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3.
Molecules ; 29(9)2024 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38731493

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of Amaranthus cruentus flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol, catechin, hesperetin, naringenin, hesperidin, and naringin), cinnamic acid derivatives (p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and caffeic acid), and benzoic acids (vanillic acid and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid) as antioxidants, antidiabetic, and antihypertensive agents. An analytical method for simultaneous quantification of flavonoids, cinnamic acid derivatives, and benzoic acids for metabolomic analysis of leaves and inflorescences from A. cruentus was developed with HPLC-UV-DAD. Evaluation of linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, precision, and recovery was used to validate the analytical method developed. Maximum total flavonoids contents (5.2 mg/g of lyophilized material) and cinnamic acid derivatives contents (0.6 mg/g of lyophilized material) were found in leaves. Using UV-Vis spectrophotometry, the maximum total betacyanin contents (74.4 mg/g of lyophilized material) and betaxanthin contents (31 mg/g of lyophilized material) were found in inflorescences. The leaf extract showed the highest activity in removing DPPH radicals. In vitro antidiabetic activity of extracts was performed with pancreatic α-glucosidase and intestinal α-amylase, and compared to acarbose. Both extracts exhibited a reduction in enzyme activity from 57 to 74%. Furthermore, the in vivo tests on normoglycemic murine models showed improved glucose homeostasis after sucrose load, which was significantly different from the control. In vitro antihypertensive activity of extracts was performed with angiotensin-converting enzyme and contrasted to captopril; both extracts exhibited a reduction of enzyme activity from 53 to 58%. The leaf extract induced a 45% relaxation in an ex vivo aorta model. In the molecular docking analysis, isoamaranthin and isogomphrenin-I showed predictive binding affinity for α-glucosidases (human maltase-glucoamylase and human sucrase-isomaltase), while catechin displayed binding affinity for human angiotensin-converting enzyme. The data from this study highlights the potential of A. cruentus as a functional food.


Assuntos
Amaranthus , Anti-Hipertensivos , Hipoglicemiantes , Metabolômica , Extratos Vegetais , Folhas de Planta , Amaranthus/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Anti-Hipertensivos/química , Metabolômica/métodos , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Masculino , Ratos , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Flavonoides/análise
4.
Vestn Oftalmol ; 140(2): 54-62, 2024.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38742499

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study analyzes the influence of various factors on the hypotensive effect of selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective study of the SLT effect was performed in 582 patients (756 eyes; mean age - 71.9±9.5 years) with POAG stages I-III. The level of intraocular pressure (IOP) decrease was assessed at 1 day, 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after SLT. The relationship between the hypotensive effect and age, gender, glaucoma stage, initial IOP level, number and type of instilled drugs, presence of intraocular lenses, and the surgeon performing the intervention were analyzed. RESULTS: In the entire sample, the hypotensive effect of SLT after 1 day was 4.1±3.4 mm Hg, after 1, 3, 6, and 12 months - 3.7±4.8; 3.5±3.8; 3.1±3.4 and 2.3±3.8 mm Hg, respectively. The hypotensive effect of SLT was most dependent on the preoperative IOP level (R>0.64, p<0.05). No significant correlation was found between the hypotensive effect and the stage of POAG, gender, age, number of hypotensive drugs, phakia/aphakia, and the surgeon. A weaker hypotensive effect of SLT was found in eyes receiving monotherapy with α2-adrenoceptor agonists (p<0.03) and a combination of four drugs (p<0.02). CONCLUSION: SLT is an effective method of additional IOP reduction in POAG at any stage and with any hypotensive regimen. At the same time, the results of its use in real clinical practice indicate the need for more careful IOP control after the procedure, especially in eyes with POAG stage III, as well as in eyes without hypotensive therapy and on the maximum drop regimen.


Assuntos
Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto , Pressão Intraocular , Terapia a Laser , Trabeculectomia , Humanos , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/cirurgia , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/fisiopatologia , Trabeculectomia/métodos , Feminino , Masculino , Idoso , Pressão Intraocular/fisiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Terapia a Laser/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico
6.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 24(1): 257, 2024 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38760695

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the potential association between the circadian rhythm of blood pressure and deceleration capacity (DC)/acceleration capacity (AC) in patients with essential hypertension. METHODS: This study included 318 patients with essential hypertension, whether or not they were being treated with anti-hypertensive drugs, who underwent 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). Patients were categorized into three groups based on the percentage of nocturnal systolic blood pressure (SBP) dipping: the dipper, non-dipper and reverse dipper groups. Baseline demographic characteristics, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring parameters, Holter recordings (including DC and AC), and echocardiographic parameters were collected. RESULTS: In this study, the lowest DC values were observed in the reverse dipper group, followed by the non-dipper and dipper groups (6.46 ± 2.06 vs. 6.65 ± 1.95 vs. 8.07 ± 1.79 ms, P < .001). Additionally, the AC gradually decreased (-6.32 ± 2.02 vs. -6.55 ± 1.95 vs. -7.80 ± 1.73 ms, P < .001). There was a significant association between DC (r = .307, P < .001), AC (r=-.303, P < .001) and nocturnal SBP decline. Furthermore, DC (ß = 0.785, P = .001) was positively associated with nocturnal SBP decline, whereas AC was negatively associated with nocturnal SBP (ß = -0.753, P = .002). By multivariate logistic regression analysis, deceleration capacity [OR (95% CI): 0.705 (0.594-0.836), p < .001], and acceleration capacity [OR (95% CI): 1.357 (1.141-1.614), p = .001] were identified as independent risk factors for blood pressure nondipper status. The analysis of ROC curves revealed that the area under the curve for DC/AC in predicting the circadian rhythm of blood pressure was 0.711/0.697, with a sensitivity of 73.4%/65.1% and specificity of 66.7%/71.2%. CONCLUSIONS: Abnormal DC and AC density were correlated with a blunted decline in nighttime SBP, suggesting a potential association between the circadian rhythm of blood pressure in essential hypertension patients and autonomic nervous dysfunction.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial , Pressão Sanguínea , Ritmo Circadiano , Hipertensão Essencial , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hipertensão Essencial/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão Essencial/diagnóstico , Hipertensão Essencial/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores de Tempo , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Adulto , Fatores de Risco , Eletrocardiografia Ambulatorial , Aceleração , Desaceleração
7.
Food Res Int ; 187: 114416, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38763666

RESUMO

An amaranth beverage (AB) was subjected to a simulated process of dynamic gastrointestinal digestion DIDGI®, a simple two-compartment in vitro dynamic gastrointestinal digestion system. The structural changes caused to the proteins during digestion and the digesta inhibitory capacity of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) were investigated. In gastric compartment the degree of hydrolysis (DH) was 14.7 ± 1.5 % and in the intestinal compartment, proteins were digests in a greater extent (DH = 60.6 ± 8.4 %). Protein aggregation was detected during the gastric phase. The final digesta obtained both at the gastric and intestinal level, showed ACE inhibitory capacity (IC50 80 ± 10 and 140 ± 20 µg/mL, respectively). Purified fractions from these digesta showed even greater inhibitory capacity, being eluted 2 (E2) the most active fraction (IC50 60 ± 10 µg/mL). Twenty-six peptide sequences were identified. Six of them, with potential antihypertensive capacity, belong to A. hypochondriacus, 3 agglutinins and 3 encrypted sequences in the 11S globulin. Results obtained provide new and useful information on peptides released from the digestion of an amaranth based beverage and its ACE bioactivity.


Assuntos
Amaranthus , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina , Anti-Hipertensivos , Bebidas , Digestão , Amaranthus/química , Anti-Hipertensivos/química , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Hidrólise , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo
8.
BMC Med ; 22(1): 201, 2024 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38764043

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lipid-lowering drugs and antihypertensive drugs are commonly combined for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the relationship of combined medications with CVD remains controversial. We aimed to explore the associations of genetically proxied medications of lipid-lowering and antihypertensive drugs, either alone or both, with risk of CVD, other clinical and safety outcomes. METHODS: We divided 423,821 individuals in the UK Biobank into 4 groups via median genetic scores for targets of lipid-lowering drugs and antihypertensive drugs: lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) mediated by targets of statins or proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors, lower systolic blood pressure (SBP) mediated by targets of ß-blockers (BBs) or calcium channel blockers (CCBs), combined genetically lower LDL-C and SBP, and reference (genetically both higher LDL-C and SBP). Associations with risk of CVD and other clinical outcomes were explored among each group in factorial Mendelian randomization. RESULTS: Independent and additive effects were observed between genetically proxied medications of lipid-lowering and antihypertensive drugs with CVD (including coronary artery disease, stroke, and peripheral artery diseases) and other clinical outcomes (ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, heart failure, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, and dementia) (P > 0.05 for interaction in all outcomes). Take the effect of PCSK9 inhibitors and BBs on CVD for instance: compared with the reference, PCSK9 group had a 4% lower risk of CVD (odds ratio [OR], 0.96; 95%CI, 0.94-0.99), and a 3% lower risk was observed in BBs group (OR, 0.97; 95%CI, 0.94-0.99), while combined both were associated with a 6% additively lower risk (OR, 0.94; 95%CI, 0.92-0.97; P = 0.87 for interaction). CONCLUSIONS: Genetically proxied medications of combined lipid-lowering and antihypertensive drugs have an independent and additive effects on CVD, other clinical and safety outcomes, with implications for CVD clinical practice, subsequent trials as well as drug development of polypills.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Humanos , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Feminino , Hipolipemiantes/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Variação Genética , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 72(1): 22-26, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38736070

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Azelnidipine, a selective calcium channel blocker, effectively lowers blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) in hypertensive patients, as demonstrated in a retrospective real-world evidence (RWE) study in Indian patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study that included 882 patients aged 18 years or older who had been on azelnidipine treatment for the last 3 months for mild to moderate hypertension (HTN). A structured proforma was utilized to gather data from prescribing physicians to assess the efficacy of azelnidipine (8 and 16 mg) as monotherapy or in combination with other antihypertensive drugs. The primary endpoints of the study were to capture changes in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) from baseline to the subsequent visits (4 and 12 weeks), while the secondary endpoints were to measure similar changes in the diabetic group and to estimate the proportion of patients achieving target BP of <130/80 mm Hg and <140/90 mm Hg, respectively. RESULTS: The overall mean reduction of systolic/diastolic BP from baseline to 12 weeks was 13.92/7.91 mm Hg (p-value < 0.0001). The mean reduction of systolic/diastolic BP from baseline to 12 weeks was 11.77/7.43 mm Hg (p-value < 0.0001) in newly diagnosed HTN patients, while in known cases of HTN, it was 16.50/8.48 mm Hg (p-value < 0.0001). In the diabetic group, the mean reduction was 15.35/8.69 mm Hg (p-value < 0.0001). Overall the study showed that in 44 (4.99%) and 408 (46.26%) patients, target BP of <130/80 mm Hg and <140/90 mm Hg, respectively was achieved. The mean change in HR from baseline was a reduction of 5.22 beats/minute. CONCLUSION: Azelnidipine can be an effective antihypertensive drug to treat mild to moderate HTN in Indian patients.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos , Ácido Azetidinocarboxílico , Pressão Sanguínea , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio , Di-Hidropiridinas , Hipertensão , Humanos , Di-Hidropiridinas/uso terapêutico , Ácido Azetidinocarboxílico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Azetidinocarboxílico/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índia , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Idoso , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 72(1): 88-95, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38736080

RESUMO

The rapidly increasing burden of hypertension is responsible for premature deaths from cardiovascular disease (CVD), renal disease, and stroke, with a tremendous public health and financial burden. Hypertension detection, treatment, and control vary worldwide; it is still low, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). High blood pressure (BP) and CVD risk have a strong, linear, and independent association. They contribute to alarming numbers of all-cause and CVD deaths. A major culprit for increased hypertension is sympathetic activity, and further complications of hypertension are heart failure, ischemic heart disease (IHD), stroke, and renal failure. Now, antihypertensive interventions have emerged as a global public health priority to reduce BP-related morbidity and mortality. Calcium channel blockers (CCB) are highly effective vasodilators. and the most common drugs used for managing hypertension and CVD. Cilnidipine, with both L- and N-type calcium channel blocking activity, is a promising 4th generation CCB. It causes vasodilation via L-type calcium channel blockade and inhibits the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) via N-type calcium channel blockade. Cilnidipine, which acts as a dual L/N-type CCB, is linked to a reduced occurrence of pedal edema compared to amlodipine, which solely blocks L-type calcium channels. The antihypertensive properties of cilnidipine are very substantial, with low BP variability and long-acting properties. It is beneficial for hypertensive patients to deal with morning hypertension and for patients with abnormal nocturnal BP due to exaggerated sympathetic nerve activation. Besides its BP-lowering effect, it also exhibits organ protection via sympathetic nerve inhibition and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibition; it controls heart rate and proteinuria. Reno-protective, neuroprotective, and cardioprotective effects of cilnidipine have been well-documented and demonstrated.


Assuntos
Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio , Di-Hidropiridinas , Hipertensão , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Di-Hidropiridinas/uso terapêutico , Índia/epidemiologia , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Consenso , Comorbidade
13.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 72(3): 75-78, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38736121

RESUMO

For >3 decades now, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) have been used in the management of hypertension (HTN) and HTN-related cardiovascular (CV) diseases. Olmesartan medoxomil (OLM) is an angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonist (or blocker) that binds tightly to the AT1 receptor with long-lasting efficacy over the 24-hour period and safety demonstrated in several trials. It is well tolerated and effective in reducing blood pressure (BP) in mono and combination therapy with thiazide diuretics or calcium channel blockers across a wide range of patient subgroups. The effectiveness and safety of OLM-based combination therapies have good and tolerable profiles with high adherence in the fixed single-pill formulation. Consistent antihypertensive efficacy and good tolerability when used as monotherapy or as a combined therapy make OLM a valuable treatment option for adults with HTN. In this review, we discuss the important clinical implications of OLM as an optimal choice as monotherapy and combination therapy in managing patients with HTN.


Assuntos
Bloqueadores do Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina II , Anti-Hipertensivos , Pressão Sanguínea , Quimioterapia Combinada , Hipertensão , Imidazóis , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Bloqueadores do Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina II/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Imidazóis/uso terapêutico , Tetrazóis/uso terapêutico , Olmesartana Medoxomila/uso terapêutico
14.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(5): e2410063, 2024 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38728033

RESUMO

Importance: Patient empowerment through pharmacologic self-management is a common strategy for some chronic diseases such as diabetes, but it is rarely used for controlling blood pressure (BP). Several trials have shown its potential for reducing BP in the short term, but evidence in the longer term is scarce. Objective: To evaluate the longer-term effectiveness of BP self-monitoring plus self-titration of antihypertensive medication vs usual care for patients with poorly controlled hypertension, with passive follow-up and primary-care nursing involvement. Design, Setting, and Participants: The ADAMPA (Impact of Self-Monitoring of Blood Pressure and Self-Titration of Medication in the Control of Hypertension) study was a randomized, unblinded clinical trial with 2 parallel arms conducted in Valencia, Spain. Included participants were patients 40 years or older, with systolic BP (SBP) over 145 mm Hg and/or diastolic BP (DBP) over 90 mm Hg, recruited from July 21, 2017, to June 30, 2018 (study completion, August 25, 2020). Statistical analysis was conducted on an intention-to-treat basis from August 2022 to February 2024. Interventions: Participants were randomized 1:1 to usual care vs an individualized, prearranged plan based on BP self-monitoring plus medication self-titration. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outome was the adjusted mean difference (AMD) in SBP between groups at 24 months of follow-up. Secondary outcomes were the AMD in DBP between groups at 24 months of follow-up, proportion of patients reaching the BP target (SBP <140 mm Hg and DBP <90 mm Hg), change in behaviors, quality of life, health service use, and adverse events. Results: Among 312 patients included in main trial, data on BP measurements at 24 months were available for 219 patients (111 in the intervention group and 108 in the control group). The mean (SD) age was 64.3 (10.1) years, and 120 patients (54.8%) were female; the mean (SD) SBP was 155.6 (13.1) mm Hg, and the mean (SD) diastolic BP was 90.8 (7.7) mm Hg. The median follow-up was 23.8 months (IQR, 19.8-24.5 months). The AMD in SBP at the end of follow-up was -3.4 mm Hg (95% CI, -4.7 to -2.1 mm Hg; P < .001), and the AMD in DBP was -2.5 mm Hg (95% CI, -3.5 to -1.6 mm Hg; P < .001). Subgroup analysis for the main outcome showed consistent results. Sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of the main findings. No differences were observed between groups in behaviors, quality of life, use of health services, or adverse events. Conclusions and Relevance: In this secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial, BP self-monitoring plus self-titration of antihypertensive medication based on an individualized prearranged plan used in primary care reduced BP in the longer term with passive follow-up compared with usual care, without increasing health care use or adverse events. These results suggest that simple, inexpensive, and easy-to-implement self-management interventions have the potential to improve the long-term control of hypertension in routine clinical practice. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03242785.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial , Hipertensão , Humanos , Feminino , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Hipertensivos/administração & dosagem , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Idoso , Espanha , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Autocuidado/métodos
15.
BMC Med Educ ; 24(1): 521, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38730316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The New Medicine Service (NMS) was developed in England more than ten years ago, as a three-stage consultation led by community pharmacists to support patients taking new medication for a chronic disease. In Poland, the scheme was officially introduced in January 2023. However, its implementation into common practice has been presented with various obstacles, including the need to develop relationships with general practitioners, resolve the payment structure, and provide training with adequate supporting materials. Hence, written materials have been designed for use as an optional tool for counselling patients receiving an NMS in community pharmacies. METHODS: The present study evaluates the ability of these materials to inform patients about the need to adhere to anti-hypertensive medication. A group of 401 randomly-selected adult visitors to pharmacies and/or healthcare centres were surveyed; one third had hypertension in their history. RESULTS: The structure, grammar and readability of the text achieved the required threshold of 40% according to the Plain Language Index. The designed materials effectively informed the patients about anti-hypertensive medication, reflected in an increased score in a knowledge test, and were rated positively regarding information level, comprehensibility and presentation. CONCLUSION: The proposed material may serve as an additional, "patient-friendly" educational tool for use as part of an NMS.


Assuntos
Aconselhamento , Hipertensão , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Humanos , Polônia , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/terapia , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Folhetos , Adesão à Medicação , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/organização & administração , Idoso
16.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 23(1): 166, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38730425

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that RASGRP1 was potently associated with the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and RASGRP1 rs7403531 was significantly correlated with islet function in T2DM patients. However, the effect of RASGRP1 polymorphism on blood glucose and blood pressure in T2DM patients after continuous treatment has yet to be fully elucidated. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the association between RASGRP1 genetic polymorphism and cardiovascular complications in T2DM patients, so as to provide more evidence for the individualized treatment of T2DM patients. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed a large-scale multicenter drug clinical study cohort that based on a 2 × 2 factorial (glucose control axis and blood pressure lowering axis) randomized controlled design, with follow-up for 5 years. The major vascular endpoint events included cardiovascular death, non-fatal stroke, coronary heart disease, new-onset or worsening renal disease, and diabetic retinopathy. RASGRP1 rs12593201, rs56254815 and rs7403531 were finally selected as candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms. Mixed linear model and Cox hazard ratio (HR) model were used for data analysis with IBM SPSS (version 20.0 for windows; Chicago, IL). RESULTS: Our study enrolled 1357 patients with high-risk diabetes, with a mean follow-up duration of 4.8 years. RASGRP1 rs7403531 was associated with vascular events in hypoglycemic and antihypertensive therapy. Specifically, compared with CC carriers, patients with CT/TT genotype had fewer major microvascular events (HR = 0.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.21-0.80, P = 0.009), and reduced the risk of major eye disease events (HR = 0.44, 95% CI 0.20-0.94, P = 0.03). For glucose lowering axis, CT/TT carriers had a lower risk of secondary nephropathy (HR = 0.48, 95% CI 0.25-0.92, P = 0.03) in patients with standard glycemic control. For blood pressure lowering axis, all cerebrovascular events (HR = 2.24, 95% CI 1.11-4.51, P = 0.025) and stroke events (HR = 2.07, 95% CI 1.03-4.15, P = 0.04) were increased in patients with CC genotype compared to those with CT/TT genotype in the placebo group, respectively. Furthermore, patients with CC genotype showed a reduced risk of major cerebrovascular events in antihypertensive group (HR = 0.36, 95% CI 0.15-0.86, P = 0.021). For RASGRP1 rs56254815, compared with the AA genotype carriers, the systolic blood pressure of AG/GG carriers in the antihypertensive group decreased by 1.5mmhg on average (P = 0.04). In the placebo group, the blood pressure of AG/GG carriers was 1.7mmHg higher than that of AA carriers (P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: We found that patients with G allele of RASGRP1 (rs56254815) showed a better antihypertensive therapy efficacy in T2DM patients. The rs7403531 T allele could reduce the risk of major microvascular events and major eye diseases in T2DM patients receiving either hypoglycemic or antihypertensive therapy. Our findings suggest that RASGRP1 genetic polymorphism might predict the cardiovascular complications in T2DM patients.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos , Glicemia , Pressão Sanguínea , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Controle Glicêmico , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , China/epidemiologia , Glicemia/metabolismo , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Idoso , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/genética , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Controle Glicêmico/efeitos adversos , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Povo Asiático/genética , Angiopatias Diabéticas/genética , Angiopatias Diabéticas/diagnóstico , Medição de Risco , Fenótipo , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Associação Genética , Hipertensão/genética , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , População do Leste Asiático
17.
Alzheimers Res Ther ; 16(1): 104, 2024 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38730505

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Optimal blood pressure (BP) levels to reduce the long-term risk of cognitive decline remains controversial. We aimed to investigate the association between BP and anti-hypertensive treatment status with cognitive decline in older adults. METHODS: This study used data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study. Cognitive function was assessed at year 2011, 2013, 2015, and 2018. Global cognitive Z-score was calculated as the average score of episodic memory and mental intactness. BP were measured at the first and second wave. Pulse pressure (PP) was calculated as systolic BP (SBP) minus diastolic BP. Cumulative BP was calculated as the area under the curve using BP measurements from 2011 to 2013. Linear mixed models were used to assess the longitudinal association between BP-related measurements and cognitive decline. RESULTS: We included 11,671 participants (47.3% men and mean age 58.6 years). Individual with BP > 140/90 mm Hg or taking anti-hypertensive medication were independently associated with accelerated cognitive decline (ß=-0.014, 95% CI: -0.020 to -0.007). Individuals with anti-hypertensive medication use, but with controlled SBP to less than 120 mm Hg did not have a significantly increased risk of cognitive decline compared with normotension (ß=-0.003, 95% CI: -0.021 to 0.014). Individuals on anti-hypertensive treatment with PP of more than 70 mm Hg had a significantly higher risk of cognitive decline (ß=-0.033, 95% CI: -0.045 to -0.020). Regardless of anti-hypertensive treatment status, both elevated baseline and cumulative SBP and PP were found to be independently associated with accelerated cognitive decline. CONCLUSIONS: Cumulatively elevated SBP, PP and uncontrolled BP were associated with subsequent cognitive decline. Effectively controlling BP with anti-hypertensive treatment may be able to preserve cognitive decline in older adults.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos , Pressão Sanguínea , Disfunção Cognitiva , Hipertensão , Vida Independente , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , China/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Idoso , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia
18.
Open Heart ; 11(1)2024 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38719497

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The treatment of pulmonary hypertension (PH) has improved rapidly in recent decades. There is increasing evidence to support the role of early intervention and treatment in affecting clinical outcomes in PH. OBJECTIVES: To assess treatment effects before and after the escalation of specific PH treatments using continuous heart monitoring with a Reveal LINQ loop recorder. METHODS: Patients were compared before and after treatment escalation. Treatment escalation was defined as an additional pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) drug, pulmonary endarterectomy, percutaneous balloon angioplasty or bilateral lung transplantation. Specifically, changes in heart rate variability (HRV), heart rate (HR) and physical activity were assessed. RESULTS: In this prospective study, 41 patients (27 with PAH and 14 with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH)) were enrolled. Among them, 15 (36.6%) patients underwent PH treatment escalation. Prior to escalation, patients were monitored for a median of 100 (range: 68-100) days and after therapy escalation for a median duration of 165 (range: 89-308) days. In the escalation group, there was a significant increase in HRV, physical activity indexed by daytime HR and a significant decrease in nighttime HR assessed at baseline and after treatment escalation in both the PAH and CTEPH groups. This was paralleled by significant improvements in WHO functional class, 6-min walking distance and N-terminal pro-b-type natriuretic peptide. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to demonstrate an association between specific PH therapies and changes in HRV, HR nighttime and physical activity. This indicates the potential of continuous monitoring in the evaluation of treatment effects in PH.


Assuntos
Frequência Cardíaca , Hipertensão Pulmonar , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Hipertensão Pulmonar/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento , Endarterectomia/métodos , Idoso , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Tempo , Angioplastia com Balão/métodos , Adulto , Transplante de Pulmão , Eletrocardiografia Ambulatorial/métodos , Artéria Pulmonar/fisiopatologia
19.
Int J Older People Nurs ; 19(3): e12613, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38701237

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of essential hypertension contributed significantly to morbidity and mortality rates. Acupuncture-related therapies were commonly employed in hypertension treatment. Nevertheless, a lack of conclusive evidence left uncertainties regarding the optimal strategies for managing hypertensive populations. OBJECTIVES: Conduct a comprehensive systematic review to evaluate the existing clinical evidence about the effectiveness of acupuncture and moxibustion-related therapies in managing hypertension, by employing network meta-analysis techniques. METHODS: A comprehensive electronic search was conducted across n of databases. This search covered studies available up to October 2022. Randomized controlled trials assessing acupuncture and moxibustion-related therapies in managing hypertension based on traditional Chinese medicine were screened. Primary outcome measures included the antihypertensive effectiveness rate, variations in blood pressure and the incorporation of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) syndrome manifestations. The review follows the guidelines outlined in the PRISMA statement. RESULTS: We identified a total of 24 trials with 1867 patients, which evaluated the efficacy of various acupuncture-related therapies for hypertension management. Network meta-analysis showed that moxibustion and auricular point sticking combined with medication therapy had the best effect in terms of antihypertensive effective rate (medication + moxibustion + auricular pressure vs. medication = 1.29 [1.09, 1.54]; sucra = 85.9, p < .05) and hypertension symptom improvement (medication + moxibustion + auricular pressure vs. medication = -1.55 [-2.98, -0.13]; sucra = 96.1, p < .05). Acupuncture combined with moxibustion combined with medication therapy had the best effect in reducing systolic pressure (medication + moxibustion + acupuncture vs. medication = -8.50 [-10.19, -6.80]; sucra = 100, p < .05) and diastolic blood pressure (medication + moxibustion + acupuncture versus medication = -4.72 [-6.71, -2.72]; sucra = 99.71, p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Network meta-analysis suggested that the combined use of moxibustion and auricular point application in conjunction with drug therapy showed the highest likelihood of being the most effective treatment in terms of antihypertensive efficiency rates and improvement in hypertension symptoms. Furthermore, the combination of acupuncture and moxibustion alongside drug treatment emerged as the most promising approach for reducing systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure. Limited by the methodological quality and quantity of the included studies, the results need to be interpreted with caution. It is necessary to conduct more high-quality randomized controlled trials of acupuncture-related therapies for the adjuvant treatment of hypertension in the future. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Clinicians can use acupuncture-related therapies to inform their treatment decisions and potentially incorporate acupuncture-related therapies into their hypertension management protocols.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Hipertensão , Metanálise em Rede , Humanos , Terapia por Acupuntura/métodos , Hipertensão/terapia , Moxibustão/métodos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(18): e37927, 2024 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38701296

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The efficacy and safety of different oral ginkgo-based Chinese patent medicines (CPMs) regimens for hypertension patients were analyzed based on the network meta-analysis of the frequency framework. METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive search of PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, China Science and Technology Journal Database, and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database to gather data on randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the efficacy of 8 ginkgo biloba oral preparations for the treatment of hypertension. The trials included in the analysis were conducted from the inception of the databases up to September 2023. Methodological quality and risk of bias were assessed using the RoB 2.0 evaluation tool, and a reticulated meta-analysis was conducted using STATA MP 14 software. The RCTs included in this study were published studies and therefore did not require ethics committee review or patient consent. RESULTS: We ultimately included 46 RCTs covering 8 CPMs including ginkgo biloba tablet (GBT), GB capsule (GBC), ginkgo biloba drop (GBD), ginkgo biloba ketone ester drop, Fufangyinxing capsule, fufangyinxingtongmai oral liquid, Yinxingmihuan oral liquid, Yindanxinanotong softgel capsule (YDXNT). GBD + CT demonstrated the highest effectiveness in reducing systolic blood pressure (surface under the cumulative ranking [SUCRA] = 78.7%) and improving total effective rate (SUCRA = 86.7%). GBC + CT exhibited the greatest efficacy in reducing diastolic blood pressure (SUCRA = 92.6%). GBT + CT was identified as the most effective in lowering total cholesterol (TC) (SUCRA = 100%). Additionally, YDXNT + CT demonstrated notable improvements in triglyceride levels (SUCRA = 92.2%), Nitric oxide (NO) (SUCRA = 93.9%), and ET-1 (SUCRA = 67.5%). In terms of safety, 14 studies reported the occurrence of adverse reactions with a high degree of clinical heterogeneity, which was only qualitatively analyzed in this study. CONCLUSION SUBSECTIONS: We found that a combination of 8 ginkgo-based CPMs + CT was effective in hypertension compared with CT. The evidence showed that GBD + CT were the best in improving systolic blood pressure and total effective rate, GBC + CT improved diastolic blood pressure, GBT + CT were the most effective in improving TC, and YDXNT + CT was the most effective in improving TG, NO, and ET-1. Adverse effects were only analyzed qualitatively, and the number of adverse effects of CPMs treatment was relatively low compared to CT. In addition, the quality of the literature included in the study was low, and further validation through RCTs with larger sample sizes, higher quality, and more rigorously designed is needed.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Extrato de Ginkgo , Ginkgo biloba , Hipertensão , Metanálise em Rede , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Humanos , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/efeitos adversos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento
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