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3.
Acta Virol ; 63(3): 286-291, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31507194

RESUMO

Schmallenberg virus (SBV), a neurotropic member of the genus Orthobunyavirus, infects ruminants and causes neurological lesions and fetal malformations including cerebellar hypoplasia, hydranencephaly, and porencephaly. The aim of this study is to establish intracerebral (i.c.) infection of SBV in newborn BALB/c mice and to investigate some of the transcription factors in brain. For this aim, brain samples of newborn BALB/c mice which were infected with SBV i.c. were analyzed by plaque titration and real-time RT-PCR for T-bet, Gata3, RoRγt, Foxp3 and Eomes mRNA levels. Study results showed that SBV can replicate in BALB/c mice brain and cause death of newborn mice with generation of infectious viral particles. Analyses of transcription factor mRNA levels indicated up-regulation of T-bet, Gata3, RoRγt, Foxp3 and down-regulation of Eomes. In this report, we introduce preliminary data of T cell transcription factors affected by SBV infection of BALB/c mice. Keywords: Eomes; Foxp3; Gata3; RoRγt; Schmallenberg virus; T-bet.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Infecções por Bunyaviridae , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Orthobunyavirus , Fatores de Transcrição , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Encéfalo/virologia , Infecções por Bunyaviridae/fisiopatologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ruminantes , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Replicação Viral
4.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao ; 41(4): 524-528, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484616

RESUMO

To compare the biological functions of astrocytes cultured in vitro by two methods. Methods The primary astrocytes were cultured from rodent neonatal brain,whereas the differentiated astrocytes were prepared by differentiating neural stem cells with fetal bovine serum.The morphologies of these two different types of astrocytes were observed under microscope and the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein(GFAP),an astrocyte-specific marker,was detected by immunofluorescence staining after treatment with 10 cytokines.Changes in GFAP,glutamate synthetase(GS),glutamate-aspartic acid transporter(xCT),neuregulin-1(NRG),N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor(NMDA),lipoprotein lipase(LPL)were detected and compared. Results The morphologies and GFAP expression differed between these two astrocyte types.Microarray showed that the expressions of GFAP,GS,xCT,NRG,NMDA,and LPL were significantly higher in primary astrocytes than in differentiated astrocytes.None of these 10 cytokines increased the expression of GFAP in primary astrocytes,whereas treatment with transforming growth factor-ß(TGF-ß)significantly increased the expression of GFAP in the differentiated astrocytes. Conclusion Compared with the differentiated astrocytes,the primary astrocytes are more similar to reactive astrocytes,and TGF-ß can promote the transition of differentiated cells to reactive cells.


Assuntos
Astrócitos/citologia , Diferenciação Celular , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Células Cultivadas , Proteína Glial Fibrilar Ácida/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Roedores , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/farmacologia
5.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 21(8): 830-835, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416511

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of different melatonin treatment regimens on the proliferation of neural stem cells (NSCs) and long-term histopathology in neonatal rats with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD), and to identify better melatonin treatment regimens. METHODS: A total of 96 Sprague-Dawley rats aged 7 days were randomly divided into normal control, HIBD, single-dose immediate melatonin treatment (SDIT), and 7-day continuous melatonin treatment (7DCT) groups, with 24 rats in each group. The rat model of HIBD was prepared by isolation and electrocoagulation of the right common carotid artery as well as hypoxic treatment in a hypoxic chamber (oxygen concentration 8.00% ±â€…0.01%) for 2 hours. On day 7 after modeling, proliferating cell nuclear antigen/Nestin double-labeling immunofluorescence was used to measure the proliferation of endogenous NSCs in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) region in 8 rats in each group, and Western blot was used to measure the protein expression of Nestin in brain. On day 28 after modeling, hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and Nissl staining were used to observe the changes in the histopathology and the number of pyramidal cells in the hippocampal CA1 region in 8 rats in each group. RESULTS: Immunofluorescent staining showed that compared with the HIBD group, the SDIT and 7DCT groups had a significant increase in the number of PCNA+Nestin+DAPI+ cells, and the 7DCT group had a significantly higher number than the SDIT group (P<0.01). Western blot showed that the SDIT and 7DCT groups had significantly higher protein expression of Nestin than the HIBD group, and the 7DCT group had significantly higher expression than the SDIT group (P<0.05). HE staining showed that the SDIT and 7DCT groups had alleviated cell injury, and Nissl staining showed that compared with the HIBD group, the SDIT and 7DCT groups had a significant increase in the number of pyramidal cells, and the 7DCT group had a significantly higher number than the SDIT group (P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Both single-dose immediate melatonin treatment and 7-day continuous melatonin treatment can promote the proliferation of endogenous NSCs and alleviate long-term histological injury in the brain of neonatal rats with HIBD. A 7-day continuous melatonin treatment has a better effect than single-dose immediate melatonin treatment.


Assuntos
Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica , Células-Tronco Neurais , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Encéfalo , Proliferação de Células , Melatonina , Neurônios , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
6.
Toxicol Lett ; 315: 87-95, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425726

RESUMO

Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is often associated with congenital heart defects, most commonly septal, valvular, and great vessel defects. However, there have been no known studies on whether PAE affects the resulting fibroblast population after development, and whether this has any consequences in the postnatal period. Our previous study focused on the effects of PAE on the postnatal fibroblast population, which translated into changes in cardiac extracellular matrix (ECM) composition and cardiac function in the neonatal heart. Moreover, our lab has previously demonstrated that alcohol-induced fibrosis is mediated by oxidative stress mechanisms in adult rat hearts following chronic alcohol exposure. Thus, we hypothesize that PAE alters cardiac ECM composition that persists into the postnatal period, leading to cardiac dysfunction, and these effects are prevented by antioxidant treatment. To investigate these effects, pregnant mice were intraperitoneally injected with 2.9 g EtOH/kg body weight on gestation days 6.75 and 7.25. Controls were injected with vehicle saline. Randomly selected dams in both groups were then treated with 100 mg/kg body weight of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) immediately after EtOH or vehicle administration. Left ventricular (LV) chamber dimension and function were assessed in sedated animals on neonatal day 5 using echocardiography. Ejection fraction decreased in the PAE group. NAC treatment prevented this depression of systolic function in PAE neonates. Hearts were analyzed for expression of fibroblast activation markers. Alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) increased in PAE neonatal hearts, and this increase was prevented by NAC treatment. In PAE pups, collagen I decreased, but collagen III expression increased compared to saline animals; the overall collagen I/III ratio significantly decreased. When PAE mice were treated with NAC, collagen I/III ratio did not change. Overall, our data demonstrate that prenatal alcohol exposure produces changes in collagen subtype in neonatal cardiac ECM and a decline in systolic function, and these adverse effects were prevented by NAC treatment.


Assuntos
Acetilcisteína/farmacologia , Alcoolismo/fisiopatologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Colágeno Tipo I/metabolismo , Vasos Coronários/química , Etanol/toxicidade , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Camundongos , Gravidez
7.
Rev Med Chil ; 147(3): 281-288, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344164

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Living above 2,500 meters in hypobaric conditions induces pulmonary arterial hypertension of the neonate (PAHN), a syndrome whose main features are: pathological remodeling of the pulmonary vessels, abnormal vascular reactivity and increased oxidative stress. Melatonin could have pulmonary antioxidant, anti-remodeling and vasodilating properties for this condition. AIM: To determine the effect of melatonin at the transcript level of prostanoid pathways in the lung of neonatal lambs gestated and born under hypobaric hypoxia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Vehicle (1.4% of ethanol, n = 6) or melatonin (1 mg * kg1, n = 5) were administered from the postnatal day 4 to 21 to lambs gestated and born at 3,600 meters above sea level. After one week of treatment completion, lung tissue was obtained, the transcript and protein levels of prostanoid synthases and receptors were assessed by RT-PCR and Western Blot. RESULTS: Melatonin induced the expression of prostacyclin synthase transcript and increased protein expression of the prostacyclin receptor. In addition, the treatment decreased the expression of transcript and protein of cyclooxygenase-2, without changes in the expression of the prostanoid vasoconstrictor (thromboxane) pathway. CONCLUSIONS: Postnatal treatment with melatonin increases the expression of the prostacyclin-vasodilator pathway without changing the vasoconstrictor thromboxane pathway. Further, the decreased COX-2 induced by melatonin could be an index of lesser oxidative stress and inflammation in the lung.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Melatonina/uso terapêutico , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Prostaglandinas/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/metabolismo , Hipóxia , Artéria Pulmonar/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovinos
8.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 39(7): 816-822, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340915

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the protective effect of vitamin D (VD) against hyperoxia-induced bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in newborn mice and explore the mechanism. METHODS: Thirty-six newborn mice were randomly divided into air + VD group, air + saline group, hyperoxia + VD group, and hyperoxia + saline group. In all the groups, saline or VD was administered on a daily basis via intramuscular injection. After 3 weeks of treatment, the mice were weighed and cardiac blood was collected for measurement of serum VD level using ELISA, and histological examination of the lungs was performed. Radial alveolar counting (RAC) and alveolar secondary interval volume density were measured using image analysis software. The expression levels of vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) in the lung tissues were detected using Western blotting. RESULTS: The weight gain rate of the mice and the weight of the lungs were significantly higher in air + saline group and air + VD group than in the hyperoxia + saline group. The RAC was significantly lower in hyperoxic+saline group than that in hyperoxia+VD group (P < 0.001), and was significantly higher in hyperoxic+VD (125 times) than in hyperoxia + VD (1250 times) group (P < 0.01). The alveolar secondary protrusion count was significantly higher in hyperoxic+VD (1250 times) group than in hyperoxic+saline group (P < 0.001), and was significantly higher in hyperoxia+VD (125 times) group than in hyperoxia + VD (1250 times) group (P < 0.01). Compared with that in air + saline group, VEGFR2 expression was significantly lowered in hyperoxia+saline group (P < 0.05) and in air+VD group (P < 0.05); VEGFR2 expression was significantly higher in hyperoxia+VD (1250 times) group than in hyperoxia+saline group (P < 0.001) and hyperoxia+VD (125 times) group (P < 0.001); VEGFR2 expression was significantly higher in hyperoxia+VD (125 times) group than in hyperoxia+ saline group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In newborn mice with BPD, VD supplement can increase the weight of the lungs and promote lung maturation, and a higher concentration of VD can better protect the lungs and promote the growth of pulmonary blood vessels.


Assuntos
Displasia Broncopulmonar , Hiperóxia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Pulmão , Camundongos , Vitamina D
9.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 32(6): 419-426, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262387

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Silicosis, caused by inhalation of silica dust, is the most serious occupational disease in China and the aim of present study was to explore the protective effect of Ang (1-7) on silicotic fibrosis and myofibroblast differentiation induced by Ang II. METHODS: HOPE-MED 8050 exposure control apparatus was used to establish the rat silicosis model. Pathological changes and collagen deposition of the lung tissue were examined by H.E. and VG staining, respectively. The localizations of ACE2 and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in the lung were detected by immunohistochemistry. Expression levels of collagen type I, α-SMA, ACE2, and Mas in the lung tissue and fibroblasts were examined by western blot. Levels of ACE2, Ang (1-7), and Ang II in serum were determined by ELISA. Co-localization of ACE2 and α-SMA in fibroblasts was detected by immunofluorescence. RESULTS: Ang (1-7) induced pathological changes and enhanced collagen deposition in vivo. Ang (1-7) decreased the expressions of collagen type I and α-SMA and increased the expressions of ACE2 and Mas in the silicotic rat lung tissue and fibroblasts stimulated by Ang II. Ang (1-7) increased the levels of ACE2 and Ang (1-7) and decreased the level of Ang II in silicotic rat serum. A779 enhanced the protective effect of Ang (1-7) in fibroblasts stimulated by Ang II. CONCLUSION: Ang (1-7) exerted protective effect on silicotic fibrosis and myofibroblast differentiation induced by Ang II by regulating ACE2-Ang (1-7)-Mas axis.


Assuntos
Angiotensina II/sangue , Angiotensina I/uso terapêutico , Pulmão/metabolismo , Miofibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/uso terapêutico , Silicose/prevenção & controle , Actinas/metabolismo , Angiotensina I/sangue , Angiotensina I/farmacologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Colágeno Tipo I/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Pulmão/patologia , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/farmacologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Silicose/metabolismo , Silicose/patologia
10.
Arch Virol ; 164(10): 2519-2523, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270607

RESUMO

A newly identified atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) associated with congenital tremors in newborn piglets has been shown to have a worldwide geographic distribution. In view of the function of Erns in pestivirus infection and replication, the viral load and histological distribution of APPV in different tissues of naturally infected piglets were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemical detection using Erns as the target. The results showed that the viral copy number was higher in the cerebellum, submandibular lymph nodes, and thymus than in other tissues, indicating that these are important target organs of APPV. The histological distribution of APPV was mainly in the matrix and nerve fiber in nervous tissues, endothelial cells in lymphoid tissues, and epithelial cells in other tissues, suggesting that these cells were target cells of APPV. The results will provide basic data for elucidating the pathogenesis and deepening the understanding of this newly discovered pathogen.


Assuntos
Estruturas Animais/virologia , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Infecções por Pestivirus/veterinária , Pestivirus/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Suínos , Carga Viral , Animais , Imuno-Histoquímica , Infecções por Pestivirus/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
11.
Toxicol Lett ; 314: 82-88, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306742

RESUMO

For decades, phthalates have been widely used as plasticizers in a large number of consumer products, leading to a complex exposure to humans via ingestion, inhalation or dermal uptake. Children may have a higher unintended dust intake per day compared to adults. Therefore, dust intake of children could pose a relevant exposure and subsequently a potential health risk. The aim of this study was to determine the relative bioavailability of certain phthalates, such as di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-isononyl phthalate (DINP) and the non-phthalate plasticizer diisononyl 1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid (DINCH®, Hexamoll®), after ingestion of dust. Seven 5-week-old male piglets were fed five different dust samples collected from daycare centers. Overall, 0.43 g to 0.83 g of dust sieved to 63 µm were administered orally. The piglets' urine was collected over a period of 38 h. The excreted metabolites were quantified using an LC-MS/MS method. The mean uptake rates of the applied doses for DEHP, DINP, and DINCH® were 43% ± 11%, 47% ± 26%, and 9% ± 3.5%, respectively. The metabolites of DEHP and DINP showed maximum concentrations in urine after three to five hours, whereas the metabolites of DINCH®, reached maximum concentrations 24 h post-dose. The oral bioavailability of the investigated plasticizers was higher compared to the bioaccessibility reported from in vitro digestion tests. Furthermore, the bioavailability of DEHP did not vary substantially between the dust samples, whereas a dose-dependent saturation process for DINP was observed. In addition to other intake pathways, dust could be a source of plasticizers in children using the recent intake rates for dust ingestion.


Assuntos
Ácidos Cicloexanocarboxílicos/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Dicarboxílicos/administração & dosagem , Poeira , Ácidos Ftálicos/administração & dosagem , Plastificantes/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Fatores Etários , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cromatografia Líquida , Ácidos Cicloexanocarboxílicos/farmacocinética , Ácidos Cicloexanocarboxílicos/toxicidade , Ácidos Cicloexanocarboxílicos/urina , Ácidos Dicarboxílicos/farmacocinética , Ácidos Dicarboxílicos/toxicidade , Ácidos Dicarboxílicos/urina , Masculino , Ácidos Ftálicos/farmacocinética , Ácidos Ftálicos/toxicidade , Ácidos Ftálicos/urina , Plastificantes/farmacocinética , Plastificantes/toxicidade , Medição de Risco , Sus scrofa , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Toxicocinética , Urinálise
12.
Toxicol Lett ; 314: 106-116, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306743

RESUMO

Chronic low-level lead exposure alters cognitive function in young children however the mechanisms mediating these deficits in the brain are not known. Previous studies in our laboratory showed that early lead exposure reduced the number of microglial cells in hippocampus/dentate gyrus of C57BL/6 J mice. In the current study, C-C chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) and major histocompatibility complex II (MHC II) were examined to investigate whether these neuroimmune factors which are known to trigger cell migration and antigen presentation, were altered by early chronic lead exposure. Thirty-six C57BL/6 J male mice were exposed to 0 ppm (controls, n = 12), 30 ppm (low-dose, n = 12), or 430 ppm (higher-dose, n = 12) of lead acetate via dams' milk from postnatal day (PND) 0 to 28. Flow cytometry was used to quantify cell types and cell surface expression of MHC II and CCR7 in hippocampal and whole brain microglia. Non-parametric independent samples median tests were used to test for statistically significant differences between groups. As compared to controls, CCR7 in hippocampal microglia was decreased in the low-dose group, measured as geometric mean fluorescence intensity (GMFI); in the higher-dose group CCR7+MHC II- hippocampal microglia were decreased. Further analyses revealed that the higher-dose group had decreased percentage of CCR7+MHC II- hippocampal macrophages as compared to controls but increased MHC II levels in CCR7+MHC II+ hippocampal macrophages as compared to controls. It was also noted that lead exposure disrupted the balance of MHC II and/or CCR7 in lead exposed animals. Reduced CCR7 in hippocampal microglia might alter the neuroimmune environment in hippocampi of lead exposed animals. Additional studies are needed to test this possibility.


Assuntos
Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Intoxicação do Sistema Nervoso por Chumbo na Infância/etiologia , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Organometálicos/toxicidade , Receptores CCR7/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Regulação para Baixo , Feminino , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipocampo/patologia , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/metabolismo , Lactação , Intoxicação do Sistema Nervoso por Chumbo na Infância/metabolismo , Intoxicação do Sistema Nervoso por Chumbo na Infância/patologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microglia/metabolismo , Microglia/patologia , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Cell Mol Biol Lett ; 24: 37, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31168302

RESUMO

Background: Accumulating evidence has shown that altered microRNA (miR) modulation is implicated in the pathologies of ischemic stroke. However, it is unclear whether and how hsa-miR-19a-3p mediates cerebral ischemic injury. Herein, we investigated the functional role of miR-19a-3p in cerebral ischemic injury and explored its underlying regulatory mechanism. Methods: In vivo ischemic/reperfusion (I/R) neuronal injury and in vitro oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) were established. Expression of miR-19a-3p was determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Glucose uptake, lactate production, and apoptosis were determined. ADIPOR2 was predicted as a target of miR-19a-3p in silico and experimentally validated by qRT-PCR, Western blot analysis and luciferase assay assays. Results: MiR-19a expression was significantly downregulated and upregulated in rat neurons and astrocytes, respectively (P < 0.01). A significantly elevated level of miR-19a-3p was found in I/R and OGD models in comparison to sham/control groups (P < 0.01). Expression of the glycolysis enzyme markers LDHA, PKM2, HK2, Glut1 and PDK1, apoptosis-related factors levels, apoptosis, glucose uptake, and lactate production were significantly repressed by both I/R and OGD (P < 0.01 in each case). Moreover, miR-19a-3p mimic aggravated, while miR-19a-3p inhibitor alleviated, the above observations. Adipor2 was predicted and confirmed to be a direct target of miR-19a. Furthermore, restoration of Adipor2 reversed miR-19a-3p-induced effects. Conclusions: Collectively, our results indicate that elevated miR-19a-3p mediates cerebral ischemic injury by targeting ADIPOR2. MiR-19a-3p attenuation thus might offer hope of a novel therapeutic target for ischemic stroke injury treatment.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Isquemia Encefálica/patologia , Glucose/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Neuroproteção , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/patologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Modelos Animais de Doenças , MicroRNAs/genética , Oxigênio , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores de Adiponectina/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/genética
14.
J S Afr Vet Assoc ; 90(0): e1-e5, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170779

RESUMO

Equid herpesvirus type 1 is primarily a respiratory tract virus associated with poor athletic performance that can also cause late gestation abortion, neonatal foal death and encephalomyelopathy. Horizontal transmission is well described, whereas evidence of vertical transmission of equid herpesvirus type 1 associated with the birth of a healthy foal has not been demonstrated. This study sampled a population of Thoroughbred mares (n = 71), and their healthy neonatal foals and foetal membranes, to test for the presence of both equid herpesvirus types 1 and 4 using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay. Foetal membrane swabs and tissue samples were taken immediately post-partum, and venous blood samples and nasal swabs were obtained from both mare and foal 8 h after birth. Neither equid herpesvirus type 1 nor equid herpesvirus type 4 nucleic acid was detected in any sample, and it was concluded that there was no active shedding of equid herpesvirus types 1 and 4 at the time of sampling. Consequently, no evidence of vertical transmission of these viruses could be found on this stud farm during the sampling period.


Assuntos
Animais Recém-Nascidos/virologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Herpesvirus Equídeo 1/isolamento & purificação , Herpesvirus Equídeo 4/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Cavalos/virologia , Animais , Sangue/virologia , Feminino , Infecções por Herpesviridae/transmissão , Doenças dos Cavalos/transmissão , Cavalos , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/veterinária , Mucosa Nasal/virologia , Placenta/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Gravidez , África do Sul/epidemiologia
15.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 189, 2019 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174528

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perinatal mortality may vary between herds, but the cost of deaths are always higher than value of the calf. When diagnosing the cause of a calf's death it is important to determine when it occurred, before or after calving. Metabolomics is widely used to identify many human diseases, but quite rarely applied in veterinary science. The aim of this study was to compare the metabolic profiles of calves with different times of death and those of calves born alive. Into the study, twenty one healthy controls (singleton, normal assisted calving, born alive) and 75 stillborn (SB) calves (with a gestation length of ≥260 days, SB, or dead within 6 h of birth) were enrolled. Plasma and urine from SB and control calves were investigated by proton nuclear magnetic resonance based metabolomic methods. SB calves were divided into four PMI groups. One PMI group included calves that died after calving and the other groups - three comprised in utero deaths, based on pathophysiological changes (lung inflation, autolysis in internal organs, hemoglobin imbibition in the pleura and aortic arch). Partial Least Squares - Discriminant Analysis models based on plasma metabolites were calculated, reflecting assumed data clustering. RESULTS: Twenty six metabolites in plasma and 29 in urine changed significantly with PMI according to one way analysis of variance. Half the metabolites in plasma and the majority in urine increased with PMI. Six metabolites increased simultaneously in plasma and urine: acetate, sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (GPC), leucine, valine, creatine, and alanine. CONCLUSIONS: Post-mortem changes in calves were associated with molecular variations in blood plasma and urine, showing the greatest differences for the group in which the post-mortem pathological changes were the most advanced. The results of the study show that evaluation of calf plasma or urine may be used as a diagnostic method for the determination of the PMI. Moreover, the metabolites, which unambiguously increased or decreased, can be used as potential biomarkers of PMI.


Assuntos
Bovinos/sangue , Bovinos/urina , Metaboloma , Natimorto/veterinária , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/sangue , Animais Recém-Nascidos/urina , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , Feminino , Masculino , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/veterinária , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 21(6): 594-600, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31208516

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of hyperoxic exposure on the dynamic expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and glutamate-L-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC) in the lung tissue of preterm neonatal rats. METHODS: Cesarean section was performed for rats on day 21 of gestation to obtain 80 preterm rats, which were randomly divided into air group and hyperoxia group after one day of feeding. The rats in the air group were housed in room air under atmospheric pressure, and those in the hyperoxia group were placed in an atmospheric oxygen tank (oxygen concentration 85%-95%) in the same room. Eight rats each were selected from each group on days 1, 4, 7, 10, and 14, and lung tissue samples were collected. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was used to observe the pathological changes of lung tissue at different time points after air or hyperoxic exposure. Western blot and RT-qPCR were used to measure the protein and mRNA expression of HO-1 and GCLC in the lung tissue of preterm rats at different time points after air or hyperoxic exposure. RESULTS: Compared with the air group, the hyperoxia group had a significant reduction in the body weight (P<0.05). Compared with the air group, the hyperoxia group had structural disorder, widening of alveolar septa, a reduction in the number of alveoli, and simplification of the alveoli on the pathological section of lung tissue. Compared with the air group, the hyperoxia group had significantly lower relative mRNA expression of HO-1 in the lung tissue on day 7 and significantly higher expression on days 10 and 14 (P<0.05). Compared with the air group, the hyperoxia group had significantly lower mRNA expression of GCLC in the lung tissue on days 1, 4, and 7 and significantly higher expression on day 10 (P<0.05). Compared with the air group, the hyperoxia group had significantly higher protein expression of HO-1 in the lung tissue on all days, and the protein expression of GCLC had same results as HO-1, except on day 1 (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Hyperoxia exposure may lead to growth retardation and lung developmental retardation in preterm rats. Changes in the protein and mRNA expression of HO-1 and GCLC in the lung tissue of preterm rats may be associated with the pathogenesis of hyperoxia-induced lung injury in preterm rats.


Assuntos
Hiperóxia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Domínio Catalítico , Cesárea , Cisteína , Feminino , Glutamatos , Heme Oxigenase-1 , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Pulmão , Gravidez , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
17.
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol ; 257(8): 1699-1708, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152312

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the influence of the selective Rho-kinase (ROCK) inhibitor, fasudil, on the mRNA level of proinflammatory factors and the retinal vascular development in mice with oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR). METHODS: C57BL/6J mice underwent standard protocol for OIR induction from postnatal days 7 to 12. Subsequently, they received a daily intraperitoneal injection of fasudil or sodium chloride from P12 to P16. Analyses were performed using vascular staining on retinal flat mounts, RNA expression by qPCR, and immunohistochemistry on paraffin sections. RESULTS: On retinal flat mounts, the proportion of avascular area and tuft formation did not differ between the fasudil and NaCl group. Immunohistochemical staining revealed a less intense staining with inflammatory markers after fasudil. Nevertheless, there were no differences on RNA level between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, our findings support that daily systemic application of fasudil does not decrease retinal neovascularization in rodents with oxygen-induced retinopathy. The results of our study together with the controversial results on the effects of different ROCK inhibitors from the literature makes it apparent that effects of ROCK inhibition are more complex, and further studies are necessary to analyze its potential therapeutic effects.


Assuntos
1-(5-Isoquinolinasulfonil)-2-Metilpiperazina/análogos & derivados , Doenças Retinianas/tratamento farmacológico , Quinases Associadas a rho/antagonistas & inibidores , 1-(5-Isoquinolinasulfonil)-2-Metilpiperazina/farmacologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Oxigênio/toxicidade , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Retina/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Retinianas/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Retinianas/enzimologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Quinases Associadas a rho/metabolismo
18.
J Microbiol ; 57(9): 748-758, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187413

RESUMO

Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) predisposes newborns to inflammatory and metabolic disturbance. Disequilibrium of gut microbiota in early life has been implicated in the incidence of inflammation and metabolic diseases in adulthood. This study aimed to investigate the difference in gut microbiota colonization, cytokines and plasma metabolome between IUGR and normal birth weight (NBW) piglets in early life. At birth, reduced (P < 0.05) body, jejunum, and ileum weights, as well as decreased (P < 0.05) small intestinal villi and increased (P < 0.05) ileal crypt depth were observed in IUGR piglets compared with their NBW counterparts. Imbalanced inflammatory and plasma metabolome profile was observed in IUGR piglets. Furthermore, altered metabolites were mainly involved in fatty acid metabolism and inflammatory response. At 12 h after birth and after suckling colostrum, reduced (P < 0.05) postnatal growth and the small intestinal maturation retardation (P < 0.05) continued in IUGR piglets in comparison with those in NBW littermates. Besides, the gut microbiota structure was significantly altered by IUGR. Importantly, the disruption of the inflammatory profile and metabolic status mainly involved the pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1ß and IFN-γ) and amino acid metabolism. Moreover, spearman correlation analysis showed that the increased abundance of Escherichia-Shigella and decreased abundance of Clostridium_sensu_stricto_1 in IUGR piglets was closely associated with the alterations of slaughter weight, intestinal morphology, inflammatory cytokines, and plasma metabolites. Collectively, IUGR significantly impairs small intestine structure, modifies gut microbiota colonization, and disturbs inflammatory and metabolic profiles during the first 12 h after birth. The unbalanced gut microbiota mediated by IUGR contributes to the development of inflammation and metabolic diseases.


Assuntos
Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/veterinária , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Plasma/química , Doenças dos Suínos/sangue , Doenças dos Suínos/imunologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/sangue , Animais Recém-Nascidos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais Recém-Nascidos/imunologia , Animais Recém-Nascidos/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Citocinas/sangue , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/sangue , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/imunologia , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/microbiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/anatomia & histologia , Mucosa Intestinal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Jejuno/anatomia & histologia , Jejuno/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Plasma/metabolismo , Gravidez , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/fisiopatologia
19.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 39(6): 632-6, 2019 Jun 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190501

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) at "Zusanli" (ST 36) versus "Yanglingquan" (GB 34) in the pregnant rats on perinatal nicotine-exposure-induced lung function and morphology of newborn rats and explore the rule of acupoint effect in EA for the prevention from lung dysplasia in newborn rats. METHODS: A total of 24 female SD rats were randomized into a normal saline group (S group), a nicotine group (N group), a nicotine-ST 36 group (N + ST 36 group) and a nicotine-GB 34 group (N+GB 34 group), 6 rats in each one. Starting at the 6th day of pregnancy, 0.9% sodium chloride solution was injected subcutaneously in the S group, 1 mg/kg; and in the rest 3 groups, nicotine of the same dose was injected through to the 21st postnatal day to establish the perinatal nicotine-exposure model. Simultaneously, during model preparation, EA was applied at "Zusanli" (ST 36) and "Yanglingquan" (GB 34) in the N+ST 36 group and the N+GB 34 group respectively, once a day, through to the 21st postnatal day. The lung function analytic system for small animal was adopted to observe the changes in lung function indicators in newborn rats, such as peak inspiratory flow (PIF), peak expiratory flow (PEF), expiratory resistance (RE), inspiratory resistance (RI) and dynamic compliance (Cdyn). HE staining was used to observe the morphological changes of lung, such as alveolar fusion and rupture. RESULTS: Compared with the S group, PEF and Cdyn were lower and PIF, RI and RE higher in the N group (all P<0.01), additionally, alveoli were fused and ruptured, alveolar wall thickened, the numbers of alveoli reduced, the interspace of alveoli enlarged and the diameter increased (P<0.01). Compared with the N group, in the N+ST 36 group, PEF and Cdyn were increased, PIF, RI and RE reduced (P<0.05, P<0.01), the alveolar fusion and rupture relieved, the numbers of alveoli increased, alveolar wall thinner, the interpsace of alveoli became normal and the diameter was reduced significantly (P<0.01). In the N+GB 34 group, the changes of lung function and morphological indicators were not significant (P>0.05). CONCLUSION: Electroacupuncture at "Zusanli" (ST 36) in the pregnant rats significantly improves the perinatal nicotine-exposure-induced lung function and morphology of newborn rats than electroacupuncture at "Yanglingquan" (GB 34).


Assuntos
Eletroacupuntura , Pulmão , Nicotina , Pontos de Acupuntura , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Feminino , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Nicotina/toxicidade , Gravidez , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
20.
Vet Microbiol ; 233: 164-173, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176404

RESUMO

Exosomes are small membrane-enclosed vesicles that participate in intercellular communication between cells. Numerous evidences suggested that exosomes derived from virus-infected cells can mediate virus transmission or/and regulate immune response. Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the prototype member of the Aphthovirus genus of the Picornaviridae family. It can cause highly infectious disease of cloven-hoofed livestock and significantly increase public awareness. However, the role of exosomes in the transmission of FMDV has still remained unknown. In this study, full length of FMDV genomic RNA and partial viral proteins were identified in purified exosomes isolated from FMDV-infected PK-15 cells with qRT-PCR and /MS. Exosomes from FMDV-infected cells were capable of transmitting infection to naive PK-15 cells and suckling mice. Furthermore, exosome-mediated infection cannot be fully blocked by FMDV-specific neutralizing antibodies. This finding highlights that FMDV transmission by exosomes as a potential immune evasion mechanism.


Assuntos
Exossomos/virologia , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/patogenicidade , Febre Aftosa/transmissão , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Exossomos/fisiologia , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/genética , Rim/citologia , Rim/virologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , RNA Viral , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo
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