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1.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 52(11): e8899, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664307

RESUMO

Few behavioral tests allow measuring several characteristics and most require training, complex analyses, and/or are time-consuming. We present an apparatus based on rat exploratory behavior. Composed of three different environments, it allows the assessment of more than one behavioral characteristic in a short 3-min session. Factorial analyses have defined three behavioral dimensions, which we named Exploration, Impulsivity, and Self-protection. Behaviors composing the Exploration factor were increased by chlordiazepoxide and apomorphine and decreased by pentylenetetrazole. Behaviors composing the Impulsivity factor were increased by chlordiazepoxide, apomorphine, and both acute and chronic imipramine treatments. Behaviors composing the Self-protection factor were decreased by apomorphine. We submitted Wistar rats to the open-field test, the elevated-plus maze, and to the apparatus we are proposing. Measures related to exploratory behavior in all three tests were correlated. Measures composing the factors Impulsivity and Self-protection did not correlate with any measures from the two standard tests. Also, compared with existing impulsivity tests, the one we proposed did not require previous learning, training, or sophisticated analysis. Exploration measures from our test are as easy to obtain as the ones from other standard tests. Thus, we have proposed an apparatus that measured three different behavioral characteristics, was simple and fast, did not require subjects to be submitted to previous learning or training, was sensitive to drug treatments, and did not require sophisticated data analyses.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Pesquisa Comportamental/instrumentação , Comportamento Exploratório/fisiologia , Medo/fisiologia , Comportamento Impulsivo/fisiologia , Animais , Ansiolíticos/farmacologia , Antidepressivos Tricíclicos/farmacologia , Apomorfina/farmacologia , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Clordiazepóxido/farmacologia , Agonistas de Dopamina/farmacologia , Comportamento Exploratório/efeitos dos fármacos , Medo/efeitos dos fármacos , Antagonistas GABAérgicos/farmacologia , Comportamento Impulsivo/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/fisiologia , Modelos Animais , Pentilenotetrazol/farmacologia , Ratos Wistar , Fatores de Tempo
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(39): e17287, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574848

RESUMO

Evidence suggests that mental health is associated with multiple factors such as physical activity, sedentary behavior, and physical function in older adults. The present study used latent profile analysis to identify classes of older adults based on their health profile among a representative sample of Korean older adults with hypertension. Differences in mental health between these classes were also examined.Seven hundred and sixty seven participants (mean age = 70.23, SD = 6.08; men 45.6%) were included in the analysis.There were 3 latent classes (class 1: a physically inactive lifestyle with low physical function and body perception; class 2: a physically moderate lifestyle with moderate physical function and low body perception; class 3: a physically active lifestyle with high physical function and body perception). According to class comparisons, older adults in class 3 had significantly lower anxiety/depression levels than classes 1 and 2. Older adults in class 3 had significantly lower stress levels than class 1.It is possible that among older adults, having a positive attitude of one's body shape may also be important for improving anxiety/depression along with having a physically active lifestyle and maintaining physical function.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Força da Mão , Hipertensão/psicologia , Postura Sentada , Caminhada , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ansiedade/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/psicologia , Exercício/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Análise de Classes Latentes , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Percepção , República da Coreia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(41): e17497, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593116

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study will systematically evaluate the psychological effects of advanced care (AC) on patients who received endoscopic gastric cancer resection (EGCR). METHODS: This study will search the following databases of Cochrane Library, Pubmed, EMBASE, Web of Science, WANGFANG, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure from inception to the present with no language limitation. All randomized controlled trials on assessing the psychological effects of AC for patients with EGCR will be included. RESULTS: This study will explore the psychological effects of AC on EGCR by assessing depression, anxiety, health-related quality of life, and adverse events. CONCLUSION: This study will summarize recent evidence for the psychological effects of AC on EGCR. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: PROSPERO CRD42019139868.


Assuntos
Endoscopia/métodos , Gastrectomia/psicologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/cirurgia , Estômago/cirurgia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , China/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Gastrectomia/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
5.
Z Psychosom Med Psychother ; 65(3): 288-303, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476999

RESUMO

Is the influence of religiousness on fearful, depressive and somatic symptoms and psychic traumatization overestimated? A representative cross-sectional study Objectives: The aim of this study is to prove if religious faith, spirituality and religious praxis are joined with lower depression, anxiety and physical pain-level and if subjects with traumatic experiences report more spirituality. Methods: In this consecutive study, 2508 adults of a representative sample in Germany were interviewed about religious faith and spirituality in relation to depression, anxiety, physical disorders as well as traumatic experiences. Results: Unlike our hypotheses people who are charged with mental (PHQ-4; Löwe et al. 2010) or physical disorders (GBB_8; Kliem et al. 2017) report more spirituality and more private religious/spiritual praxis than people without mental or physical problems. As expected people with traumatic experiences in their childhood (CTS; Grabe et al. 2012) describe significantly more spirituality than people without these experiences. Conclusions: Other than expected people with more mental or physical disorders report more spirituality and more private religious/spiritual praxis. It is to discuss if spirituality is less a protective factor for mental or physical disorders than disorders activate to look for spirituality and private religious/spiritual praxis.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Medo/psicologia , Sintomas Inexplicáveis , Trauma Psicológico/psicologia , Religião e Psicologia , Espiritualidade , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Trauma Psicológico/epidemiologia
6.
Nat Med ; 25(9): 1428-1441, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501614

RESUMO

Psychological distress has long been suspected to influence cancer incidence and mortality. It remains largely unknown whether and how stress affects the efficacy of anticancer therapies. We observed that social defeat caused anxiety-like behaviors in mice and dampened therapeutic responses against carcinogen-induced neoplasias and transplantable tumors. Stress elevated plasma corticosterone and upregulated the expression of glucocorticoid-inducible factor Tsc22d3, which blocked type I interferon (IFN) responses in dendritic cell (DC) and IFN-γ+ T cell activation. Similarly, close correlations were discovered among plasma cortisol levels, TSC22D3 expression in circulating leukocytes and negative mood in patients with cancer. In murine models, exogenous glucocorticoid injection, or enforced expression of Tsc22d3 in DC was sufficient to abolish therapeutic control of tumors. Administration of a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist or DC-specific Tsc22d3 deletion reversed the negative impact of stress or glucocorticoid supplementation on therapeutic outcomes. Altogether, these results indicate that stress-induced glucocorticoid surge and Tsc22d3 upregulation can subvert therapy-induced anticancer immunosurveillance.


Assuntos
Imunidade Celular , Neoplasias/imunologia , Estresse Psicológico/imunologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Animais , Ansiedade/sangue , Ansiedade/induzido quimicamente , Ansiedade/imunologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/imunologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/psicologia , Corticosterona/sangue , Células Dendríticas/transplante , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Glucocorticoides/farmacologia , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/psicologia , Ativação Linfocitária/genética , Camundongos , Monitorização Imunológica/métodos , Neoplasias/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/psicologia , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/antagonistas & inibidores , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Gástricas/sangue , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/imunologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/induzido quimicamente , Estresse Psicológico/genética , Estresse Psicológico/terapia , Fatores de Transcrição/imunologia
7.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 21(7): 449-453, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31507119

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fibromyalgia is a syndrome of unknown etiology that is characterized by widespread pain, which severely impairs quality of life. Several forms of occupational and alternative therapy have demonstrated beneficial effects in fibromyalgia patients. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of participation in a floral design course on physical and psychiatric symptoms in a cohort of fibromyalgia patients. METHODS: This study was conducted as an observational study. Women diagnosed with fibromyalgia over the age of 18 were recruited to participate in one of two 12-week flower design (floristry) courses. Demographic details, disease activity indices, and anxiety and depression scores were calculated for all participants at baseline, week 12, and study completion. Physical and mental health of the two groups were compared throughout the study time-points. RESULTS: The study was completed by 61 female fibromyalgia patients who were included in the final analyses; 31 patients participated in the first floristry course and 30 in the second. Significant improvements in the 36-Item Short Form Survey physical and mental health components, visual analog scale, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores for the entire study population and for each group separately could be seen following participation in each floristry course. CONCLUSIONS: Participation in a floristry course may lead to a significant improvement in pain and psychiatric symptoms in fibromyalgia patients. These findings highlight the potential benefit of utilizing occupational therapy programs, such as a floristry course, for improving quality of life in fibromyalgia.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/terapia , Terapias Complementares/métodos , Depressão/terapia , Fibromialgia/terapia , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade/psicologia , Estudos de Coortes , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Fibromialgia/fisiopatologia , Fibromialgia/psicologia , Flores , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Psychiatr Danub ; 31(Suppl 3): 338-344, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488750

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Mental difficulties are common in the postpartum period. They can manifest in a mild form, but also as serious disorders which need to be treated in a timely manner. The most common psychological problem is "Baby blues" characterized by relatively short duration without consequences and treatment is largely unnecessary. Postpartum depression is characterized by a sense of sadness, loss of interest, insomnia, discomfort, loss of energy, reduced concentration. Postpartum psychosis is the most serious disorder but is also rare and may have serious consequences for the mother and child. Important factors in the postpartum mental problems/difficulties are genetic factors, situation of unwanted pregnancy, a feeling of discomfort with the role of motherhood and sudden hormonal changes. AIM: to investigate the frequency and type of mental problems in postpartum period, as well as possible type of help needed by the women in postpartum period. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: One hundred (112) respondents participated in the survey. The survey was conducted from November to December 2017 through a "google docs" application. The survey was placed on different social networks, and the participation in the survey was voluntary and anonymous. A series of 14 questions with the offered answers was used in the survey. RESULTS: The results of the survey have shown that psychological difficulties and disturbances in the postpartum period to be common problems encountered by almost 50% of women (44.46%). The most common difficulty is Baby blues, followed by postpartum depression and anxiety disorders. Age and the mode of birth did not affect the emergence of changes, while social factors such as family support had a great impact. CONCLUSION: The provision of information to the mothers can help, but inaccurate information can do the opposite. Thus, the role of health care professionals is important for helping mothers in that period to prevent certain difficulties as well as in identifying and referring mothers to seek help in a timely fashion.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Depressão Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Depressão Pós-Parto/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Período Pós-Parto/psicologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Mães/educação , Gravidez , Gravidez não Desejada/psicologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Psychiatr Danub ; 31(Suppl 3): 386-389, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488757

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nowadays, anxiety disorders are becoming more and more important in our population. And if there is one category of people more vulnerable to this problem, it is the teenagers. In addition, more and more children and teenagers are diagnosed with an IQ greater than 130, causing all the stress and questions that it generates. In this project, we are comparing two groups of adolescents, one with an IQ over 130, the other with an IQ less than 130. We are wondering if there is any difference between these groups, in terms of phobia and other psychopathologies. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A sample of 35 teenagers, from 12 to 16 years old, separated in two groups (IQ over 130 and IQ below 130), fulfilled the following questionnaires: the School Rehabilitation Assessment Scale-Revised (SARS-R), the "Family Adaptability and Cohesiveness Evaluation Scale III" (FACES III), and the "Kiddie- SADS-lifetime" (K-SADS-PL), and a social data collection questionnaire. RESULTS: At the end of this study, we can retain the following relevant elements: adolescents with IQs greater than 130 are statistically more likely to be the eldest siblings (Cochran Test F=9.159, p=0.010). They do not develop more phobias, but are more shy (t=4.375, p=0.036) than the control population. These high-potential and shy teenagers have a whole list of commonalities, such as being easily irritable, being easily distracted, ect... They have fewer friends in real life (t=2.255, p=0.033), fewer virtual friends (t=4.346, p=0.000) and fewer virtual relationships (t=2.431, p=0.021). Their families are very cohesive (Test t=0.004). There is no significant role of the socio-professional class of parents playing in the value of the IQ of their children (t=4.667, p=0.323). CONCLUSION: To conclude, being a teenager and having an IQ greater than 130 is not always a pleasure. Our results showed us that the majority of these young people consider themselves as shy, unsure of themselves and claim to have many fears. This is evidence of an increased anxiety component compared to the control sample. It seems important to insist on the need to be able and to know how to identify these young people as soon as possible, in order to propose appropriate therapeutic management.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Testes de Inteligência/estatística & dados numéricos , Inteligência , Psicopatologia , Timidez , Adolescente , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Transtornos de Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Medo , Amigos/psicologia , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Psychiatr Danub ; 31(Suppl 3): 434-437, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488767

RESUMO

The notion of "mixity" of the dysphoric phases of the bipolarity includes the most insidious symptoms of the bipolar spectrum of mood disorders: the overlapping between depression-restlessness-irritability-grief-tension-anxiety can cause worsening of the mood disorders and in the most acute phases may cause increased risk of major behavioural disruption including murder and suicide. The early utilization of the rating scale on mixed states, "GT-MSRS", which can demonstrate the level of "mixity" of the mood disorder, can prevent this.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Transtornos do Humor/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Humor/psicologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Pesar , Homicídio/psicologia , Humanos , Humor Irritável , Agitação Psicomotora/psicologia , Suicídio/psicologia
11.
Psychiatr Danub ; 31(Suppl 3): 452-454, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488771

RESUMO

"Before convincing the intellectual part of the mind it is necessary to touch and prepare the heart", an aphorism by Blaise Pascal (Vozza 1995), refers to one of the most important functions of strategic training, not only being successful in making communicative messages correctly and rationally understood, but also involving its addressee, above all by making one enter into emotional syntony with the communicative content. To understand the precious wealth of knowledge that has over time brought the necessary skills to do strategic training, it is necessary to find its roots by taking a step back in time. It is necessary to go as far as the fifth century BC, with Protagoras and its persuasive efficacy, with a rapid historical excursus passing by Aristotle and his Sophistic communication techniques to arrive at about 2000 years later, passing through social psychology, up to the Palo Alto strategic school. Among its various activities, the Genius Academy Centre for Research and Psychological Studies has decided to push two strategic training projects aiming to increase the level of well-being perceived by the addressee and encouraging the desired change. One of the two strategic training projects, A "Journey" in a journey, conceived by the writer, started in 2013. The educational and therapeutic value are amplified by optimizing the suggestions and stimuli of the journey. Another strategic training project for future aeronautical professionals, which gives a great contribution to the traditional technical training, is an innovative psychological programme specifically designed to prepare, not only for technical operational challenges, but also for numerous psychological challenges deriving from working in a particular environment such as the airport. It is specifically designed to study and improve the travel experience of people in airport transit and aims to raise the level of traveller's well-being, through a series of highly innovative interventions in specifically provided areas with the use of digital reality in coping and helping with anxiety and fear of flying.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Transtornos de Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Ansiedade/psicologia , Comunicação Persuasiva , Viagem/psicologia , Ansiedade/terapia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , História do Século XXI , História Antiga , Humanos
12.
BMC Psychol ; 7(1): 50, 2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous research has noted trends of increasing internalizing problems (e.g., symptoms of depression and anxiety), particularly amongst adolescent girls. Cross-cohort comparisons using identical assessments of both anxiety and depression in youth are lacking, however. METHODS: In this large twin study, we examined trends in internalizing symptoms in samples of 9 year old children and 15 year old adolescents, gathered from successive birth cohorts from 1998 to 2008 (age 9) and 1994-2001 (age 15). Assessments at age 9 were parent-rated, and at age 15 self- and parent-rated. We examined (i) the relation between birth cohorts and internalizing symptoms using linear regressions, and (ii) whether percentages of participants exceeding scale cut-off scores changed over time, using Cochrane Armitage Trend Tests. RESULTS: Among 9 year old children, a significantly increasing percentage of participants (both boys and girls) had scores above cut-off on anxiety symptoms, but not on depressive symptoms. At age 15, a significantly increasing percentage of participants (both boys and girls) had scores above cut-off particularly on self-reported internalizing symptoms. On parent-reported internalizing symptoms, only girls demonstrated a corresponding trend. CONCLUSION: In line with previous studies, we found small changes over sequential birth cohorts in frequencies of depression and anxiety symptoms in children. Further, these changes were not exclusive to girls.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Mecanismos de Defesa , Depressão/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Ansiedade/psicologia , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Suécia/epidemiologia
13.
Res Vet Sci ; 125: 370-373, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377419

RESUMO

It is no secret that the rigors of professional medical programs are creating an immense strain on mental health, and studies show that students are coping poorly. It is becoming more widely known that this problem especially exists in veterinary medicine. Veterinary colleges are starting to make changes to address the mental health crisis among their student (and practitioner) population, however, in order to solve a problem you must first understand your audience. There are still questions regarding who is more often affected and why? In this study, the prevalence and correlates of stress, anxiety, and depression among veterinary students in the Southeastern US is the primary focus. Three hundred and forty two participants answered survey questions addressing socio-demographics, as well as, completed a perceived stress scale and patient health questionnaire (PHQ-4) to measure anxiety and depression. Chi-square, independent samples t-test, and ANOVA were conducted to assess demographic correlates of stress, anxiety, and depression. High levels of stress, anxiety, and depression were identified among veterinary students participating in the study. Stress level was significantly associated with sex and Grade Point Average (GPA): females and those with GPA <3.0 exhibited higher levels of stress. While it is good that veterinary colleges are already making changes, the question remains if these changes are significant enough. Based on this study's results, transitioning to a pass/fail grading system and implementing regular mindfulness practice are proposed changes that may aid in promoting a positive mental health culture for students and future veterinary professionals.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Educação em Veterinária/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
14.
BMC Psychol ; 7(1): 53, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31439043

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical anxiety is common during the perinatal period, and anxiety symptoms often persist after childbirth. Ten to 30 % of perinatal women are diagnosed with panic disorder (PD)-far more than the 1.5-3% rate among the general population. Although cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been determined to be an effective treatment for PD, few studies have been conducted on CBT effectiveness in treating postpartum PD and, to the best of the knowledge of the present authors, no research has been conducted on postpartum PD among Japanese women. In this manuscript, we report on our administration of CBT to three postpartum patients with PD, detailing the improvement in their symptoms. CASE PRESENTATION: All patients in this study were married, in their thirties, and diagnosed using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview as having PD with agoraphobia. The Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS) was used to evaluate patients' panic symptoms and their severity. All patients received a total of 16 weekly 50-min sessions of CBT, and all completed the treatment. All patients were exceedingly preoccupied with the perception that a "mother must protect her child," which reinforced the fear that "the continuation of their perinatal symptoms would prevent them from rearing their children". After treatment, all participants' panic symptoms were found to have decreased according to the PDSS, and two no longer met clinical criteria: Chihiro's score changed from 13 to 3, Beth's PDSS score at baseline from 22 to 6, and Tammy's score changed from 7 to 1. CONCLUSIONS: CBT provides a therapeutic effect and is a feasible method for treating postpartum PD. It is important that therapists prescribe tasks that patients can perform collaboratively with their children.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Transtorno de Pânico/terapia , Período Pós-Parto , Adulto , Agorafobia/complicações , Agorafobia/terapia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Ansiedade/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Transtorno de Pânico/etiologia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 236(8): 2389-2403, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375849

RESUMO

RATIONALE: According to psychological theories, cognitive distortions play a pivotal role in the aetiology and recurrence of mood disorders. Although clinical evidence for the coexistence of depression and altered sensitivity to performance feedback is relatively coherent, we still do not know whether increased or decreased sensitivity to positive or negative feedback is associated with 'pro-depressive' profile in healthy subjects. OBJECTIVE: Our research has been designed to answer this question, and here, we present the first steps in that direction. METHODS: Using a rat version of the probabilistic reversal-learning (PRL) paradigm, we evaluated how sensitivity to negative and positive feedback influences other cognitive processes associated with mood disorders, such as motivation in the progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement (PRSR) paradigm, hedonic status in the sucrose preference (SP) test, locomotor and exploratory activity in the open field (OF) test, and anxiety in the light/dark box (LDB) test. RESULTS: The results of our study demonstrated for the first time that in rodents, sensitivity to negative and positive feedback could be considered a stable and enduring behavioural trait. Importantly, we also showed that these traits are independent of each other and that trait sensitivity to positive feedback is associated with cognitive flexibility in the PRL test. The computational modelling results also revealed that in animals classified as sensitive to positive feedback, the α learning rates for both positive and negative reward prediction errors were higher than those in animals classified as insensitive. We observed no statistically significant interactions between sensitivity to negative or positive feedback and the parameters measured in the PRSR, SP, OF or LDB tests. CONCLUSIONS: Further studies using animal models of depression based on chronic stress should reveal whether sensitivity to feedback is a latent trait that when interacts with stressful life events, could produce correlates of depressive symptoms in rats.


Assuntos
Retroalimentação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Locomoção/fisiologia , Motivação/fisiologia , Esquema de Reforço , Reversão de Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Recompensa , Animais , Ansiedade/metabolismo , Ansiedade/psicologia , Simulação por Computador , Depressão/metabolismo , Depressão/psicologia , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
16.
Braz J Cardiovasc Surg ; 34(4): 389-395, 2019 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31364347

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this clinical study is to determine the depression and anxiety levels in coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery patients in the pre and postoperative periods. METHODS: This clinical prospective study was done with 65 patients. Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI) and Beck's Anxiety Inventory (BAI) tests were performed in patients who had a diagnosis of coronary artery disease and were awaiting CABG surgery. These patients presented characteristic symptoms of anxiety and depression and BDI and BAI tests are important to assess these symptoms. RESULTS: We found out that depression and anxiety levels were higher in the postoperative than in the preoperative period (P<0.001). Both anxiety and depression levels were increased significantly following CABG operation when compared with preoperative levels in all patients. Statistical correlation of depression and anxiety in different ages, genders, and professions were evaluated too, but we did not found a correlation between them (P>0.05). CONCLUSION: We suggest that good management of the psychological condition of cardiac surgery candidates, as well as post-bypass patients, will improve quality of life and cardiovascular outcomes in these patients.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Ansiedade/cirurgia , Depressão/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Distribuição por Sexo
17.
Rev. pesqui. cuid. fundam. (Online) ; 11(4): 880-886, jul.-set. 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1005622

RESUMO

Objetivo: Conhecer as manifestações de ansiedade vivenciadas pelos estudantes de enfermagem em uma universidade do extremo sul do país. Método: Pesquisa qualitativa, exploratória e descritiva, com 18 acadêmicos do curso de graduação em enfermagem, sendo excluídos os que não tiveram interesse em participar. A coleta dos dados foi realizada por meio de uma entrevista semiestruturada. Foi utilizada a análise temática. O projeto foi aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa da Área da Saúde da FURG, sob parecer nº 153/2013. Resultados: Após transcrição e análise das falas emergiram quatro categorias que foram discutidas separadamente. Conclusão: Propõe-se que o docente tenha uma postura motivadora, mobilizadora do conhecimento e centrada no acadêmico, a fim de refletir na assistência do futuro profissional


Objective: To know the manifestations of anxiety experienced by nursing students at a university in the extreme south of the country. Method: Qualitative, exploratory and descriptive research, with 18 undergraduate nursing students, excluding those who did not have an interest in participating. Data collection was performed through a semi-structured interview. Thematic analysis was used. The project was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Health Area of FURG, based on opinion 153/2013. Results: After transcription and analysis of the speech emerged four categories that were discussed separately. Conclusion: It is proposed that the teacher has a motivating, knowledge-mobilizing and academic-centered position in order to reflect on the future professional's assistance


Objetivo: Conocer las manifestaciones de ansiedad vivenciadas por los estudiantes de enfermería en una universidad del extremo sur del país. Método: Investigación cualitativa, exploratoria y descriptiva, con 18 académicos del curso de graduación en enfermería, siendo excluidos los que no tuvieron interés en participar. La recolección de los datos se realizó a través de una entrevista semiestructurada. Se utilizó el análisis temático. El proyecto fue aprobado por el Comité de Ética en Investigación del Área de la Salud de la FURG, bajo el parecer 153/2013. Resultados: Después de la transcripción y el análisis de las conversaciones surgieron cuatro categorías que se discutieron por separado. Conclusión: Se propone que el docente tenga una postura motivadora, movilizadora del conocimiento y centradas en el académico a fin de reflejar en la asistencia del futuro profesional


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Ansiedade/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Educação Superior
18.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 145(8): 2141-2148, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278473

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Many cancer patients (PTS) suffer from somatic or non-somatic symptoms. Studies have shown positive effects of music intervention (MI) on aspects of quality of life or symptom management. METHODS: Since there are poor data available about patient's needs regarding the use of MI as an adjunct to cancer treatment, n = 548 tumor PTS were polled anonymously at the outpatient department of the University Hospital Mannheim Tumor Center using a self-designed questionnaire. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. RESULTS: 486 data sets were eligible for analysis. 240 of the PTS were male and median age was 63 years. 38% had metastatic disease. 81% (n = 386) were currently receiving anti-tumor treatment. The majority of the PTS stated to have somatic symptoms. However, some of the PTS reported non-somatic symptoms like anxiety, loneliness, and depression. N = 187 (40%) of the PTS reported interest in complementary MI. In the univariate and multivariate analyses, especially PTS with non-somatic complaints and PTS, actively playing or making music showed significantly more interest in complementary MI, hoping for a relaxing therapeutic effect. PTS who play instruments would prefer more active forms of MI. CONCLUSION: 40% of PTS reported interest in additional MI during cancer treatment. PTS with non-somatic symptoms as well as patients affine to music might benefit from the use of MI potentially reducing their symptom burden. The inconsistent and heterogeneous data from randomized trials underline the importance of systematic research approaches with more relevant and standardized endpoints.


Assuntos
Terapias Complementares/métodos , Musicoterapia , Música , Neoplasias/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ansiedade/complicações , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Ansiedade/terapia , Terapias Complementares/psicologia , Terapias Complementares/estatística & dados numéricos , Depressão/complicações , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Depressão/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Música/psicologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Neoplasias/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Estresse Psicológico/terapia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(27): e16274, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277153

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the recognition rate of psychological distress in general hospitals in China and to examine the main associated factors.Using a cross-sectional study design, the questionnaires were administered to a total of 1329 inpatients from a tertiary hospital. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item scale (GAD-7), the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-15) and the Whiteley-7 (WI-7) were used to assess patients' mental health status. Two subjective questions were used to identify the awareness of psychological distress in patients and doctors.The frequency of psychological distress measured by the questionnaires was high in our sample (53.4%). However, the recognition rates of both patients (34.9%) and by doctors (39.1%) was low. The concordance rate between patients and doctors of whether the patient had psychological distress or not was extremely poor (Kappa = 0.089, P = .001). Factors associated with the poor concordance rate included patients' annual household income and clinically significant self-reported symptoms of anxiety and hypochondriasis.The recognition rate of psychological distress was underestimated and this may be related to a lack of awareness of mental disturbances and patients' low annual household income.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Hospitais Gerais/estatística & dados numéricos , Médicos/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Carga de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade/etiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Matern Child Health J ; 23(12): 1627-1647, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264094

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Migration-related experiences can increase Latinas' risk of perinatal depression and anxiety. Few studies have investigated these associations among Latinas due to a lack of survey instruments explicitly assessing migration experiences. This study assessed the feasibility and acceptability of the Migration Experiences Survey (MES), a newly-developed measure of migration and deportation fears and explored associations between those experiences and mental health in a sample of immigrant Latinas in the perinatal period. METHODS: This cross-sectional study recruited women from community health clinics in Chapel Hill, NC between July 2013 and 2014. Twenty-five immigrant women were enrolled in the study during their third trimester of pregnancy. Women were interviewed in English or Spanish during pregnancy and at 8 weeks postpartum. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was used to assess depressive symptoms and the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was used to determine anxiety symptoms. The MES was administered at 8 weeks postpartum. Nonparametric tests were conducted to determine associations between deportation fears and maternal mood. RESULTS: Results show that the MES is acceptable for collecting data on migration experiences and assessing deportation fears among immigrant Latinas, regardless of depressive or anxiety symptoms. More than 40% had migration safety concerns and fears of deportation. Self or family-related fears of deportation were significantly associated with prenatal state anxiety and trait anxiety (p < .05). No significant associations between deportation fears and depressive symptoms were observed. DISCUSSION: The MES is a useful tool for gathering information about migration experiences associated with perinatal anxiety.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Depressão/diagnóstico , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/etnologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/etnologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , América Latina/etnologia , México/etnologia , Assistência Perinatal , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Apoio Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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