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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248122, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355851

RESUMO

Abstract Being vector of West Nile Virus and falariasis the control of Culex quinquefasciatus is likely to be essential. Synthetic insecticide treatment is looking most effective for vectors mosquito control. However, these products are toxic to the environment and non-target organisms. Consequently, ecofriendly control of vectors mosquito is needed. In this regard botanical insecticide is looking more fruitful. Therefore, the present research aimed to investigate the effectiveness of methanolic extract and various fractions, including, n-hexane, ethyl-acetate, chloroform, and aqueous fraction, obtained from methanolic extract of Ailanthus altissima, Artemisia scoparia, and Justicia adhatoda using separating funnel against larval, pupal, and adult stages of Culex quinquefasciatus. The larvae and pupae of Culex quinquefasciatus were exposed to various concentrations (31.25-1000 ppm) of methanolic extract and its fractions for 24 hours of exposure period. For knock-down bioassay (filter paper impregnation bioassay) different concentration of the methanolic extract and its various fractions (i.e. 0.0625, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5 and 1mg/mL) were applied for 1 hour exposure period. The results were statistically analysed using standard deviation, probit analysis, and linear regression. The R2 values of larvae, pupae, and adult range from 0.4 to 0.99. The values of LC50 (concentration causing 50% mortality) for late 3rd instar larvae after 24 hours exposure period range from 93-1856.7 ppm, while LC90 values range from 424 -7635.5ppm. The values of LC50for pupae range form 1326.7-6818.4ppm and and values of LC90 range from 3667.3-17427.9ppm, respectively. The KDT50 range from 0.30 to 2.8% and KDT90 values range from1.2 to 110.8%, respectively. In conclusion, Justicia adhatoda may be effective for controlling populations of vector mosquito.


Resumo Por ser o vetor do vírus do Nilo Ocidental e da falaríase, o controle de Culex quinquefasciatus Say é provavelmente essencial. O tratamento com inseticida sintético parece ser mais eficaz para o controle dos mosquitos vetores. No entanto, esses produtos são tóxicos para o meio ambiente e organismos não visados. Consequentemente, o controle ecológico dos mosquitos vetores é necessário. Nesse sentido, o inseticida botânico parece mais produtivo. Portanto, a presente pesquisa teve como objetivo investigar a eficácia do extrato metanólico e de várias frações, incluindo n-hexano, acetato de etila, clorofórmio e fração aquosa, obtidos do extrato metanólico de Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle, Artemisia scoparia Waldst. & Kit. e Justicia adhatoda L. usando funil de separação contra os estágios larval, pupal e adulto de C. quinquefasciatus. As larvas e pupas de C. quinquefasciatus foram expostas a várias concentrações (31,25-1000 ppm) de extrato metanólico, e suas frações por 24 horas de período de exposição. Para o bioensaio knock-down (bioensaio de impregnação de papel de filtro), diferentes concentrações do extrato metanólico e suas várias frações (ou seja, 0,0625, 0,125, 0,25, 0,5 e 1 mg / mL) foram aplicadas por um período de exposição de 1 hora. Os resultados foram analisados ​​estatisticamente usando desvio padrão, análise Probit e regressão linear. Os valores de R2 de larvas, pupas e adultos variaram de 0,4 a 0,99. Os valores de LC50 (concentração que causa 50% de mortalidade) para larvas de terceiro estádio tardio após 24 horas de período de exposição variaram de 93-1856,7 ppm, enquanto os valores de LC90 variaram de 424-7635,5ppm. Os valores de LC50 para pupas variaram de 1326,7-6818,4 ppm e os valores de LC90 variaram de 3667,3-17427,9 ppm, respectivamente. O KDT50 variou de 0,30 a 2,8% e os valores de KDT90 variaram de 1,2 a 110,8%, respectivamente. Por fim, a espécie J. adhatoda pôde ser eficaz para controlar populações de mosquitos vetores.


Assuntos
Animais , Culex , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Anopheles , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta , Mosquitos Vetores , Larva
2.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0271427, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36084031

RESUMO

The "Magude project" aimed but failed to interrupt local malaria transmission in Magude district, southern Mozambique, by using a comprehensive package of interventions, including indoor residual spraying (IRS), pyrethroid-only long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs) and mass-drug administration (MDA). Here we present detailed information on the vector species that sustained malaria transmission, their association with malaria incidence and behaviors, and their amenability to the implemented control interventions. Mosquitoes were collected monthly between May 2015 and October 2017 in six sentinel sites in Magude district, using CDC light traps both indoors and outdoors. Anopheles arabiensis was the main vector during the project, while An. funestus s.s., An. merus, An. parensis and An. squamosus likely played a secondary role. The latter two species have never previously been found positive for Plasmodium falciparum in southern Mozambique. The intervention package successfully reduced vector sporozoite rates in all species throughout the project. IRS was effective in controlling An. funestus s.s. and An. parensis, which virtually disappeared after its first implementation, but less effective at controlling An. arabiensis. Despite suboptimal use, LLINs likely provided significant protection against An. arabiensis and An. merus that sought their host largely indoors when people where in bed. Adding IRS on top of LLINs and MDA likely added value to the control of malaria vectors during the Magude project. Future malaria elimination attempts in the area could benefit from i) increasing the use of LLINs, ii) using longer-lasting IRS products to counteract the increase in vector densities observed towards the end of the high transmission season, and iii) a higher coverage with MDA to reduce the likelihood of human infection. However, additional interventions targeting vectors that survive IRS and LLINs by biting outdoors or indoors before people go to bed, will be likely needed to achieve local malaria elimination.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Mosquiteiros Tratados com Inseticida , Inseticidas , Malária , Piretrinas , Animais , Humanos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Controle de Mosquitos , Mosquitos Vetores
3.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 326, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36109765

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Optimising insecticide use and managing insecticide resistance are important to sustain gains against malaria using long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). Restricting insecticides to where mosquitoes are most likely to make multiple contacts could reduce the quantity of insecticide needed to treat the nets. Previous studies have shown that nets partially treated with a pyrethroid insecticide had equivalent mortality compared to a fully treated net. This study compared the efficacy of: (i) whole Interceptor® G2 nets (IG2; a dual-active LLIN containing alpha-cypermethrin and chlorfenapyr), (ii) nets with roof panels made of IG2 netting, (iii) nets with side panels made of IG2 netting and (iv) whole untreated nets as test nets. METHODS: The study was conducted in cow-baited experimental huts, Moshi Tanzania, using a four-arm Latin square design. Test nets had 30 holes cut in panels to simulate a typical net after 2-3 year use. The trial data were analysed using generalized linear models with mortality, blood-feeding, exophily and deterrence against wild free-flying Anopheles arabiensis as outcomes and test nets as predictors. RESULTS: Mortality was significantly higher in the nets with roof IG2 [27%, P = 0.001, odds ratio (OR) = 51.0, 95% CI = 4.8-546.2), side IG2 (44%, P < 0.001, OR = 137.6, 95% CI = 12.2-1553.2] and whole IG2 (53%, P < 0.001, OR = 223.0, 95% CI = 19.07-2606.0) nettings than the untreated (1%) nets. Mortality was also significantly higher in the whole IG2 net compared to the net with roof IG2 netting (P = 0.009, OR = 4.4, 95% CI = 1.4-13.3). Blood feeding was 22% in untreated, 10% in roof IG2, 14% in side IG2 and 19% in whole IG2 nets. Exiting was 92% in untreated, 89% in roof IG2, 97% in side IG2 and 94% whole IG2 nets. CONCLUSION: The results show that although the roof-treated IG2 net induced greater mortality compared to untreated nets, its efficacy was reduced compared to whole IG2 nets. Therefore, there was no benefit to be gained from restricting dual-active ingredient IG2 netting to the roof of nets.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Mosquiteiros Tratados com Inseticida , Inseticidas , Piretrinas , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Macrolídeos , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Piretrinas/farmacologia , Tanzânia
4.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0270882, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36107865

RESUMO

Characterizing persistent malaria transmission that occurs after the combined deployment of indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) is critical to guide malaria control and elimination efforts. This requires a detailed understanding of both human and vector behaviors at the same temporal and spatial scale. Cross-sectional human behavior evaluations and mosquito collections were performed in parallel in Magude district, Mozambique. Net use and the exact time when participant moved into each of five environments (outdoor, indoor before bed, indoor in bed, indoor after getting up, and outdoor after getting up) were recorded for individuals from three different age groups and both sexes during a dry and a rainy season. Malaria mosquitoes were collected with CDC light traps in combination with collection bottle rotators. The percentage of residual exposure to host-seeking vectors that occurred in each environment was calculated for five local malaria vectors with different biting behaviors, and the actual (at observed levels of LLIN use) and potential (i.e. if all residents had used an LLIN) personal protection conferred by LLINs was estimated. Anopheles arabiensis was responsible for more than 74% of residents' residual exposure to host-seeking vectors during the Magude project. The other four vector species (An. funestus s.s., An. parensis, An. squamosus and An. merus) were responsible for less than 10% each. The personal protection conferred by LLINs prevented only 39.2% of the exposure to host-seeking vectors that survived the implementation of both IRS and LLINs, and it differed significantly across seasons, vector species and age groups. At the observed levels of bednet use, 12.5% of all residual exposure to host-seeking vectors occurred outdoor during the evening, 21.9% indoor before going to bed, almost two thirds (64%) while people were in bed, 1.4% indoors after getting up and 0.2% outdoor after leaving the house. Almost a third of the residual exposure to host-seeking vectors (32.4%) occurred during the low transmission season. The residual bites of An. funestus s.s. and An. parensis outdoors and indoor before bedtime, of An. arabiensis indoors when people are in bed, and of An. squamosus both indoors and outdoors, are likely to have sustained malaria transmission throughout the Magude project. By increasing LLIN use, an additional 24.1% of exposure to the remaining hosts-seeking vectors could have been prevented. Since An. arabiensis, the most abundant vector, feeds primarily while people are in bed, increasing net use and net feeding inhibition (through e.g. community awareness activities and the selection of more effective LLINs) could significantly reduce the exposure to remaining host-seeking mosquitoes. Nonetheless, supplementary interventions aiming to reduce human-vector contact outdoors and/or indoors before people go to bed (e.g. through larval source management, window and eave screening, eave tubes, and spatial repellents) will be needed to reduce residual exposure to the outdoor and early biting An. funestus s.s. and An. parensis.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Inseticidas , Malária , Animais , Anopheles/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Malária/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Mosquitos Vetores , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases
5.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 16(8): 1351-1358, 2022 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36099380

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To identify the specific Anopheles mosquito sibling species responsible for malaria transmission, determine their vectorial potential, and predict suitable control measures, this study investigated genetic identities, human blood feeding, and sporozoite infection rates of endophilic Anopheles mosquitoes in Gaa-Bolorunduro, a cattle rearing community in Kwara State, Nigeria. METHODOLOGY: Monthly pyrethrum spray collections of Anopheles mosquitoes were conducted for one year in addition to PCR characterization of sibling species and ELISA probing of human blood meal and sporozoite infections. Mean numbers and human blood indices (HBI) of the different Anopheles sibling species identified were compared. RESULTS: The total of 668 PCR-identified mosquitoes comprised 50.8% An. arabiensis, 46.7% An. gambiae, and 2.5% An. coluzzii. Annual mean numbers of An. arabiensis was significantly higher (p = 0.001) than An. coluzzii but not An. gambiae (p = 0.602). Proportions of An. arabiensis found with human blood (0.29) were lower compared to An. gambiae (0.72) and An. coluzzii (0.75). However, the annual mean HBI of An. arabiensis was not significantly higher than An. gambiae (p = 0.195) and An. coluzzii (p = 0.249). Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite infection rate was 1.6% in An. gambiae, 0.9% in An. arabiensis and 0% in An. coluzzii. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalent An. arabiensis and An. gambiae mosquitoes found indoors, despite the outdoor cattle population barrier, could be targeted by community-scale utilization of long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets. Further studies on outdoor mosquito surveillance and bovine blood meal identification are required for the recommendation of suitable complementary vector control measures for the community.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Malária Falciparum , Malária , Animais , Anopheles/genética , Bovinos , Humanos , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Mosquitos Vetores , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Linhagem , Esporozoítos
6.
Malar J ; 21(1): 264, 2022 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36100902

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sporozoites isolated from the salivary glands of Plasmodium-infected mosquitoes are a prerequisite for several basic and pre-clinical applications. Although salivary glands are pooled to maximize sporozoite recovery, insufficient yields pose logistical and analytical hurdles; thus, predicting yields prior to isolation would be valuable. Preceding oocyst densities in the midgut is an obvious candidate. However, it is unclear whether current understanding of its relationship with sporozoite densities can be used to maximize yields, or whether it can capture the potential density-dependence in rates of sporozoite invasion of the salivary glands. METHODS: This study presents a retrospective analysis of Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes infected with two strains of the rodent-specific Plasmodium berghei. Mean oocyst densities were estimated in the midguts earlier in the infection (11-15 days post-blood meal), with sporozoites pooled from the salivary glands later in the infection (17-29 days). Generalized linear mixed effects models were used to determine if (1) mean oocyst densities can predict sporozoite yields from pooled salivary glands, (2) whether these densities can capture differences in rates of sporozoite invasion of salivary glands, and (3), if the interaction between oocyst densities and time could be leveraged to boost overall yields. RESULTS: The non-linear effect of mean oocyst densities confirmed the role of density-dependent constraints in limiting yields beyond certain oocyst densities. Irrespective of oocyst densities however, the continued invasion of salivary glands by the sporozoites boosted recoveries over time (17-29 days post-blood meal) for either parasite strain. CONCLUSIONS: Sporozoite invasion of the salivary glands over time can be leveraged to maximize yields for P. berghei. In general, however, invasion of the salivary glands over time is a critical fitness determinant for all Plasmodium species (extrinsic incubation period, EIP). Thus, delaying sporozoite collection could, in principle, substantially reduce dissection effort for any parasite within the genus, with the results also alluding to the potential for changes in sporozoites densities over time to modify infectivity for the next host.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Esporozoítos , Animais , Anopheles/parasitologia , Plasmodium berghei , Estudos Retrospectivos , Glândulas Salivares/parasitologia
7.
Zootaxa ; 5175(5): 559-569, 2022 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36095342

RESUMO

Nyssorhynchus (Nyssorhynchus) rondoniensis, a new species of the Arthuri Complex of the Strodei Subgroup, is described and validated using morphological characters of the adult male and female, male genitalia, fourth-instar larva and pupa. The new species is recorded in the municipalities of Campo Novo de Rondnia and Monte Negro, Rondnia State, Brazil. Based on DNA sequence data, the new species (as Ny. arthuri species C) was found to belong to a separate lineage within the Arthuri Complex. Morphological characteristics of the male genitalia and fourth-instar larva confirmed that the new species shared morphological similarities with other species of the Arthuri Complex, but it can be distinguished by characteristics of the male genitalia, adult female and larva. Nyssorhynchus rondoniensis may be involved in malaria transmission because females can be easily misidentified as Ny. oswaldoi (Peryass, 1922) s.l. or Ny. konderi (Galvo Damasceno, 1942) s.l. Both species were previously hypothesized to be local vectors in Acre and Rondnia States.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Malária , Animais , Anopheles/genética , Feminino , Larva , Masculino , Mosquitos Vetores , Pupa
8.
Zootaxa ; 5134(2): 275-285, 2022 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36101065

RESUMO

Nyssorhynchus (Nyssorhynchus) jamariensis, a new species of the Nuneztovari Complex, previously known as Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) nuneztovari A, is described and validated using morphological characters of the adult male and female, male genitalia and immature stages. The species is recorded from the western Brazilian Amazon, where it was collected in pastures in the vicinity of the Jamari River, municipality of Monte Negro, Rondnia State, Brazil. Illustrations of the male genitalia, fourth-instar larva and pupa are provided. Nyssorhynchus jamariensis may be involved in malaria transmission, but its vector status needs further investigation.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Malária , Animais , Brasil , Feminino , Masculino , Mosquitos Vetores , Pupa
9.
Zootaxa ; 5133(2): 182-200, 2022 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36101104

RESUMO

It has been 34 years since the last update of the subgenus Anopheles Meigen, 1818 in the Afrotropical Region. Eleven species occur in the region, and of these, eight occur only on the African continent, two in both Africa and Madagascar, and one exclusively in Madagascar. Three species are implicated in the transmission of malarial parasites in localised areas: An. coustani Laveran, 1900 (Cameroon, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Madagascar, Tanzania and Zambia), An. paludis Theobald, 1900 (Cameroon, Democratic Republic of the Congo) and An. ziemanni Grnberg, 1902 (Cameroon, Chad, Ethiopia and Rwanda). Several arboviruses have been isolated from An. coustani in Kenya, Madagascar and Senegal. Recent molecular studies indicate possible undescribed species within An. coustani that could be resolved with integrated molecular, morphological and cytogenetic methods.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Malária , Animais , Anopheles/genética , Biologia , Mosquitos Vetores/genética
10.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 11(1): 97, 2022 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36104737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An outbreak of Plasmodium malariae infection among forest goers in Sanya City of Hainan Island, China was reported in 2015. In response to this outbreak, an innovative three-layer strategy (TLS) targeted forest goers was adapted based on the 1-3-7 approach. MAIN TEXT: Key elements of TLS are: (i) The village with five malaria cases and adjacent villages were set as the first layer. All residents including forest goers were taken as the high-risk population (HRP). Active case detection (ACD) by blood smear microscopy and PCR was selected as the primary measure, and passive case detection (PCD) as complementary measure. One case was identified under TLS implementation. (ii) The township with cases (Gaofeng Town) and the nearby towns were chosen as the second layer. Only forest goers were screened by ACD, while PCD as a routine screening method. 7831 blood smears collected by ACD and PCD and tested with negative results. (iii) The city with cases (Sanya City) and others 12 counties/county-level cities were selected as the third layer. Malaria cases were monitored passively. A total of 77,555 blood slides were screened by PCD with zero positive sample. For each layer, the malaria vector mosquitoes were monitored using light traps, cattle-baited/human-bait traps. Anopheles minimus (dominant species), An. sinensis and An. dirus were captured. Vector control measures mainly include insecticide residual spraying and long-lasting insecticide nets. The capacity of clinicians, public health practitioners and laboratory technicians has been improved through training. During 2016‒2018, TLS and chemoprophylaxis were implemented in the same areas. In the first layer, all residents were monitored by ACD, and malaria chemoprophylaxis were distributed, 89.5% of forest goers were using chemoprophylaxis against malaria. The blood smears (3126 by ACD plus 1516 by PCD) were with zero positive results. Chemoprophylaxis and ACD were offered to forest goers once a year, and PCD in residents as a complementary measure in the second and third layer, 77.8% and 95.1% of forest goers received chemoprophylaxis. In each layer, vector surveillance and control of malaria and trainings for medical staff were still in place. CONCLUSIONS: TLS was effective in blocking the outbreak by P. malariae among forest goers in Hainan in malaria elimination stage. However, whether it could prevent the malaria resurgence in the post-elimination phase needs to be further assessed.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Inseticidas , Malária , Animais , Anopheles/fisiologia , Bovinos , China/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Florestas , Humanos , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Mosquitos Vetores , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Malar J ; 21(1): 254, 2022 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36064699

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: South Africa has set a mandate to eliminate local malaria transmission by 2023. In pursuit of this objective a Sterile Insect Technique programme targeting the main vector Anopheles arabiensis is currently under development. Significant progress has been made towards operationalizing the technology. However, one of the main limitations being faced is the absence of an efficient genetic sexing system. This study is an assessment of an An. arabiensis (AY-2) strain carrying the full Y chromosome from Anopheles gambiae, including a transgenic red fluorescent marker, being introgressed into a South African genetic background as a potential tool for a reliable sexing system. METHODS: Adult, virgin males from the An. arabiensis AY-2 strain were outcrossed to virgin females from the South African, Kwazulu-Natal An. arabiensis (KWAG strain) over three generations. Anopheles arabiensis AY-2 fluorescent males were sorted as first instar larvae (L1) using the Complex Object Parametric Analyzer and Sorter (COPAS) and later screened as pupae to verify the sex. Life history traits of the novel hybrid KWAG-AY2 strain were compared to the original fluorescent AY-2 strain, the South African wild-type KWAG strain and a standard laboratory An. arabiensis (Dongola reference strain). RESULTS: The genetic stability of the sex-linked fluorescent marker and the integrity and high level of sexing efficiency of the system were confirmed. No recombination events in respect to the fluorescent marker were detected over three rounds of introgression crosses. KWAG-AY2 had higher hatch rates and survival of L1 to pupae and L1 to adult than the founding strains. AY-2 showed faster development time of immature stages and larger adult body size, but lower larval survival rates. Adult KWAG males had significantly higher survival rates. There was no significant difference between the strains in fecundity and proportion of males. KWAG-AY2 males performed better than reference strains in flight ability tests. CONCLUSION: The life history traits of KWAG-AY2, its rearing efficiency under laboratory conditions, the preservation of the sex-linked fluorescence and perfect sexing efficiency after three rounds of introgression crosses, indicate that it has potential for mass rearing. The potential risks and benefits associated to the use of this strain within the Sterile Insect Technique programme in South Africa are discussed.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Infertilidade , Traços de História de Vida , Animais , Anopheles/genética , Feminino , Genômica , Larva/genética , Masculino , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Pupa , África do Sul
12.
Malar J ; 21(1): 258, 2022 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36068530

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Continuous vector surveillance and sustainable interventions are mandatory in order to prevent anopheline proliferation (or spread to new areas) and interrupt malaria transmission. Anopheline abundance and richness were evaluated in urban and peri-urban malaria foci at a medium-sized city in the Brazilian Amazon, comparing the protected human landing catch technique (PHLC) and alternative sampling methods over different seasonal periods. Additional information was assessed for female feeding behaviour and faunal composition. METHODS: Anophelines were sampled bimonthly in four urban and peri-urban sites in the city of Porto Velho, state of Rondônia, Brazil. The average number of captured mosquitoes was compared between an PHLC (gold standard), a tent trap (Gazetrap), and a barrier screen by means of generalized linear mixed models (GLMM), which also included season and environment (peri-urban/urban) as predictors. RESULTS: Overall, 2962 Anopheles individuals belonging to 12 species and one complex were caught; Anopheles darlingi represented 86% of the individuals. More mosquitoes were captured in the peri-urban setting, and the urban setting was more diverse. The model estimates that significantly more anophelines were collected by PHLC than by the Screen method, and Gazetrap captured fewer individuals. However, the Screen technique yielded more blood-engorged females. The peak hours of biting activity were from 6 to 7 p.m. in urban areas and from 7 to 8 p.m. in peri-urban areas. CONCLUSIONS: Although peri-urban settings presented a greater abundance of anophelines, Shannon and Simpson diversities were higher in urban sites. Each technique proved to be useful, depending on the purpose: PHLC was more effective in capturing the highest anopheline densities, Gazetrap caught the greatest number of species, and the barrier screen technique captured more engorged individuals. There was no seasonal effect on Anopheles assemblage structure; however, a more diverse fauna was caught in the transitional season. Biting activity was more intense from 6 to 8 p.m., with a predominance of An. darlingi.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Mordeduras e Picadas , Malária , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Malária/epidemiologia , Mosquitos Vetores , Estações do Ano
13.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274320, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36083983

RESUMO

Outdoor and early biting by mosquitoes challenge the efficacy of bed nets and indoor residual spraying against malaria in the Greater Mekong Subregion. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of outdoor residual spraying (ORS) for malaria vector-control in this region. A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted between July 2018 and April 2019 in twelve villages in Karen (Kayin) state, Myanmar. Villages were randomly assigned to receive either a single round of ORS with a capsule suspension of lambda-cyhalothrin for two days in October or no intervention (six villages per group). The primary endpoint was the biting rate of malaria mosquitoes assessed with human-landing catch and cow-baited trap collection methods, and was analyzed with a Bayesian multi-level model. In the intervention villages, the proportion of households located within the sprayed area ranged between 42 and 100% and the application rate ranged between 63 and 559 g of active ingredient per hectare. At baseline, the median of Anopheles biting rate estimates in the twelve villages was 2 bites per person per night (inter-quartile range [IQR] 0-5, range 0-48) indoors, 6 bites per person per night (IQR 2-16, range 0-342) outdoors and 206 bites per cow per night (IQR 83-380, range 19-1149) in the cow-baited trap. In intention-to-treat analysis, it was estimated that ORS reduced biting rate by 72% (95% confidence interval [CI] 63-79) from Month 0 to Month 3 and by 79% (95% CI 62-88) from Month 4 to Month 6, considering control villages as the reference. In conclusion, ORS rapidly reduces the biting rates of malaria mosquitoes in a Southeast Asian setting where the vectors bite mostly outdoors and at a time when people are not protected by mosquito bed nets.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Malária , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Bovinos , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Mosquitos Vetores , Mianmar/epidemiologia
14.
Sci Adv ; 8(38): eabo1733, 2022 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36129981

RESUMO

Gene drives hold promise for the genetic control of malaria vectors. The development of vector population modification strategies hinges on the availability of effector mechanisms impeding parasite development in transgenic mosquitoes. We augmented a midgut gene of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae to secrete two exogenous antimicrobial peptides, magainin 2 and melittin. This small genetic modification, capable of efficient nonautonomous gene drive, hampers oocyst development in both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium berghei. It delays the release of infectious sporozoites, while it simultaneously reduces the life span of homozygous female transgenic mosquitoes. Modeling the spread of this modification using a large-scale agent-based model of malaria epidemiology reveals that it can break the cycle of disease transmission across a range of transmission intensities.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Tecnologia de Impulso Genético , Malária , Animais , Anopheles/genética , Feminino , Magaininas , Malária/parasitologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Meliteno , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Plasmodium berghei/genética
15.
Open Biol ; 12(9): 220111, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36069078

RESUMO

The immune and circulatory systems of animals are functionally integrated. In mammals, the spleen and lymph nodes filter and destroy microbes circulating in the blood and lymph, respectively. In insects, immune cells that surround the heart valves (ostia), called periostial haemocytes, destroy pathogens in the areas of the body that experience the swiftest haemolymph (blood) flow. An infection recruits additional periostial haemocytes, amplifying heart-associated immune responses. Although the structural mechanics of periostial haemocyte aggregation have been defined, the genetic factors that regulate this process remain less understood. Here, we conducted RNA sequencing in the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, and discovered that an infection upregulates multiple components of the immune deficiency (IMD) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathways in the heart with periostial haemocytes. This upregulation is greater in the heart with periostial haemocytes than in the circulating haemocytes or the entire abdomen. RNA interference-based knockdown then showed that the IMD and JNK pathways drive periostial haemocyte aggregation and alter phagocytosis and melanization on the heart, thereby demonstrating that these pathways regulate the functional integration between the immune and circulatory systems. Understanding how insects fight infection lays the foundation for novel strategies that could protect beneficial insects and harm detrimental ones.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Sistema Cardiovascular , Animais , Anopheles/genética , Hemócitos , Hemolinfa , Insetos , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Mamíferos
16.
J Med Entomol ; 59(5): 1700-1709, 2022 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35934895

RESUMO

Systemic parasiticides in livestock can control zoophilic malaria vectors that contribute to residual malaria transmission. Membrane feeding techniques were used to screen seven systemic parasiticidic drugs currently in veterinary use for livestock and dogs. Drugs were tested in two laboratory strains of zoophilic Anopheles - A. stephensi (South Asian vector) and A. albimanus (Central American vector). To assess the relative potentials of these drugs, the resultant LC-50 for each drug was compared with what is known about the pharmacokinetic of the drug. Drugs with LC-50 values below the reported maximum plasma concentration of treated animals were considered as showing the most promise for use in the field. Ivermectin and fipronil showed the greatest promise for use in cattle against A. stephensi. Fipronil showed the greatest promise for use in cattle against A. albimanus. Both fluralaner and afoxolaner were highly effective against both mosquito species but pharmacokinetic data for these drugs in cattle are lacking. Eprinomectin, moxidectin and abamectin showed marginal to no promise for either mosquito species. At sublethal doses, ivermectin, fipronil, and afoxolaner (but not fluralaner) significantly reduced the larval production of surviving A. stephensi and A. albimanus. Further testing of candidate systemic parasiticides, including their product formulations, in livestock against field-collected populations of Anopheles is the next logical step toward full implementation of this strategy to manage zoophilic vectors.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Doenças dos Bovinos , Inseticidas , Malária , Animais , Antiparasitários/farmacologia , Bovinos , Fertilidade , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Isoxazóis , Ivermectina/farmacologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Malária/veterinária , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Mosquitos Vetores , Naftalenos
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 70(36): 11274-11280, 2022 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36040208

RESUMO

Infected mosquitos from the genus Aedes have become one of the world's most influential contributors to human morbidity and death. To explore new biopesticides with activity against Aedes aegypti, Streptomyces distallicus, a species related to the subspecies group of Streptomyces netropsis, was investigated. Six metabolites, aureothin, allo-aureothin, deoxyaureothin, 4',7-dihydroxy isoflavone, 2-methyl-5-(3-indolyl)oxazole, and 2-ethyl-5-(3-indolyl)oxazole were isolated, and chemical structures, were elucidated based on one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy analyses and HRMS. The A. aegypti larvicidal activity of these compounds was evaluated. Only two isomeric compounds, aureothin and allo-aureothin, showed larvicidal activity against A. aegypti with LC50 values of 1.5 and 3.1 ppm for 24 h post-treatment, respectively, and 3.8 and 7.4 ppm for 48 h post-treatment, respectively. The crude extract of S. distallicus also demonstrated potent larvicidal activity with LC50 values of 1.46 and 1.2 ppm for 24 and 48 h post-treatment, respectively. Deoxyaureothin, a furan ring reduced form of aureothin, showed no activity against A. aegypti. The hybrid imported fire ants activity of aureothin was also evaluated, but it did not show any activity at the highest dose of 62.5 µg/g. Described here is the first report on a bioassay-directed investigation of the secondary metabolites of S. distallicus and biological evaluation of isolated compounds aureothin and its isomer and intermediates as potential microbial larvicides. S. distallicus and crude extracts thereof are a promising source of potential microbial biolarvicides.


Assuntos
Aedes , Anopheles , Culex , Inseticidas , Animais , Humanos , Inseticidas/química , Larva , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Streptomyces
18.
Afr Health Sci ; 22(1): 589-597, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36032428

RESUMO

Background: Insecticide treated bed nets and Indoor residual spraying remains the principal interventional malaria control strategies. To achieve malaria disease eradication, vector control programmes that monitor insecticide resistance profiles are necessary. Objective: The study evaluated pirimiphos-methyl susceptibility of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato in Kakamega County, western Kenya. Methods: Adult Anopheles gambiae sensu lato mosquitoes were assayed using World Health Organization tube bioassay against 0.25% pirimiphos-methyl. Susceptible and non-susceptible populations were characterized to species-level using Polymerase Chain Reaction. Susceptible and resistant mosquitoes were further subjected to G119S Acetylcholisterase (ace 1R) mutation detection. Results: Anopheles arabiensis was the predominant species in all study population Mumias east (62%), Malava (68%), Ikolomani (77%) and Lurambi (82%). Results showed phenotypic susceptibility to pirimiphos-methyl. Mortality was low in Mumias east (80.6%) and high in Lurambi (89.0%). G119S mutations ranged from 3.0% to 8.9% in Anopheles arabiensis whereas G119S mutations were relatively low ranging from 0.0% to 3.1% in Anopheles gambiae s.s populations. Study populations tested were consistent with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P>0.05). Conclusion: We observed pirimiphos-methyl resistance in Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles gambiae s.s. study populations. Results showed G119S mutation in resistance population. Resistance monitoring and management are urgently required.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Inseticidas , Malária , Adulto , Animais , Humanos , Quênia , Controle de Mosquitos , Mosquitos Vetores
19.
Malar J ; 21(1): 237, 2022 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35974410

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The vector species in the Amazon River Basin are regionally and locally diverse, which makes it imperative to understand and compare their roles in malaria transmission to help select appropriate methods of intervention and evaluation. The major aim of this study was to measure the vectorial capacity of five Anopheles species in three neighbouring villages, for two Plasmodium parasite species affecting humans. METHODS: From 32 consecutive months of sampling in three villages, 1.5-7.0 km apart, on the Matapi River, Amapá State, Brazil, vectorial capacities (C) were estimated as time series for An. darlingi, An. marajoara, An. nuneztovari, An. triannulatus, and An. intermedius. Monthly parity measurements for each vector species were used to estimate daily survivorship and compared to estimates of survivorship from mark-release-recapture experiments. Gonotrophic cycle lengths were estimated through a time-series analysis of parity data, and durations of sporogony at study site temperatures for the two malaria parasite species were estimated from previous literature. RESULTS: The absolute abundances of five vector species were strongly tracked by the spatial variation in C among villages. Temporally, C varied between wet and dry seasons, with An. darlingi, An. marajoara and An. triannulatus exhibiting higher C in the dry season from August to December, and An. nuneztovari its highest C early in the rainy season in January and February. Anopheles intermedius exhibited higher C in the rainy season from April to June than in the dry season. Significant differences in overall survival for each independent variable, and a significant difference in C between wet and dry seasons, among villages, and among vector species for both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. A generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) analysis by village showed significant effects of vector species on C in only one village, but significant effects of parasite species in all three. Although the GLMM analysis detected no significant parasite x vector species interaction effects on C, effects on C of spline regressions of C dynamics x vector species interactions were significant in all villages. CONCLUSIONS: These detailed analyses of entomological and parasitological variables revealed hidden complexities of malaria epidemiology at local scales in neighbouring riverine villages of the Amazon Region.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Malária , Parasitos , Plasmodium , Animais , Anopheles/parasitologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Humanos , Malária/epidemiologia , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia , Estações do Ano
20.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 293, 2022 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35978415

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Improved methods for sampling outdoor-biting mosquitoes are urgently needed to improve surveillance of vector-borne diseases. Such tools could potentially replace the human landing catch (HLC), which, despite being the most direct option for measuring human exposures, raises significant ethical and logistical concerns. Several alternatives are under development, but detailed evaluation still requires common frameworks for calibration relative to HLC. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a statistical framework for predicting human-biting rates from different exposure-free alternatives. METHODS: We obtained mosquito abundance data (Anopheles arabiensis, Anopheles funestus and Culex spp.) from a year-long Tanzanian study comparing six outdoor traps [Suna Trap (SUN), BG Sentinel (BGS), M-Trap (MTR), M-Trap + CDC (MTRC), Ifakara Tent Trap-C (ITT-C) and Mosquito Magnet-X Trap (MMX)] and HLC. Generalised linear models were developed within a Bayesian framework to investigate associations between the traps and HLC, taking intra- and inter-specific density dependence into account. The best model was used to create a calibration tool for predicting HLC-equivalents. RESULTS: For An. arabiensis, SUN catches had the strongest correlation with HLC (R2 = 19.4), followed by BGS (R2 = 17.2) and MTRC (R2 = 13.1) catches. The least correlated catch was MMX (R2 = 2.5). For An. funestus, BGS had the strongest correlation with the HLC (R2 = 53.4), followed by MTRC (R2 = 37.4) and MTR (R2 = 37.4). For Culex mosquitoes, the traps most highly correlated with the HLC were MTR (R2 = 45.4) and MTRC (R2 = 44.2). Density dependence, both between and within species, influenced the performance of only BGS traps. An interactive Shiny App calibration tool was developed for this and similar applications. CONCLUSION: We successfully developed a calibration tool to assess the performance of different traps for assessing outdoor-biting risk, and established a valuable framework for estimating human exposures based on the trap catches. The performance of candidate traps varied between mosquito taxa; thus, there was no single optimum. Although all the traps tested underestimated the HLC-derived exposures, it was possible to mathematically define their representativeness of the true biting risk, with or without density dependence. The results of this study emphasise the need to aim for a consistent and representative sampling approach, as opposed to simply seeking traps that catch the most mosquitoes.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Culex , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Calibragem , Entomologia/métodos , Humanos , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Mosquitos Vetores
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