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1.
Parasit Vectors ; 17(1): 54, 2024 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38321481

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Armenia is considered particularly vulnerable to life-threatening vector-borne diseases (VBDs) including malaria, West Nile virus disease and leishmaniasis. However, information relevant for the control of the vectors of these diseases, such as their insecticide resistance profile, is scarce. The present study was conducted to provide the first evidence on insecticide resistance mechanisms circulating in major mosquito and sand fly populations in Armenia. METHODS: Sampling sites were targeted based mainly on previous historical records of VBD occurrences in humans and vertebrate hosts. Initially, molecular species identification on the collected vector samples was performed. Subsequently, molecular diagnostic assays [polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Sanger sequencing, PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), quantitative PCR (qPCR)] were performed to profile for major insecticide resistance mechanisms, i.e. target site insensitivity in voltage-gated sodium channel (vgsc) associated with pyrethroid resistance, acetylcholinesterase (ace-1) target site mutations linked to organophosphate (OP) and carbamate (CRB) resistance, chitin synthase (chs-1) target site mutations associated with diflubenzuron (DFB) resistance and gene amplification of carboxylesterases (CCEs) associated with resistance to the OP temephos. RESULTS: Anopheles mosquitoes were principally represented by Anopheles sacharovi, a well-known malaria vector in Armenia, which showed no signs of resistance mechanisms. Contrarily, the knockdown resistance (kdr) mutations V1016G and L1014F/C in the vgsc gene were detected in the arboviral mosquito vectors Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens, respectively. The kdr mutation L1014S was also detected in the sand fly, vectors of leishmaniasis, Phlebotomus papatasi and P. tobbi, whereas no mutations were found in the remaining collected sand fly species, P. sergenti, P. perfiliewi and P. caucasicus. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to report on molecular mechanisms of insecticide resistance circulating in major mosquito and sand fly disease vectors in Armenia and highlights the need for the establishment of systematic resistance monitoring practices for the implementation of evidence-based control applications.


Assuntos
Aedes , Anopheles , Culex , Inseticidas , Leishmaniose , Malária , Phlebotomus , Psychodidae , Piretrinas , Animais , Humanos , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Acetilcolinesterase/genética , Anopheles/genética , Armênia , Phlebotomus/genética , Mutação
2.
Parasit Vectors ; 17(1): 53, 2024 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38321572

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding the clustering of infections for persistent malaria transmission is critical to determining how and where to target specific interventions. This study aimed to determine the density, blood meal sources and malaria transmission risk of anopheline vectors by targeting malaria index cases, their neighboring households and control villages in Arjo-Didessa, southwestern Ethiopia. METHODS: An entomological study was conducted concurrently with a reactive case detection (RCD) study from November 2019 to October 2021 in Arjo Didessa and the surrounding vicinity, southwestern Ethiopia. Anopheline mosquitoes were collected indoors and outdoors in index case households and their surrounding households (neighboring households), as well as in control households, using pyrethrum spray cache (PSC) and U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light traps. Adult mosquitoes were morphologically identified, and speciation in the Anopheles gambiae complex was done by PCR. Mosquito Plasmodium infections and host blood meal sources were detected by circumsporozoite protein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CSP-ELISA) and cytochrome b-based blood meal PCR, respectively. RESULTS: Among the 770 anopheline mosquitoes collected, An. gambiae sensu lato (A. gambiae s.l.) was the predominant species, accounting for 87.1% (n = 671/770) of the catch, followed by the Anopheles coustani complex and Anopheles pharoensis, which accounted for 12.6% (n = 97/770) and 0.26% (n = 2/770) of the catch, respectively. From the sub-samples of An. gambiae s.l.analyzed with PCR, An. arabiensis and Anopheles amharicus were identified. The overall mean density of mosquitoes was 1.26 mosquitoes per trap per night using the CDC light traps. Outdoor mosquito density was significantly higher than indoor mosquito density in the index and neighboring households (P = 0.0001). The human blood index (HBI) and bovine blood index (BBI) of An. arabiensis were 20.8% (n = 34/168) and 24.0% (n = 41/168), respectively. The overall Plasmodium sporozoite infection rate of anophelines (An. arabiensis and An. coustani complex) was 4.4% (n = 34/770). Sporozoites were detected indoors and outdoors in captured anopheline mosquitoes. Of these CSP-positive species for Pv-210, Pv-247 and Pf, 41.1% (n = 14/34) were captured outdoors. A significantly higher proportion of sporozoite-infected mosquitoes were caught in index case households (5.6%, n = 8/141) compared to control households (1.1%, n = 2/181) (P = 0.02), and in neighboring households (5.3%, n = 24/448) compared to control households (P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study indicated that malaria index cases and their neighboring households had higher outdoor mosquito densities and Plasmodium infection rates. The study also highlighted a relatively higher outdoor mosquito density, which could increase the potential risk of outdoor malaria transmission and may play a role in residual malaria transmission. Thus, it is important to strengthen the implementation of vector control interventions, such as targeted indoor residual spraying, long-lasting insecticidal nets and other supplementary vector control measures such as larval source management and community engagement approaches. Furthermore, in low transmission settings, such as the Arjo Didessa Sugarcane Plantation, providing health education to local communities, enhanced environmental management and entomological surveillance, along with case detection and management by targeting of malaria index cases and their immediate neighboring households, could be important measures to control residual malaria transmission and achieve the targeted elimination goals.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Malária , Animais , Bovinos , Humanos , Mosquitos Vetores , Etiópia , Comportamento Alimentar , Esporozoítos , Controle de Mosquitos
3.
Mol Biol Rep ; 51(1): 291, 2024 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38329553

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transmission Assessment Survey (TAS) is the WHO recommended method used for decision-making to stop or continue the MDA in lymphatic filariasis (LF) elimination programme. The WHO has also recommended Molecular Xenomonitoring (MX) of LF infection in vectors as an adjunct tool in settings under post-MDA or validation period. Screening of non-vectors by MX in post-MDA / validation settings could be useful to prevent a resurgence of LF infection, as there might be low abundance of vectors, especially in some seasons. In this study, we investigated the presence of LF infection in non-vectors in an area endemic for LF and has undergone many rounds of annual MDA with two drugs (Diethylcarbamazine and Albendazole, DA) and two rounds of triple drug regimens (Ivermectin + DA). METHODS AND RESULTS: Mosquitoes were collected from selected villages of Yadgir district in Karnataka state, India, during 2019. A total of 680 female mosquitoes were collected, identified morphologically by species and separated as pools. The female mosquitoes belonging to 3 species viz., Anopheles subpictus, Culex gelidus and Culex quinquefaciatus were separated, pooled, and the DNA extracted using less expensive method and followed by LDR based real-time PCR assay for detecting Wuchereria bancrofti infection in vector as well as non-vector mosquitoes. One pool out of 6 pools of An. subpictus, 2 pools out of 6 pools of Cx. gelidus, and 4 pools out of 8 pools of Cx. quinquefaciatus were found to be positive for W. bancrofti infection by RT-PCR. The infection rate in vectors and non-vectors was found to be 1.8% (95% CI: 0.5-4.2%) and 0.9% (95% CI: 0.2-2.3%), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that non-vectors also harbour W. bancrofti, thus opening an opportunity of using these mosquitoes as surrogate vectors for assessing risk of transmission to humans in LF endemic and post MDA areas.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Filariose Linfática , Feminino , Humanos , Animais , Filariose Linfática/epidemiologia , Filariose Linfática/prevenção & controle , Wuchereria bancrofti/genética , Índia , Mosquitos Vetores , Anopheles/genética , DNA
4.
Malar J ; 23(1): 42, 2024 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38326842

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria is one of the most important vector-borne diseases of humans with an estimated 241 million cases worldwide in 2020. As an urban and periurban mosquito species, Anopheles stephensi is exposed to artificial human stimuli like light that can alter many aspects of mosquito behaviour, physiology and metabolism. Therefore, fluctuations in the light environment may influence the host, parasite and/or mosquito biology and hence modulate risk for disease transmission. In this study, the effect of artifitial light at night on mosquito infectivity by Plasmodium falciparum during the first hours of blood digestion was tested. METHODS: A total of three independent standard membrane feeding assays were performed to artificially fed septic and aseptic mosquitoes with P. falciparum infected blood. After blood feeding, females were transferred to incubators with different photoperiod cycles, so digestion occurred under day artificial light or dark. At 7 and 16 days post blood feeding, mosquitoes were dissected for midguts and salivary glands, respectively. Percentage of mosquitoes fed, percentage of prevalence and P. falciparum oocyst intensity between septic and aseptic mosquitoes in the two different photoperiod regimes, were compared using a Kruskal-Wallis test followed by a Dunn´s multiple comparison test . RESULTS: The exposition of mosquitoes to light after they took an infected blood meal has a negative effect on the successful progression of P. falciparum in the mosquito midgut. Antibiotic treatment significantly incremented the number of oocysts per midgut. Photophase significantly reduced the median oocyst intensity in both septic and aseptic mosquitoes. The percentage of oocyst reduction, understood as the percentage of reduction in the mean oocyst intensity of the parasite in the mosquito midgut between photophase and scotophase, was 51% in the case of aseptic mosquitoes and 80% for septic mosquitoes, both in the photophase condition. CONCLUSION: Although there are still many gaps in the understanding of parasite-mosquito interactions, these results support the idea that light can, not only, influence mosquito biting behaviour but also parasite success in the mosquito midgut. Hence, light can be considered an interesting additional mosquito-control strategy to reduce mosquito-borne diseases.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Malária Falciparum , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Plasmodium falciparum , Anopheles/parasitologia , Iluminação , Mosquitos Vetores , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Oocistos
5.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3508, 2024 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38346996

RESUMO

The management of mosquito resistance to chemical insecticides and the biting behaviour of some species are motivating the search for complementary and/or alternative control methods. The use of plants is increasingly considered as a sustainable biological solution for vector control. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological effects of the essential oil (EO) of Lippia alba harvested in Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire) against Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Phytochemical compounds were identified by GC-MS. Knockdown and mortality were determined according to the WHO test tube protocol. Contact irritancy was assessed by observing the movement of mosquitoes from a treated WHO tube to a second untreated tube. Non-contact repellency was assessed using a standardised high-throughput screening system (HITSS). Blood meal inhibition was assessed using a membrane feeding assay treated with EO. The EO was identified as the citral chemotype. The EO gave 100% KD60 in both species at a concentration of 1%. Mortalities of 100% were recorded with An. gambiae and Ae. aegypti at concentrations of 1% and 5% respectively. The highest proportions of females escaping during the contact irritancy test were 100% for An. gambiae at 1% concentration and 94% for Ae. aegypti at 2.5% concentration. The 1% concentration produced the highest proportions of repelled mosquitoes in the non-contact repellency tests: 76.8% (An. gambiae) and 68.5% (Ae. aegypti). The blood meal inhibition rate at a dose of 10% was 98.4% in Ae. aegypti but only 15.5% in An. gambiae. The citral chemotype of L. alba EO has promising biological effects in both species that make it a potentially good candidate for its use in mosquito control. The results obtained in this study encourage the further evaluation of L. alba EOs from other localities and of different chemotypes, under laboratory and field conditions.


Assuntos
Monoterpenos Acíclicos , Aedes , Anopheles , Repelentes de Insetos , Inseticidas , Lippia , Óleos Voláteis , Animais , Feminino , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Aedes/fisiologia , Mosquitos Vetores , Côte d'Ivoire , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Repelentes de Insetos/farmacologia , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos
6.
Parasit Vectors ; 17(1): 66, 2024 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38365773

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Efforts to evaluate the residual efficacy of new indoor residual spraying (IRS) formulations have identified limitations with the industry standard laboratory sprayer, the Potter Spray Tower (PT). Calibrating the PT can be time-consuming, and the dosing of surfaces may not be as accurate or uniform as previously assumed. METHODS: To address these limitations, the Micron Horizontal Track Sprayer with Spray Cabinet (TS) was developed to provide higher efficiency, ease of operation and deposition uniformity equal to or better than the PT. A series of studies were performed using a fluorescent tracer and three IRS formulations (Actellic® 300CS, K-Othrine WG250 and Suspend PolyZone) sprayed onto surfaces using either the PT or the TS. RESULTS: Deposition volumes could be accurately calibrated for both spray systems. However, the uniformity of spray deposits was higher for the TS compared to the PT. Less than 12% of the volume sprayed using the PT reaches the target surface, with the remaining 88% unaccounted for, presumably vented out of the fume hood or coating the internal surfaces of the tower. In contrast, the TS deposits most of the spray on the floor of the spray chamber, with the rest contained therein. The total sprayed surface area in one run of the TS is 1.2 m2, and the operational zone for spray target placement is 0.7 m2, meaning that 58% of the applied volume deposits onto the targets. The TS can treat multiple surfaces (18 standard 15 × 15 cm tiles) in a single application, whereas the PT treats one surface at a time and a maximum area of around 0.0225 m2. An assessment of the time taken to perform spraying, including the setup, calibration and cleaning, showed that the cost of application using the TS was around 25-35 × less per tile sprayed. Standard operating procedures (SOPs) for calibration and use of both the Potter Tower and Track Sprayer have been developed. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the TS represents a significant improvement over the PT in terms of the efficiency and accuracy of IRS formulation applications onto test substrates and offers a useful additional tool for researchers and manufacturers wanting to screen new active ingredients or evaluate the efficacy of IRS or other sprayable formulations for insect control.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Inseticidas , Compostos Organotiofosforados , Animais , Controle de Insetos , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos
7.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 1422, 2024 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38365823

RESUMO

A novel cellular response of midgut progenitors (stem cells and enteroblasts) to Plasmodium berghei infection was investigated in Anopheles stephensi. The presence of developing oocysts triggers proliferation of midgut progenitors that is modulated by the Jak/STAT pathway and is proportional to the number of oocysts on individual midguts. The percentage of parasites in direct contact with enteroblasts increases over time, as progenitors proliferate. Silencing components of key signaling pathways through RNA interference (RNAi) that enhance proliferation of progenitor cells significantly decreased oocyst numbers, while limiting proliferation of progenitors increased oocyst survival. Live imaging revealed that enteroblasts interact directly with oocysts and eliminate them. Midgut progenitors sense the presence of Plasmodium oocysts and mount a cellular defense response that involves extensive proliferation and tissue remodeling, followed by oocysts lysis and phagocytosis of parasite remnants by enteroblasts.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Malária , Parasitos , Plasmodium , Animais , Janus Quinases , Fatores de Transcrição STAT , Transdução de Sinais , Malária/parasitologia , Anopheles/parasitologia , Oocistos , Células-Tronco , Plasmodium berghei/fisiologia
8.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3494, 2024 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38347111

RESUMO

Great advances in automated identification systems, or 'smart traps', that differentiate insect species have been made in recent years, yet demonstrations of field-ready devices under free-flight conditions remain rare. Here, we describe the results of mixed-species identification of female mosquitoes using an advanced optoacoustic smart trap design under free-flying conditions. Point-of-capture classification was assessed using mixed populations of congeneric (Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti) and non-congeneric (Ae. aegypti and Anopheles stephensi) container-inhabiting species of medical importance. Culex quinquefasciatus, also common in container habitats, was included as a third species in all assessments. At the aggregate level, mixed collections of non-congeneric species (Ae. aegypti, Cx. quinquefasciatus, and An. stephensi) could be classified at accuracies exceeding 90% (% error = 3.7-7.1%). Conversely, error rates increased when analysing individual replicates (mean % error = 48.6; 95% CI 8.1-68.6) representative of daily trap captures and at the aggregate level when Ae. albopictus was released in the presence of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus (% error = 7.8-31.2%). These findings highlight the many challenges yet to be overcome but also the potential operational utility of optoacoustic surveillance in low diversity settings typical of urban environments.


Assuntos
Aedes , Anopheles , Culex , Animais , Feminino
9.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0294192, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38354118

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Surveillance of malaria vectors is crucial for assessing the transmission risk and impact of control measures. Human landing catches (HLC) directly estimate the biting rates but raise ethical concerns due to the exposure of volunteers to mosquito-borne pathogens. A common alternative is the CDC-light trap, which is effective for catching host-seeking mosquitoes indoors but not outdoors. New, exposure-free methods are needed for sampling mosquitoes indoors and outdoors in ways that reflect their natural risk profiles. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the efficacy of the miniaturized double net trap (DN-Mini) for sampling host-seeking mosquitoes in south-eastern Tanzania, where malaria transmission is dominated by Anopheles funestus. METHODS: Adult mosquitoes were collected from 222 randomly selected houses across three villages (74 per village) in Ulanga district, south-eastern Tanzania, using the DN-Mini traps, CDC-Light traps, and Prokopack aspirators. First, we compared CDC-light and DN-Mini traps for collecting indoor host-seeking mosquitoes, while Prokopack aspirators were used for indoor-resting mosquitoes. Second, we deployed the DN-Mini and Prokopack aspirators to collect host-seeking and resting mosquitoes indoors and outdoors. Generalized linear mixed models (GLMM) with a negative binomial distribution were used to compare the effectiveness of the traps for catching different mosquito species. RESULTS: The DN-Mini was 1.53 times more efficient in collecting An. funestus indoors (RR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.190-1.98) compared to the CDC-Light trap. However, for Anopheles arabiensis, the DN-Mini caught only 0.32 times as many mosquitoes indoors as the CDC-Light traps (RR = 0.32, 95% CI: 0.183-0.567). Both An. funestus and An. arabiensis were found to be more abundant indoors than outdoors when collected using the DN-Mini trap. Similarly, the Prokopack aspirator was greater indoors than outdoors for both An. funestus and An. arabiensis. CONCLUSION: The DN-Mini outperformed the CDC-light trap in sampling the dominant malaria vector, An. funestus species, but was less effective in capturing An. arabiensis, and for both vector species, the biting risk was greater indoors than outdoors when measured using the DN-Mini trap. These findings highlight the importance of selecting appropriate trapping methods based on mosquito species and behaviors.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Malária , Adulto , Animais , Humanos , Malária/epidemiologia , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Entomologia/métodos , Mosquitos Vetores , Ligante de CD40 , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos
10.
Malar J ; 23(1): 45, 2024 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38347591

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The male mosquito microbiome may be important for identifying ideal candidates for disease control. Among other criteria, mosquito-associated symbionts that have high localization in both male and female mosquitoes and are transmissible through both vertical and sexual routes are desirable. However, mosquito microbiome studies have mainly been female-focused. In this study, the microbiota of male and female Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) were compared to identify shared or unique bacteria. METHODS: Late larval instars of Anopheles mosquitoes were collected from the field and raised to adults. Equal numbers of males and females of 1-day-old non-sugar-fed, 4-5-day-old sugar-fed and post-blood-fed females were randomly selected for whole-body analyses of bacteria 16S rRNA. RESULTS: Results revealed that male and female mosquitoes generally share similar microbiota except when females were blood-fed. Compared to newly emerged unfed mosquitoes, feeding on sugar and/or blood increased variability in microbial composition (⍺-diversity), with a higher disparity among females (39% P = 0.01) than in males (29% P = 0.03). Elizabethkingia meningoseptica and Asaia siamensis were common discriminants between feeding statuses in both males and females. While E. meningoseptica was particularly associated with sugar-fed mosquitoes of both sexes and sustained after blood feeding in females, A. siamensis was also increased in sugar-fed mosquitoes but decreased significantly in blood-fed females (LDA score > 4.0, P < 0.05). Among males, A. siamensis did not differ significantly after sugar meals. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate the opportunities for stable infection in mosquitoes should these species be used in bacteria-mediated disease control. Further studies are recommended to investigate possible host-specific tissue tropism of bacteria species which will inform selection of the most appropriate microbes for effective transmission-blocking strategies.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Infecções por Flavobacteriaceae , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Anopheles/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Carboidratos , Bactérias , Açúcares , Comportamento Alimentar
11.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 57: e007012024, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38324808

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Information regarding the distribution of Culicidae species in the northeastern region of Brazil is scarce. METHODS: Immatures were collected from approximately four fragments of the Atlantic Forest. RESULTS: This study presents new occurrences of 18 Culicidae species in Pernambuco state: Anopheles kompi, Georgecraigius fluviatilis, Culex bidens, Culex chidesteri, Culex bastagarius, Culex imitator, Mansonia humeralis, Wyeomyia incaudata, Uranotaenia apicalis, Culex mollis, Culex usquatus, Culex dunni, Culex serratimarge, Culex ybarmis, Culex microphyllus, Sabethes purpureus, Wyeomyia pilicauda, and Wyeomyia airosai. The last nine species were also new records for the northeast region. CONCLUSIONS: With the inclusion of these newly recorded species, the total number of mosquitoes documented in Pernambuco state now rises to 94.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Culex , Culicidae , Animais , Brasil , Ecossistema , Florestas
12.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 4057, 2024 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38374393

RESUMO

Rapid spread of insecticide resistance among anopheline mosquitoes threatens malaria elimination efforts, necessitating development of alternative vector control technologies. Sterile insect technique (SIT) has been successfully implemented in multiple insect pests to suppress field populations by the release of large numbers of sterile males, yet it has proven difficult to adapt to Anopheles vectors. Here we outline adaptation of a CRISPR-based genetic sterilization system to selectively ablate male sperm cells in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae. We achieve robust mosaic biallelic mutagenesis of zero population growth (zpg, a gene essential for differentiation of germ cells) in F1 individuals after intercrossing a germline-expressing Cas9 transgenic line to a line expressing zpg-targeting gRNAs. Approximately 95% of mutagenized males display complete genetic sterilization, and cause similarly high levels of infertility in their female mates. Using a fluorescence reporter that allows detection of the germline leads to a 100% accurate selection of spermless males, improving the system. These males cause a striking reduction in mosquito population size when released at field-like frequencies in competition cages against wild type males. These findings demonstrate that such a genetic system could be adopted for SIT against important malaria vectors.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Infertilidade Masculina , Malária , Humanos , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Anopheles/genética , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Sêmen , RNA Guia de Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Infertilidade Masculina/genética , Mutagênese , Células Germinativas
13.
Malar J ; 23(1): 12, 2024 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38195484

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clothianidin, an insecticide with a novel mode of action, has been deployed in the annual indoor residual spraying programme in northern Ghana since March 2021. To inform pragmatic management strategies and guide future studies, baseline data on local Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) susceptibility to the clothianidin insecticide were collected in Kpalsogu, a village in the Northern region, Ghana. METHODS: Phenotypic susceptibility of An. gambiae mosquitoes to clothianidin was assessed using the World Health Organization (WHO) insecticide resistance monitoring bioassay. The WHO cone bioassays were conducted on mud and cement walls sprayed with Sumishield 50 wettable granules (WG) (with clothianidin active ingredient). Daily mortalities were recorded for up to 7 days to observe for delayed mortalities. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was used to differentiate the sibling species of the An. gambiae complex and also for the detection of knock down resistance genes (kdr) and the insensitive acetylcholinesterase mutation (ace-1). RESULTS: The WHO susceptibility bioassay revealed a delayed killing effect of clothianidin. Mosquitoes exposed to the cone bioassays for 5 min died 120 h after exposure. Slightly higher mortalities were observed in mosquitoes exposed to clothianidin-treated cement wall surfaces than mosquitoes exposed to mud wall surfaces. The kdr target-site mutation L1014F occurred at very high frequencies (0.89-0.94) across all vector species identified whereas the ace-1 mutation occurred at moderate levels (0.32-0.44). Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto was the most abundant species observed at 63%, whereas Anopheles arabiensis was the least observed at 9%. CONCLUSIONS: Anopheles gambiae s.l. mosquitoes in northern Ghana were susceptible to clothianidin. They harboured kdr mutations at high frequencies. The ace-1 mutation occurred in moderation. The results of this study confirm that clothianidin is an effective active ingredient and should be utilized in malaria vector control interventions.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Inseticidas , Malária , Animais , Anopheles/genética , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Acetilcolinesterase , Gana , Mosquitos Vetores
14.
Malar J ; 23(1): 14, 2024 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38195563

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Investigating the species distribution and their role in malaria transmission is important as it varies from place to place and is highly needed to design interventions appropriate to the site. The current study aimed to investigate the Anopheles mosquito species distribution and their infection rate in southwestern Ethiopia. METHODS: The study was conducted in 14 malaria-endemic kebeles (the smallest administrative unit), which were situated in eight different malaria-endemic districts and four zones in southwestern Ethiopia. Ten per cent of households in each village were visited to collect adult mosquitoes using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light traps. The larval and pupal collection was done from breeding sites within the villages, and reared to adults. Female mosquitoes were morphologically identified. The head and thorax of adult Anopheles mosquitoes were tested for circumsporozoite proteins (CSPs) using ELISA. At the same time, legs, wings, and abdomen were used to identify sibling species using PCR targeting the rDNA intergenic spacers region for species typing of the Anopheles funestus group and the internal transcribed spacer 2 region genes for Anopheles gambiae complex. RESULTS: A total of 1445 Anopheles mosquitoes comprising eight species were collected. Of 813 An. gambiae complex tested by PCR, 785 (97%) were Anopheles arabiensis, and the remaining 28 (3%) were not amplified. There were 133 An. funestus group captured and tested to identify the species, of which 117 (88%) were positive for Anopheles parensis, and 15 (11%) were not amplified. A single specimen (1%) showed a band with a different base pair length from the known An. funestus group species. Sequencing revealed this was Anopheles sergentii. Among 1399 Anopheles tested for CSPs by ELISA, 5 (0.4%) An. arabiensis were positive for Plasmodium falciparum and a single (0.07%) was positive for Plasmodium vivax. CONCLUSIONS: Anopheles arabiensis continues to play the principal role in malaria transmission despite implementing indoor-based interventions for decades. Sequencing results suggest that An. sergentii was amplified by the An. funestus group primer, producing PCR amplicon size of different length. Therefore, relying solely on amplifying a specific gene of interest in grouping species could be misleading, as different species may share the same gene.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Malária , Estados Unidos , Animais , Feminino , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Etiópia , Mosquitos Vetores , DNA Intergênico
15.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 95(suppl 2): e20220956, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38198397

RESUMO

Malaria is the most important parasitic disease worldwide. In 2019, more than 679,441 cases of malaria were reported in the American region. During this study, Argentina was in malaria pre-elimination autochthonous transmission phase with the aim of being declared as malaria-free country. The aim of this work was to assess the influence of remote sensing spectral indices (NDVI, NDWI) and climatic variables (temperature, relative humidity and precipitation) on the distribution and abundance of Anopheles mosquitoes, in four localities with different degrees of anthropogenic disturbance and with previous malaria cases records located , in a historical malarious area in northeastern of Argentina. Between June 2012 and July 2014, mosquitoes were collected. We collected 535 Anopheles adult mosquitoes. Anopheles strodei s.l. was the most abundant species. The greatest richness, diversity and abundance of species were registered in wild and semi-urban environments. The abundance of Anopheles presented a negative association with relative humidity and mean temperature, but positive with mean maximum temperature. The most important variables determining Anopheles total abundance and distribution were NDWI Index and distance to vegetation. The abundance of An. strodei s.l., was positive associated with water areas whereas the NDVI Index was negatively associated.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Malária , Animais , Argentina , Temperatura , Água
16.
Malar J ; 23(1): 21, 2024 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38229020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria remains a major public health problem in the Republic of Congo, with Plasmodium falciparum being the deadliest species of Plasmodium in humans. Vector transmission of malaria is poorly studied in the country and no previous report compared rural and urban data. This study aimed to determine the Anopheles fauna and the entomological indices of malaria transmission in the rural and urban areas in the south of Brazzaville, and beyond. METHODS: Indoor household mosquitoes capture using electric aspirator was performed in rural and urban areas during raining and dry seasons in 2021. The identification of Anopheles species was done using binocular magnifier and nested-PCR. TaqMan and nested-PCR were used to detect the Plasmodium species in the head/thorax and abdomens of Anopheles. Some entomological indices including the sporozoite infection rate, the entomological inoculation rate and the man biting rate were estimated. RESULTS: A total of 699 Anopheles mosquitoes were collected: Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) (90.7%), Anopheles funestus s.l. (6.9%), and Anopheles moucheti (2.4%). Three species of An. gambiae s.l. were identified including Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (78.9%), Anopheles coluzzii (15.4%) and Anopheles arabiensis (5.7%). The overall sporozoite infection rate was 22.3% with a predominance of Plasmodium falciparum, followed by Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium ovale. Anopheles aggressiveness rate was higher in households from rural area (1.1 bites/night) compared to that from urban area (0.8 ib/p/n). The overall entomological inoculation rate was 0.13 ib/p/n. This index was 0.17 ib/p/n and 0.092 ib/p/n in rural and in urban area, respectively, and was similar during the dry (0.18 ib/p/n) and rainy (0.14 ib/p/n) seasons. CONCLUSION: These findings highlight that malaria transmission remains high in rural and urban area in the south of Republic of Congo despite the ongoing control efforts, thereby indicating the need for more robust interventions.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Mordeduras e Picadas , Malária Falciparum , Malária , Plasmodium , Animais , Humanos , Congo/epidemiologia , Mosquitos Vetores , Plasmodium falciparum , Malária/prevenção & controle , Esporozoítos
17.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 1116, 2024 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38212448

RESUMO

Vector-borne diseases emergence, particularly malaria, present a significant public health challenge worldwide. Anophelines are predominant malaria vectors, with varied distribution, and influenced by environment and climate. This study, in Ghana, modelled environmental suitability for Anopheles stephensi, a potential vector that may threaten advances in malaria and vector control. Understanding this vector's distribution and dynamics ensures effective malaria and vector control programmes implementation. We explored the MaxEnt ecological modelling method to forecast An. stephensi's potential hotspots and niches. We analysed environmental and climatic variables to predict spatial distribution and ecological niches of An. stephensi with a spatial resolution of approximately 5 km2. Analysing geospatial and species occurrence data, we identified optimal environmental conditions and important factors for its presence. The model's most important variables guided hotspot prediction across several ecological zones aside from urban and peri-urban regions. Considering the vector's complex bionomics, these areas provide varying and adaptable conditions for the vector to colonise and establish. This is shown by the AUC = 0.943 prediction accuracy of the model, which is considered excellent. Based on our predictions, this vector species would thrive in the Greater Accra, Ashanti Central, Upper East, Northern, and North East regions. Forecasting its environmental suitability by ecological niche modelling supports proactive surveillance and focused malaria management strategies. Public health officials can act to reduce the risk of malaria transmission by identifying areas where mosquitoes may breed, which will ultimately improve health outcomes and disease control.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Malária , Animais , Humanos , Mosquitos Vetores , Gana , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Ecossistema
18.
Parasit Vectors ; 17(1): 16, 2024 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38195546

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A significant decrease in malaria morbidity and mortality has been attained using long-lasting insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying. Selective pressure from these control methods influences changes in vector bionomics and behavioural pattern. There is a need to understand how insecticide resistance drives behavioural changes within vector species. This study aimed to determine the spatio-temporal dynamics and biting behaviour of malaria vectors in different ecological zones in Ghana in an era of high insecticide use for public health vector control. METHODS: Adult mosquitoes were collected during the dry and rainy seasons in 2017 and 2018 from five study sites in Ghana in different ecological zones. Indoor- and outdoor-biting mosquitoes were collected per hour from 18:00 to 06:00 h employing the human landing catch (HLC) technique. Morphological and molecular species identifications of vectors were done using identification keys and PCR respectively. Genotyping of insecticide-resistant markers was done using the TaqMan SNP genotyping probe-based assays. Detection of Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites was determined using PCR. RESULTS: A total of 50,322 mosquitoes belonging to four different genera were collected from all the study sites during the sampling seasons in 2017 and 2018. Among the Anophelines were Anopheles gambiae s.l. 93.2%, (31,055/33,334), An. funestus 2.1%, (690/33,334), An. pharoensis 4.6%, (1545/33,334), and An. rufipes 0.1% (44/33,334). Overall, 76.4%, (25,468/33,334) of Anopheles mosquitoes were collected in the rainy season and 23.6%, (7866/33,334) in the dry season. There was a significant difference (Z = 2.410; P = 0.0160) between indoor-biting (51.1%; 15,866/31,055) and outdoor-biting An. gambiae s.l. (48.9%; 15,189/31,055). The frequency of the Vgsc-1014F mutation was slightly higher in indoor-biting mosquitoes (54.9%) than outdoors (45.1%). Overall, 44 pools of samples were positive for P. falciparum CSP giving an overall sporozoite rate of 0.1%. CONCLUSION: Anopheles gambiae s.l. were more abundant indoors across all ecological zones of Ghana. The frequency of G119S was higher indoors than outdoors from all the study sites, but with higher sporozoite rates in outdoor mosquitoes in Dodowa and Kpalsogu. There is, therefore, an urgent need for a supplementary malaria control intervention to control outdoor-biting mosquitoes.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Inseticidas , Malária Falciparum , Malária , Adulto , Humanos , Animais , Anopheles/genética , Malária/prevenção & controle , Gana , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Malária Falciparum/prevenção & controle
19.
Malar J ; 23(1): 20, 2024 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38225627

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria remains a major public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in Benin. The present study aims to evaluate the different Plasmodium species transmitted by malaria vectors in the communes of Cove, Zagnanado and Ouinhi, Southern Benin. METHODS: The study was conducted between December 2021 and October 2022 in 60 villages spread over the three study communes. Adult mosquitoes were collected from four houses in each village using human landing catches (HLCs). After morphological identification, a subsample of Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles funestus and Anopheles nili was analysed by PCR to test for their infection to the different Plasmodium species. RESULTS: Anopheles gambiae was collected at higher frequency in all the three study communes, representing 93.5% (95% CI 92.9-94) of all collected mosquitoes (n = 10,465). In total, five molecular species were found, An. gambiae sensu stricto (s.s.) and Anopheles coluzzii of the Gambiae complex, An. funestus and Anopheles leesoni of the Funestus group, and An. nili s.s., the sole species of the Nili group. From the five molecular species, four (An. gambiae s.s., An. coluzzii, An. funestus s.s. and An. nili s.s.) were found to be infected. Plasmodium falciparum was the main Plasmodium species in the study area, followed by Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale. Only An. gambiae s.s. was infected with all three Plasmodium species, while An. coluzzii was infected with two species, P. falciparum and P. vivax. CONCLUSIONS: Plasmodium falciparum was the only species tested for in malaria vectors in Benin, and remains the only one against which most control tools are directed. It is, therefore, necessary that particular attention be paid to secondary Plasmodium species for an efficient control of the disease. The presence of P. vivax emphasizes the need for an update of case management for malaria.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Malária Falciparum , Malária Vivax , Malária , Plasmodium , Animais , Adulto , Humanos , Benin , Plasmodium vivax , Mosquitos Vetores , África Ocidental , Plasmodium falciparum
20.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 18(1): e0011884, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38236812

RESUMO

Against the backdrop of a global malaria epidemic that remains severe, China has eradicated indigenous malaria but still has to be alert to the risk of external importation. Understanding the distribution of vectors can provide an adequate and reliable basis for the development and implementation of vector control strategies. However, with the decline of malaria prevalence in recent years, the capacity of vector monitoring and identification has been greatly weakened. Here we have used new sampling records, climatic data, and topographic data to establish ecological niche models of the three main malaria vectors in China. The model results accurately identified the current habitat suitability areas for the three species of Anopheles and revealed that in addition to precipitation and temperature as important variables affecting the distribution of Anopheles mosquitoes, topographic variables also influenced the distribution of Anopheles mosquitoes. Anopheles sinensis is the most widespread malaria vector in China, with a wide region from the northeast (Heilongjiang Province) to the southwest (Yunnan Province) suitable for its survival. Suitable habitat areas for Anopheles lesteri are concentrated in the central, eastern, and southern regions of China. The suitable habitat areas of Anopheles minimus are the smallest and are only distributed in the border provinces of southern China. On this basis, we further assessed the seasonal variation in habitat suitability areas for these three major malaria vectors in China. The results of this study provide new and more detailed evidence for vector monitoring. In this new era of imported malaria prevention in China, regular reassessment of the risk of vector transmission is recommended.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Malária , Animais , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Estações do Ano , Mosquitos Vetores , China/epidemiologia , Ecossistema
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