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1.
Adv Clin Exp Med ; 30(1): 67-75, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33529509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the progress in the treatment of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), the prognosis remains unfavorable. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness, tolerance and safety after one-year follow-up of Polish patients with stable chronic HFrEF treated with sacubitril/valsartan. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was an observational multicenter study conducted in 3 centers (Kraków, Lódz and Warszawa) specializing in heart failure (HF). We enrolled 89 HFrEF patients (aged 59.3 ±13.5 years, 82% males) in NYHA class II-IV (ambulatory). Clinical, laboratory and echocardiographic parameters were evaluated at baseline and after a one-year follow-up. The composite endpoint was defined as death or urgent HF hospitalization. RESULTS: After 1 year, 80% of patients used 50% or more of the target dose of sacubitril/valsartan. After a year of treatment, there were significant improvements of HF symptoms, N-terminal prohormone B-type natriuretic peptide (NT proBNP), ejection fraction (EF), and distance in six-minute walk test (6MWP) (all p < 0.001). Patients treated with the highest dose of sacubitril/valsartan exhibited the greatest benefits. The safety profile was favorable and consistent with that previously reported; however, therapy discontinuation due to side effects occurred in 11% of patients. The independent predictors for composite endpoint (n = 24, 26.9%) were history of HF hospitalization, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) and angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (ACEI)-naive patients. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of chronic HFrEF patients with sacubitril/valsartan is safe and is associated with significant clinical and objective improvement. The non-survivors had more advanced HF, so the initiation and uptitration of sacubitril/valsartan should be done early.


Assuntos
Aminobutiratos/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Tetrazóis/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia , Volume Sistólico , Valsartana
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 175, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33588797

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While hypertension is the most common comorbid condition in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Korea, there is a lack of studies investigating risk factors in COVID-19 patients with hypertension in Korea. In this study, we aimed to examine the effects risk factors in hypertensive Korean COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We selected patients from the database of the project #OpenData4Covid19. This information was linked to their 3-year historical healthcare data. The severity of the disease was classified into five levels. We also clustered the levels into two grades. RESULTS: The risk factors associated with COVID-19 severity were old age, diabetes mellitus, cerebrovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), malignancy, and renal replacement therapy. The use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) both before and after a diagnosis of COVID-19 were not associated with COVID-19 severity. A multivariate analysis revealed that old age, male sex, diabetes mellitus, and renal replacement therapy were risk factors for severe COVID-19. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that in hypertensive patients with COVID-19, older age, male sex, a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, and renal replacement therapy were risk factors for a severe clinical course. In addition, the use of ARBs and ACEIs before or after COVID-19 infection did not affect a patient's risk of contracting COVID-19 nor did it contribute to a worse prognosis for the disease. These results highlighted that precautions should be considered for hypertensive patients with those risk factors and do not support discontinuation of ARBs and ACEIs during COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , /patologia , Idoso , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , /epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/patologia , Masculino , Anamnese , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efeitos dos fármacos , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , /fisiologia
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(3): e24304, 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546057

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drugs that affect the renin-angiotensin system, such as angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors are not typically recommended for pregnant women because of their potential fetal toxicity. CASE STUDY: A 32-year-old pregnant woman with nephrotic syndrome lasting more than 5 years became pregnant for the first time. She had been taking losartan tablets before and during pregnancy. Ultrasound at 24+2 weeks of pregnancy showed oligohydramnios, and the maximum vertical depth of amniotic fluid volume was 1.4 cm. Follow-up ultrasound examinations every 2 weeks showed persistent oligohydramnios [amniotic fluid volume: 1.1-3.4 cm, amniotic fluid index 1.9-6.9 cm]. B-ultrasound at 30+2 weeks showed slightly enhanced fetal renal cortex echo. The patient was treated at 32+2 weeks of pregnancy at our hospital. DIAGNOSES: Nephrotic syndrome and oligohydramnios. INTERVENTIONS: Losartan was discontinued and replaced by nifedipine controlled-release tablets to lower blood pressure. The amount of amniotic fluid gradually increased to normal levels within 8 days. The patient was discharged at 33+2 weeks of pregnancy for follow-up. At 34+4 weeks, blood pressure had increased to 177/113 mm Hg and the patient was re-hospitalized with nephrotic syndrome complicated by preeclampsia. Due to progression of severe preeclampsia, elective cesarean section was performed at 35+3 weeks. After delivery, losartan and nifedipine were prescribed to continue lowering blood pressure. The patient was discharged 4 days after surgery. OUTCOMES: Losartan use was terminated at 32+2 weeks of pregnancy. Amniotic fluid returned to normal after 8 days and the baby was delivered after 22 days. At last follow-up, the infant was 24 months old and healthy. CONCLUSION: Although ARBs are effective for treating hypertension, they should be replaced by other classes of anti-hypertensive drugs in pregnant women. Pregnant women who elect to continue using ARBs should be informed about risks, they should be carefully monitored during pregnancy, and their pregnancy should be allowed to proceed as long as clinically feasible in order to optimize maternal and infant outcomes.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Oligo-Hidrâmnio/etiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/etiologia , Adulto , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Losartan/efeitos adversos , Losartan/uso terapêutico , Síndrome Nefrótica/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Nefrótica/fisiopatologia , Oligo-Hidrâmnio/diagnóstico por imagem , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/métodos , Ultrassonografia/métodos
4.
Hypertension ; 77(3): 833-842, 2021 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33423528

RESUMO

After initially hypothesizing a positive relationship between use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors and risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), more recent evidence suggests negative associations. We examined whether COVID-19 risk differs according to antihypertensive drug class in patients treated by ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) compared with calcium channel blockers (CCBs). Three exclusive cohorts of prevalent ACE inhibitors, ARB and CCB users, aged 18 to 80 years, from the French National Health Insurance databases were followed from February 15, 2020 to June 7, 2020. We excluded patients with a history of diabetes, known cardiovascular disease, chronic renal failure, or chronic respiratory disease during the previous 5 years, to only consider patients treated for uncomplicated hypertension and to limit indication bias. The primary end point was time to hospitalization for COVID-19. The secondary end point was time to intubation/death during a hospital stay for COVID-19. In a population of almost 2 million hypertensive patients (ACE inhibitors: 566 023; ARB: 958 227; CCB: 358 306) followed for 16 weeks, 2338 were hospitalized and 526 died or were intubated for COVID-19. ACE inhibitors and ARBs were associated with a lower risk of COVID-19 hospitalization compared with CCBs (hazard ratio, 0.74 [95% CI, 0.65-0.83] and 0.84 [0.76-0.93], respectively) and a lower risk of intubation/death. Risks were slightly lower for ACE inhibitor users than for ARB users. This large observational study may suggest a lower COVID-19 risk in hypertensive patients treated over a long period with ACE inhibitors or ARBs compared with CCBs. These results, if confirmed, tend to contradict previous hypotheses and raise new hypotheses.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Pandemias , Receptores Virais/efeitos dos fármacos , /fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/efeitos adversos , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Comorbidade , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Uso de Medicamentos , Feminino , Seguimentos , França/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Intubação Intratraqueal/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
5.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(1): 523-526, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33506944

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, millions of people have been infected with thousands of deaths. Few data regarding factors that increase the risk of infection are available. Our study aimed to evaluate all people living in retirement homes (PLRNH) and identify factors that could increase infection risk in a close community. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study enrolling all PLRNH, where at least one SARS-CoV-2 infected person was present. Variables were compared with Student's t-test or Pearson chi-square test as appropriate. Uni- and multivariate analyses were conducted to evaluate variables' influence on the infection. RESULTS: We included 452 PLRNH; 144 (31.7%) were male, with a mean age of 82.2±8.6 years. People with a positive swab for SARS-CoV-2 were 306 (67.4%). A significant difference between SARS-CoV-2 infected and not infected was observed in the percentage of those receiving chronic treatment with Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) (18.6% vs. 9.5%, p=0.012). On the contrary, there was no difference in the proportion of those receiving ACE inhibitors (ACE-I) (21.2% vs. 23.6%, p=0.562). At multivariate analysis, people with mental illness and cancer had an increased risk of being infected. Furthermore, receiving ARBs as a chronic treatment was an independent predictor of infection risk [OR 1.95 (95% CI 1.03-3.72) p=0.041]. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that, in close communities, such as retirement nursing homes, the receipt of ARBs increased the risk of acquiring SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, before changing an important chronic treatment in a fragile population, such as the elderly living in retirement nursing homes, clinicians should carefully evaluate the risk-benefit ratio.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , /epidemiologia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Uso de Medicamentos , Feminino , Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Casas de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco
7.
J Int Med Res ; 48(12): 300060520979151, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33322988

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Association of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) use with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains controversial. We aimed to investigate the impact of ACEI/ARB use on all-cause mortality in severe COVID-19 patients with hypertension. METHODS: We enrolled 650 COVID-19 patients from Changsha and Wuhan city between 17 January 2020 and 8 March 2020. Demographic, clinical characteristics, and outcomes were collected. Multivariable analysis and propensity-score matching were performed to assess the impact of ACEI/ARB therapy on mortality. RESULTS: Among the 650 patients, 126 who had severe COVID-19 concomitant with hypertension were analyzed. The average age was 66 years and 56 (44.4%) were men. There were 37 ACEI/ARB users and 21 in-hospital deaths (mortality rate, 16.7%). Male sex (odds ratio [OR], 5.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.75 to 17.8), but not ACEI/ARB use (OR, 1.09; 95%CI, 0.31 to 3.43), was an independent risk factor for mortality in severe COVID-19 patients with hypertension. After propensity-score matching, 60 severe COVID-19 patients were included and no significant correlation between use of ACEI/ARB and mortality was observed. CONCLUSIONS: There was no significant association of ACEI/ARB use with mortality in severe COVID-19 patients with hypertension. These findings support the continuation of ACEI/ARB therapy for such patients.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , /complicações , /virologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Masculino , Pandemias , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , /patogenicidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
ESC Heart Fail ; 7(5): 3119-3123, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33121220

RESUMO

The present Perspective examined the latest evidence on the association between the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and the incidence/mortality of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Our critical appraisal from existing literature does not support discontinuation of ACEIs/ARBs in clinical practice as there is absence of solid evidence. However, we do recommend future research perspective in formulation and implementation of practice-changing guidelines.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Causas de Morte , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/tratamento farmacológico , Análise de Sobrevida
9.
Pharmacol Res Perspect ; 8(6): e00666, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33084232

RESUMO

Conflicting evidence exists about the effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs)/angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) on COVID-19 clinical outcomes. We aimed to provide a comprehensive/updated evaluation of the effect of ACEIs/ARBs on COVID-19-related clinical outcomes, including exploration of interclass differences between ACEIs and ARBs, using a systematic review/meta-analysis approach conducted in Medline (OVID), Embase, Scopus, Cochrane library, and medRxiv from inception to 22 May 2020. English studies that evaluated the effect of ACEIs/ARBs among patients with COVID-19 were included. Studies' quality was appraised using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Data were analyzed using the random-effects modeling stratified by exposure (ACEIs/ARBs, ACEIs, and ARBs). Heterogeneiity was assessed using I2 statistic. Several subgroup analyses were conducted to explore the impact of potential confounders. Overall, 27 studies were eligible. The pooled analyses showed nonsignificant associations between ACEIs/ARBs and death (OR:0.97, 95%CI:0.75,1.27), ICU admission (OR:1.09;95%CI:0.65,1.81), death/ICU admission (OR:0.67; 95%CI:0.52,0.86), risk of COVID-19 infection (OR:1.01; 95%CI:0.93,1.10), severe infection (OR:0.78; 95%CI:0.53,1.15), and hospitalization (OR:1.15; 95%CI:0.81,1.65). However, the subgroup analyses indicated significant association between ACEIs/ARBs and hospitalization among USA studies (OR:1.59; 95%CI:1.03,2.44), peer-reviewed (OR:1.93, 95%CI:1.38,2.71), good quality and studies which reported adjusted measure of effect (OR:1.30, 95%CI:1.10,1.50). Significant differences were found between ACEIs and ARBs with the latter being significantly associated with lower risk of acquiring COVID-19 infection (OR:0.24; 95%CI: 0.17,0.34). In conclusion, high-quality evidence exists for the effect of ACEIs/ARBs on some COVID-19 clinical outcomes. For the first time, we provided evidence, albeit of low quality, on interclass differences between ACEIs and ARBs for some of the reported clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Medição de Risco , Ventiladores Mecânicos/efeitos adversos , Ventiladores Mecânicos/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
Hypertension ; 76(5): 1563-1571, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32869673

RESUMO

The viral spike coat protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) engages the human ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) 2 cell surface receptor to infect the host cells. Thus, concerns arose regarding theoretically higher risk for coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) in patients taking ACE inhibitors/angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonists (angiotensin receptor blockers [ARBs]). We systematically assessed case-population and cohort studies from MEDLINE (Ovid), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews PubMed, Embase, medRXIV, the World Health Organization database of COVID-19 publications, and ClinicalTrials.gov through June 1, 2020, with planned ongoing surveillance. We rated the certainty of evidence according to Cochrane methods and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. After pooling the adjusted odds ratios from the included studies, no significant increase was noted in the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection by the use of ACE inhibitors (adjusted odds ratio, 0.95 [95% CI, 0.86-1.05]) or ARBs (adjusted odds ratio, 1.05 [95% CI, 0.97-1.14]). However, the random-effects meta-regression revealed that age may modify the SARS-CoV-2 infection risk in subjects with the use of ARBs (coefficient, -0.006 [95% CI, -0.016 to 0.004]), that is, the use of ARBs, as opposed to ACE inhibitors, specifically augmented the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in younger subjects (<60 years old). The use of ACE inhibitors might not increase the susceptibility of SARS-CoV-2 infection, severity of disease, and mortality in case-population and cohort studies. Additionally, we discovered for the first time that the use of ARBs, as opposed to ACE inhibitors, specifically augmented the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in younger subjects, without obvious effects on COVID-19 outcomes.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efeitos dos fármacos , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/induzido quimicamente , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Idoso , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/administração & dosagem , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida
11.
Intern Emerg Med ; 15(8): 1477-1484, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965603

RESUMO

Considerable concern has emerged for the potential harm in the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor inhibitors (ARBs) in COVID-19 patients, given that ACEIs and ARBs may increase the expression of ACE2 receptors that represent the way for coronavirus 2 to entry into the cell and cause severe acute respiratory syndrome. Assess the effect of ACEI/ARBs on outcome in COVID-19 patients. Hospital-based prospective study. A total of 431 patients consecutively presenting at the Emergency Department and found to be affected by COVID-19 were assessed. Relevant clinical and laboratory variables were recorded, focusing on the type of current anti hypertensive treatment. Outcome variables were NO, MILD, SEVERE respiratory distress (RD) operationally defined and DEATH. Hypertension was the single most frequent comorbidity (221/431 = 51%). Distribution of antihypertensive treatment was: ACEIs 77/221 (35%), ARBs 63/221 (28%), OTHER than ACEIs or ARBs 64/221 (29%). In 17/221 (8%) antihypertensive medication was unknown. The proportion of patients taking ACEIs, ARBs or OTHERs who developed MILD or SEVERE RD was 43/77 (56%), 33/53 (52%), 39/64 (61%) and 19/77 (25%), 16/63 (25%) and 16/64 (25%), respectively, with no statistical difference between groups. Despite producing a RR for SEVERE RD of 2.59 (95% CI 1.93-3.49), hypertension was no longer significant in a logistic regression analysis that identified age, CRP and creatinine as the sole independent predictors of SEVERE RD and DEATH. ACEIs and ARBs do not promote a more severe outcome of COVID-19. There is no reason why they should be withheld in affected patients.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/efeitos adversos , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , /etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade/tendências , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Estudos Prospectivos , /tratamento farmacológico
12.
Cardiovasc Ther ; 2020: 4349612, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32983258

RESUMO

Background: Central aortic blood pressure (CABP) indices, central hemodynamics, and arterial stiffness are better predictors of cardiovascular events as compared with brachial cuff pressure measurements alone. The present study is aimed at assessing the effects of different antihypertensive drug combination regimens involving renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors on CABP indices in Indian patients with hypertension. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, single-center study conducted in patients treated for hypertension for >6 weeks using different treatment regimens involving the combination of RAAS inhibitors with drugs from other classes. CABP indices, vascular age, arterial stiffness, and central hemodynamics were measured in patients using the noninvasive Agedio B900 device (IEM, Stolberg, Germany) and compared between different treatment regimens. Results: A total of 199 patients with a mean age of 54.22 ± 10.15 years were enrolled, where 68.8% had hypertension for over three years and 50.25% had their systolic blood pressure (SBP) < 140 mmHg. Combination treatment with angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) was given to 77.9% and to 20.1% patients, respectively. The mean vascular age was higher than the actual age (58.13 ± 12.43 vs. 54.22 ± 10.15, p = 0.001). The SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) levels in patients treated with ACEI-based combinations were lower than those in patients treated with ARB-based combinations (p < 0.05). The mean central pulse pressure amplification, augmentation pressure, and augmentation index were lower in patients treated with ACEI-based combinations than those treated with other treatments (p = 0.001). In a subgroup analysis, patients given perindopril and calcium channel blockers (CCBs) or diuretics had significantly lower CABP and pulse wave velocity than those given other treatments (p < 0.05). A total of 6.5% patients experienced any side effects. Conclusion: The majority of central hemodynamic parameters, including vascular age, were found to improve more effectively in patients treated with ACEIs than with ARBs. Our results indicate a gap between routine clinical practice and evidence-based guidelines in Indian settings and identify a need to reevaluate the current antihypertensive prescription strategy.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Pressão Arterial/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Idoso , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , Estudos Transversais , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Índia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e926651, 2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969367

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients lacks evidence and is still controversial. This study was designed to investigate effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) on clinical outcomes of COVID-19 patients and to assess the safety of ACEIs/ARBs medication. MATERIAL AND METHODS COVID-19 patients with hypertension from 2 hospitals in Wuhan, China, from 17 Feb to 18 Mar 2020 were retrospectively screened and grouped according to in-hospital medication. We performed 1: 1 propensity score matching (PSM) analysis to adjust for confounding factors. RESULTS We included 210 patients and allocated them to ACEIs/ARBs (n=81; 46.91% males) or non-ACEIs/ARBs (n=129; 48.06% males) groups. The median age was 68 [interquartile range (IQR) 61.5-76] and 66 (IQR 59-72.5) years, respectively. General comparison showed mortality in the ACEIs/ARBs group was higher (8.64% vs. 3.88%) but the difference was not significant (P=0.148). ACEIs/ARBs was associated with significantly more cases 7-categorical ordinal scale >2 at discharge, more cases requiring Intensive Care Unit (ICU) stay, and increased values and ratio of days that blood pressure (BP) was above normal range (P<0.05). PSM analysis showed no significant difference in mortality, cumulative survival rate, or other clinical outcomes such as length of in-hospital/ICU stay, BP fluctuations, or ratio of adverse events between groups after adjustment for confounding parameters on admission. CONCLUSIONS We found no association between ACEIs/ARBs and clinical outcomes or adverse events, thus indicating no evidence for discontinuing use of ACEIs/ARBs in the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Hipertensão/complicações , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Idoso , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , China , Comorbidade , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/biossíntese , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/efeitos dos fármacos , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Inflammopharmacology ; 28(6): 1477-1480, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920716

RESUMO

During the COVID-19 pandemic, a correspondence, published at the Lancet Respiratory Medicine, that linked angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers and ibuprofen to a higher risk of SARS CoV-2 infection and complications, has influenced, when adopted by official health authorities, the practical management of COVID-19 with regard to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs that were avoided in all COVID-19 management protocols all over the world. This manuscript discusses, from a pharmacological point of view, the points of weakness in the mentioned correspondence and it also lists some important contradictory review articles as well as clinical results that refuted its claims. The author chose to argue against each claim represented in the mentioned correspondence to confirm that ACEIs, ARBs and NSAIDs including ibuprofen should not be considered hazardous to be administered for COVID-19 patients and to warn against any future adoption of such unproved claims.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Ibuprofeno/efeitos adversos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Ibuprofeno/administração & dosagem , Pandemias
16.
Curr Hypertens Rep ; 22(11): 90, 2020 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910274

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: While the COVID-19 pandemic is constantly evolving, it remains unclear whether the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) affects the clinical course of SARS-CoV-2 infection. For this meta-analysis, PubMed, CENTRAL, and grey literature were searched from their inception to 19 May 2020 for randomized, controlled trials or observational studies that evaluate the association between the use of either ACE inhibitors or ARBs and the risk for major clinical endpoints (infection, hospitalization, admission to ICU, death) in adult patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, a subgroup geographical analysis of outcomes was performed. Studies including less than 100 subjects were excluded from our analysis. RECENT FINDINGS: In total, 25 observational studies were included. ACE inhibitors and ARBs were not associated with increased odds for SARS-CoV-2 infection, admission to hospital, severe or critical illness, admission to ICU, and SARS-CoV-2-related death. In Asian countries, the use of ACE inhibitors/ARBs decreased the odds for severe or critical illness and death (OR = 0.37, 95% CI 0.16-0.89, I2 = 83%, and OR = 0.62, 95% CI 0.39-0.99, I2 = 0%, respectively), whereas they increased the odds for ICU admission in North America and death in Europe (OR = 1.75, 95% CI 1.37-2.23, I2 = 0%, and OR = 1.68, 95% CI 1.05-2.70, I2 = 82%, respectively). ACE inhibitors might be marginally protective regarding SARS-CoV-2-related death compared with ARBs (OR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.74-1.00, I2 = 0%). Randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm the aforementioned associations between ACE inhibitors, ARBs, and SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Adulto , Ásia , Betacoronavirus , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , América do Norte , Pandemias , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina
17.
Drug Discov Ther ; 14(4): 161-170, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908071

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is found to be associated with various comorbidities which include cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, and diabetes. The impaired regulation of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) has been seen in COVID-19 patients, but whether RAAS inhibitors, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers (ARBs), are responsible for worsening of clinical conditions remains unknown. Herein, we review the role of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) expression in disease progression, its association with comorbidities and COVID-19, and summarize the clinical evidence for several potential directions for future research work on ACEIs/ARBs in COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina , Internalização do Vírus , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/enzimologia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Humanos , Pandemias , Segurança do Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/enzimologia , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efeitos dos fármacos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos
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