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1.
J Biomech Eng ; 145(2)2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36149008

RESUMO

Delivery of drug formulations through the subcutaneous route is a widely used modality for the treatment of several diseases, such as diabetes and auto-immune conditions. Subcutaneous injections are typically used to inject low-viscosity drugs in small doses. However, for new biologics, there is a need to deliver drugs of higher viscosity in large volumes. The response of subcutaneous tissue to such high-volume doses and higher viscosity injections is not well understood. Animal models have several drawbacks such as relevance to humans, lack of predictive power beyond the immediate population studied, cost, and ethical considerations. Therefore, a computational framework that can predict the tissue response to subcutaneous injections would be a valuable tool in the design and development of new devices. To model subcutaneous drug delivery accurately, one needs to consider: (a) the deformation and damage mechanics of skin layers due to needle penetration and (b) the coupled fluid flow and deformation of the hypodermis tissue due to drug delivery. The deformation of the skin is described by the anisotropic, hyper-elastic, and viscoelastic constitutive laws. The damage mechanics is modeled by using appropriate damage criteria and damage evolution laws in the modeling framework. The deformation of the subcutaneous space due to fluid flow is described by the poro-hyperelastic theory. The objective of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of the methodologies used to model each of the above-mentioned aspects of subcutaneous drug delivery. We also present an overview of the experimental techniques used to obtain various model parameters.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos , Tela Subcutânea , Animais , Anisotropia , Elasticidade , Humanos , Viscosidade
2.
Magn Reson Med ; 89(1): 331-342, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36110062

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the ability of MRI-DTI to evaluate growth plate morphology and activity compared with that of histomorphometry and micro-CT in rabbits. METHODS: The hind limbs of female rabbits aged 16, 20, and 24 wk (n = 4 per age group) were studied using a 9.4T MRI scanner with a multi-gradient echo 3D sequence and DTI in 14 directions (b-value = 984 s/mm2 ). After MRI, the right and left hind limb were processed for histological analysis and micro-CT, respectively. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to evaluate the height and volume of the growth plate. Intraclass correlation and Pearson correlation coefficient were used to evaluate the association between DTI metrics and age. RESULTS: The growth plate height and volume were similar for all modalities at each time point and age. Age was correlated with all tractography and DTI metrics in both the femur and tibia. A correlation was also observed between all the metrics at both sites. Tract number and volume declined with age; however, tract length did not show any changes. The fractional anisotropy color map showed lateral diffusion centrally in the growth plate and perpendicular diffusion in the hypertrophic zone, as verified by histology and micro-CT. CONCLUSION: MRI-DTI may be useful for evaluating the growth plates.


Assuntos
Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Lâmina de Crescimento , Animais , Coelhos , Feminino , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão/métodos , Lâmina de Crescimento/diagnóstico por imagem , Anisotropia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética/métodos
3.
Magn Reson Med ; 89(1): 440-453, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36121312

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We seek to reformulate the so-called Propagator Anisotropy (PA) and Non-Gaussianity (NG), originally conceived for the Mean Apparent Propagator diffusion MRI (MAP-MRI), to the Micro-Structure adaptive convolution kernels and dual Fourier Integral Transforms (MiSFIT). These measures describe relevant normalized features of the Ensemble Average Propagator (EAP). THEORY AND METHODS: First, the indices, which are defined as the EAP's dissimilarity from an isotropic (PA) or a Gaussian (NG) one, are analytically reformulated within the MiSFIT framework. Then a comparison between the resulting maps is drawn by means of a visual analysis, a quantitative assessment via numerical simulations, a test-retest study across the MICRA dataset (6 subjects scanned five times) and, finally, a computational time evaluation. RESULTS: Findings illustrate the visual similarity between the indices computed with either technique. Evaluation against synthetic ground truth data, however, demonstrates MiSFIT's improved accuracy. In addition, the test-retest study reveals MiSFIT's higher degree of reliability in most of white matter regions. Finally, the computational time evaluation shows MiSFIT's time reduction up to two orders of magnitude. CONCLUSIONS: Despite being a direct development on the MAP-MRI representation, the PA and the NG can be reliably and efficiently computed within MiSFIT's framework. This, together with the previous findings in the original MiSFIT's article, could mean the difference that definitely qualifies diffusion MRI to be incorporated into regular clinical settings.


Assuntos
Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Humanos , Anisotropia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Algoritmos , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem
4.
Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr ; 1865(1): 184065, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36206830

RESUMO

Diffraction anisotropy is a phenomenon that impacts more specifically membrane proteins, compared to soluble ones, but the reasons for this discrepancy remained unclear. Often, it is referred to a difference in resolution limits between highest and lowest diffraction limits as a signature for anisotropy. We show in this article that there is no single correlation between anisotropy and difference in resolution limits, with notably a substantial number of structures displaying various anisotropy with no difference in resolution limits. We further investigated diffraction intensity profiles, and observed a peak centred on 4.9 Å resolution more predominant in membrane proteins. Since this peak is in the region corresponding to secondary structures, we investigated the influence of secondary structure ratio. We showed that secondary structure content has little influence on this profile, while secondary structure collinearity in membrane proteins correlate with a stronger peak. Finally, we could further show that the presence of this peak is linked to higher diffraction anisotropy. These results bring to light a specific diffraction of membrane protein crystals, which calls for a specific handling by crystallographic software. It also brings an explanation for investigators struggling with their anisotropic data.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Membrana , Software , Difração de Raios X , Proteínas de Membrana/química , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Anisotropia
5.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 286: 122002, 2023 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36274538

RESUMO

A fast calculation method was used to obtain the spectral optical properties of human normal and pathological (chromophobe renal cell carcinoma) kidney tissues. Using total transmittance, total reflectance and collimated transmittance spectra acquired from ex vivo kidney samples, the spectral optical properties of both tissues, namely the absorption, the scattering and the reduced scattering coefficients, as well as the scattering anisotropy, dispersion and light penetration depth, were calculated between 200 and 1000 nm. Analysis of the mean absorption coefficient spectra of the kidney tissues showed that both contain melanin and lipofuscin, and that 83 % of the melanin in the normal kidney converts into lipofuscin in the pathological kidney.


Assuntos
Lipofuscina , Melaninas , Humanos , Espalhamento de Radiação , Anisotropia , Rim
6.
Magn Reson Imaging ; 95: 80-89, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36368495

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe an optimized fiber orientation density function (fODF) rectification procedure that removes negative values and absorbs all features below a specified threshold into a constant background. THEORY AND METHODS: The fODF for a white matter imaging voxel describes the angular density of axons. Because of signal noise and Gibbs ringing, fODFs estimated with diffusion MRI may take on unphysical negative values in some directions and contain spurious peaks. In order to suppress such artifacts, an fODF rectification procedure is proposed that both eliminates all negative values and incorporates all features below a specified threshold, η, into a constant background while at the same time minimizing the mean square deviation from the original, unrectified fODF. Calculating this fODF is straightforward, and the directions and shapes of peaks not absorbed into the background are preserved. The rectification method is illustrated for an analytic fODF model and for experimental diffusion MRI data obtained in healthy human brain, with the original fODFs being obtained from fiber ball imaging. RESULTS: Examples of optimal rectified fODFs are given for three choices of the background threshold referred to as minimal rectification (η = 0), average-level rectification (η ≈ 0.08), and fractional-anisotropy-axonal-based rectification (η ≈ 0.1). As η is increased, artifacts and other small features are more strongly suppressed, but the major fODF peaks are largely unaffected for the range of η values illustrated by these three alternatives. CONCLUSION: Artifactual features of fODFs estimated with diffusion MRI can be effectively suppressed by applying the proposed optimized rectification procedure. Since it minimizes fODF distortion in the mean square sense, it may be useful in the study of how fODF fine structure is affected by aging and disease.


Assuntos
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Substância Branca , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Anisotropia
7.
J Biomech Eng ; 145(1)2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35838330

RESUMO

Reactive viscoelasticity is a theoretical framework based on the theory of reactive constrained mixtures that encompasses nonlinear viscoelastic responses. It models a viscoelastic solid as a mixture of strong and weak bonds that maintain the cohesiveness of the molecular constituents of the solid matter. Strong bonds impart the elastic response while weak bonds break and reform into a stress-free state in response to loading. The process of bonds breaking and reforming is modeled as a reaction where loaded bonds are the reactants and bonds reformed into a stress-free state are the products of a reaction. The reaction is triggered by the evolving state of loading. The state of stress in strong bonds is a function of the total strain in the material, whereas the state of stress in weak bonds is based on the state of strain relative to the time that these bonds were reformed. This study introduces two important practical contributions to the reactive nonlinear viscoelasticity framework: (1) normally, the evaluation of the stress tensor involves taking a summation over a continually increasing number of weak bond generations, which is poorly suited for a computational scheme. Therefore, this study presents an effective numerical scheme for evaluating the strain energy density, the Cauchy stress, and spatial elasticity tensors of reactive viscoelastic materials. (2) We provide the conditions for satisfying frame indifference for anisotropic nonlinear viscoelasticity, including for tension-bearing fiber models. Code verifications and model validations against experimental data provide evidence in support of this updated formulation.


Assuntos
Modelos Biológicos , Dinâmica não Linear , Anisotropia , Elasticidade , Estresse Mecânico , Viscosidade
8.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 137: 105546, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36375274

RESUMO

Young's modulus of α'- and α-crystals of poly (l-lactic acid) (PLLA), more precisely, of aggregates of isotropically arranged lamellae, has been estimated based on dynamic-mechanical analysis of sets of isotropic film samples containing largely different though well-defined amounts of crystals. Evaluation of the modulus of elasticity of these film samples yielded the dependence of Young's modulus as a function of the enthalpy-based crystallinity, increasing with the crystal fraction in the assessed range, from zero to about 75% crystallinity. Extrapolation towards 100% crystallinity suggests values of Young's modulus of around 3.7 and 4.6 GPa for isotropic aggregates of α'- and α-crystals, respectively, being only slightly higher than the modulus of the unaged glassy amorphous phase of 3.0 GPa. Noting the inherent anisotropy of the crystal modulus, suggested in the literature, the average modulus determined in this work seems to be controlled by weaker interchain secondary bonding but not the modulus in chain direction. Great effort has been undertaken to minimize errors by keeping the lamellar thickness in samples of different crystallinity constant, and by providing evidence for independence of the moduli on the spherulitic superstructure.


Assuntos
Ácido Láctico , Módulo de Elasticidade , Elasticidade , Anisotropia , Termodinâmica , Ácido Láctico/química
9.
J Int Med Res ; 50(11): 3000605221121954, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36324250

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Diffusion tensor imaging research on the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is limited, and no study has revealed the ACL fibrous microstructure by 7.0-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging. Therefore, we used magnetic resonance imaging to assess the ACL. METHODS: Eight porcine ACLs were investigated by diffusion tensor imaging. Imaging was performed with a 7.0-Tesla scanner using a diffusion-weighted two-dimensional spin-echo echo-planar imaging pulse sequence optimised for muscle. The diffusion tensor eigenparameters, fractional anisotropy (FA), and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were used for bones and muscles. Three-dimensional projection maps of the principal eigenvectors were plotted to visualise the microstructure. RESULTS: The mean FA and ADC for the ACL were 0.27 ± 0.079 and 0.0012 ± 0.0005, respectively. There were no significant differences between the values in the proximal and distal portions . However, the ADC was smaller in the centre than on the sides (0.0015 ± 0.0007), and the mean FA was larger in the centre than on the sides (0.42 ± 0.23). The ACL fibres were parallel on the proximal and distal sides but interweaved in the centre. CONCLUSIONS: These findings may be beneficial for artificial ligaments.


Assuntos
Ligamento Cruzado Anterior , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Suínos , Animais , Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão/métodos , Anisotropia , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética
10.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 6629, 2022 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36333339

RESUMO

Being able to probe the polarization states of light is crucial for applications from medical diagnostics and intelligent recognition to information encryption and bio-inspired navigation. Current state-of-the-art polarimeters based on anisotropic semiconductors enable direct linear dichroism photodetection without the need for bulky and complex external optics. However, their polarization sensitivity is restricted by the inherent optical anisotropy, leading to low dichroic ratios of typically smaller than ten. Here, we unveil an effective and general strategy to achieve more than 2,000-fold enhanced polarization sensitivity by exploiting an anisotropic charge trapping effect in organic phototransistors. The polarization-dependent trapping of photogenerated charge carriers provides an anisotropic photo-induced gate bias for current amplification, which has resulted in a record-high dichroic ratio of >104, reaching over the extinction ratios of commercial polarizers. These findings further enable the demonstration of an on-chip polarizer-free bionic celestial compass for skylight-based polarization navigation. Our results offer a fundamental design principle and an effective route for the development of next-generation highly polarization-sensitive optoelectronics.


Assuntos
Biônica , Óptica e Fotônica , Anisotropia , Visão Ocular
11.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 6702, 2022 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36335105

RESUMO

Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) is commonly used to assess the tissue and cellular substructure of the human brain. In the white matter, myelinated axons are the principal neural elements that shape dMRI through the restriction of water diffusion; however, in the gray matter the relative contributions of myelinated axons and other tissue features to dMRI are poorly understood. Here we investigate the determinants of diffusion in the cerebral cortex. Specifically, we ask whether myelinated axons significantly shape dMRI fractional anisotropy (dMRI-FA), a measure commonly used to characterize tissue properties in humans. We compared ultra-high resolution ex vivo dMRI data from the brain of a marmoset monkey with both myelin- and Nissl-stained histological sections obtained from the same brain after scanning. We found that the dMRI-FA did not match the spatial distribution of myelin in the gray matter. Instead dMRI-FA was more closely related to the anisotropy of stained tissue features, most prominently those revealed by Nissl staining and to a lesser extent those revealed by myelin staining. Our results suggest that unmyelinated neurites such as large caliber apical dendrites are the primary features shaping dMRI measures in the cerebral cortex.


Assuntos
Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Substância Branca , Humanos , Anisotropia , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão/métodos , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Branca/patologia , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/patologia
12.
J Chem Phys ; 157(19): 194901, 2022 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36414436

RESUMO

The response of soft colloids to crowding depends sensitively on the particles' compressibility. Nanogel suspensions provide model systems that are often studied to better understand the properties of soft materials and complex fluids from the formation of colloidal crystals to the flow of viruses, blood, or platelet cells in the body. Large spherical nanogels, when embedded in a matrix of smaller nanogels, have the unique ability to spontaneously deswell to match their size to that of the nanogel composing the matrix. In contrast to hard colloids, this self-healing mechanism allows for crystal formation without giving rise to point defects or dislocations. Here, we show that anisotropic ellipsoidal nanogels adapt both their size and their shape depending on the nature of the particles composing the matrix in which they are embedded. Using small-angle neutron scattering with contrast variation, we show that ellipsoidal nanogels become spherical when embedded in a matrix of spherical nanogels. In contrast, the anisotropy of the ellipsoid is enhanced when they are embedded in a matrix of anisotropic nanogels. Our experimental data are supported by Monte Carlo simulations that reproduce the trend of decreasing aspect ratio of ellipsoidal nanogels with increasing crowding by a matrix of spherical nanogels.


Assuntos
Coloides , Polietilenoglicóis , Nanogéis , Anisotropia , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Coloides/química
13.
J R Soc Interface ; 19(196): 20220512, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36349447

RESUMO

A central feature of living matter is its ability to grow and multiply. The mechanical activity associated with growth produces both macroscopic flows shaped by confinement, and striking self-organization phenomena, such as orientational order and alignment, which are particularly prominent in populations of rod-shaped bacteria due to their nematic properties. However, how active stresses, passive mechanical interactions and flow-induced effects interact to give rise to the observed global alignment patterns remains elusive. Here, we study in silico colonies of growing rod-shaped particles of different aspect ratios confined in channel-like geometries. A spatially resolved analysis of the stress tensor reveals a strong relationship between near-perfect alignment and an inversion of stress anisotropy for particles with large length-to-width ratios. We show that, in quantitative agreement with an asymptotic theory, strong alignment can lead to a decoupling of active and passive stresses parallel and perpendicular to the direction of growth, respectively. We demonstrate the robustness of these effects in a geometry that provides less restrictive confinement and introduces natural perturbations in alignment. Our results illustrate the complexity arising from the inherent coupling between nematic order and active stresses in growing active matter, which is modulated by geometric and configurational constraints due to confinement.


Assuntos
Anisotropia
14.
Phys Biol ; 20(1)2022 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36354019

RESUMO

Tumor-associated collagen signature-3 (TACS-3) is a prognostic indicator for breast cancer survival. It is characterized by highly organized, parallel bundles of collagen fibers oriented perpendicular to the tumor boundary, serving as directional, confining channels for cancer cell invasion. Here we design a TACS-3-mimetic anisotropic, confined collagen I matrix and examine the relation between anisotropy of matrix, directed cellular migration, and anisotropy of cell membrane-the first direct contact between TACS-3 and cell-using Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7) cells as cancer-model. Using unidirectional freezing, we generated ∼50µm-wide channels filled with collagen I. Optical tweezer (OT) microrheology shows that anisotropic confinement increases collagen viscoelasticity by two orders of magnitude, and the elastic modulus is significantly greater along the direction of anisotropic confinement compared to that along the orthogonal direction, thus establishing matrix anisotropy. Furthermore, MCF-7 cells embedded in anisotropic collagen I, exhibit directionality in cellular morphology and migration. Finally, using customized OT to trap polystyrene probes bound to cell-membrane (and not to ECM) of either free cells or cells under anisotropic confinement, we quantified the effect of matrix anisotropy on membrane viscoelasticity, both in-plane and out-of-plane, vis-à-vis the membrane. Both bulk and viscous modulus of cell-membrane of MCF-7 cells exhibit significant anisotropy under anisotropic confinement. Moreover, the cell membrane of MCF-7 cells under anisotropic confinement is significantly softer (both in-plane and out-of-plane moduli) despite their local environment being five times stiffer than free cells. In order to test if the coupling between anisotropy of extracellular matrix and anisotropy of cell-membrane is regulated by cell-cytoskeleton, actin cytoskeleton was depolymerized for both free and confined cells. Results show that cell membrane viscoelasticity of confined MCF-7 cells is unaffected by actin de-polymerization, in contrast to free cells. Together, these findings suggest that anisotropy of ECM induces directed migration and correlates with anisotropy of cell-membrane viscoelasticity of the MCF-7 cells in an actin-independent manner.


Assuntos
Actinas , Colágeno , Humanos , Anisotropia , Células MCF-7 , Membrana Celular
15.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(45): 50485-50498, 2022 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36331130

RESUMO

Current artificial periostea mainly focus on osteogenic activity but overlook structural and mechanical anisotropy, as well as the importance of antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties. Here, inspired by the anisotropic structure of wood, the delignified wood (named white wood, WW) with a porous and highly oriented cellulose fiber skeleton was obtained, which was further filled with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel loaded with curcumin (Cur) and phytic acid (PA). The prepared wood-derived hydrogel composite membranes can not only exhibit an obvious anisotropic structure and good mechanical properties but also sustainably release loaded drugs to obtain long-term biological activities. Creatively, PA can effectively improve the bioavailability of Cur; more importantly, Cur and PA play an obvious synergistic effect in antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and osteogenic activities. Compared with the wood-derived hydrogel composite membranes without drug loading, as well as loaded with Cur or PA only, these loaded with Cur and PA are significantly more conducive to inhibiting the growth of bacteria and inflammatory response and facilitating the adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. This kind of anisotropic wood-derived hydrogel composite membrane with fantastic antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and osteogenic activities is expected to be ideal artificial periostea.


Assuntos
Curcumina , Hidrogéis , Hidrogéis/farmacologia , Hidrogéis/química , Osteogênese , Periósteo , Anisotropia , Madeira , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Curcumina/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/química
16.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 13(45): 10621-10626, 2022 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36350107

RESUMO

To gain superior signal-enhanced performance, metal nanocrystals serving as building blocks can be collectively assembled into a hierarchically ordered structure for creating multiple hotspots. However, the collaborative assembly of anisotropic crystals to form a hotspot-rich structure remains a challenging task. In this study, controllable shear was introduced to a soft liquid-liquid interface to provide a unique environment for the snowball assembly of silver pompon architectures (Ag-PAs). Micrometer-scale 3D plasmonic Ag pompon architectures composed of densely packed nanoparticles (NPs) are fabricated using shear-mediating crystal growth dynamics. The crystal morphology and size are easily controlled by tuning the interfacial shear and diffusion pathways. The hotspot-rich Ag-PAs with high sensitivity (LOD = 1.1 × 10-13 mol/L) exhibit a superior Raman enhancement performance, which is comparable to some bimetals.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Prata , Prata/química , Análise Espectral Raman , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Anisotropia
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(45): e31312, 2022 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36397320

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The mean kurtosis (MK) and fractional anisotropy (FA) in patients of Parkinson's disease (PD) are usually measured by diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), separately. METHODS: In this study we perform a meta-analysis to discuss which noninvasive biomarker is more advantageous for PD, MK, or FA. Databases including Medline via PubMed, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase via OVID and China National Knowledge Infrastructure. Databases are searched up to December 31st, 2019. Four brain regions are identified for analysis based on data extracted from articles. RESULTS: The articles contain 5 trials with 274 total PD patients and 189 healthy controls (HCs). The results show not only significantly higher MK values of putamen, caudate, globus pallidus in PD compared to that of HCs (weighted mean difference [WMD] = 0.06, 95% CI = 0.02-0.09, P = .002, WMD = 0.03, 95% CI = 0.01-0.067, P = .01, WMD = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.11-0.24, P < .00001), but also a significantly higher FA in caudate of PD compared to HCs (WMD = 0.02, 95% CI = 0.00-0.03, P = .006). CONCLUSION: This indicates that the sharp difference detected between PD patients and HCs can be detected by DKI and DTI. By further discussing results, we found that MK could be more sensitive diagnostic biomarker than FA toward PD diagnosis.


Assuntos
Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Doença de Parkinson , Humanos , Anisotropia , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão/métodos , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Putamen
18.
eNeuro ; 9(6)2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36376082

RESUMO

Early childhood neglect can impact brain development across the lifespan. Using voxel-based approaches we recently reported that severe and time-limited institutional deprivation in early childhood was linked to substantial reductions in total brain volume in adulthood, >20 years later. Here, we extend this analysis to explore deprivation-related regional white matter volume and microstructural organization using diffusion-based techniques. A combination of tensor-based morphometry (TBM) analysis and tractography was conducted on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) data from 59 young adults who spent between 3 and 41 months in the severely depriving Romanian institutions of the 1980s before being adopted into United Kingdom families, and 20 nondeprived age-matched United Kingdom controls. Independent of total volume, institutional deprivation was associated with smaller volumes in localized regions across a range of white matter tracts including (1) long-ranging association fibers such as bilateral inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), bilateral inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), left superior longitudinal fasciculi (SLFs), and left arcuate fasciculus; (2) tracts of the limbic circuitry including fornix and cingulum; and (3) projection fibers with the corticospinal tract particularly affected. Tractographic analysis found no evidence of altered microstructural organization of any tract in terms of hindrance modulated orientational anisotropy (HMOA), fractional anisotropy (FA), or mean diffusivity (MD). We provide further evidence for the effects of early neglect on brain development and their persistence in adulthood despite many years of environmental enrichment associated with successful adoption. Localized white matter effects appear limited to volumetric changes with microstructural organization unaffected.


Assuntos
Substância Branca , Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Anisotropia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(22)2022 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36430956

RESUMO

Molecular spintronics devices (MSDs) attempt to harness molecules' quantum state, size, and configurable attributes for application in computer devices-a quest that began more than 70 years ago. In the vast number of theoretical studies and limited experimental attempts, MSDs have been found to be suitable for application in memory devices and futuristic quantum computers. MSDs have recently also exhibited intriguing spin photovoltaic-like phenomena, signaling their potential application in cost-effective and novel solar cell technologies. The molecular spintronics field's major challenge is the lack of mass-fabrication methods producing robust magnetic molecule connections with magnetic electrodes of different anisotropies. Another main challenge is the limitations of conventional theoretical methods for understanding experimental results and designing new devices. Magnetic tunnel junction-based molecular spintronics devices (MTJMSDs) are designed by covalently connecting paramagnetic molecules across an insulating tunneling barrier. The insulating tunneling barrier serves as a mechanical spacer between two ferromagnetic (FM) electrodes of tailorable magnetic anisotropies to allow molecules to undergo many intriguing phenomena. Our experimental studies showed that the paramagnetic molecules could produce strong antiferromagnetic coupling between two FM electrodes, leading to a dramatic large-scale impact on the magnetic electrode itself. Recently, we showed that the Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) was effective in providing plausible insights into the observation of unusual magnetic domains based on the role of single easy-axis magnetic anisotropy. Here, we experimentally show that the response of a paramagnetic molecule is dramatically different when connected to FM electrodes of different easy-axis anisotropies. Motivated by our experimental studies, here, we report on an MCS study investigating the impact of the simultaneous presence of two easy-axis anisotropies on MTJMSD equilibrium properties. In-plane easy-axis anisotropy produced multiple magnetic phases of opposite spins. The multiple magnetic phases vanished at higher thermal energy, but the MTJMSD still maintained a higher magnetic moment because of anisotropy. The out-of-plane easy-axis anisotropy caused a dominant magnetic phase in the FM electrode rather than multiple magnetic phases. The simultaneous application of equal-magnitude in-plane and out-of-plane easy-axis anisotropies on the same electrode negated the anisotropy effect. Our experimental and MCS study provides insights for designing and understanding new spintronics-based devices.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Magnéticos , Magnetismo , Anisotropia , Eletrodos , Método de Monte Carlo
20.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(11)2022 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36421173

RESUMO

Mechanochromic (MC) luminescence of organic molecules has been emerging as a promising smart material for optical recording and memory devices. At the same time, pressure-induced blue-shifted and enhanced luminescence are rarely reported now. Herein, a series of cyanostilbene-based AIEgens with different substituents were synthesized to evaluate the influence of morphology transformation and push-pull electronic effect on the MC luminescence. Among these luminophores, compound 1 with one cyano group and diethylamino group was more susceptible to mechanical stimuli and obtained blue-shifted and enhanced fluorescence in response to anisotropic grinding. Powder X-ray diffraction patterns indicated that the MC behaviors were ascribed to the solid-state morphology transition from crystal-to-crystal. Analysis of crystal structures revealed that loose molecular packing is a key factor for high high-contrast MC luminescence. The smart molecular design, together with the excellent performance, verified that luminophores with twisted structures are ideal candidates for MC luminogens.


Assuntos
Luminescência , Difração de Raios X , Anisotropia
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