Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 9.001
Filtrar
1.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(1): 105413, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33160127

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In adult patients with moyamoya disease (MMD) underwent combined revascularization, cerebral infarction during the acute postoperative phase is common and can lead to neurological dysfunction after revascularization in MMD patients. The aim of this study was to share the experience of individualized perioperative blood pressure (BP) management for adult MMD patients in one single center. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 144 adult patients with MMD who underwent 186 procedures of combined revascularization at our institution from March 2013 to July 2019. Clinical features and outcomes were analyzed, in particular regarding cerebral infarction and hyperperfusion syndrome (HPS). All of the patients received individualized management perioperatively, especially about the blood pressure management according to the characteristics of moyamoya disease. RESULTS: Postoperative cerebral infarction and HPS within 14 days after revascularization were recorded. Cerebral infarction occurred in four (2.1%) procedures among four patients. No patients suffered from a malignant cerebral infarction and only one patient had permanent neurological deficits. The incidence of HPS was 10.8% and no one presented with intracranial hemorrhage. All of the symptoms were reversible without any brain parenchymal injury. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that we can decrease the incidence and extent of cerebral infarction in adult MMD patients following combined revascularization by individualized perioperative BP management.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Infarto Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Revascularização Cerebral , Hidratação , Doença de Moyamoya/cirurgia , Assistência Perioperatória , Adulto , Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , Infarto Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto Cerebral/etiologia , Infarto Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Revascularização Cerebral/efeitos adversos , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Feminino , Hidratação/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Moyamoya/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Moyamoya/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Iran J Kidney Dis ; 14(6): 482-487, 2020 12 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33277453

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Diabetes mellitus and hypertension are described as the most common comorbidities among COVID-19 patients. We investigated the adverse effect of ACEIs in diabetic and nondiabetic patients with COVID-19. METHODS: This prospective study consisted of 617 RT-PCR-confirmed COVID-19 inpatients. Demographic and baseline characteristics, underlying comorbid diseases, and antihypertensive drugs were evaluated. Study outcome (in-hospital death) was evaluated with the Kaplan-Meyer method and Cox regression model. Statistical analyses were performed with SPSS software for Windows. P values < .05 were considered significant. RESULTS: Mean ± SD age was 58.49 ± 15.80 (range: 18 to 94) years old. Cox regression analysis revealed that age (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 1.04, 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.06), diabetes mellitus (adjusted HR = 2.07, 95% CI: 1.32 to 3.26), immunocompromised patients (adjusted HR = 2.33, 95% CI: 1.29 to 4.21), acute kidney injury (AKI) (adjusted HR = 3.23, 95% CI: 2.01 to 5.19), ICU admission (adjusted HR = 2.48, 95% CI: 1.46 to 4.21), Asthma and COPD (adjusted HR = 2.13, CI:1.6 to 4.28) and ACEI (adjusted HR = 3.08, 95% CI: 1.56 to 6.06), respectively were associated with in-hospital death. Among diabetic patients, ACEI (adjusted HR = 3.51, 95% CI: 1.59 to 7.75), AKI (adjusted HR = 3.32, 95% CI: 1.76 to 6.45) and ICU admission (adjusted HR = 3.64, 95% CI: 1.530 to 8.65) were associated with increased mortality. The Kaplan-Meier survival curve showed a lower survival rate in diabetic patients with ACE inhibitor (adjusted HR = 3.36, 95% CI: 2.25 to 7.71). CONCLUSION: ACEIs may harm the diabetic patient's outcome with COVID-19. Further studies can confirm if ACE inhibitors have an adverse effect on COVID-19 diabetic patient's mortality.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Comorbidade , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
4.
Probl Endokrinol (Mosk) ; 66(1): 35-46, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351311

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on the national level and worldwide show a higher rate of mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) due to COVID-19, which determines the high relevance of risk factor analysis for outcomes in DM patients to substantiate the strategy for this category of patients. AIM: To assess the effect of clinical and demographic parameters (age, gender, body mass index (BMI), glycemic control (HbA1c), and antidiabetic and antihypertensive drugs, including ACE inhibitors and ARBs) on clinical outcomes (recovery or death) in patients with type 2 DM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of the Russian Register of Diabetes database was performed, including patients with type 2 DM (n=309) who suffered pneumonia/COVID-19 in the period from 01.02.2020 to 27.04.2020 and the indicated outcome of the disease (recovery or death) RESULTS: The percentage of lethality was determined to be 15.2% (47 of 309 people). The degree of lethality was found to be significantly higher in males (OR=2.08; 95% CI 1.1–3.9; p=0.022) and in patients on insulin therapy (OR=2.67; 95% CI; 1.42–5.02; p=0.002), while it was significantly lower in patients with an age <65 years (OR=0.34; 95% CI 0.18–0.67; p=0.001) and in patients receiving metformin (OR=0.26; 95% CI 0.14–0,5; p<0.0001), antihypertensive therapy (OR=0.43; 95% CI 0.22–0.82; p=0.009), β-blockers (OR=0.26; 95% CI 0.08–0.86; p=0.018), diuretics (OR=0.4; 95% CI 0.17–0.93; p=0.028) and renin-angiotensin system blockers (ACE inhibitors or ARBs) (OR=0.36; 95% CI 0.18–0.74; p=0.004). A tendency to an increase in lethality at higher rates of HbA1c and BMI was present, but it did not reach a statistical significance. Differences between patients receiving insulin therapy and those who were not receiving the insulin therapy were observed as follows: a significantly longer duration of type 2 DM (13.4 vs. 6.8 years, respectively; p<0.0001), worse overall glyacemic control (HbA1c: 8.1% vs. 7.0%, resp.; p<0.0001), and three times more frequent failure to achieve the HbA1c goal by more than 2.5% (14.7% vs. 5.9%, resp.; p=0.04). CONCLUSION: The identified risk factors for lethality in patients with type 2 DM indicate that good glycemic control and previous treatment with metformin and antihypertensive drugs (including RAS blockers) could reduce the frequency of deaths. In patients on insulin therapy, a higher lethality degree was associated with worse glycemic control.


Assuntos
/mortalidade , Complicações do Diabetes/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus/mortalidade , Hipertensão/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , /tratamento farmacológico , Complicações do Diabetes/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações do Diabetes/virologia , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus/virologia , Diuréticos/efeitos adversos , Diuréticos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/virologia , Insulina/metabolismo , Masculino , Metformina/efeitos adversos , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Federação Russa/epidemiologia , /patogenicidade
5.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 20(1): 489, 2020 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33334316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anterior uveitis secondary to topical brimonidine administration is rare and not well-defined. In glaucoma patients using brimonidine, one must consider this phenomenon to avoid mis-diagnosis and over-treatment with topical steroids which in turn may increase intraocular pressure (IOP). This is the largest case series including the longest patient follow-up in the current literature. METHODS: Sixteen patients (26 eyes) with consultant diagnosed brimonidine-associated anterior uveitis in a tertiary referral glaucoma clinic presenting between 2015 and 2019 were included in this retrospective case series. Clinical records were taken for descriptive analysis. Main outcome measures were the key clinical features, and disease course (therapy, IOP control, patient outcome). RESULTS: Key features were conjunctival ciliary injection and mutton fat keratic precipitation in all eyes. The findings were bilateral in 10 patients. Time between initiation of brimonidine treatment and presentation was 1 week to 49 months. Glaucoma sub-types were mostly pseudo-exfoliative and primary open angle glaucoma. Brimonidine treatment was stopped immediately. Additionally, topical corticosteroids were prescribed in 18 eyes and tapered down during the following 4 weeks. Thirteen eyes did not need surgical or laser treatment (median follow-up time 15 months). No patient showed recurrence of inflammation after cessation of brimonidine. CONCLUSIONS: This type of anterior uveitis is an uncommon but important manifestation which should always be considered in glaucoma patients on brimonidine treatment. Although treatable at its root cause, problems may persist, especially with respect to IOP control. The latter may necessitate glaucoma surgery after the resolved episode of the uveitis.


Assuntos
Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 2/efeitos adversos , Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , Tartarato de Brimonidina/efeitos adversos , Uveíte Anterior/induzido quimicamente , Administração Oftálmica , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Pressão Intraocular/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hipertensão Ocular/tratamento farmacológico , Soluções Oftálmicas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Uveíte Anterior/diagnóstico
6.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 75: e1874, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33263632

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Timolol maleate has been reported to be a safer intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering treatment than latanoprost. The United States Food and Drug Administration approved latanoprostene bunod, a nitric oxide-donating prodrug of latanoprost, for lowering IOP. This study compared the safety and efficacy of latanoprost, latanoprostene bunod, and timolol maleate in patients with open-angle glaucoma. METHODS: Patients who received latanoprost eye drops once daily in the evening were included in the latanoprost Ophthalmic Solutions (LP) cohort (n=104). Those who received latanoprostene bunod eye drops once daily in the evening were included in the Latanoprostene Bunod (LB) cohort (n=94). Those who received timolol eye drops twice daily were included in the Timolol Maleate (TM) cohort (n=115). All treatments were administered to the affected eye(s) for 3 months. Informed Consent has been taken from each participant before the trial. RESULTS: At the end of 3 months of treatment, latanoprost, latanoprostene bunod, and timolol were all successful in reducing IOP. The LB cohort had the highest reduction in IOP, compared to the LP and TM cohorts. All treatments had some common adverse ocular effects. CONCLUSION: Latanoprostene bunod was superior to latanoprost and timolol for the treatment of open-angle glaucoma.


Assuntos
Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto , Hipertensão Ocular , Prostaglandinas F Sintéticas , Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Pressão Intraocular , Latanoprosta , Hipertensão Ocular/tratamento farmacológico , Soluções Oftálmicas , Prostaglandinas F Sintéticas/efeitos adversos , Timolol/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 6(4): e22521, 2020 12 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33197879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As the COVID-19 pandemic continues to spread across the globe, the search for an effective medication to treat the symptoms of COVID-19 continues as well. It would be desirable to identify a medication that is already in use for another condition and whose side effect profile and safety data are already known and approved. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different medications on typical COVID-19 symptoms by using data from an online surveillance survey. METHODS: Between early April and late-July 2020, a total of 3654 individuals in Lower Saxony, Germany, participated in an online symptom-tracking survey conducted through the app covid-nein-danke.de. The questionnaire comprised items on typical COVID-19 symptoms, age range, gender, employment in patient-facing healthcare, housing status, postal code, previous illnesses, permanent medication, vaccination status, results of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and antibody tests for COVID-19 diagnosis, and consequent COVID-19 treatment if applicable. Odds ratio estimates with corresponding 95% CIs were computed for each medication and symptom by using logistic regression models. RESULTS: Data analysis suggested a statistically significant inverse relationship between typical COVID-19 symptoms self-reported by the participants and self-reported statin therapy and, to a lesser extent, antihypertensive therapy. When COVID-19 diagnosis was based on restrictive symptom criteria (ie, presence of 4 out of 7 symptoms) or a positive RT-PCR test, a statistically significant association was found solely for statins (odds ratio 0.28, 95% CI 0.1-0.78). CONCLUSIONS: Individuals taking statin medication are more likely to have asymptomatic COVID-19, in which case they may be at an increased risk of transmitting the disease unknowingly. We suggest that the results of this study be incorporated into symptoms-based surveillance and decision-making protocols in regard to COVID-19 management. Whether statin therapy has a beneficial effect in combating COVID-19 cannot be deduced based on our findings and should be investigated by further study. TRIAL REGISTRATION: German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00022185; https://www.drks.de/drks_web/navigate.do?navigationId=trial.HTML&TRIAL_ID=DRKS00022185; World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform U1111-1252-6946.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/efeitos adversos , /efeitos dos fármacos , Idoso , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , /transmissão , Estudos Transversais , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aplicativos Móveis/provisão & distribução , Estudos Prospectivos , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Am Fam Physician ; 102(10): 613-621, 2020 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33179891

RESUMO

Drugs are being prescribed with more frequency and in higher quantities. A serious adverse drug event from prescribed medications constitutes 2.4% to 16.2% of all hospital admissions. Many of the adverse drug events present intraorally or periorally in isolation or as a clinical symptom of a systemic effect. Clinical recognition and treatment of adverse drug events are important to increase patient adherence, manage drug therapy, or detect early signs of potentially serious outcomes. Oral manifestations of commonly prescribed medications include gingival enlargement, oral hyperpigmentation, oral hypersensitivity reaction, medication-related osteonecrosis, xerostomia, and other oral or perioral conditions. To prevent dose-dependent adverse drug reactions, physicians should prescribe medications judiciously using the lowest effective dose with minimal duration. Alternatively, for oral hypersensitivity reactions that are not dose dependent, quick recognition of clinical symptoms associated with time-dependent drug onset can allow for immediate discontinuation of the medication without discontinuation of other medications. Physicians can manage oral adverse drug events in the office through oral hygiene instructions for gingival enlargement, medication discontinuation for oral pigmentation, and prescription of higher fluoride toothpastes for xerostomia.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/etiologia , Crescimento Excessivo da Gengiva/induzido quimicamente , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/efeitos adversos , Hiperpigmentação/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Xerostomia/induzido quimicamente , Albuterol/efeitos adversos , Anlodipino/efeitos adversos , Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Atorvastatina/efeitos adversos , Osteonecrose da Arcada Osseodentária Associada a Difosfonatos/etiologia , Broncodilatadores/efeitos adversos , Desprescrições , Fluoretos/uso terapêutico , Crescimento Excessivo da Gengiva/terapia , Humanos , Hiperpigmentação/terapia , Lisinopril/efeitos adversos , Losartan/efeitos adversos , Metformina/efeitos adversos , Metoprolol/efeitos adversos , Doenças da Boca/induzido quimicamente , Doenças da Boca/terapia , Omeprazol/efeitos adversos , Higiene Bucal , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/efeitos adversos , Sinvastatina/efeitos adversos , Tiroxina/efeitos adversos , Cremes Dentais/uso terapêutico , Xerostomia/terapia
9.
Niger Postgrad Med J ; 27(4): 317-324, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33154284

RESUMO

Background: Despite the availability of effective antihypertensive drugs, the quality of evidence regarding the best antihypertensive agent for the treatment of hypertensive emergencies in pregnancy is still poor. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and side effects of oral nifedipine and intravenous hydralazine for control of blood pressure (BP) in severe hypertension in pregnancy. Materials and Methods: An open-label, parallel, randomised, controlled trial of 78 pregnant women (≥28 weeks' gestation) with severe hypertension was conducted. Severe hypertension was defined as systolic BP of 160 mmHg or above and/or diastolic BP of 110 mmHg or above. They were randomly (1:1 ratio) administered oral nifedipine 20 mg or intravenous hydralazine 10 mg every 30 min up to 5 doses or until the target BP of 140-150 mmHg systolic and 90-100 mmHg diastolic was achieved. Intravenous labetalol was given if the primary treatment failed. The primary outcome measure was the number of doses needed to achieve targeted BP. The secondary outcome measures were the time needed to achieve desired BP, maternal adverse effects and perinatal outcome. Results: The sociodemographic characteristics did not differ between the two study groups. The average number of dosages (nifedipine; 1.4 ± 0.6 vs. hydralazine; 1.7 ± 0.5, P = 0.008) needed to control the BP was lower in the nifedipine arm. Time (min) taken to control the BP was similar between the groups (hydralazine; 43.7 ± 19.7 vs. nifedipine; 51.2 ± 18.9, P = 0.113). Adverse maternal and perinatal effects did not differ in the study groups. Conclusion: Oral nifedipine and intravenous hydralazine showed comparable efficacy in the BP control in the severe hypertensive disorders of pregnancy without significant difference in adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes. However, further studies are required to explore the role of these drugs in BP control during hypertensive emergencies in pregnancy. ClinicalTrials.gov: (Identification number: NCT04435210).


Assuntos
Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Hidralazina/farmacologia , Hidralazina/uso terapêutico , Nifedipino/farmacologia , Nifedipino/uso terapêutico , Nigéria , Gravidez
10.
Methodist Debakey Cardiovasc J ; 16(3): 241-244, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33133361

RESUMO

BRASH syndrome is characterized by bradycardia, renal failure, use of an atrioventricular nodal blocker (AVNB), shock, and hyperkalemia. These symptoms represent an ongoing vicious cycle in a patient with a low glomerular filtration rate taking an AVNB. Decreased clearance of the medication and hyperkalemia associated with renal failure synergize to cause bradycardia and hypoperfusion. This reaction causes renal function to worsen, thereby perpetuating the cycle of BRASH syndrome.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , Nó Atrioventricular/efeitos dos fármacos , Bradicardia/induzido quimicamente , Diltiazem/efeitos adversos , Hiperpotassemia/etiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Nó Atrioventricular/fisiopatologia , Bradicardia/diagnóstico , Bradicardia/fisiopatologia , Bradicardia/terapia , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Hiperpotassemia/diagnóstico , Hiperpotassemia/fisiopatologia , Hiperpotassemia/terapia , Rim/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Síndrome , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
JAMA ; 324(18): 1884-1895, 2020 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33170247

RESUMO

Importance: Childhood hypertension can result in adverse outcomes during adulthood; identifying and treating primary and secondary childhood hypertension may reduce such risks. Objective: To update the evidence on screening and treatment of hypertension in childhood and adolescence for the US Preventive Services Task Force. Data Sources: PubMed, Cochrane Library, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, EMBASE, and trial registries through September 3, 2019; bibliographies from retrieved articles, experts, and surveillance of the literature through October 6, 2020. Study Selection: Fair- or good-quality English-language studies evaluating diagnostic accuracy of blood pressure screening; cohort studies assessing the association of hypertension in childhood and adolescence with blood pressure or other intermediate outcomes in adulthood; randomized clinical trials (RCTs) or meta-analyses of pharmacological and lifestyle interventions. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Two reviewers independently assessed titles/abstracts and full-text articles, extracted data, and assessed study quality; the evidence was synthesized qualitatively. Main Outcomes and Measures: Sensitivity, specificity, and measures of association between childhood and adulthood blood pressure; reduction of childhood blood pressure; adverse effects of treatments. Results: Forty-two studies from 43 publications were included (N>12 400). No studies evaluated the benefits or harms of screening and the effect of treating childhood hypertension on outcomes in adulthood. One study reported a sensitivity of 0.82 and a specificity of 0.70 for 2 office-based blood pressure measurements. Twenty observational studies suggested a significant association between childhood hypertension and abnormal blood pressure in adulthood (odds ratios, 1.1-4.5; risk ratios, 1.45-3.60; hazard ratios, 2.8-3.2). Thirteen placebo-controlled RCTs and 1 meta-analysis assessed reductions in systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure from pharmacological treatments. Pooled reductions of SBP were -4.38 mm Hg (95% CI, -7.27 to -2.16) for angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and -3.07 mm Hg (95% CI, -4.99 to -1.44) for angiotensin receptor blockers. Candesartan reduced SBP by -6.56 mm Hg (P < .001; n = 240). ß-Blockers, calcium channel blockers, and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists did not achieve significant reductions over 2 to 4 weeks. SBP was significantly reduced by exercise over 8 months (-4.9 mm Hg, P ≤ .05; n = 69), by dietary approaches to stop hypertension over 3 months (-2.2 mm Hg, P < .01; n = 57), and by a combination of drug treatment and lifestyle interventions over 6 months (-7.6 mm Hg; P < .001; n = 95). Low-salt diet did not achieve reductions of blood pressure. Conclusions and Relevance: Observational studies indicate an association between hypertension in childhood and hypertension in adulthood. However, the evidence is inconclusive whether the diagnostic accuracy of blood pressure measurements is adequate for screening asymptomatic children and adolescents in primary care.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento , Adolescente , Adulto , Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/instrumentação , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Terapia Combinada , Dieta Saudável , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/terapia , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/efeitos adversos , Programas de Rastreamento/psicologia , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
12.
High Blood Press Cardiovasc Prev ; 27(6): 587-596, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33165768

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite hypertension guidelines suggest that the most effective treatment strategy to improve blood pressure (BP) target achievement is to implement the use of combination treatment, monotherapy is still widely used in the clinical practice of hypertension. AIM: To investigate BP control under monotherapy in the setting of real-life. METHODS: We extracted data from a medical database of adult outpatients who were referred to the Hypertension Unit, Sant'Andrea Hospital, Rome (IT), including anthropometric data, CV risk factors and comorbidities, presence or absence of antihypertensive therapy and concomitant medications. Among treated hypertensive patients, we identified only those under single antihypertensive agent (monotherapy). Office BP treatment targets were defined according to 2018 ESC/ESH guidelines as: (a) < 130/80 mmHg in individuals aged 18-65 years; (b) < 140/80 mmHg in those aged > 65 years. RESULTS: From an overall sample of 7797 records we selected 1578 (20.2%) hypertensive outpatients (47.3% female, age 59.5 ± 13.6 years, BMI 26.6 ± 4.4 kg/m2) treated with monotherapies, among whom 30.5% received ACE inhibitors, 37.7% ARBs, 15.8% beta-blockers, 10.6% CCBs, 3.0% diuretics, and 2.0% alpha-blockers. 36.6% of these patients reached the conventional clinic BP goal of < 140/90 mmHg, whilst the 2018 European guidelines BP treatment targets were fulfilled only in 14.0%. In particular, 10.2% patients aged 18-65 years and 20.4% of those aged > 65 years achieved the recommended BP goals. All these proportions results significantly lower than those achieved with dual (18.2%) or triple (22.2%) combination therapy, though higher than those obtained with life-style changes (10.8%). Proportions of patients on monotherapies with normal home and 24-h BP levels were 22.0% and 30.2%, respectively, though only 5.2% and 7.3% of these patients achieved sustained BP control, respectively. Ageing and dyslipidaemia showed significant and independent positive predictive value for the achievement of the recommended BP treatment targets, whereas European SCORE resulted a negative and independent predictor in outpatients treated with monotherapies. CONCLUSIONS: Our data showed a persistent use of monotherapy in the clinical practice, though with unsatisfactory BP control, especially in light of the BP treatment targets suggested by the last hypertension guidelines.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , Estudos Transversais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Roma , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
14.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(11): 1590-1597, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33221787

RESUMO

Background: Hypertension is one of the commonest cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Nigerians. We describe blood pressure (BP) control and kidney disease markers in patients with hypertension as part of measures to curb the burden of this chronic debilitating disease. Methods: Patients with hypertension in the main tertiary hospitals in three states in north central Nigeria were evaluated for indicators of CKD, including proteinuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 ml/min/1.73 m2. Patients had their early morning first void urine tested for proteinuria using Combi-10 test strips. eGFR was estimated using the MDRD equation. Results: A total of 1063 subjects (63.1% females and 36.8% males) with a mean age of 55 ± 11 years were studied. Diabetes mellitus (DM) was present in 214 (20.6%) and 422 (39.7%) had optimal BP control. The median duration of hypertension was 6 years (range 1-44 years). Proteinuria occurred in 130 (12.2%), while 212 (19.9%) had reduced eGFR and 46 (4.3%) had proteinuria and reduced eGFR. The use of calcium channel blockers [adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 0.70, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.50-0.99] and the use of more than two antihypertensive medications (AOR: 0.62, 95% CI 0.40-0.96) were associated with reduced odds of optimal BP control. Male sex (AOR: 1.75, 95% CI 1.14-2.70) and the use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blocking medications (AOR: 2.07, 95% CI 1.18-3.64) were independently associated with proteinuria while DM (AOR: 1.69, 95% CI 1.06-2.55) and treatment with more than two medications (AOR: 1.86, 95% CI 1.09-3.17) were more likely to have reduced eGFR. Conclusion: A large proportion of hypertensive patients in north-central Nigeria have poorly controlled BP. Kidney damage is common among these patients.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Rim/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Determinação da Pressão Arterial , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Proteinúria/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Fatores de Risco
15.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 10: CD012569, 2020 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33089502

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Renin inhibitors (RIs) reduce blood pressure more than placebo, with the magnitude of this effect thought to be similar to that for angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. However, a drug's efficacy in lowering blood pressure cannot be considered as a definitive indicator of its effectiveness in reducing mortality and morbidity. The effectiveness and safety of RIs compared to ACE inhibitors in treating hypertension is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the benefits and harms of renin inhibitors compared to ACE inhibitors in people with primary hypertension. SEARCH METHODS: The Cochrane Hypertension Group Information Specialist searched the following databases for randomized controlled trials up to August 2020: the Cochrane Hypertension Specialized Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and ClinicalTrials.gov. We also contacted authors of relevant papers about further published and unpublished work. The searches had no language restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized, active-controlled, double-blinded studies (RCTs) with at least four weeks follow-up in people with primary hypertension, which compared renin inhibitors with ACE inhibitors and reported morbidity, mortality, adverse events or blood pressure outcomes. We excluded people with proven secondary hypertension. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently selected the included trials, evaluated the risks of bias and entered the data for analysis. MAIN RESULTS: We include 11 RCTs involving 13,627 participants, with a mean baseline age from 51.5 to 74.2 years. Follow-up duration ranged from four weeks to 36.6 months. There was no difference between RIs and ACE inhibitors for the outcomes: all-cause mortality: risk ratio (RR) 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.93 to 1.18; 5 RCTs, 5962 participants; low-certainty evidence; total myocardial infarction: RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.22 to 3.39; 2 RCTs, 957 participants; very low-certainty evidence; adverse events: RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.03; 10 RTCs, 6007 participants;  moderate-certainty evidence; serious adverse events: RR 1.21, 95% CI 0.89 to 1.64; 10 RTCs, 6007 participants; low-certainty evidence; and withdrawal due to adverse effects: RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.68 to 1.06; 10 RTCs, 6008 participants; low-certainty evidence. No data were available for total cardiovascular events, heart failure, stroke, end-stage renal disease or change in heart rate. Low-certainty evidence suggested that RIs reduced systolic blood pressure: mean difference (MD) -1.72, 95% CI -2.47 to -0.97; 9 RCTs, 5001 participants;  and diastolic blood pressure: MD -1.18, 95% CI -1.65 to -0.72; 9 RCTs, 5001 participants,  to a greater extent than ACE inhibitors, but we judged this to be more likely due to bias than a true effect.  AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: For the treatment of hypertension, we have low certainty that renin inhibitors (RI) and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors do not differ for all-cause mortality and myocardial infarction. We have low to moderate certainty that they do not differ for adverse events. Small reductions in blood pressure with renin inhibitors compared to ACE inhibitors are of low certainty.  More independent, large, long-term trials are needed to compare RIs with ACE inhibitors, particularly assessing morbidity and mortality outcomes, but also on blood pressure-lowering effect.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Renina/antagonistas & inibidores , Idoso , Amidas/efeitos adversos , Amidas/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Fumaratos/efeitos adversos , Fumaratos/uso terapêutico , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Irbesartana/uso terapêutico , Falência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Lisinopril/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Pacientes Desistentes do Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Ramipril/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33093771

RESUMO

Background: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a known complication of pulmonary sarcoidosis and is associated with higher morbidity and mortality. Currently, there are no approved PH-targeted therapies for sarcoidosis-associated pulmonary hypertension (SAPH). Macitentan is frequently used as treatment for pulmonary arterial hypertension, but no results are known in the SAPH population. Objective: We investigated the safety and effect of macitentan as treatment for SAPH. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed our patient database for all SAPH patients receiving macitentan as treatment, with a minimum follow-up of twelve months for monitoring safety. Safety outcomes included reported side-effects, hospitalisations and mortality. Furthermore, six-minutes walking distance, New York Heart Association functional class and NT-proBNP levels were collected. Results: Six cases (three men) with a median age of 64 years (range 52-74 years) were identified. During macitentan treatment, one patient experienced side effects and aborted therapy after five days of treatment and died 16 months later. Three patients were hospitalised during treatment for congestive heart failure. Four patients showed improvement of their functional class and three patients in exercise capacity after 12 months of therapy. Conclusion: Macitentan was well tolerated in five out of six cases with severe pulmonary sarcoidosis and PH. Functional capacity improved in four cases. Prospective controlled trials are warranted before therapeutic recommendations can be made. (Sarcoidosis Vasc Diffuse Lung Dis 2020; 37 (1): 74-78).


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Pressão Arterial/efeitos dos fármacos , Antagonistas dos Receptores de Endotelina/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Artéria Pulmonar/efeitos dos fármacos , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Sarcoidose Pulmonar/complicações , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Antagonistas dos Receptores de Endotelina/efeitos adversos , Tolerância ao Exercício/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Hipertensão Pulmonar/etiologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Artéria Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sarcoidose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Sarcoidosis Vasc Diffuse Lung Dis ; 37(2): 184-191, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33093782

RESUMO

Sarcoidosis-Associated Pulmonary Hypertension (SAPH) is a common finding in patients with chronic sarcoidosis and is associated with increased mortality. The optimal treatment for SAPH is not known; however, therapies approved for Group 1 pulmonary hypertension have improved hemodynamics and functional status. Prostanoids, including epoprostenol, have been therapeutic in short-term studies of SAPH, but long-term efficacy is unknown. In this study, we evaluated the long-term effect of epoprostenol therapy in 12 patients with SAPH. Hemodynamic assessment after an average of 4.1 years of epoprostenol therapy demonstrated significant improvement in mean pulmonary arterial pressure, pulmonary vascular resistance, and cardiac output; furthermore, patients demonstrated improved NYHA functional class. To evaluate further the long-term effect of epoprostenol, we compared survival of SAPH patients to a cohort of hemodynamically matched patients from the same center treated with epoprostenol for Idiopathic Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (IPAH). Interestingly, there was no difference in survival, despite the additional systemic disease burden of the SAPH subjects. Subgroup analysis by Scadding stage demonstrated that Scadding stages 1-3 had improved survival compared to Scadding stage 4. These observations suggest that epoprostenol is an effective long-term therapy for patients with SAPH; it improves hemodynamics, functional class, and provides survival similar to that seen in a hemodynamically-matched cohort of IPAH patients. Furthermore, we identify a subgroup of SAPH patients (nonfibrotic lung disease Scadding 1-3) who may derive significant benefit from prostanoid therapy. (Sarcoidosis Vasc Diffuse Lung Dis 2020; 37 (2): 184-191).


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Pressão Arterial/efeitos dos fármacos , Epoprostenol/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Artéria Pulmonar/efeitos dos fármacos , Sarcoidose/complicações , Adulto , Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , Débito Cardíaco/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença Crônica , Epoprostenol/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Hipertensão Pulmonar/etiologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Artéria Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sarcoidose/diagnóstico , Sarcoidose/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Resistência Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Vestn Oftalmol ; 136(5): 96-102, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056969

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To study the hypotensive effectiveness and safety of Bimoptic Plus (bimatoprost 0.03% + timolol 0.5%) in patients with developed primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 30 patients aged 57 to 72 years (45 eyes). The 1st group included 15 patients (24 eyes) who were first diagnosed with developed glaucoma with moderately elevated and high intraocular pressure (IOP) and prescribed the drug as starting therapy. Patients of the 2nd group (15 patients, 21 eyes) were prescribed Bimoptic Plus with insufficient effectiveness of monotherapy with prostaglandin analogues. The follow-up period was 6 months. RESULTS: The study was completed by 26 patients (41 eyes). Three patients (10%) has stopped using Bimoptic Plus due to side effects, one (3.3%) - due to insufficient hypotensive effect. In the 1st group, the maximum IOP decrease was recorded at the 1st month of the study and amounted to 8.34±1.47 mm Hg (32.2%) compared to baseline, while after 2 weeks, 3 and 6 months it decreased to 8.1±1.52 mm Hg (31.3%), 7.93±1.35 mm Hg (30.6%) and 7.9±1.42 mm Hg (30.5%), respectively. In patients of the 2nd group, additional IOP decrease after 2 weeks, 1, 3, and 6 months from the start of therapy was 4.68±1.24 mm Hg (20.5%), 4.94±1.18 mm Hg (21.7%), 4.55±1.23 mm Hg (20%), 4.5±1.26 mm Hg (19.7%), respectively. CONCLUSION: Bimoptic Plus effectively reduces the IOP level and has the least amount adverse reactions. It can be recommended for wide use in the treatment of patients with POAG.


Assuntos
Cloprostenol , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto , Idoso , Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , Combinação de Medicamentos , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/diagnóstico , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Pressão Intraocular , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240102, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002071

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the 2017 ACC/AHA hypertension guidelines, a 10-year risk of more than 10% is considered for initiation of intensive blood pressure reduction. The current study aimed to determine which cut off limit of cardiovascular risk for starting intensive blood pressure reduction is beneficial. DESIGN: A Secondary Analysis of Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT). METHODS: Data from the SPRINT Trial was obtained from the NHLBI Data Repository Center. In the SPRINT, non-diabetic participants with SBP of ≥ 130 mmHg were randomly assigned to intensive and standard treatment arms with SBP targets of < 120 and < 140 mmHg, respectively. This study analyzed data from non-diabetic participants less than 75 years of age without cardiovascular or chronic kidney disease. The primary composite outcome was myocardial infarction, and other acute coronary syndromes, stroke, heart failure, or death from cardiovascular causes. Cox regression models were used to examine the risk of the occurrence of the SPRINT primary composite outcome. To identify the relationship between BP values and the log hazards, natural cubic spline functions were performed. RESULTS: In the analysis, 4292 patients were enrolled. The results demonstrated a clear J-shaped relationship between the effect of intensive blood pressure control and the risk of CVD events and 10-year Framingham cardiovascular risk levels at a cut-off limit of approximately <7%. CONCLUSIONS: This post-hoc secondary analyses of the SPRINT trial showed that a cut off value of more than 7% may be useful in selecting patients suitable for initiation of blood pressure reduction.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/sangue , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Medição de Risco
20.
High Blood Press Cardiovasc Prev ; 27(6): 527-537, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001356

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Benidipine and amlodipine are two well-known drugs used in hypertensive patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). AIM: In this systematic review we aimed to compare benidipine and amlodipine in terms of efficacy in the management of hypertensive patients. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Cochrane CENTRAL, SCOPUS and Web of Science for relevant clinical trials and excluded observational studies. Quality appraisal was evaluated according to GRADE and we assessed the risk of bias using the Cochrane's risk of bias tool. We included the following outcomes: Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and urinary albumin/creatinine ratio. Data were pooled as mean differences (MD) with relative 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: Eight studies were eligible for our meta-analysis. We found no significant difference between both drugs regarding systolic (MD = - 0.21 [- 1.48, 1.89], (P = 0.81) and diastolic (MD = 0.01[- 0.51, 0.53], (P = 0.97)) blood pressure measurements. The overall heart rate did not differ as well (MD = - 0.03 [- 1.63, 1.57], (P = 0.97)). We found that benidipine was statistically better than amlodipine in terms of eGFR (MD = 1.07 [0.43, 1.71], (P = 0.001)), and urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (MD = - 43.41 [- 53.53, - 33.29], (P < 0.00001)). CONCLUSIONS: Finally we conclude that benidipine seems to show more positive and promising results in the management of hypertensive patients with chronic kidney disease.


Assuntos
Anlodipino/uso terapêutico , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Di-Hidropiridinas/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Vasodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anlodipino/efeitos adversos , Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/efeitos adversos , Di-Hidropiridinas/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Vasodilatadores/efeitos adversos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA