Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 15.488
Filtrar
1.
Eur Radiol Exp ; 8(1): 37, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561526

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In contrast to the brain, fibers within peripheral nerves have distinct monodirectional structure questioning the necessity of complex multidirectional gradient vector schemes for DTI. This proof-of-concept study investigated the diagnostic utility of reduced gradient vector schemes in peripheral nerve DTI. METHODS: Three-Tesla magnetic resonance neurography of the tibial nerve using 20-vector DTI (DTI20) was performed in 10 healthy volunteers, 12 patients with type 2 diabetes, and 12 age-matched healthy controls. From the full DTI20 dataset, three reduced datasets including only two or three vectors along the x- and/or y- and z-axes were built to calculate major parameters. The influence of nerve angulation and intraneural connective tissue was assessed. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (ROC-AUC) was used for analysis. RESULTS: Simplified datasets achieved excellent diagnostic accuracy equal to DTI20 (ROC-AUC 0.847-0.868, p ≤ 0.005), but compared to DTI20, the reduced models yielded mostly lower absolute values of DTI scalars: median fractional anisotropy (FA) ≤ 0.12; apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) ≤ 0.25; axial diffusivity ≤ 0.96, radial diffusivity ≤ 0.07). The precision of FA and ADC with the three-vector model was closest to DTI20. Intraneural connective tissue was negatively correlated with FA and ADC (r ≥ -0.49, p < 0.001). Small deviations of nerve angulation had little effect on FA accuracy. CONCLUSIONS: In peripheral nerves, bulk tissue DTI metrics can be approximated with only three predefined gradient vectors along the scanner's main axes, yielding similar diagnostic accuracy as a 20-vector DTI, resulting in substantial scan time reduction. RELEVANCE STATEMENT: DTI bulk tissue parameters of peripheral nerves can be calculated with only three predefined gradient vectors at similar diagnostic performance as a standard DTI but providing a substantial scan time reduction. KEY POINTS: • In peripheral nerves, DTI parameters can be approximated using only three gradient vectors. • The simplified model achieves a similar diagnostic performance as a standard DTI. • The simplified model allows for a significant acceleration of image acquisition. • This can help to introduce multi-b-value DTI techniques into clinical practice.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Humanos , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão/métodos , Anisotropia , Nervos Periféricos/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética
2.
J R Soc Interface ; 21(213): 20230592, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38593841

RESUMO

The mechanical characterization of the oesophagus is essential for applications such as medical device design, surgical simulations and tissue engineering, as well as for investigating the organ's pathophysiology. However, the material response of the oesophagus has not been established ex vivo in regard to the more complex aspects of its mechanical behaviour using fresh, human tissue: as of yet, in the literature, only the hyperelastic response of the intact wall has been studied. Therefore, in this study, the layer-dependent, anisotropic, visco-hyperelastic behaviour of the human oesophagus was investigated through various mechanical tests. For this, cyclic tests, with increasing stretch levels, were conducted on the layers of the human oesophagus in the longitudinal and circumferential directions and at two different strain rates. Additionally, stress-relaxation tests on the oesophageal layers were carried out in both directions. Overall, the results show discrete properties in each layer and direction, highlighting the importance of treating the oesophagus as a multi-layered composite material with direction-dependent behaviour. Previously, the authors conducted layer-dependent cyclic experimentation on formalin-embalmed human oesophagi. A comparison between the fresh and embalmed tissue response was carried out and revealed surprising similarities in terms of anisotropy, strain-rate dependency, stress-softening and hysteresis, with the main difference between the two preservation states being the magnitude of these properties. As formalin fixation is known to notably affect the formation of cross-links between the collagen of biological materials, the differences may reveal the influence of cross-links on the mechanical behaviour of soft tissues.


Assuntos
Esôfago , Projetos de Pesquisa , Humanos , Estresse Mecânico , Esôfago/fisiologia , Anisotropia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Resistência à Tração
3.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 3019, 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589360

RESUMO

Catch bonds are a rare class of protein-protein interactions where the bond lifetime increases under an external pulling force. Here, we report how modification of anchor geometry generates catch bonding behavior for the mechanostable Dockerin G:Cohesin E (DocG:CohE) adhesion complex found on human gut bacteria. Using AFM single-molecule force spectroscopy in combination with bioorthogonal click chemistry, we mechanically dissociate the complex using five precisely controlled anchor geometries. When tension is applied between residue #13 on CohE and the N-terminus of DocG, the complex behaves as a two-state catch bond, while in all other tested pulling geometries, including the native configuration, it behaves as a slip bond. We use a kinetic Monte Carlo model with experimentally derived parameters to simulate rupture force and lifetime distributions, achieving strong agreement with experiments. Single-molecule FRET measurements further demonstrate that the complex does not exhibit dual binding mode behavior at equilibrium but unbinds along multiple pathways under force. Together, these results show how mechanical anisotropy and anchor point selection can be used to engineer artificial catch bonds.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Mecânicos , Humanos , Anisotropia , Cinética , Bactérias , Ligação Proteica
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(7)2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38612769

RESUMO

One of the most important challenges in cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) is the substantial number of samples that exhibit preferred orientations, which leads to an uneven coverage of the projection sphere. As a result, the overall quality of the reconstructed maps can be severely affected, as manifested by the presence of anisotropy in the map resolution. Several methods have been proposed to measure the directional resolution of maps in tandem with experimental protocols to address the problem of preferential orientations in cryo-EM. Following these works, in this manuscript we identified one potential limitation that may affect most of the existing methods and we proposed an alternative approach to evaluate the presence of preferential orientations in cryo-EM reconstructions. In addition, we also showed that some of the most recently proposed cryo-EM map post-processing algorithms can attenuate map anisotropy, thus offering alternative visualization opportunities for cases affected by moderate levels of preferential orientations.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Anisotropia , Microscopia Crioeletrônica
5.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1303: 342505, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38609273

RESUMO

The development of sensitive and efficient cell sensing strategies to detect circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in peripheral blood is crucial for the early diagnosis and prognostic assessment of cancer clinical treatment. Herein, an array of hierarchical flower-like gold microstructures (HFGMs) with anisotropic nanotips was synthesized by a simple electrodeposition method and used as a capture substrate to construct an ECL cytosensor based on the specific recognition of target cells by aptamers. The complex topography of the HFGMs array not only catalyzed the enhancement of ECL signals, but also induced the cells to generate more filopodia, improving the capture efficiency and shortening the capture time. The effect of topographic roughness on cell growth and adhesion propensity was also investigated, while the cell capture efficiency was proposed to be an important indicator affecting the accuracy of the ECL cytosensor. In addition, the capture of cells on the electrode surface increased the steric hindrance, which caused ECL signal changes in the Ru(bpy)32+ and TPrA system, realizing the quantitative detection of MCF-7 cells. The detection range of the sensor was from 102 to 106 cells mL-1 and the detection limit was 18 cells mL-1. The proposed detection method avoids the process of separation, labeling and counting, which has great potential for sensitive detection in clinical applications.


Assuntos
Células Neoplásicas Circulantes , Humanos , Anisotropia , Ciclo Celular , Proliferação de Células , Ouro
6.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 5077, 2024 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38429419

RESUMO

A novel model of human corneal birefringence is presented. The cornea is treated as a homogeneous biaxial linear birefringent medium in which the values of the binormal axes angle and organization of the main refractive indices vary continuously from the apex to the limbus. In its central part, the angle between binormal axes is 35°, and para centrally, it smoothly increases to 83.7°. The values of the main refractive indices (nx, ny, nz) change, as well as their order, from nx < nz < ny to nz < nx < ny. The transition between these two states was described with a normal distribution (µ = 0.45, σ = 0.1). The presented model corresponds with the experimental results presented in the literature. To our knowledge, it is the first model that presents the anisotropic properties' distributions of the entire cornea. The presented model facilitates a better understanding of the corneal birefringence phenomenon directly related to its lamellar structure.


Assuntos
Córnea , Refratometria , Humanos , Birrefringência , Refratometria/métodos , Anisotropia , Distribuição Normal
7.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 5951, 2024 03 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38467763

RESUMO

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has increasingly been used to characterize structure-function relationships during white matter neuroplasticity. Biological sex differences may be an important factor that affects patterns of neuroplasticity, and therefore impacts learning and rehabilitation. The current study examined a participant cohort before and after visuo-motor training to characterize sex differences in microstructural measures. The participants (N = 27) completed a 10-session (4 week) complex visuo-motor training task with their non-dominant hand. All participants significantly improved movement speed and their movement speed variability over the training period. White matter neuroplasticity in females and males was examined using fractional anisotropy (FA) and myelin water fraction (MWF) along the cortico-spinal tract (CST) and the corpus callosum (CC). FA values showed significant differences in the middle portion of the CST tract (nodes 38-51) across the training period. MWF showed a similar cluster in the inferior portion of the tract (nodes 18-29) but did not reach significance. Additionally, at baseline, males showed significantly higher levels of MWF measures in the middle body of the CC. Combining data from females and males would have resulted in reduced sensitivity, making it harder to detect differences in neuroplasticity. These findings offer initial insights into possible female versus male differences in white matter neuroplasticity during motor learning. This warrants investigations into specific patterns of white matter neuroplasticity for females versus males across the lifespan. Understanding biological sex-specific differences in white matter neuroplasticity may have significant implications for the interpretation of change associated with learning or rehabilitation.


Assuntos
Substância Branca , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Branca/patologia , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão/métodos , Encéfalo , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Plasticidade Neuronal , Anisotropia , Água
8.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 5980, 2024 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38472304

RESUMO

Life may be expressed as the flow of electrons, protons, and other ions, resulting in large potential difference. It is also highly photo-sensitive, as a large proportion of the redox capable molecules it relies on are chromophoric. It is thus suggestive that a key organelle in eukaryotes, the mitochondrion, constantly adapt their morphology as part of the homeostatic process. Studying unstained in vivo nano-scale structure in live cells is technically very challenging. One option is to study a central electron carrier in metabolism, reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), which is fluorescent and mostly located within mitochondria. Using one and two-photon absorption (340-360 nm and 730 nm, respectively), fluorescence lifetime imaging and anisotropy spectroscopy of NADH in solution and in live cells, we show that mitochondria do indeed appear to be aligned and exhibit high anisotropy (asymmetric directionality). Aqueous solution of NADH showed an anisotropy of ~ 0.20 compared to fluorescein or coumarin of < 0.1 and 0.04 in water respectively and as expected for small organic molecules. The anisotropy of NADH also increased further to 0.30 in the presence of proteins and 0.42 in glycerol (restricted environment) following two-photon excitation, suggesting more ordered structures. Two-photon NADH fluorescence imaging of Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF7) also showed strong anisotropy of 0.25 to 0.45. NADH has a quantum yield of fluorescence of 2% compared to more than 40% for photoionisation (electron generation), when exposed to light at 360 nm and below. The consequence of such highly ordered and directional NADH patterns with respect to electron ejection upon ultra-violet (UV) excitation could be very informative-especially in relation to ascertaining the extent of quantum effects in biology, including electron and photonic cascade, communication and modulation of effects such as spin and tunnelling.


Assuntos
Mitocôndrias , NAD , NAD/metabolismo , Anisotropia , Oxirredução , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Membranas Mitocondriais/metabolismo
9.
Sensors (Basel) ; 24(5)2024 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38475128

RESUMO

Our work uses a polarization matrix formalism to analyze and algorithmically represent optical anisotropy by open dehydration of blood plasma films. Analytical relations for Jones matrix reconstruction of optical birefringence maps of protein crystal networks of dehydrated biofluid films are found. A technique for 3D step-by-step measurement of the distributions of the elements of the Jones matrix or Jones matrix images (JMI) of the optically birefringent structure of blood plasma films (BPF) has been created. Correlation between JMI maps and corresponding birefringence images of dehydrated BPF and saliva films (SF) obtained from donors and prostate cancer patients was determined. Within the framework of statistical analysis of layer-by-layer optical birefringence maps, the parameters most sensitive to pathological changes in the structure of dehydrated films were found to be the central statistical moments of the 1st to 4th orders. We physically substantiated and experimentally determined the sensitivity of the method of 3D polarization scanning technique of BPF and SF preparations in the diagnosis of endometriosis of uterine tissue.


Assuntos
Dispositivos Ópticos , Feminino , Humanos , Anisotropia , Microscopia de Polarização/métodos , Birrefringência , Proteínas
10.
J Mol Graph Model ; 129: 108729, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38479238

RESUMO

The recent discovery of superconductivity behavior in the mother BiS2-layered compounds has captivated the attention of several physicists. The crystal structure of superconductors with alternate layers of BiS2 is homologous to that of cuprates and Fe-based superconductors. The full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave (FP-LAPW) technique was utilized to investigate the electronic structures and density of states in the vicinity of the Fermi energy of SrFBiS2 and BaFBiS2 compounds under the electron carriers doping. The introduction of electron doping (carries doping) reveals that the host compounds SrFBiS2 and BaFBiS2 exhibit features indicative of superconductivity. This carrier doping of SrFBiS2 and BaFBiS2 compounds (electron-doped) has a significant impact on the lowest conduction states near the Fermi level for the emergence of the superconducting aspect. The electron doping modifies and induces changes in the electronic structures with superconducting behavior in (Ae)1.7FBiS2(Ae=Sr,Ba) compounds. A Fermi surface nesting occurred under the modification of electrons (carriers) doping in the host compounds SrFBiS2 and BaFBiS2. Furthermore, the optical characteristics of the carrier-doped SrFBiS2 and BaFBiS2 compounds are simulated. Due to the anisotropic behavior, the optical properties of these materials based on BiS2 demonstrate a pronounced polarization dependency. The starting point at zero photon energy in the infrared region is elucidated by considering the Drude features in the optical conductivity spectra of SrFBiS2 and BaFBiS2 compounds, when the electron carriers doping is applied. It was clearly noticed that the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) influences the electronic band structures, density of states, Femi surface, and optical features because of the heavy Bismuth atom, which may disclose fascinating aspects. Further, we conducted simulations to assess the thermoelectric properties of these mother compounds. The two BiS2-layered compounds could be suitable for practical thermoelectric purposes and are highlighted through assessment of electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, and power factor. As a result, we propose that the mechanisms of superconducting behavior in BiS2 family may pave new avenues for investigating the field of unconventional superconductivity. It may also provide new insights into the origin of high-Tc superconductivity nature.


Assuntos
Bismuto , Eletrônica , Condutividade Elétrica , Anisotropia , Elétrons
11.
J Oleo Sci ; 73(4): 509-518, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38556285

RESUMO

Motion is an essential feature of living systems. Microorganisms autonomously change their nature in response to slight changes in the surrounding environment induced by external stimuli and exhibit unique motion modes. Various self-propelled objects have been constructed to understand these behaviors. Towards achievement of such purpose, the precise settings of experimental conditions including fabrication of objects with a shape anisotropy have been made attempts in the field of active matter and supramolecular chemistry. This review describes the recent progress in inducing the self-propelled motion of artificial objects. If life-like dynamic behavior such as self-propelled motion can be designed and experimentally induced from molecular properties, it will be easier to control functions expressed as outputs. This will lead to not only a better understanding of the complex functions in living systems, but also the fabrication of exotic materials with life-like properties.


Assuntos
Anisotropia , Movimento (Física)
12.
Am J Psychiatry ; 181(4): 299-309, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38476042

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Anxiety disorders are among the most common psychiatric disorders in youths and emerge during childhood. This is also a period of rapid white matter (WM) development, which is critical for efficient neuronal communication. Previous work in preadolescent children with anxiety disorders demonstrated anxiety disorder-related reductions in WM microstructural integrity (fractional anisotropy [FA]) in the uncinate fasciculus (UF), the major WM tract facilitating prefrontal cortical-limbic structural connectivity. Importantly, this association was found only in boys with anxiety disorders. To confirm this finding and more comprehensively understand WM changes in childhood anxiety, this mega-analytic study characterizes WM alterations related to anxiety disorders and sex in the largest sample of preadolescent children to date. METHODS: Diffusion tensor imaging data from published studies of preadolescent children with anxiety disorders and healthy volunteers (ages 8-12) (N=198) were combined with a new data set (N=97) for a total sample of 165 children with anxiety disorders and 132 healthy volunteers. Children with anxiety disorders met DSM-5 criteria for current generalized, separation, and/or social anxiety disorder. Analyses of tractography and voxel-wise data assessed between-group differences (anxiety disorder vs. healthy volunteer), effects of sex, and their interaction. RESULTS: Tract-based and voxel-wise analyses confirmed a significant reduction in UF FA in boys but not girls with anxiety disorders. Results also demonstrated other significant widespread anxiety disorder-related WM alterations specifically in boys, including in multiple commissural, association, projection, and brainstem regions. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to confirming male-specific anxiety disorder-related reductions in UF FA, the results demonstrate that anxiety disorders in boys and not girls are associated with broadly distributed WM alterations across the brain. These findings support further studies focused on understanding the extent to which WM alterations in boys with anxiety disorders are involved in pathophysiological processes that mediate anxiety disorders. The findings also suggest the possibility that WM microarchitecture could serve as a novel treatment target for childhood anxiety disorders.


Assuntos
Substância Branca , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Anisotropia
13.
Neuroreport ; 35(6): 366-373, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38526949

RESUMO

Language dysfunction is common in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, among which, the decline of semantic fluency is usually observed. This study aims to explore the relationship between white matter (WM) alterations and semantic fluency changes in PD patients. 127 PD patients from the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative cohort who received diffusion tensor imaging scanning, clinical assessment and semantic fluency test (SFT) were included. Tract-based special statistics, automated fiber quantification, graph-theoretical and network-based analyses were performed to analyze the correlation between WM structural changes, brain network features and semantic fluency in PD patients. Fractional anisotropy of corpus callosum, anterior thalamic radiation, inferior front-occipital fasciculus, and uncinate fasciculus, were positively correlated with SFT scores, while a negative correlation was identified between radial diffusion of the corpus callosum, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, and SFT scores. Automatic fiber quantification identified similar alterations with more details in these WM tracts. Brain network analysis positively correlated SFT scores with nodal efficiency of cerebellar lobule VIII, and nodal local efficiency of cerebellar lobule X. WM integrity and myelin integrity in the corpus callosum and several other language-related WM tracts may influence the semantic function in PD patients. Damage to the cerebellum lobule VIII and lobule X may also be involved in semantic dysfunction in PD patients.


Assuntos
Doença de Parkinson , Substância Branca , Humanos , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão/métodos , Corpo Caloso/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Transversais , Semântica , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Cerebelo , Anisotropia
14.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 2013, 2024 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38443369

RESUMO

Electrical stimulation is a fundamental tool in studying neural circuits, treating neurological diseases, and advancing regenerative medicine. Injectable, free-standing piezoelectric particle systems have emerged as non-genetic and wireless alternatives for electrode-based tethered stimulation systems. However, achieving cell-specific and high-frequency piezoelectric neural stimulation remains challenging due to high-intensity thresholds, non-specific diffusion, and internalization of particles. Here, we develop cell-sized 20 µm-diameter silica-based piezoelectric magnetic Janus microparticles (PEMPs), enabling clinically-relevant high-frequency neural stimulation of primary neurons under low-intensity focused ultrasound. Owing to its functionally anisotropic design, half of the PEMP acts as a piezoelectric electrode via conjugated barium titanate nanoparticles to induce electrical stimulation, while the nickel-gold nanofilm-coated magnetic half provides spatial and orientational control on neural stimulation via external uniform rotating magnetic fields. Furthermore, surface functionalization with targeting antibodies enables cell-specific binding/targeting and stimulation of dopaminergic neurons. Taking advantage of such functionalities, the PEMP design offers unique features towards wireless neural stimulation for minimally invasive treatment of neurological diseases.


Assuntos
Anticorpos , Luz , Ultrassonografia , Anisotropia , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos
15.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 5671, 2024 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38453944

RESUMO

Child abuse causes lifelong adverse outcomes for both physical and mental health, although many are resilient. Efforts to prevent this issue from the parental side require an understanding of the neurobiological basis that leads abusive parents to perpetrate abuse and the influence of the intergenerational chain of childhood abuse. Therefore, this study was conducted to compare the brain white-matter fiber structures between 11 maltreating mothers who had been recognized as having conducted child abuse prior to the intervention and 40 age-matched control mothers using tract-based spatial statistics. There was a significantly reduced axial diffusivity (AD) and a similar trend in fractional anisotropy (FA) in the right corticospinal tract in maltreating mothers compared to control mothers. Therefore, maltreating mothers may have excessive control over the forcefulness of voluntary movements. These features also decreased as the number of childhood abuse experiences increased, suggesting that an intergenerational chain of child abuse may also be involved. Other aspects observed were that the higher the current depressive symptoms, the lower the AD and FA values; however, they were not related to parental practice or empathy. These results corroborate the neurobiological features that perpetrate behaviors in abusive mothers.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis , Substância Branca , Feminino , Humanos , Criança , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão/métodos , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Mães , Anisotropia , Encéfalo
16.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 153: 106505, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38507996

RESUMO

We synthesize geometrically tailorable anisotropic plates by combining button shaped fish-scale like features on soft substrates, then lacing them with high-stiffness strings. This creates a new type of biomimetic architectured structure with multiple broken symmetries. First, the tendons and substrate together break the symmetry of the bending response between the concave and convex curvature. Next, the weave pattern of the tendons further breaks symmetry along the two directors of plates. The anisotropy is clearly evident in 3-point bending experiments. Motivated by these experiments and the need for design, we formulate an analytical energy-based model to quantify the anisotropic elasticity. The derived architecture-property relationships can be used to design architected tendon plates with desirable properties.


Assuntos
Tendões , Animais , Anisotropia , Elasticidade , Análise de Elementos Finitos
17.
BMC Biol ; 22(1): 28, 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317216

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The human brain can rapidly represent sets of similar stimuli by their ensemble summary statistics, like the average orientation or size. Classic models assume that ensemble statistics are computed by integrating all elements with equal weight. Challenging this view, here, we show that ensemble statistics are estimated by combining parafoveal and foveal statistics in proportion to their reliability. In a series of experiments, observers reproduced the average orientation of an ensemble of stimuli under varying levels of visual uncertainty. RESULTS: Ensemble statistics were affected by multiple spatial biases, in particular, a strong and persistent bias towards the center of the visual field. This bias, evident in the majority of subjects and in all experiments, scaled with uncertainty: the higher the uncertainty in the ensemble statistics, the larger the bias towards the element shown at the fovea. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that ensemble perception cannot be explained by simple uniform pooling. The visual system weights information anisotropically from both the parafovea and the fovea, taking the intrinsic spatial anisotropies of vision into account to compensate for visual uncertainty.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Visão Ocular , Humanos , Anisotropia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Percepção
18.
Biofabrication ; 16(2)2024 02 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38331416

RESUMO

Fabrication of a biohybrid actuator requires muscle cells anisotropically aligned in a line, curve, or combination of lines and curves (similar to the microstructure of living muscle tissue) to replicate lifelike movements, in addition to considering the arrangement of skeletal structure or muscular structure with anisotropic straight patterns. Here, we report a UV laser-processed microstructure for freely directing cellular alignment to engineer a biohybrid actuator composed of poly(styrene-block-butadiene-block-styrene triblock copolymer) (SBS) thin film with tailor-made microgrooves (MGs) and skeletal myotubes aligned along these MGs. Specifically, straight, circular, or curved MGs were transferred to SBS thin films from a UV laser-processed template, allowing for the successful alignment of myotubes along MGs. The biohybrid actuator, composed of anisotropically aligned myotubes on a curved microgrooved SBS thin film, was contracted by electrical stimulation. Contraction of biohybrid actuators with curved aligned myotubes permits twisted-like behavior, unlike straight microgrooved films. Therefore, the UV laser-ablation system is a unique maskless and rapid microfabrication technique that provides intriguing opportunities for omni-directional microgrooved structures to achieve the complex motion of living organisms.


Assuntos
Butadienos , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas , Poliestirenos , Anisotropia , Lasers
19.
Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi ; 41(1): 129-135, 2024 Feb 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38403613

RESUMO

The mechanical properties of the cornea in corneal ectasia disease undergo a significant reduction, yet the alterations in mechanical properties within distinct corneal regions remain unclear. In this study, we established a rabbit corneal ectasia model by employing collagenase II to degrade the corneal matrix within a central diameter of 6 mm. Optical coherence tomography was employed for the in vivo assessment of corneal morphology (corneal thickness and corneal curvature) one month after operation. Anisotropy and viscoelastic characteristics of corneal tissue were evaluated through biaxial and uniaxial testing, respectively. The results demonstrated a marked decrease in central corneal thickness, with no significant changes observed in corneal curvature. Under different strains, the elastic modulus of the cornea exhibited no significant differences in the up-down and naso-temporal directions between the control and model groups. However, the cornea in the model group displayed a significantly lower elastic modulus compared to the control group. Specifically, the elastic modulus of the central region cornea in the model group was significantly lower than that of the entire cornea within the same group. Moreover, in comparison to the control group, the cornea in the model group exhibited a significant increase in both creep rate and overall deformation rate. The instantaneous modulus and equilibrium modulus were significantly reduced in the model cornea. No significant differences were observed between the entire cornea and the central cornea concerning these parameters. The results indicate that corneal anisotropy remains unchanged in collagenase-induced ectatic cornea. However, a significant reduction in viscoelastic properties is noticed. This study provides valuable insights for investigating changes in corneal mechanical properties within different regions of ectatic corneal disease.


Assuntos
Córnea , Doenças da Córnea , Animais , Coelhos , Dilatação Patológica , Anisotropia , Colagenases
20.
J Biomed Opt ; 29(5): 052919, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38420109

RESUMO

Significance: Most biological fibrous tissues have anisotropic optical characteristics, which originate from scattering by their fibrous microstructures and birefringence of biological macromolecules. The orientation-related anisotropic interpretation is of great value in biological tissue characterization and pathological diagnosis. Aim: We focus on intrinsic birefringence and form birefringence in biological tissue samples. By observing and comparing the forward Mueller matrix of typical samples, we can understand the interpretation ability of orientation-related polarization parameters and further distinguish the sources and trends of anisotropy in tissues. Approach: For glass fiber, silk fiber, skeletal muscle, and tendon, we construct a forward measuring device to obtain the Mueller matrix image and calculate the anisotropic parameters related to orientation. The statistical analysis method based on polar coordinates can effectively analyze the difference in anisotropic parameters. Results: For those birefringent fibers, the statistical distribution of fast-axis values derived from Mueller matrix polar decomposition was found to exhibit bimodal characteristics, which is a key point in distinguishing the single-layer birefringent fiber sample from a layered, multioriented fibrous sample. The application conditions and interference factors of anisotropic orientation parameters are analyzed. Based on the parameters extracted from the orientation bimodal distribution, we can evaluate the relative change trend of intrinsic birefringence and form birefringence in anisotropic samples. Conclusions: The cross-vertical bimodal distribution of the fast axis of anisotropic fibers is beneficial to accurately analyze the anisotropic changes in biological tissues. The results imply the potential of anisotropic orientation analysis for applications in pathological diagnosis.


Assuntos
Músculo Esquelético , Tendões , Anisotropia , Tendões/diagnóstico por imagem , Birrefringência
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...