldwide. It causes cardiac remodeling, including hypertrophy and interstitial fibrosis, which leads to development of hypertensive heart disease (HHD). Although microRNA-21 (miR-21) is associated with fibrogenesis in multiple organs, its contribution to cardiac remodeling in hypertension is poorly understood. Circulating miR-21 level was higher in patients with HHD than that in the control subjects. It also positively correlated with serum myocardial fibrotic markers. MiR-21 expression levels were significantly upregulated in the mice hearts after angiotensin II (Ang II) infusion or transverse aortic constriction (TAC) compared with control mice. Expression level of programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4), a main target of miR-21, was significantly decreased in Ang II infused mice and TAC mice compared with control mice. Expression levels of transcriptional activator protein 1 (AP-1) and transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1), which were downstream targets of PDCD4, were increased in Ang II infused mice and TAC mice compared with control mice. In vitro, mirVana-miR-21-specific inhibitor attenuated Ang II-induced PDCD4 downregulation and contributed to subsequent deactivation of AP-1/TGF-ß1 signaling pathway in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. Thus, suppression of miR-21 prevents hypertrophic stimulation-induced cardiac remodeling by regulating PDCD4, AP-1, and TGF-ß1 signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Cardiomegalia/etiologia , Hipertensão/complicações , MicroRNAs/genética , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Idoso , Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Cardiomegalia/sangue , Cardiomegalia/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Fibrose , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miocárdio/patologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Transcrição AP-1/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo
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