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1.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10789, 2024 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38734719

RESUMO

Brown adipocytes are potential therapeutic targets for the prevention of obesity-associated metabolic diseases because they consume circulating glucose and fatty acids for heat production. Angiotensin II (Ang II) peptide is involved in the pathogenesis of obesity- and cold-induced hypertension; however, the mechanism underlying the direct effects of Ang II on human brown adipocytes remains unclear. Our transcriptome analysis of chemical compound-induced brown adipocytes (ciBAs) showed that the Ang II type 1 receptor (AGTR1), but not AGTR2 and MAS1 receptors, was expressed. The Ang II/AGTR1 axis downregulated the expression of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). The simultaneous treatment with ß-adrenergic receptor agonists and Ang II attenuated UCP1 expression, triglyceride lipolysis, and cAMP levels, although cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation was enhanced by Ang II mainly through the protein kinase C pathway. Despite reduced lipolysis, both coupled and uncoupled mitochondrial respiration was enhanced in Ang II-treated ciBAs. Instead, glycolysis and glucose uptake were robustly activated upon treatment with Ang II without a comprehensive transcriptional change in glucose metabolic genes. Elevated mitochondrial energy status induced by Ang II was likely associated with UCP1 repression. Our findings suggest that the Ang II/AGTR1 axis participates in mitochondrial thermogenic functions via glycolysis.


Assuntos
Adipócitos Marrons , Angiotensina II , Glicólise , Mitocôndrias , Termogênese , Proteína Desacopladora 1 , Humanos , Adipócitos Marrons/metabolismo , Adipócitos Marrons/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Angiotensina II/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Termogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Desacopladora 1/metabolismo , Proteína Desacopladora 1/genética , Lipólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina/metabolismo , Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina/genética , Glucose/metabolismo , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/metabolismo
2.
Arch Virol ; 169(6): 121, 2024 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38753119

RESUMO

Previous studies have demonstrated the relevance of several soluble molecules in the pathogenesis of dengue. In this regard, a possible role for angiotensin II (Ang II) in the pathophysiology of dengue has been suggested by the observation of a blockade of Ang II in patients with dengue, increased expression of molecules related to Ang II production in the plasma of dengue patients, increased expression of circulating cytokines and soluble molecules related to the action of Ang II, and an apparent relationship between DENV, Ang II effects, and miRNAs. In addition, in ex vivo experiments, the blockade of Ang II AT1 receptor and ACE-1 (angiotensin converting enzyme 1), both of which are involved in Ang II production and its function, inhibits infection of macrophages by DENV, suggesting a role of Ang II in viral entry or in intracellular viral replication of the virus. Here, we discuss the possible mechanisms of Ang II in the entry and replication of DENV. Ang II has the functions of increasing the expression of DENV entry receptors, creation of clathrin-coated vesicles, and increasing phagocytosis, all of which are involved in DENV entry. This hormone also modulates the expression of the Rab5 and Rab7 proteins, which are important in the endosomal processing of DENV during viral replication. This review summarizes the data related to the possible involvement of Ang II in the entry of DENV into cells and its replication.


Assuntos
Angiotensina II , Vírus da Dengue , Internalização do Vírus , Replicação Viral , Angiotensina II/metabolismo , Humanos , Vírus da Dengue/fisiologia , Vírus da Dengue/genética , Animais , Dengue/virologia , Dengue/metabolismo
3.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 47(4): 809-817, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38583954

RESUMO

Several reports assume that myocardial necroptotic cell death is induced during the development of chronic heart failure. Although it is well accepted that angiotensin II induces apoptotic cell death of cardiac myocytes, the involvement of angiotensin II in the induction of myocardial necroptosis during the development of heart failure is still unknown. Therefore, we examined the role of angiotensin II in myocardial necroptosis using rat failing hearts following myocardial infarction and cultured cardiomyocytes. We found that administration of azilsartan, an angiotensin II AT1 receptor blocker, or trandolapril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, to rats from the 2nd to the 8th week after myocardial infarction resulted in preservation of cardiac function and attenuation of mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL) activation. Furthermore, the ratio of necroptotic cell death was increased in neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes cultured with conditioned medium from rat cardiac fibroblasts in the presence of angiotensin II. This increase in necroptotic cells was attenuated by pretreatment with azilsartan. Furthermore, activated MLKL was increased in cardiomyocytes cultured in conditioned medium. Pretreatment with azilsartan also prevented the conditioned medium-induced increase in activated MLKL. These results suggest that angiotensin II contributes to the induction of myocardial necroptosis during the development of heart failure.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Infarto do Miocárdio , Animais , Ratos , Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Angiotensina II/metabolismo , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados/metabolismo , Insuficiência Cardíaca/metabolismo , Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo
4.
Physiol Rep ; 12(8): e16011, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38627219

RESUMO

Renin-angiotensin system activation contributes to skeletal muscle atrophy in aging individuals with chronic diseases. We aimed to explore the effects of cholecalciferol (VD3) and calcitriol (1,25VD3) on signaling of muscle proteolysis and oxidative stress in myotubes challenged with angiotensin II (AII). The mouse C2C12 myotubes were assigned to vehicle, AII, AII + VD3, AII + 1,25VD3, and AII + losartan groups. The expression levels of muscle-specific E3 ubiquitin ligase proteins, autophagy-related proteins, and oxidative stress markers were investigated. We demonstrated the diverse effects of VD3 and 1,25VD3 on AII-induced myotube atrophy. The myotube diameter was preserved by treatment with 100 nM VD3 and losartan, while 1 and 10 nM 1,25VD3 increased levels of FoxO3a, MuRF1, and atrogin-1 protein expression in myotubes exposed to AII. Treatment with AII + 10 nM 1,25VD3 resulted in the upregulation of LC3B-II, LC3B-II/LC3B-I, and mature cathepsin L, which are autophagic marker proteins. The p62/SQSTM1 protein was downregulated and vitamin D receptor was upregulated after treatment with AII + 10 nM 1,25VD3. A cellular redox imbalance was observed as AII + 10 nM 1,25VD3-induced reactive oxygen species and NADPH oxidase-2 overproduction, and these changes were associated with an inadequate response of antioxidant superoxide dismutase-1 and catalase proteins. Collectively, these findings provide a translational perspective on the role of vitamin D3 in alleviating muscle atrophy related to high levels of AII.


Assuntos
Angiotensina II , Calcitriol , Camundongos , Animais , Calcitriol/efeitos adversos , Calcitriol/metabolismo , Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Angiotensina II/metabolismo , Proteólise , Colecalciferol/efeitos adversos , Losartan/farmacologia , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/metabolismo , Atrofia Muscular/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo
5.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 49(3): 754-762, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38621879

RESUMO

This study aims to explore the mechanism of Linggui Zhugan Decoction(LGZGD) in inhibiting Angiotensin Ⅱ(AngⅡ)-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy by regulating sigma-1 receptor(Sig1R). The model of H9c2 cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by AngⅡ in vitro was established by preparing LGZGD-containing serum and blank serum. H9c2 cells were divided into normal group, AngⅡ model group, 20% normal rat serum group(20% NSC), and 20% LGZGD-containing serum group. After the cells were incubated with AngⅡ(1 µmol·L~(-1)) or AngⅡ with serum for 72 h, the surface area of cardiomyocytes was detected by phalloidine staining, and the activities of Na~+-K~+-ATPase and Ca~(2+)-Mg~(2+)-ATPase were detected by micromethod. The mitochondrial Ca~(2+) levels were detected by flow cytometry, and the expression levels of atrial natriuretic peptide(ANP), brain natriuretic peptide(BNP), Sig1R, and inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor type 2(IP_3R_2) were detected by Western blot. The expression of Sig1R was down-regulated by transfecting specific siRNA for investigating the efficacy of LGZGD-containing serum on cardiomyocyte surface area, Na~+-K~+-ATPase activity, Ca~(2+)-Mg~(2+)-ATPase activity, mitochondrial Ca~(2+), as well as ANP, BNP, and IP_3R_2 protein expressions. The results showed that compared with the normal group, AngⅡ could significantly increase the surface area of cardiomyocytes and the expression of ANP and BNP(P<0.01), and it could decrease the activities of Na~+-K~+-ATPase and Ca~(2+)-Mg~(2+)-ATPase, the concentration of mitochondrial Ca~(2+), and the expression of Sig1R(P<0.01). In addition, IP_3R_2 protein expression was significantly increased(P<0.01). LGZGD-containing serum could significantly decrease the surface area of cardiomyocytes and the expression of ANP and BNP(P<0.05, P<0.01), and it could increase the activities of Na~+-K~+-ATPase and Ca~(2+)-Mg~(2+)-ATPase, the concentration of mitochondrial Ca~(2+ )(P<0.01), and the expression of Sig1R(P<0.05). In addition, IP_3R_2 protein expression was significantly decreased(P<0.05). However, after Sig1R was down-regulated, the effects of LGZGD-containing serum were reversed(P<0.01). These results indicated that the LGZGD-containing serum could inhibit cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by AngⅡ, and its pharmacological effect was related to regulating Sig1R, promoting mitochondrial Ca~(2+ )inflow, restoring ATP synthesis, and protecting mitochondrial function.


Assuntos
Miócitos Cardíacos , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio , Ratos , Animais , Células Cultivadas , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/genética , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/metabolismo , Fator Natriurético Atrial/genética , Fator Natriurético Atrial/metabolismo , Angiotensina II/efeitos adversos , Angiotensina II/metabolismo , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/metabolismo , Hipertrofia/metabolismo , Cardiomegalia/induzido quimicamente , Cardiomegalia/tratamento farmacológico , Cardiomegalia/genética
6.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 96(1): e20230971, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38597493

RESUMO

Paraquat (1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridyl dichloride) is an herbicide widely used worldwide and officially banned in Brazil in 2020. Kidney lesions frequently occur, leading to acute kidney injury (AKI) due to exacerbated reactive O2 species (ROS) production. However, the consequences of ROS exposure on ionic transport and the regulator local renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) still need to be elucidated at a molecular level. This study evaluated how ROS acutely influences Na+-transporting ATPases and the renal RAAS. Adult male Wistar rats received paraquat (20 mg/kg; ip). After 24 h, we observed body weight loss and elevation of urinary flow and serum creatinine. In the renal cortex, paraquat increased ROS levels, NADPH oxidase and (Na++K+)ATPase activities, angiotensin II-type 1 receptors, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6. In the medulla, paraquat increased ROS levels and NADPH oxidase activity but inhibited (Na++K+)ATPase. Paraquat induced opposite effects on the ouabain-resistant Na+-ATPase in the cortex (decrease) and medulla (increase). These alterations, except for increased serum creatinine and renal levels of TNF-α and interleukin-6, were prevented by 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl (tempol; 1 mmol/L in drinking water), a stable antioxidant. In summary, after paraquat poisoning, ROS production culminated with impaired medullary function, urinary fluid loss, and disruption of Na+-transporting ATPases and angiotensin II signaling.


Assuntos
Paraquat , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina , Ratos , Animais , Masculino , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Paraquat/metabolismo , Paraquat/farmacologia , Angiotensina II/metabolismo , Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Creatinina/metabolismo , Creatinina/urina , Interleucina-6 , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Rim , Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , Adenosina Trifosfatases/farmacologia , Sódio/metabolismo , Sódio/farmacologia , NADPH Oxidases/metabolismo , NADPH Oxidases/farmacologia
7.
Redox Biol ; 72: 103154, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38626575

RESUMO

Continuous remodeling of the heart can result in adverse events such as reduced myocardial function and heart failure. Available evidence indicates that ferroptosis is a key process in the emergence of cardiac disease. P2 family purinergic receptor P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) activation plays a crucial role in numerous aspects of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to elucidate any potential interactions between P2X7R and ferroptosis in cardiac remodeling stimulated by angiotensin II (Ang II), and P2X7R knockout mice were utilized to explore the role of P2X7R and elucidate its underlying mechanism through molecular biological methods. Ferroptosis is involved in cardiac remodeling, and P2X7R deficiency significantly alleviates cardiac dysfunction, remodeling, and ferroptosis induced by Ang II. Mechanistically, Ang II interacts with P2X7R directly, and LYS-66 and MET-212 in the in the ATP binding pocket form a binding complex with Ang II. P2X7R blockade influences HuR-targeted GPX4 and HO-1 mRNA stability by affecting the shuttling of HuR from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and its expression. These results suggest that focusing on P2X7R could be a possible therapeutic approach for the management of hypertensive heart failure.


Assuntos
Angiotensina II , Ferroptose , Receptores Purinérgicos P2X7 , Receptores Purinérgicos P2X7/metabolismo , Receptores Purinérgicos P2X7/genética , Animais , Angiotensina II/metabolismo , Camundongos , Humanos , Camundongos Knockout , Remodelação Ventricular , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miocárdio/patologia , Masculino , Ligação Proteica , Insuficiência Cardíaca/metabolismo , Insuficiência Cardíaca/patologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/genética
9.
Physiol Genomics ; 56(6): 426-435, 2024 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38557279

RESUMO

Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) produced by the gut bacteria have been associated with cardiovascular dysfunction in humans and rodents. However, studies exploring effects of SCFAs on cardiovascular parameters in the zebrafish, an increasingly popular model in cardiovascular research, remain limited. Here, we performed fecal bacterial 16S sequencing and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to determine the composition and abundance of gut microbiota and SCFAs in adult zebrafish. Following this, the acute effects of major SCFAs on heart rate and vascular tone were measured in anesthetized zebrafish larvae using fecal concentrations of butyrate, acetate, and propionate. Finally, we investigated if coincubation with butyrate may lessen the effects of angiotensin II (ANG II) and phenylephrine (PE) on vascular tone in anesthetized zebrafish larvae. We found that the abundance in Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Fusobacteria phyla in the adult zebrafish resembled those reported in rodents and humans. SCFA levels with highest concentration of acetate (27.43 µM), followed by butyrate (2.19 µM) and propionate (1.65 µM) were observed in the fecal samples of adult zebrafish. Immersion in butyrate and acetate produced a ∼20% decrease in heart rate (HR), respectively, with no observed effects of propionate. Butyrate alone also produced an ∼25% decrease in the cross-sectional width of the dorsal aorta (DA) at 60 min (*P < 0.05), suggesting compensatory vasoconstriction, with no effects of either acetate or propionate. In addition, butyrate significantly alleviated the decrease in DA cross-sectional width produced by both ANG II and PE. We demonstrate the potential for zebrafish in investigation of host-microbiota interactions in cardiovascular health.NEW & NOTEWORTHY We highlight the presence of a core gut microbiota and demonstrate in vivo short-chain fatty acid production in adult zebrafish. In addition, we show cardio-beneficial vasoactive and chronotropic properties of butyrate, and chronotropic properties of acetate in anesthetized zebrafish larvae.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Fezes , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Frequência Cardíaca , Larva , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Peixe-Zebra/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Fezes/microbiologia , Butiratos/metabolismo , Butiratos/farmacologia , Angiotensina II/metabolismo , Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenilefrina/farmacologia , Acetatos/farmacologia , Acetatos/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
10.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 707: 149617, 2024 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38520942

RESUMO

Preeclampsia (PE) is characterized by hypertension, proteinuria, and fetal growth restriction during pregnancy, suggesting that the preeclamptic intrauterine environment may affect the growth and health of the offspring. This study aimed to how maternal hypertension affects male offspring growth, focusing on lipid metabolism and blood pressure in mice. Female mice were infused with angiotensin II (Ang II) on gestational day 12. Dysregulation and accumulation of lipid were observed in the placenta of Ang II-induced maternal hypertensive dams, associating with fetal growth restriction. Ang II-offspring showed lower birth weight than in the control-offspring. Isolated and differentiated adipocyte from neonatal mice of Ang II-dams showed higher Pparγ mRNA expression compared with the control group. Lower body weight tendency had continued in Ang II-offspring during long period, body weight of Ang II-offspring caught up the control-offspring at 16 weeks of age. The adipose tissue of Ang II-offspring in adult also showed higher Pparγ mRNA expression with the accumulation of neutrophils and inflammatory monocytes than in those control. In addition, Ang II-offspring had higher basal blood pressure and higher sensitivity to hypertensive stimuli than in the control-offspring. Taken together, maternal hypertension induced by Ang II changes placental function, causing a lower birth weight. These changes in the intrauterine environment may affect adipocyte function and blood pressure of offspring after growth.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Pré-Eclâmpsia , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Masculino , Animais , Camundongos , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/etiologia , Peso ao Nascer , PPAR gama/genética , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Placenta/metabolismo , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/fisiologia , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Angiotensina II/metabolismo , Pré-Eclâmpsia/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
11.
Physiol Res ; 73(1): 27-35, 2024 03 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38466002

RESUMO

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), one of the key enzymes of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), plays an important role in SARS-CoV-2 infection by functioning as a virus receptor. Angiotensin peptides Ang I and Ang II, the substrates of ACE2, can modulate the binding of SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein to the ACE2 receptor. In the present work, we found that co incubation of HEK-ACE2 and Vero E6 cells with the SARS-CoV-2 Spike pseudovirus (PVP) resulted in stimulation of the virus entry at low and high micromolar concentrations of Ang I and Ang II, respectively. The potency of Ang I and Ang II stimulation of virus entry corresponds to their binding affinity to ACE2 catalytic pocket with 10 times higher efficiency of Ang II. The Ang II induced mild increase of PVP infectivity at 20 microM; while at 100 microM the increase (129.74+/-3.99 %) was highly significant (p<0.001). Since the angiotensin peptides act in HEK ACE2 cells without the involvement of angiotensin type I receptors, we hypothesize that there is a steric interaction between the catalytic pocket of the ACE2 enzyme and the SARS-CoV-2 S1 binding domain. Oversaturation of the ACE2 with their angiotensin substrate might result in increased binding and entry of the SARS-CoV-2. In addition, the analysis of angiotensin peptides metabolism showed decreased ACE2 and increased ACE activity upon SARS-CoV-2 action. These effects should be taken into consideration in COVID-19 patients suffering from comorbidities such as the over-activated renin-angiotensin system as a mechanism potentially influencing the SARS-CoV-2 invasion into recipient cells.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Angiotensina I/metabolismo , Angiotensina I/farmacologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina , Angiotensina II/metabolismo
12.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 131: 111855, 2024 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38493697

RESUMO

Mechanical ventilation (MV) is an essential therapy for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and pulmonary fibrosis. However, it can also induce mechanical ventilation-induced pulmonary fibrosis (MVPF) and the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Based on a mouse model of MVPF, the present study aimed to explore the role of the angiotensin-converting enzyme/angiotensin II/angiotensin type 1 receptor (ACE/Ang-2/AT1R) axis in the process of MVPF. In addition, recombinant angiotensin-converting enzyme 2(rACE2), AT1R inhibitor valsartan, AGTR1-directed shRNA and ACE inhibitor perindopril were applied to verify the effect of inhibiting ACE/Ang-2/AT1R axis in the treatment of MVPF. Our study found MV induced an inflammatory reaction and collagen deposition in mouse lung tissue accompanied by the activation of ACE in lung tissue, increased concentration of Ang-2 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and upregulation of AT1R in alveolar epithelial cells. The process of pulmonary fibrosis could be alleviated by the application of the ACE inhibitor perindopril, ATIR inhibitor valsartan and AGTR1-directed shRNA. Meanwhile, rACE2 could also alleviate MVPF through the degradation of Ang-2. Our finding indicated the ACE/Ang-2/AT1R axis played an essential role in the pathogenesis of MVPF. Pharmacological inhibition of the ACE/Ang-2/AT1R axis might be a promising strategy for the treatment of MVPF.


Assuntos
Fibrose Pulmonar , Camundongos , Animais , Fibrose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrose Pulmonar/patologia , Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina/metabolismo , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Perindopril/farmacologia , Perindopril/uso terapêutico , Respiração Artificial , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Valsartana/uso terapêutico , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Angiotensina II/metabolismo
13.
Peptides ; 175: 171182, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38428743

RESUMO

With the previous knowledge of the cardioprotective effects of the Angiotensin-(1-7) axis, a agonist of Mas receptor has been described, the CGEN-856S. This peptide is more stable than Ang-(1-7), and has a low binding affinity to Angiotensin II receptors. Although the cardioprotective effects of CGEN-856S were previously shown in vivo, the mechanisms behind its effects are still unknown. Here, we employed a combination of molecular biology, confocal microscopy, and genetically modified mouse with Mas deletion to investigate the CGEN-856S protective signaling in cardiomyocytes. In isolated adult ventricular myocytes, CGEN-856S induced an increase in nitric oxide (NO) production which was absent in cells from Mas knockout mice. Using western blot, we observed a significant increase in phosphorylation of AKT after treatment with CGEN-856S. In addition, CGEN-856S prevented the Ang II induced hypertrophy and the nuclear translocation of GRK5 in a culture model of rat neonatal cardiomyocytes. Blockage of Mas receptor and inhibition of the NO synthase abolished the effects of CGEN-856S on Ang II treated cardiomyocytes. In conclusion, we show that CGEN-856S acting via receptor Mas induces NO raise to block Ang II induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. These results indicate that CGEN-856S acts very similarly to Ang-(1-7) in cardiac myocytes, highlighting its therapeutic potential for treating cardiovascular diseases.


Assuntos
Miócitos Cardíacos , Óxido Nítrico , Ratos , Camundongos , Animais , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , Proto-Oncogene Mas , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Hipertrofia/metabolismo , Angiotensina II/metabolismo
14.
Addict Biol ; 29(3): e13385, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38488472

RESUMO

Alcohol consumption is popular worldwidely and closely associated with cardiovascular diseases. Influences of paternal preconception alcohol consumption on offspring cerebral arteries are largely unknown. Male rats were randomly given alcohol or water before being mated with alcohol-naive females to produce alcohol- and control-sired offspring. Middle cerebral artery (MCA) was tested with a Danish Myo Technology wire myograph, patch-clamp, IONOPTIX, immunofluorescence and quantitative PCR. Alcohol consumption enhanced angiotensin II (AngII)-mediated constriction in male offspring MCA mainly via AT1R. PD123,319 only augmented AngII-induced constriction in control offspring. AngII and Bay K8644 induced stronger intracellular calcium transient in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from MCA of alcohol offspring. L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel (L-Ca2+ ) current at baseline and after AngII-stimulation was higher in VSMCs. Influence of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel (BKC a ) was lower. Caffeine induced stronger constriction and intracellular calcium release in alcohol offspring. Superoxide anion was higher in alcohol MCA than control. Tempol and thenoyltrifluoroacetone alleviated AngII-mediated contractions, while inhibition was significantly higher in alcohol group. The mitochondria were swollen in alcohol MCA. Despite lower Kcnma1 and Prkce expression, many genes expressions were higher in alcohol group. Hypoxia induced reactive oxygen species production and increased AT1R expression in control MCA and rat aorta smooth muscle cell line. In conclusion, this study firstly demonstrated paternal preconception alcohol potentiated AngII-mediated vasoconstriction in offspring MCA via ROS-AT1R. Alcohol consumption increased intracellular calcium via L-Ca2+ channel and endoplasmic reticulum and decreased BKCa function. The present study provided new information for male reproductive health and developmental origin of cerebrovascular diseases.


Assuntos
Angiotensina II , Vasoconstrição , Feminino , Ratos , Masculino , Animais , Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Angiotensina II/metabolismo , Cálcio/metabolismo , Artérias Cerebrais/metabolismo , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Estresse Oxidativo
15.
Peptides ; 176: 171201, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38555976

RESUMO

Sepsis and septic shock are global healthcare problems associated with mortality rates of up to 40% despite optimal standard-of-care therapy and constitute the primary cause of death in intensive care units worldwide. Circulating biomarkers of septic shock severity may represent a clinically relevant approach to individualize those patients at risk for worse outcomes early in the course of the disease, which may facilitate early and more precise interventions to improve the clinical course. However, currently used septic shock biomarkers, including lactate, may be non-specific and have variable impact on prognosis and/or disease management. Activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is likely an early event in septic shock, and studies suggest that an elevated level of renin, the early and committed step in the RAAS cascade, is a better predictor of worse outcomes in septic shock, including mortality, than the current standard-of-care measure of lactate. Despite a robust increase in renin, other elements of the RAAS, including endogenous levels of Ang II, may fail to sufficiently increase to maintain blood pressure, tissue perfusion, and protective immune responses in septic shock patients. We review the current clinical literature regarding the dysfunction of the RAAS in septic shock and potential therapeutic approaches to improve clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Sistema Renina-Angiotensina , Choque Séptico , Humanos , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/fisiologia , Choque Séptico/sangue , Choque Séptico/mortalidade , Choque Séptico/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/sangue , Renina/sangue , Angiotensina II/sangue , Angiotensina II/metabolismo
16.
Hypertension ; 81(4): 811-822, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38507511

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The zona glomerulosa of the adrenal gland is responsible for the synthesis and release of the mineralocorticoid aldosterone. This steroid hormone regulates salt reabsorption in the kidney and blood pressure. The most important stimuli of aldosterone synthesis are the serum concentrations of angiotensin II and potassium. In response to these stimuli, voltage and intracellular calcium levels in the zona glomerulosa oscillate, providing the signal for aldosterone synthesis. It was proposed that the voltage-gated T-type calcium channel CaV3.2 is necessary for the generation of these oscillations. However, Cacna1h knock-out mice have normal plasma aldosterone levels, suggesting additional calcium entry pathways. METHODS: We used a combination of calcium imaging, patch clamp, and RNA sequencing to investigate calcium influx pathways in the murine zona glomerulosa. RESULTS: Cacna1h-/- glomerulosa cells still showed calcium oscillations with similar concentrations as wild-type mice. No calcium channels or transporters were upregulated to compensate for the loss of CaV3.2. The calcium oscillations observed were instead dependent on L-type voltage-gated calcium channels. Furthermore, we found that L-type channels can also partially compensate for an acute inhibition of CaV3.2 in wild-type mice. Only inhibition of both T- and L-type calcium channels abolished the increase of intracellular calcium caused by angiotensin II in wild-type. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates that T-type calcium channels are not strictly required to maintain glomerulosa calcium oscillations and aldosterone production. Pharmacological inhibition of T-type channels alone will likely not significantly impact aldosterone production in the long term.


Assuntos
Canais de Cálcio Tipo L , Zona Glomerulosa , Camundongos , Animais , Zona Glomerulosa/metabolismo , Canais de Cálcio Tipo L/metabolismo , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/farmacologia , Aldosterona/metabolismo , Sinalização do Cálcio , Cálcio/metabolismo , Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Angiotensina II/metabolismo
17.
Nutrients ; 16(5)2024 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38474873

RESUMO

Endocardial endothelium (EE) is a layer of cells covering the cardiac cavities and modulates cardiomyocyte function. This cell type releases several cardioactive factors, including Angiotensin II (Ang II). This octopeptide is known to induce cardiac hypertrophy. However, whether this circulating factor also induces EE hypertrophy is not known. Taurine is known to prevent cardiac hypertrophy. Whether this endogenous antioxidant prevents the effect of Ang II on human EE (hEE) will be verified. Using quantitative fluorescent probe imaging for calcium and reactive oxygen species (ROS), our results show that Ang II induces (10-7 M, 48 h treatment) an increase in hEE cell (hEEC) volume and its nucleus. Pretreatment with 20 mM of taurine prevents morphological remodeling and increases intracellular calcium and ROS. These results suggest that the reported Ang II induces cardiac hypertrophy is associated with hEEC hypertrophy. This later effect is prevented by taurine by reducing intracellular calcium and ROS overloads. Thus, taurine could be an excellent tool for preventing Ang II-induced remodeling of hEECs.


Assuntos
Angiotensina II , Cálcio , Humanos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Angiotensina II/metabolismo , Cálcio/metabolismo , Taurina/farmacologia , Cardiomegalia/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos , Endotélio/metabolismo
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(5)2024 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38474055

RESUMO

Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Piper sarmentosum Roxb., an herb known for its antihypertensive effect, lacks a comprehensive understanding of the mechanism underlying its antihypertensive action. This study aimed to elucidate the antihypertensive mechanism of aqueous extract of P. sarmentosum leaves (AEPS) via its modulation of the ACE pathway in phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). HUVECs were divided into five groups: control, treatment with 200 µg/mL AEPS, induction 200 nM PMA, concomitant treatment with 200 nM PMA and 200 µg/mL AEPS, and treatment with 200 nM PMA and 0.06 µM captopril. Subsequently, ACE mRNA expression, protein level and activity, angiotensin II (Ang II) levels, and angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) mRNA expression in HUVECs were determined. AEPS successfully inhibited ACE mRNA expression, protein and activity, and angiotensin II levels in PMA-induced HUVECs. Additionally, AT1R expression was downregulated, whereas AT2R expression was upregulated. In conclusion, AEPS reduces the levels of ACE mRNA, protein and activity, Ang II, and AT1R expression in PMA-induced HUVECs. Thus, AEPS has the potential to be developed as an ACE inhibitor in the future.


Assuntos
Forbóis , Piper , Humanos , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Miristatos/metabolismo , Miristatos/farmacologia , Angiotensina II/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Acetatos/farmacologia , Forbóis/metabolismo , Forbóis/farmacologia
19.
World J Gastroenterol ; 30(6): 607-609, 2024 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38463024

RESUMO

The present letter to the editor is related to the study titled 'Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 improves liver fibrosis in mice by regulating autophagy of hepatic stellate cells'. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 can alleviate liver fibrosis by regulating autophagy of hepatic stellate cells and affecting the renin-angiotensin system.


Assuntos
Peptidil Dipeptidase A , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina , Animais , Camundongos , Angiotensina II/metabolismo , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2 , Fibrose , Células Estreladas do Fígado/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo
20.
Mol Med Rep ; 29(5)2024 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38456539

RESUMO

Cardiac hypertrophy is one of the key processes in the development of heart failure. Notably, small GTPases and GTPase­activating proteins (GAPs) serve essential roles in cardiac hypertrophy. RhoGAP interacting with CIP4 homologs protein 1 (RICH1) is a RhoGAP that can regulate Cdc42/Rac1 and F­actin dynamics. RICH1 is involved in cell proliferation and adhesion; however, to the best of our knowledge, its role in cardiac hypertrophy remains unknown. In the present study, the role of RICH1 in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy was assessed. Cell viability was analyzed using the Cell Counting Kit­8 assay and cells surface area (CSA) was determined by cell fluorescence staining. Reverse transcription­quantitative PCR and western blotting were used to assess the mRNA expression levels of hypertrophic marker genes, such as Nppa, Nppb and Myh7, and the protein expression levels of RICH1, respectively. RICH1 was shown to be downregulated in isoproterenol (ISO)­ or angiotensin II (Ang II)­treated H9c2 cells. Notably, overexpression of RICH1 attenuated the upregulation of hypertrophy­related markers, such as Nppa, Nppb and Myh7, and the enlargement of CSA induced by ISO and Ang II. By contrast, the knockdown of RICH1 exacerbated these effects. These findings suggested that RICH1 may be a novel suppressor of ISO­ or Ang II­induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. The results of the present study will be beneficial to further studies assessing the role of RICH1 and its downstream molecules in inhibiting cardiac hypertrophy.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias Congênitas , Miócitos Cardíacos , Nitrobenzoatos , Procainamida/análogos & derivados , Humanos , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Angiotensina II/metabolismo , Isoproterenol/farmacologia , Isoproterenol/metabolismo , Cardiomegalia/induzido quimicamente , Cardiomegalia/genética , Cardiomegalia/metabolismo , Cardiopatias Congênitas/metabolismo
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