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1.
Food Chem ; 303: 125369, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442902

RESUMO

A well-designed yolk-shell Fe3O4@graphitic carbon (YS-Fe3O4@GC) submicroboxes with a tunable internal cavity were constructed by one-step pyrolysis strategy followed by partially etching, in which the Fe3O4 magnetic core was well confined in compartment of GC submicroboxes. The suitable internal cavity, graphitic carbon shell and large specific surface area, play great roles in improving mass transfer of analytes. Compared to its core-shell structure, the YS-Fe3O4@GC submicroboxes as dispersive magnetic solid-phase extraction (d-MSPE) materials exhibited superior enrichment performance for sulfonamides (SAs). Thus, it was applied to sensitive/simultaneous detection of trace SAs in milk and meat samples, combing with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Under optimized conditions, limits of detection (LODs, 0.11-0.25 µg L-1 for milk and 0.46-2.24 µg kg-1 for meat) and recoveries (77.2-118.0%) were obtained. This work not only offers a facile strategy for the tunable fabrication of yolk-shell architecture, but also successfully affords its exploration as d-MSPE materials.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos , Grafite/química , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Sulfonamidas/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Compostos de Ferro/química , Limite de Detecção , Magnetismo , Carne/análise , Leite/química , Sulfonamidas/análise
2.
Food Chem ; 303: 125378, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450176

RESUMO

This work introduces an inexpensive and user-friendly electrochemical platform for heavy metal determination in liquid food. Smart-phone connectivity, solid-state-microwave flow digestion and nano-Au-modified electrode are synchronously studied. A smart phone is adopted as the information terminal for universal purposes. A solid-state-microwave digestion device is developed to provide programmable digestion for liquid food in a digestion path. Microwave power curve and flow rate in digestion are studied and optimized. A nano-Au-modified electrode, as well as a homemade potentiostat and other electrodes, is used as a tool for electrochemical analyses. Behaviors of this method are evaluated with electrical measurement and stripping voltammetry. This method is used for sensing Cd2+, Pb2+ and Hg2+ in cow milk, orange juice and apple juice. It provides a sensitive response to ≥2 µg L-1 target ion, and shows satisfying stability and good accuracy in a task up to 72 h.


Assuntos
Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Leite/química , Smartphone , Animais , Cádmio/análise , Bovinos , Eletrodos , Feminino , Ouro/química , Chumbo/análise , Mercúrio/análise , Micro-Ondas
3.
Food Chem ; 303: 125395, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454758

RESUMO

The multi-isotope calibration (MICal) is a fast and accurate calibration strategy for multi-elemental determination that uses only two solutions, (1) 50% (v v-1) sample plus 50% (v v-1) analytical blank solution, and (2) 50% (v v-1) sample plus 50% (v v-1) standard solution (containing the analytes). The calibration curves were built as a function of the intensity signals of solution 1 (y-axis) versus solution 2 (x-axis), employing the various isotopes of each monitored mass/charge. The concentration of the analytes was calculated from the slope and the concentrations of the standards added to solution 2. The validation of the method was evaluated using standard reference materials of bovine liver and bovine muscle. The recoveries varied from 87 to 113% for MICal, which were similar to the conventional standard additions calibration procedure (83 to 120%).


Assuntos
Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Carne/análise , Animais , Calibragem , Bovinos , Isótopos , Fígado/química , Produtos da Carne/análise
4.
Food Chem ; 303: 125381, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473459

RESUMO

To reduce food loss from stored products by insect attack, monitoring and early detection of insects are essential. Presently, monitoring with pheromone traps is the primary method for detection; however, traps are effective only after the insects propagate. Detection and identification of the early volatile biomarkers arising from insect-infested brown rice was performed in this study to develop an alternative detection strategy. Brown rice was infested with eggs of seven insect species, including Sitophilus zeamais and Plodia interpunctella. Infested rice emitted at least one of the volatile compounds prenol, isoprenol, dimethyl disulfide, and dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS). In particular, isopentenols were generated by moths within one week of infestation, whereas they were not released from non-infested rice. DMTS was detected from all insect-infested brown rice, especially S. zeamais and P. interpunctella. These volatiles are potential early biomarkers for the presence of insects in brown rice.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Insetos/metabolismo , Oryza , Pentanóis/análise , Sulfetos/análise , Animais , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Dissulfetos/análise , Dissulfetos/metabolismo , Insetos/fisiologia , Larva/metabolismo , Pentanóis/metabolismo , Sulfetos/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo
5.
Bioresour Technol ; 295: 121997, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634802

RESUMO

Swine manure is considered a reservoir for antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), which may enter the soil and then the food chain to endanger human health. This study investigated the effects of adding 0%, 5%, and 15% (w/w) macroporous adsorption resin (MAR) on ARGs and the bacterial community during composting. The results showed that the addition of MAR reduced the abundances of ARGs (14.14-99.44%) and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) (47.83-99.48%) after swine manure composting. Significant positive correlations were detected between ARGs and MGEs, and thus the variations in MGEs may have led to the changes in ARGs. Redundancy analysis showed that MGEs had stronger effects on ARGs than environmental factors and the bacterial community. Network analysis suggested that ARGs and MGEs co-existed in common host bacteria. In conclusion, the results showed that adding 5% MAR can reduce the risk of ARG transmission.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Adsorção , Animais , Antibacterianos , Bactérias , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Genes Bacterianos , Esterco , Suínos
6.
Food Chem ; 303: 125407, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466032

RESUMO

Theaflavin (TF), which is the key pigment in black tea, is a health-promoting food component with beneficial effects on humans. However, the interactions by which these effects are transferred and exerted into protein-rich foods are unclear. Here, egg ovalbumin (OVA) was selected as a representative dietary protein to ascertain their binding mechanism. Steady-state, time-resolved fluorescence and isothermal titration calorimetric results showed that TF can interact well with OVA with an affinity magnitude of 104. The noncovalent binding was mainly driven by hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bonds. Structural analysis displayed that the TF binding pocket significantly overlapped with one of the surrounding specific IgE-binding epitopes, thereby causing a subtle structural adjustment on the secondary conformation of OVA. The biological complexation model that was delineated here will help understand how black tea dyes egg white in tea egg products and for the development of protein-rich carriers in functional foods.


Assuntos
Biflavonoides/química , Camellia sinensis/química , Catequina/química , Clara de Ovo/química , Ovalbumina/química , Pigmentos Biológicos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Animais , Galinhas , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Cinética , Ligação Proteica , Chá/química
7.
Food Chem ; 303: 125399, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470274

RESUMO

It is still a challenge to solve the matrix interferences in veterinary drug residue analysis. In this study, we reported a thin layer chromatography (TLC)-high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for determining total florfenicol (FF) residues, expressed as florfenicol amine (FFA), in porcine edible tissues. The tissue homogenate were acid-hydrolyzed to liberate the bound residues and convert them into FFA. The hydrolysates were washed with ethyl acetate and subsequently extracted with ethyl acetate under alkaline conditions. The supernatants were concentrated through evaporation, defatted with hexane, purified by TLC and analyzed by HPLC at 225 nm. The optimal developing solvent for TLC purification was ethyl acetate-acetone-ammonium hydroxide mixtures (2:8:0.5, v/v/v). The method was fully validated according to decision 2002/657/EC, and could be used for the routine monitoring of FF residues in pig. TLC showed excellent purification efficiency, and was expected to solve the matrix interferences in veterinary drug residue analysis.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada/métodos , Resíduos de Drogas/análise , Tianfenicol/análogos & derivados , Drogas Veterinárias/análise , Estruturas Animais/química , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Carne/análise , Suínos , Tianfenicol/análise
8.
Food Chem ; 303: 125419, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470276

RESUMO

ß-Cyclodextrin- and 2-hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin/Danube common nase (Chondrostoma nasus L.) oil complexes (ß-CD- and HP-ß-CD/CNO) have been obtained for the first time. The fatty acid (FA) profile of the CNO indicates an important content of polyunsaturated fatty acids, the most important being eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 6.3%) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 1.6%), both ω-3 FAs. The complexes have been obtained by kneading method. The moisture content and successful of molecular encapsulation have been evaluated by thermal and spectroscopic techniques. Thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry analyses reveals that the moisture content of CD/CNO complexes significantly decreased, compared to starting CDs. On the other hand, the crystallinity index was for the first time determined for such type of complexes, the ß-CD/CNO complex having values of 43.9(±18.3)%, according to X-ray diffractometry. FA profile and CD/CNO characteristics sustain the use of these ω-3 based complexes for food supplements or functional food products, but further studies are needed.


Assuntos
2-Hidroxipropil-beta-Ciclodextrina/química , Óleos de Peixe/química , beta-Ciclodextrinas/química , Animais , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Cyprinidae , Solubilidade , Difração de Raios X
9.
Food Chem ; 303: 125414, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473458

RESUMO

A 3D scanning method was developed to differentiate Octopus minor blocks which had surplus water to increase weight of O. minor. Effects of soaking time (0.5, 1 and 3 h) and apparent density of O. minor were determined using the number of O. minor in a block (4, 5, 6, and 7). A 0.5, 1, and 3 h soaking time increased O. minor weight by 11.85, 16.02, and 24.53%, respectively. Apparent density of non-weight gained O. minor blocks was significantly higher than those of 3 h soaked samples (p < 0.05). A 3D scanning method had limited ability to differentiate 1 h soaked and non-soaked samples, whereas it had high potential to discriminate 3 h soaked samples. Blind test using 25 blocks of O. minor showed that 3D scanning method evaluated 88% of prediction percentage. The total time of 3D scanning took <30 min for one block with a relatively high precision.


Assuntos
Imagem Tridimensional/métodos , Octopodiformes/química , Água/metabolismo , Animais , Octopodiformes/metabolismo , Água/química
10.
Waste Manag ; 101: 35-43, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586875

RESUMO

CH4 is one of the main greenhouse gases (GHGs) generated from agricultural sector, and a significant amount of it is emitted during the storage of livestock manure. To mitigate the CH4 emissions, strong acid addition to the manure was attempted, which is only applicable to slurry-type manure. On the other hand, lowering the storage temperature could be an effective method to reduce the CH4 emissions, particularly applicable to solid-type manure. In this study, cattle manure (CM) with a high-solid content (TS > 30%) was stored at different temperatures (15-35 °C) for 80 d. The highest CH4 emissions of 375.1 kg CO2 eq./ton VS was observed at 35 °C, and this was reduced to less than half at ≤20 °C. Like the difference in CH4 emissions, the degradation of organic matter showed a similar trend. The maximum VS reduction of 29% was observed at 35 °C, while only 8% reduction was observed at 15 °C. Results from microbial community analyses and specific methanogenic activity tests indicated that hydrogenotrophic methanogens were the dominant indigenous CH4-producers, and the abundance of psychrophilic methanogens increased with decreasing temperature. The conservation of organic matter at low temperature led to an increase in biogas production potential from 25 to 43 L CH4/kg CM. It was calculated that the GHGs emissions from electricity consumption for cooling CM below 25 °C can be offset by mitigating CH4 emissions during storage but increasing in subsequent biogas production potential of CM. Compared at 35 °C, 91.6 kg CO2 eq./ton CM of GHGs reduction can be attained at 15 °C.


Assuntos
Gases de Efeito Estufa , Esterco , Animais , Biocombustíveis , Bovinos , Metano , Temperatura Ambiente
11.
Waste Manag ; 101: 141-149, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610475

RESUMO

Improving the quality and quantity of biogas usually requires pre-treatment to maximize methane yields and/or post-treatment to remove H2S, which involves considerable energy consumption and higher costs. Therefore, this study proposes a cost-effective method for the enhanced anaerobic digestion (AD) of dairy manure (DM) without pre/post-treatment by directly adding waste iron powder (WIP) and iron oxide nanoparticles (INPs) to batch digesters. The results showed that the addition of iron in the form of microscale WIP (generated from the laser cutting of iron and steel) at concentrations of 100 mg/L, 500 mg/L, and 1000 mg/L improved methane yields by 36.99%, 39.36%, and 56.89%, respectively. In comparison, the equivalent dosages of INPs improved yields by 19.74%, 18.14%, and 21.11%, respectively. Additionally, the highest WIP dose (1000 mg/L) achieved the maximum improvement in the rate of hydrolysis (k), which was 1.25 times higher than in control reactions, and a maximum biomethane production rate (Rmax) of 0.045 L/gVS/d according to kinetic analysis models (i.e., first-order and the Gompertz kinetic models). The rate of H2S production was also significantly reduced (by 45.20%, 58.16%, and 77.24%) using the three WIP concentrations in comparison with INPs (which achieved reductions of 33.59%, 46.30%, and 53.52%, respectively). Therefore, the direct mixing of WIP with cattle manure is proposed as a practical and economical means of addressing complex and high-cost pre- and post-treatments that are otherwise required in the digestion process.


Assuntos
Esterco , Nanopartículas , Anaerobiose , Animais , Biocombustíveis , Reatores Biológicos , Bovinos , Compostos Férricos , Ferro , Cinética , Metano
12.
Food Chem ; 302: 125350, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415999

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to investigate the use of serine protease from Yarrowia lipolytica yeast for reduction of milk proteins allergenicity. Whey protein concentrate (WPC-80), αs-casein and their hydrolysates were analyzed for the capacity to bind IgE and IgG antibodies present in sera from patients with cow milk protein allergy using a competitive ELISA. The hydrolysis of αs-casein and whey protein concentrate contributed to a significant reduction of their immunoreactive epitopes. In case of IgE antibodies, the lowest binding capacity was detected in the 24 h hydrolysates of both proteins in which the inhibition of the reaction was ≤20 and ≤68% for αs-casein and whey protein concentrate respectively. One hour hydrolysis of WPC-80 reduced the protein antigenicity, while the longer time (5 h) might lead to the exposure of new IgE - reactive epitopes.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade a Leite/imunologia , Proteínas do Leite/imunologia , Hidrolisados de Proteína/imunologia , Serina Proteases/metabolismo , Alérgenos/imunologia , Alérgenos/metabolismo , Animais , Caseínas/imunologia , Caseínas/metabolismo , Pré-Escolar , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Epitopos , Feminino , Cabras/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Imunoglobulina E/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Proteínas do Leite/metabolismo , Hidrolisados de Proteína/metabolismo , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/imunologia , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/metabolismo , Yarrowia/enzimologia
13.
Food Chem ; 302: 125371, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437711

RESUMO

Dietary selenium deficiency is recognized as a global problem. Pork is the most widely consumed meat throughout the world and an important source of selenium for humans. In this study, a reliable approach was developed for analyzing selenium and its speciation in the muscles of pigs after different selenium treatments. The selenium source deposition efficiency was ranked as: selenomethionine > methylselenocysteine > selenite, and the muscle selenium content had a dose effect with selenomethionine supplementation. In total, four species of selenium were detected in the muscles of pigs and the distributions of these selenium species were greatly affected by the dietary selenium supplementation forms and levels. Selenomethionine (>70% of total selenium) and selenocystine (>11%) were the major selenium species, followed by methylselenocysteine and selenourea. Therefore, selenium-enriched pork produced from selenomethionine is a good source for improving human dietary selenium intake.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Músculo Esquelético/química , Compostos de Selênio/farmacologia , Selênio/análise , Animais , Cistina/análogos & derivados , Cistina/análise , Suplementos Nutricionais , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Organosselênicos/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Ácido Selenioso/farmacologia , Compostos de Selênio/análise , Selenocisteína/análogos & derivados , Selenocisteína/farmacologia , Selenometionina/análise , Selenometionina/farmacologia , Suínos , Ureia/análogos & derivados , Ureia/análise
14.
Food Chem ; 302: 125359, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442702

RESUMO

A simple and rapid sensing strategy was proposed for chloramphenicol (CAP) detection based on structure-switching signaling aptamers. In this protocol, the aptamer can bind to both the fluorophore (FAM)-labeled complementary strand and the quencher (BHQ1)-labeled complementary strand, thus leading to the effective quenching of FAM fluorescence by BHQ1. However, when CAP is present, the structure switch is reversed because the aptamer recognizes CAP, resulting in fluorescence recovery. Such a fluorescence-sensing platform can monitor CAP within a good linear range (1-100 ng/mL), with a detection limit of 0.70 ng/mL. Cross-reactivity with other common antibiotics is negligible, indicating the excellent selectivity of the strategy. Moreover, as the aptamers are not modified, this method is simple and low-cost. The present work reveals a new direction for detecting CAP or other target compounds without prior knowledge of the secondary or tertiary structures of the aptamer.


Assuntos
Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/química , Cloranfenicol/análise , Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência/métodos , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Animais , Antibacterianos/análise , Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/metabolismo , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Limite de Detecção , Leite/química , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
15.
Food Chem ; 302: 125348, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442704

RESUMO

Tropomyosin (TM) is the main allergen of shrimp. Glycation reportedly reduced the allergenicity of TM, and the allergenicity reduction was heavily dependent upon the sources of saccharides. In this work we investigated, how glycation of tropomyosin by functional oligosaccharides affected the allergenicity. Compared to TM, the TM glycated by galacto-oligosaccharide (TM-GOS), mannan-oligosaccharide (TM-MOS) and maltopentaose (TM-MPS) had lower allergenicity and induced weaker mouse allergy responses. While the TM glycated by fructo-oligosaccharide (TM-FOS) had stronger allergenicity and induced severe mouse allergy symptoms, due to the generation of neoallergns that belonged to advanced glycation end products (e.g. CML). Therefore, GOS, MOS and MPS could be applied to desensitize shrimp TM-induced food allergy through glycation, while FOS was not suitable to reduce TM allergenicity. Glycation of TM by GOS, MOS and MPS, especially for MPS, significantly reduced allergenicity and alleviated allergy symptoms, which could be potentially explored for immunotherapy for shrimp-allergic patients.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/imunologia , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Palaemonidae/imunologia , Proteínas de Frutos do Mar/metabolismo , Tropomiosina/metabolismo , Adulto , Alérgenos/imunologia , Alérgenos/metabolismo , Animais , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/sangue , Glicosilação , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oligossacarídeos/imunologia , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Frutos do Mar/química , Proteínas de Frutos do Mar/imunologia , Tropomiosina/química , Tropomiosina/imunologia
16.
Food Chem ; 302: 125345, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445377

RESUMO

This paper compares the results of standard chemical analytical processes and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in the characterization of different beverages, namely ground coffee, soluble coffee, coffee substitutes, barley, cow milk, vegetable drinks, tea, plant infusions and plant mixtures. For the two approaches, the similarities between the experimental data are assessed by means of the Euclidean and Canberra distances. The resulting information is processed by means of the multidimensional scaling (MDS) clustering and visualization algorithm. The results of the chemical analytical processes and EIS reveal identical clusters for the two adopted distances. Furthermore, the robustness of the experimental and computational scheme are assessed by means of the Procrustes technique. The results confirm the effectiveness of combining the EIS and MDS.


Assuntos
Bebidas/análise , Visualização de Dados , Espectroscopia Dielétrica/métodos , Algoritmos , Animais , Técnicas de Química Analítica/métodos , Análise por Conglomerados , Café/química , Espectroscopia Dielétrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Análise de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Leite/química , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Chá/química
17.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 18: eAO4876, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576909

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of sericin extracted from silkworm Bombyx mori cocoon on morphophysiological parameters in mice with obesity induced by high-fat diet. METHODS: Male C57Bl6 mice aged 9 weeks were allocated to one of two groups - Control and Obese, and fed a standard or high-fat diet for 10 weeks, respectively. Mice were then further subdivided into four groups with seven mice each, as follows: Control, Control-Sericin, Obese, and Obese-Sericin. The standard or high fat diet was given for 4 more weeks; sericin (1,000mg/kg body weight) was given orally to mice in the Control-Sericin and Obese-Sericin Groups during this period. Weight gain, food intake, fecal weight, fecal lipid content, gut motility and glucose tolerance were monitored. At the end of experimental period, plasma was collected for biochemical analysis. Samples of white adipose tissue, liver and jejunum were collected and processed for light microscopy analysis; liver fragments were used for lipid content determination. RESULTS: Obese mice experienced significantly greater weight gain and fat accumulation and had higher total cholesterol and glucose levels compared to controls. Retroperitoneal and periepididymal adipocyte hypertrophy, development of hepatic steatosis, increased cholesterol and triglyceride levels and morphometric changes in the jejunal wall were observed. CONCLUSION: Physiological changes induced by obesity were not fully reverted by sericin; however, sericin treatment restored jejunal morphometry and increased lipid excretion in feces in obese mice, suggesting potential anti-obesity effects.


Assuntos
Fármacos Antiobesidade/uso terapêutico , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Sericinas/uso terapêutico , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Animais , Fármacos Antiobesidade/farmacologia , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Colesterol/análise , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado Gorduroso/patologia , Trânsito Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Obesos , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sericinas/farmacologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Triglicerídeos/análise , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Rev Environ Contam Toxicol ; 252: 51-96, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286265

RESUMO

In the past two decades, increased production and usage of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) have inevitably increased their discharge into the different compartments of the environment, which ultimately paved the way for their uptake and accumulation in various trophic levels of the food chain. Due to these issues, several questions have been raised on the usage of NPs in everyday life and have become a matter of public health concern. Among the metallic NPs, Cu-based NPs have gained popularity due to their cost-effectiveness and multifarious promising uses. Several studies in the past represented the phytotoxicity of Cu-based NPs on plants. However, comprehensive knowledge is still lacking. Additionally, the impact of Cu-based NPs on soil organisms such as agriculturally important microbes, fungi, mycorrhiza, nematode, and earthworms is poorly studied. This review article critically analyses the literature data to achieve a more comprehensive knowledge on the toxicological profile of Cu-based NPs and increase our understanding of the effects of Cu-based NPs on aquatic and terrestrial plants as well as on soil microbial communities. The underlying mechanism of biotransformation of Cu-based NPs and the process of their penetration into plants have also been discussed herein. Overall, this review could provide valuable information to design rules and regulations for the safe disposal of Cu-based NPs into a sustainable environment.


Assuntos
Cobre , Poluentes Ambientais , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Animais , Cadeia Alimentar , Oligoquetos , Solo
19.
Rev Environ Contam Toxicol ; 252: 131-171, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31463624

RESUMO

Anurans from the genus Xenopus have long been used as standard testing organisms and occur naturally in tropical and sub-tropical areas where malaria vector control pesticides are actively used. However, literature on the toxic effects of these pesticides is limited. This review analyses the available data pertaining to both Xenopus and the pesticides used for malaria vector control in order to determine the pesticides that have the greatest potential to influence amphibian health while also identifying gaps in literature that need to be addressed. Amphibian diversity has shown the fastest decline of any group, yet there are still voids in our understanding of how this is happening. The lack of basic toxicity data on amphibians with regard to pesticides is an issue that needs to be addressed in order to improve effectiveness of amphibian conservation strategies. Meta-analyses performed in this review show that, at current usage, with the available acute toxicity literature, the pyrethroid pesticide group could hold the highest potential to cause acute toxicity to Xenopus sp. in relation to the other MVCPs discussed, but the lack of data cripples the efficacy with which meta-analyses can be performed and conclusions made from such analyses. Several studies have shown that DDT accumulates in Xenopus sp. from malaria vector control areas, but accumulation of other MVCPs in frogs is still largely unknown. Through this review we hope to encourage future research into the field of amphibian ecotoxicology and to promote the use of the Xenopus standard model in order to build comprehensive datasets that may be used in amphibian conservation.


Assuntos
Ecotoxicologia , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Malária , Controle de Mosquitos , Mosquitos Vetores , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Animais , Anopheles , Xenopus , Xenopus laevis
20.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 18: eAO4784, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553356

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of three types of muscular resistance training on adiposity, inflammation levels and insulin activity in Swiss mice with fat-rich diet-induced obesity. METHODS: Lean and obese male Swiss mice were selected and allocated to one of eight groups comprising eight mice each, as follows: standard diet + no training; standard diet + muscular resistance training; standard diet + hypertrophy training; standard diet + strength training; high-fat diet + no training; high-fat diet + muscular resistance training; high-fat diet + hypertrophy training; high-fat diet + strength training. The training protocol consisted of stair climbing for a 10-week period. Blood samples were collected for lactate analysis, glucose level measurement and insulin tolerance test. After euthanasia, adipose tissues were removed and weighed for adiposity index determination. Fragments of epididymal adipose tissue were then embedded for histological analysis or homogenized for tumor necrosis factor alpha level determination using the ELISA method. RESULTS: Ausency of differences in total training volume and blood lactate levels overall emphasize the similarity between the different resistance training protocols. Body weight loss, reduced adipocyte area and lower adiposity index were observed in trained obese mice, regardless of training modality. Different training protocols also improved insulin sensitivity and reduced inflammation levels. CONCLUSION: Resistance training protocols were equally effective in reducing body fat, inflammation levels and insulin resistance in obese mice.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/fisiologia , Hipertrofia/fisiopatologia , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Exercícios de Alongamento Muscular/métodos , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo Branco/fisiopatologia , Animais , Glicemia/análise , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Obesos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Fatores de Tempo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/análise
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