Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 829
Filtrar
2.
Trials ; 23(1): 361, 2022 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35477480

RESUMO

The CLARITY trial (Controlled evaLuation of Angiotensin Receptor Blockers for COVID-19 respIraTorY disease) is a two-arm, multi-centre, randomised controlled trial being run in India and Australia that investigates the effectiveness of angiotensin receptor blockers in addition to standard care compared to placebo (in Indian sites) with standard care in reducing the duration and severity of lung failure in patients with COVID-19. The trial was designed as a Bayesian adaptive sample size trial with regular planned analyses where pre-specified decision rules will be assessed to determine whether the trial should be stopped due to sufficient evidence of treatment effectiveness or futility. Here, we describe the statistical analysis plan for the trial and define the pre-specified decision rules, including those that could lead to the trial being halted. The primary outcome is clinical status on a 7-point ordinal scale adapted from the WHO Clinical Progression scale assessed at day 14. The primary analysis will follow the intention-to-treat principle. A Bayesian adaptive trial design was selected because there is considerable uncertainty about the extent of potential benefit of this treatment.Trial registrationClinicalTrials.gov NCT04394117 . Registered on 19 May 2020Clinical Trial Registry of India CTRI/2020/07/026831Version and revisionsVersion 1.0. No revisions.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças Respiratórias , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Teorema de Bayes , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Humanos , Tamanho da Amostra
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(15): e29186, 2022 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35475805

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Severe heart failure in chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients is a great treatment challenge. Here we reported a chronic HD patient with the lowest ejection fraction reported so far and hypotension who well tolerated and benefited from angiotensin-receptor neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI) treatment. PATIENT CONCERNS: This case was a 67 year old lady with decompensated heart failure and hypotension who was on regular HD. Intensified hemofiltration failed to improve her heart failure symptoms and was also retarded by hypotension. DIAGNOSIS: Chronic HD with decompensated heart failure. INTERVENTIONS: In addition to regular HD, low does sacubitril/valsartan was initiated and titrated from 12/13 mg to 24/26 mg twice daily. OUTCOMES: Sacubitril/valsartan treatment was well tolerated and did not affect ultrafiltration during HD treatment. Transthoracic echocardiology at 3 months after initiation of ARNI treatment indicated significant improvement of both systolic and diastolic cardiac function. The patient has improved from New York Heart Association class 4 to class 2. LESSONS: Low does ARNI treatment could effectively improve cardiac function in HD patients with heart failure and hypotension. It was also safe and well tolerated.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Hipotensão , Idoso , Aminobutiratos , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Compostos de Bifenilo , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Hipotensão/induzido quimicamente , Hipotensão/etiologia , Neprilisina , Diálise Renal , Tetrazóis/uso terapêutico , Valsartana/uso terapêutico
4.
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e053961, 2022 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35414547

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical outcomes of COVID-19 in a racially diverse sample from the US Southeast and examine the association of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitor use with COVID-19 outcome. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS: This study is a retrospective cohort of 1024 patients with reverse-transcriptase PCR-confirmed COVID-19 infection, admitted to a 1242-bed teaching hospital in Alabama. Data on RAAS inhibitors use, demographics and comorbidities were extracted from hospital medical records. PRIMARY OUTCOMES: In-hospital mortality, a need of intensive care unit, respiratory failure, defined as invasive mechanical ventilation (iMV) and 90-day same-hospital readmissions. RESULTS: Among 1024 patients (mean (SD) age, 57 (18.8) years), 532 (52.0%) were African Americans, 514 (50.2%) male, 493 (48.1%) had hypertension, 365 (36%) were taking RAAS inhibitors. During index hospitalisation (median length of stay of 7 (IQR (4-15) days) 137 (13.4%) patients died; 170 (19.2%) of survivors were readmitted. RAAS inhibitor use was associated with lower in-hospital mortality (adjusted HR, 95% CI (0.56, (0.36 to 0.88), p=0.01) and no effect modification by race was observed (p for interaction=0.81). Among patients with hypertension, baseline RAAS use was associated with reduced risk of iMV, adjusted OR, 95% CI (aOR 0.58, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.95, p=0.03). Patients with heart failure were twice as likely to die from COVID-19, compared with patients without heart failure. CONCLUSIONS: In a retrospespective study of racially diverse patients, hospitalised with COVID-19, prehospitalisation use of RAAS inhibitors was associated with 40% reduction in mortality irrespective of race.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Hipertensão , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
Am J Manag Care ; 28(3): e113-e120, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35404555

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To summarize published literature on the incidence of adverse drug effects (ADEs) associated with guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) for patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). STUDY DESIGN: Systematic literature review. METHODS: A systematic literature review was conducted in PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, and Clinical Key covering January 1990 to December 2018. Key search terms were ADEs for ß-blockers (BBs), ACE inhibitors (ACEis), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs), and/or angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitors (ARNis) in adult patients (≥ 18 years) with HFrEF. RESULTS: A total of 279 eligible articles were identified, of which 29 reported drug-related adverse effects and were included in this review. Of the 29 studies, 11 examined BBs; 9, MRAs; 6, ARNis; 2, ACEis; and 1, ARBs. The most common reported ADEs across these therapeutic classes included bradycardia, dizziness, hypotension, hyperkalemia, cough, and renal impairment. The incidence of BB-induced bradycardia was 1% to 52% based on 9 studies, and 6 studies described dizziness as a result of BBs and ARNis (15%-43%). Fourteen studies reported induced hypotension (1.4%-63%); 13 studies, hyperkalemia (0.6%-30.2%); 3 studies, cough (37%-50%); and 4 studies, renal impairment (0.6%-7.6%). CONCLUSIONS: Findings show that drug-related adverse effects are commonly reported in clinical trials and highlight the sizable burden of ADEs with medical therapy across patients with HFrEF. Additional real-world evidence and studies aiming to improve the tolerability of GDMT for patients with HFrEF are warranted.


Assuntos
Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Hiperpotassemia , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Bradicardia/induzido quimicamente , Bradicardia/tratamento farmacológico , Tosse/induzido quimicamente , Tosse/tratamento farmacológico , Tontura/induzido quimicamente , Tontura/tratamento farmacológico , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hiperpotassemia/induzido quimicamente , Hiperpotassemia/tratamento farmacológico , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Volume Sistólico
8.
Ann Palliat Med ; 11(3): 1093-1101, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35365039

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the most typical microangiopathies caused by diabetes. It often leads enormous physiological and psychological burdens for patients and seriously affects their quality of life. Therefore, effective combination therapy is necessary for these patients. In this study, we performed a meta-analysis to systematically evaluate and discuss the efficacy and safety of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) in the treatment of DN. METHODS: The PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Medline databases were selected as the sources of the literature search, and the search was limited to studies published in English. Studies related to ACEIs and ARBs in the treatment of DN published from January 2001 to January 2021 were included in this analysis. Meta-analysis was performed to calculate the reinforcement mean difference. RESULTS: In total, eight articles involving 1,893 cases with DN were included in this study. The results of this systematic review and meta-analysis showed that for patients with diabetic nephropathy,there were significant differences in 24-hour proteinuria [mean difference (MD) =-78.46, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): -80.25 to -76.66, P<0.00001], systolic blood pressure (MD =-9.11, 95% CI: -13.44 to -4.78, P<0.0001), and diastolic blood pressure (MD =-3.39, 95% CI: -5.68 to -1.11, P=0.004) between the combined ACEI and ARB group and the single ACEI or ARB group (P<0.05). In terms of safety, in addition to the significant difference in serum potassium (MD =0.1, 95% CI: 0.05 to 0.15, P=0.0001) between the combined ACEI and ARB group and the single drug group (P<0.1), there were no notable differences in serum creatinine (MD =0.66, 95% CI: -8.0 to 2.12, P=0.37), creatinine clearance (MD =-0.25, 95% CI: -0.62, 0.11, P=0.17), or the incidence of adverse reactions [odds ratio (OR) =1.19, 95% CI: 0.81 to 1.75, P=0.37]. DISCUSSION: A total of eight studies were included in this meta-analysis. The results showed that for patients with diabetic nephropathy, the combination of ACEI and ARB was more effective than ACEI or ARB alone, and also had higher safety.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Nefropatias Diabéticas , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Creatinina , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/induzido quimicamente , Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida
9.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 24(4): 449-456, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35253964

RESUMO

Sacubitril/valsartan, simultaneously inhibits neprilysin and angiotensin II receptor, showed an effect in reducing blood pressure (BP). The authors aimed to study whether it can be used as an antihypertensive agent in patients with refractory hypertension who have already been treated. A total of 66 Chinese patients with refractory hypertension were enrolled. Patients received sacubitril/valsartan  200 instead of angiotensin II receptor blocker or angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor while other agents continued. If BP was uncontrolled after 4 weeks, sacubitril/valsartan was increased to 400 mg. The BP reduction was evaluated by office BP and ambulatory BP monitoring after 8-week treatment. The baseline office BP and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were 150.0/95.0 mmHg and 113.3 mmHg. BP and MAP reduced to 130.6/83.2 mmHg and 99.0 mmHg at week 8. Office BP and MAP reductions were 19.4/11.8 mmHg and 14.3 mmHg at endpoint (all p < .001). The 24-h, daytime and nighttime ambulatory BP were 146.2/89.1, 148.1/90.3, and 137.5/83.7 mmHg, respectively at baseline, and BP reduced to 129.6/79.8, 130.6/81.1, and 121.7/75.8 mmHg, respectively at week 8. The 24-h, daytime and nighttime ambulatory BP reductions were 16.6/9.3, 17.5/9.2, and 15.8/7.9 mmHg, respectively at endpoint (all p < .001). Sacubitril/valsartan significantly reduced office and ambulatory BP in refractory hypertension patients. Our study provided new evidence for sacubitril/valsartan in refractory hypertension.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Neprilisina , Aminobutiratos , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Compostos de Bifenilo , Pressão Sanguínea , Método Duplo-Cego , Combinação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Receptores de Angiotensina , Tetrazóis/efeitos adversos , Valsartana/farmacologia
10.
Cancer Causes Control ; 33(6): 801-812, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35314908

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Antihypertensive medications may impact colorectal cancer risk. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of associations, with colorectal cancer risk, of five classes of antihypertensive medications: angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), beta-blockers (BBs), calcium channel blockers (CCBs), and diuretics. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted in MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane library to identify relevant studies evaluating associations of ACEIs, ARBs, BBs, CCBs, and diuretics with colorectal cancer risk. Meta-analytic risk ratios (RRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated using the inverse variance method. RESULTS: No overall significant associations with colorectal cancer risk were observed; ACEIs (5 studies) RR 1.05, 95% CI 0.91-1.23, ARBs (5 studies) RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.80-1.11, BBs (4 studies) RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.92-1.08, CCBs (4 studies) RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.88-1.18, and diuretics (6 studies) RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.90-1.17. There was considerable heterogeneity across studies, partly explained by differences in study design and location. When stratified by study location, there was significantly reduced colorectal cancer risk for ARB use in Asian populations (2 studies, RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.58-0.83). CONCLUSION: No significant colorectal cancer risk with ACEIs, BBs, CCBs, or diuretics was observed. ARB use may be associated with decreased risk of colorectal cancer in Asian populations, although additional studies in diverse populations are needed to confirm associations and help understand possible reasons for geographical differences.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Hipertensão , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Diuréticos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia
11.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 22(1): 123, 2022 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35321649

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The influence of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors on the critically ill COVID-19 patients with pre-existing hypertension remains uncertain. This study examined the impact of previous use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) on the critically ill COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Data from an international, prospective, observational cohort study involving 354 hospitals spanning 54 countries were included. A cohort of 737 COVID-19 patients with pre-existing hypertension admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) in 2020 were targeted. Multi-state survival analysis was performed to evaluate in-hospital mortality and hospital length of stay up to 90 days following ICU admission. RESULTS: A total of 737 patients were included-538 (73%) with pre-existing hypertension had received ACEi/ARBs before ICU admission, while 199 (27%) had not. Cox proportional hazards model showed that previous ACEi/ARB use was associated with a decreased hazard of in-hospital death (HR, 0.74, 95% CI 0.58-0.94). Sensitivity analysis adjusted for propensity scores showed similar results for hazards of death. The average length of hospital stay was longer in ACEi/ARB group with 21.2 days (95% CI 19.7-22.8 days) in ICU and 6.7 days (5.9-7.6 days) in general ward compared to non-ACEi/ARB group with 16.2 days (14.1-18.6 days) and 6.4 days (5.1-7.9 days), respectively. When analysed separately, results for ACEi or ARB patient groups were similar for both death and discharge. CONCLUSIONS: In critically ill COVID-19 patients with comorbid hypertension, use of ACEi/ARBs prior to ICU admission was associated with a reduced risk of in-hospital mortality following adjustment for baseline characteristics although patients with ACEi/ARB showed longer length of hospital stay. Clinical trial registration The registration number: ACTRN12620000421932; The date of registration: 30, March 2020; The URL of the registration: https://www.australianclinicaltrials.gov.au/anzctr/trial/ACTRN12620000421932 .


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Hipertensão , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Estado Terminal , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 47(6): 1484-1492, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35347947

RESUMO

Based on Guidelines for the Management of Clinical Comprehensive Evaluation of Drugs(trial version 2021), this study aims to sort out the clinical evidence of Huangkui Capsules(HC) in the treatment of chronic kidney diseases in aspects of safety, effectiveness, economy, innovation, suitability, accessibility, and characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine( "6+1" dimensions) from real-world data, secondary literature evaluations, questionnaires, and public data, with the methods in evidence-based medicine, epidemiology, pharmacoeconomics, and health technology. Furthermore, with multi-criteria decision analysis(MCDA) model and CSC v2.0, the clinical value of the medicine is comprehensively assessed. All the above are to highlight the advantages and characteristics of HC and lay a basis for scientific decision-making by the medical management department. The dimensions are graded A, B, C, or D. According to the conclusions from phase Ⅳ clinical trial, spontaneous reporting system(SRS), systematic review and Meta-analysis, acute toxicity and long-term toxicity tests, it mainly results in the adverse reactions of nausea, abdominal distension, vomiting, pruritus, rash, and good prognosis in patients. According to the available research, the safety evidence is sufficient and the risk is controllable, so the safety of this medicine is grade B. According to Meta-analysis, HC in combination with conventional drugs in the treatment of chronic kidney disease is superior to conventional drugs alone in reducing urinary protein, serum creatinine concentration, and blood urea nitrogen. In addition, HC combined angiotensin receptor blocker(ARB) or angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor(ACEI) is outstanding in improving total clinical effective rate, reducing 24 h urinary protein quantity, urinary albumin excretion rate, serum creatinine concentration, triglyceride, and total cholesterol in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy as compared with ARB or ACEI alone. As for chronic nephritis, the application together with ARB or ACEI can raise the total effective rate, reduce 24 h urinary protein content, serum creatinine concentration, and blood urea nitrogen, and delay the progress of the disease. HC boasts high-quality evidence in treating chronic kidney disease, diabetic nephropathy, and chronic nephritis. It has obvious clinical significance in treating chronic kidney disease and thus its efficacy in this aspect is grade B. It has outstanding clinical significance for diabetic nephropathy and chronic nephritis and corresponding and the effectiveness is grade A. As for the pharmacoeconomic value, HC combined with ARB or ACEI is more economical in the treatment of chronic kidney disease than Bailing Capsules combined with ARB or ACEI, with high-quality evidence, and thus the economy of the formula is grade B. HC is a key solution to the high urinary protein in patients with hypotension and chronic kidney disease. The innovation is evidenced by the methods to ensuring drug supply, community-level supply, drug safety, effectiveness, and reasonable price, as wells as the aspects of enterprise philosophy, equipment management, research and development in process and technology, enterprise management and marketing. Thus, the prescription is grade A in innovation. The suitability, as evidenced in drug administration, technical management, drug storage, information service, and medication, is grade B. The course of the medicine is affordable, and it is accessible in a wide range of areas and hospitals. Thus, the accessibility is grade A. HC was developed from an in-hospital preparation, with application in numerous patients and thus large-scale real-world data. As a result, HC is grade B in terms of characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine. After comprehensive evaluation, the clinical value of HC in treating chronic kidney disease is class B, and that for diabetic nephropathy and chronic nephritis is class A. The result is of great reference value for the basic clinical medication management.


Assuntos
Nefropatias Diabéticas , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina , Cápsulas , Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico
13.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 86(3): 1149-1158, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35147539

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Certain classes of antihypertensive medication may have different associations with cognitive impairment. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between prevalent use of antihypertensive medications that stimulate (thiazides, dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers, angiotensin type I receptor blockers) versus inhibit (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, beta-blockers, non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers) type 2 and 4 angiotensin II receptors on cognitive impairment among older adults residing in Veterans Affairs (VA) nursing homes for long-term care. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study. Long-term care residents aged 65 + years admitted to a VA nursing home from 2012 to 2019 using blood pressure medication and without cognitive impairment at admission. Main exposure was prevalent use of angiotensin II receptor type 2 and 4-'stimulating' (N = 589), 'inhibiting' (N = 3,219), or 'mixed' (N = 1,715) antihypertensive medication regimens at admission. Primary outcome was any cognitive impairment (Cognitive Function Scale). RESULTS: Over an average of 5.4 months of follow-up, prevalent use of regimens containing exclusively 'stimulating' antihypertensives was associated with a lower risk of any incident cognitive impairment as compared to prevalent use of regimens containing exclusively 'inhibiting' antihypertensives (HR 0.83, 95% CI 0.74-0.93). Results for the comparison between 'mixed' versus 'inhibiting' regimens were in the same direction but not statistically significant (HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.88-1.06). CONCLUSION: For residents without cognitive impairment at baseline, prevalent users of regimens containing exclusively antihypertensives that stimulate type 2 and 4 angiotensin II receptors had lower rates of cognitive impairment as compared to prevalent users of regimens containing exclusively antihypertensives that inhibit these receptors. Residual confounding cannot be ruled out.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Hipertensão , Idoso , Angiotensina II , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Disfunção Cognitiva/tratamento farmacológico , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Assistência de Longa Duração , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
J Comp Eff Res ; 11(6): 423-436, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35189710

RESUMO

Aim: To compare blood pressure (BP) and safety outcomes in patients with hypertension initiating bisoprolol, versus other ß-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers, calcium channel blockers or diuretics. Materials & methods: New user cohort study. Patients initiating bisoprolol were matched with up to four patients, in each comparator cohort using propensity score. BP outcomes were compared using linear mixed models and safety outcomes using Cox proportional hazards. Results: Differences in average systolic and diastolic BP variation were ≤3 mmHg between bisoprolol versus the compared classes. No difference was observed in risk of diabetes, obesity or erectile dysfunction. An increased dyslipidemia risk was only observed versus diuretics (hazard ratio: 0.76; 98.75% CI: 0.58, 0.99). Conclusion: No differences in BP variation and safety outcomes.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos , Bisoprolol , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Bisoprolol/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Diuréticos , Humanos , Masculino
15.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 185: 109233, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35131377

RESUMO

AIMS: To evaluate the time-varying and cumulative risk associations of renin-angiotensin-system-inhibitors (RASi) with pneumonia and related deaths in people with diabetes. METHODS: This was a prospective analysis with propensity-score overlap-weighting of a territory-wide cohort (n = 252,616, 1.7 million person-years) and a register-based cohort (n = 13,017, 0.1 million person-years) of patients with diabetes in Hong Kong. We compared risk of pneumonia and related death in new-users of angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitor (ACEi) and angiotensin-receptor-blocker (ARBs) with non-RASi users and new-users of calcium-channel-blockers as active comparator. RESULTS: Amongst 252,616 people with diabetes (99.3% type 2 diabetes) in the population-based cohort with a mean follow-up of 6.7 years, 73,161 were new-ACEi-only users; 20,907 new-ARBs-only users; 38,778 ACEi/ARBs users; and 119,770 never-ACEi/ARBs. Time-varying RASi exposure was associated with reduced risk of pneumonia (HR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.75-0.82) and pneumonia-related death (HR = 0.49, 0.46-0.53). The respective HRs for ARBs-only were 0.70 (0.62-0.78) and 0.41 (0.33-0.52) and that of ACEi-only were 0.98 (0.91-1.05) and 0.77 (0.68-86). The attenuated risk association of RASi use was time-invariant for pneumonia (P = 0.340) and time-varying for related-death (P < 0.001) with prevention of 0.6 (0.2-0.9) and 1.4 (1.0-1.6) per-1000-person-years events and deaths, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term use of RASi, notably ARBs, was associated with reduced risk of pneumonia and related deaths in Chinese people with diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Pneumonia , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Angiotensinas/farmacologia , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Curr Hypertens Rep ; 24(1): 1-20, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35165832

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to investigate the blood pressure (BP)-lowering effects of emerging drugs developed to treat diabetic kidney disease and heart failure (HF). We summarize the potential pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for mitigating hypertensive target organ damage and evaluating the available clinical data on these newer drugs. RECENT FINDINGS: Nonsteroidal dihydropyridine-based mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs), dual angiotensin II receptor-neprilysin inhibitors (valsartan with sacubitril), sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i), and soluble guanylate cyclase stimulators are new classes of chemical agents that have distinct mechanisms of action and have been shown to be effective for the treatment of cardiovascular (CV) disease (CVD), HF, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). These drugs can be used either alone or in combination with other antihypertensive and CV drugs. Among these, SGLT2i and valsartan with sacubitril offer new avenues to reduce CVD mortality. SGLT2i have a mild-to-moderate effect on BP lowering with a favorable effect on CV and renal hemodynamics and have been shown to produce a significant reduction in the incidence of major adverse CVD events (as monotherapy or add-on therapy) compared with controls (placebo or non-SGLT2i treatment). Most of the participants in these studies had hypertension (HTN) at baseline and were receiving antihypertensive therapy, including renin-angiotensin system blockers. The combination of valsartan with sacubitril also lowers BP in the short term and has demonstrated a striking reduction in CVD mortality and morbidity in HF patients with a reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. If widely adopted, these novel therapeutic agents hold significant promise for reducing the public health burden posed by HTN and CVD. Based on the results of several clinical trials and considering the high prevalence of HTN and T2D, these new classes of agents have emerged as powerful therapeutic tools in managing and lowering the BP of patients with diabetic kidney disease and HF.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Nefropatias Diabéticas , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Hipertensão , Aminobutiratos/efeitos adversos , Aminobutiratos/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Compostos de Bifenilo , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/induzido quimicamente , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Volume Sistólico , Tetrazóis/efeitos adversos , Tetrazóis/uso terapêutico , Valsartana/efeitos adversos , Valsartana/uso terapêutico , Função Ventricular Esquerda
17.
Pharmacol Res ; 177: 106111, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35183713

RESUMO

Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB), and sodium glucose cotransporter inhibitors (SGLT2i) are commonly used to treat diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Currently, increasing evidence also suggests traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) as an effective strategy. We assessed the efficacy of ACEI, ARB, SGLT2i, and TCM on major renal outcomes. We searched the electronic literature published up to March 2021 from CNKI, VIP, WanFang, SinoMed, PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and clinicaltrials.gov; a total of 56 studies and 5464 participants were included. We found that TCM plus ACEI, TCM plus ARB, and TCM alone are very effective treatment methods compared with ACEI, ARB, and the placebo in reducing 24-h urine protein, serum creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen. TCM plus ACEI was the most effective treatment (TCM plus ACEI vs. the placebo in 24-h urine protein [mean difference (MD) - 757.18, 95% confidence interval-1177.41 to - 353.31], serum creatinine [MD - 25.81, 95% confidence interval - 35.51 to - 16.03], and blood urea nitrogen [MD - 3.48, 95% confidence interval - 5.04 to - 1.90]). Although the incidence of end-stage renal disease while receiving an TCM plus ARB compared with a placebo was not statistically significant, the treatment ranking showed this combination therapy to have the greatest probability (72.8%) of reducing end-stage renal disease mortality, followed by SGLT2i (68%). Our analyses showed that combining TCM with conventional treatments for patients with DKD can improve renoprotective effects and superiority, and ACEI plus TCM may be the most effective option for treating DKD.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Nefropatias Diabéticas , Falência Renal Crônica , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Creatinina , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/induzido quimicamente , Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/induzido quimicamente , Falência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Metanálise em Rede , Proteínas de Transporte de Sódio-Glucose
18.
Am Heart J ; 247: 76-89, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35143744

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Renin-angiotensin aldosterone system inhibitors (RAASi) are commonly used among patients hospitalized with a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We evaluated whether continuation versus discontinuation of RAASi were associated with short term clinical or biochemical outcomes. METHODS: The RAAS-COVID-19 trial was a randomized, open label study in adult patients previously treated with RAASi who are hospitalized with COVID-19 (NCT04508985). Participants were randomized 1:1 to discontinue or continue RAASi. The primary outcome was a global rank score calculated from baseline to day 7 (or discharge) incorporating clinical events and biomarker changes. Global rank scores were compared between groups using the Wilcoxon test statistic and the negative binomial test (using incident rate ratio [IRR]) and the intention-to-treat principle. RESULTS: Overall, 46 participants were enrolled; 21 participants were randomized to discontinue RAASi and 25 to continue. Patients' mean age was 71.5 years and 43.5% were female. Discontinuation of RAASi, versus continuation, resulted in a non-statistically different mean global rank score (discontinuation 6 [standard deviation [SD] 6.3] vs continuation 3.8 (SD 2.5); P = .60). The negative binomial analysis identified that discontinuation increased the risk of adverse outcomes (IRR 1.67 [95% CI 1.06-2.62]; P = .027); RAASi discontinuation increased brain natriuretic peptide levels (% change from baseline: +16.7% vs -27.5%; P = .024) and the incidence of acute heart failure (33% vs 4.2%, P = .016). CONCLUSION: RAASi continuation in participants hospitalized with COVID-19 appears safe; discontinuation increased brain natriuretic peptide levels and may increase risk of acute heart failure; where possible, RAASi should be continued.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Adulto , Idoso , Aldosterona , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Hospitais , Humanos , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina
19.
Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol ; 15(1): 33-42, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35196189

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) are commonly used for cardiovascular diseases. The evidence supporting the use of ACEI in dermatology is limited. AREAS COVERED: This review article was divided into three parts. The first part discusses ACEI in clinical use in dermatology. The second part reveals the relationship between angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and immune diseases, and further discusses the possible relationship between ACEI in clinical use in these diseases and ACE. The third part focuses on cutaneous adverse reactions of ACEI. EXPERT OPINION: The use of ACEI in dermatology is mainly based on its properties as regulation of renin angiotensin system (RAS), but currently, with limited clinical use. The association of ACE and several diseases are well discussed, including COVID-19, psoriasis, sarcoidosis, systemic lupus erythematosus and vitiligo. The main cutaneous adverse effects of ACEI include angioedema, psoriasis and pemphigus. Plausible factors for these adverse reactions include accumulation of vasoactive mediators, preventing angiotensin from binding to AT1 receptor and AT2 receptor and presence of circulating antibodies.


Assuntos
Angioedema , COVID-19 , Dermatologia , Angioedema/induzido quimicamente , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...