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1.
Parasitol Res ; 123(2): 122, 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38311672

RESUMO

Protozoal infections cause significant morbidity and mortality in humans and animals. The use of several antiprotozoal drugs is associated with serious adverse effects and resistance development, and drugs that are more effective are urgently needed. Microorganisms, mammalian cells and fluids, insects, and reptiles are sources of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) that act against pathogenic microorganisms; these AMPs have been widely studied as a promising alternative therapeutic option to conventional antibiotics, aiming to treat infections caused by multidrug-resistant pathogens. One advantage of AMP molecules is their adaptability, as they can be easily fine-tuned for broad-spectrum or targeted activity by changing the amino acid residues in their sequence. Consequently, these variations in structural and physicochemical properties can alter the antimicrobial activities of AMPs and decrease resistance development. This article presents an overview of peptide activities against amebiasis, giardiasis, trichomoniasis, Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, malaria, and toxoplasmosis. AMPs and their analogs demonstrate great potential as therapeutics, with potent and selective activity, when compared with commercially available drugs, and hold the potential to act as new scaffolds for the development of novel anti-protozoal drugs.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Animais , Humanos , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/farmacologia , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/uso terapêutico , Peptídeos Antimicrobianos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Mamíferos
2.
Future Med Chem ; 16(4): 335-348, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38314616

RESUMO

Aim: Recently, thiadiazole-containing drugs have gained greater clinical relevance and are being explored for the development of new antidiabetic, antiurease and antimicrobial agents that target drug resistance. Methods & results: The authors disclose the synthesis of N-(5-[4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)methanimine derivatives starting from 4-(trifluoromethyl)benzoic acid. All of the synthesized derivatives were evaluated for their biological potential in order to investigate the inhibitory activity against antidiabetic, antiurease and antibacterial profiles. Compounds 1, 2 and 9 showed excellent inhibitory activities due to the hydrogen bonding presence of -OH, -F and -CF3 substitutions attached with the phenyl ring. Conclusion: The present study provides potent antidiabetic, antiurease and antimicrobial agents that can be further optimized to discover novel antidiabetic, antiurease drugs.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Tiadiazóis , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Bases de Schiff/farmacologia , Tiadiazóis/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Estrutura Molecular
3.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0297921, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38315668

RESUMO

For the first time since 2015, the World Health Organization's (WHO) global Antimicrobial Resistance and Use Surveillance (GLASS) featured both global reports for antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and antimicrobial consumption (AMC) data in its annual reports. In this study we investigated the relationship of AMR with AMC within participating countries reported in the GLASS 2022 report. Our analysis found a statistically significant correlation between beta-lactam/cephalosporin and fluoroquinolones consumption and AMR to these antimicrobials associated with bloodstream E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae among the participating countries (P<0.05). We observed that for every 1 unit increase in defined daily dose DDD of beta-lactam/cephalosporins and quinolone consumptions among the countries, increased the recoveries of bloodstream-associated beta-lactam/cephalosporins-resistant E. coli/Klebsiella spp. by 11-22% and quinolone-resistant E. coli/Klebsiella spp. by 31-40%. When we compared the antimicrobial consumptions between the antimicrobial ATC (Alphanumeric codes developed by WHO) groups and countries, we observed a statistically significant higher daily consumption of beta-lactam-penicillins (J01C, DDD difference range: 5.23-8.13) and cephalosporins (J01D, DDD difference range: 2.57-5.13) compared to other antimicrobial groups among the countries (adjusted for multiple comparisons using Tukey's method). Between the participating countries, we observed a statistically significant higher daily consumption of antimicrobial groups in Iran (DDD difference range: 3.63-4.84) and Uganda (DDD difference range: 3.79-5.01) compared to other participating countries (adjusted for multiple comparisons using Tukey's method). Understanding AMC and how it relates to AMR at the global scale is critical in the global AMR policy development and implementation of global antimicrobial stewardship.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Anti-Infecciosos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Escherichia coli , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Cefalosporinas/farmacologia , Fluoroquinolonas/farmacologia , Fluoroquinolonas/uso terapêutico , beta-Lactamas/farmacologia , Klebsiella
4.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 24(1): 76, 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317130

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The genus Melaleuca (Myrtaceae) comprises dozens of essential oil (EO)-rich species that are appreciated worldwide for their various medicinal values. Additionally, they are renowned in traditional medicine for their antimicrobial, antifungal, and other skin-related activities. The current study investigated the chemical profile and skin-related activities of volatile constituents derived from M. subulata (Cheel) Craven (Synonym Callistemon subulatus) leaves cultivated in Egypt for the first time. METHODS: The volatile components were extracted using hydrodistillation (HD), headspace (HS), and supercritical fluid (SF). GC/MS and Kovat's retention indices were implemented to identify the volatile compounds, while the variations among the components were assessed using Principal Component Analysis and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis. The radical scavenging activity was assessed using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and ß-carotene assays. Moreover, the anti-aging effect was evaluated using anti-elastase, and anti-collagenase, while the antimicrobial potential was deduced from the agar diffusion and broth microdilution assays. Lastly, the molecular docking study was executed using C-docker protocol in Discovery Studio 4.5 to rationalize the binding affinity with targeted enzymes. RESULTS: The SF extraction approach offered the highest EO yield, being 0.75%. According to the GC/MS analysis, monoterpene hydrocarbons were the most abundant volatile class in the HD oil sample (54.95%), with α-pinene being the most copious component (35.17%). On the contrary, the HS and SF volatile constituents were pioneered with oxygenated monoterpenes (72.01 and 36.41%) with eucalyptol and isopulegone being the most recognized components, representing 67.75 and 23.46%, respectively. The chemometric analysis showed segregate clustering of the three extraction methods with α-pinene, eucalyptol, and isopulegone serving as the main discriminating phytomarkers. Concerning the bioactivity context, both SF and HD-EOs exhibited antioxidant effects in terms of ORAC and ß-carotene bleaching. The HD-EO displayed potent anti-tyrosinase activity, whereas the SF-EO exhibited significant anti-elastase properties. Moreover, SF-EO shows selective activity against gram-positive skin pathogens, especially S. aureus. Ultimately, molecular docking revealed binding scores for the volatile constituents; analogous to those of the docked reference drugs. CONCLUSIONS: M. subulata leaves constitute bioactive volatile components that may be indorsed as bioactive hits for managing skin aging and infection, though further in vivo studies are recommended.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos , Melaleuca , Myrtaceae , Óleos Voláteis , Melaleuca/química , Eucaliptol , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , beta Caroteno , Quimiometria , Staphylococcus aureus , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Monoterpenos/farmacologia
5.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 19: 1017-1039, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317847

RESUMO

Traditional chemotherapy is one of the main methods of cancer treatment, which is largely limited by severe side effects and frequent development of multi-drug resistance by cancer cells. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with high efficiency and low toxicity, as one of the most promising new drugs to replace chemoradiotherapy, have become a current research hotspot, attracting the attention of worldwide researchers. AMPs are natural-source small peptides from the innate immune system, and certain AMPs can selectively kill a broad spectrum of cancer cells while exhibiting less damage to normal cells. Although it involves intracellular mechanisms, AMPs exert their anti-cancer effects mainly through membrane destruction effect; thus, AMPs also hold unique advantages in fighting drug-resistant cancer cells. However, the poor stability and hemolytic toxicity of peptides limit their clinical application. Fortunately, functionalized nanoparticles have many possibilities in overcoming the shortcomings of AMPs, which provides a huge prospect for better application of AMPs. In this paper, we briefly introduce the characteristics and different sources of AMPs, review and summarize the mechanisms of action and the research status of AMPs used as an anticancer therapy, and finally focus on the further use of AMPs nano agents in the anti-cancer direction.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Neoplasias , Humanos , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/farmacologia , Peptídeos Antimicrobianos , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Antibacterianos/farmacologia
6.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 40(3): 86, 2024 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38319399

RESUMO

In this study salicylic acid loaded containing selenium nanoparticles was synthesized and called SA@CS-Se NPs. the chitosan was used as a natural stabilizer during the synthesis process. Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission electron microscopy (FESEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to describe the physicochemical characteristics of the SA@CS-Se NPs. The PXRD examination revealed that the grain size was around 31.9 nm. TEM and FESEM techniques showed the spherical shape of SA@CS-Se NPs. Additionally, the analysis of experiments showed that SA@CS-Se NPs have antibacterial properties against 4 ATCC bacteria; So that with concentrations of 75, 125, 150, and 100 µg/ml, it inhibited the biofilm formation of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, and Staphylococcus aureus respectively. Also, at the concentration of 300 µg/ml, it removed 22.76, 23.2, 10.62, and 18.08% biofilm caused by E. coli, P. aeruginosa, B. subtilis, and S. aureus respectively. The synthesized SA@CS-Se NPs may find an application to reduce the unsafe influence of pathogenic microbes and, hence, eliminate microbial contamination.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Quitosana , Nanopartículas , Selênio , Ácido Salicílico/farmacologia , Selênio/farmacologia , Quitosana/farmacologia , Escherichia coli , Staphylococcus aureus , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Bacillus subtilis , Biofilmes , Pseudomonas aeruginosa
7.
Can Vet J ; 65(2): 146-155, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38304484

RESUMO

Objective: To examine antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in commensal fecal Escherichia coli (E. coli) from extensively managed beef calves and cows in western Canada and describe the differences among cows and calves in the spring and fall. Animal: Beef cattle, cow-calf. Procedure: Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted on generic E. coli isolates collected from 388 calves and 387 cows from 39 herds following calving in 2021, 419 calves from 39 herds near weaning, and 357 cows from 36 herds at pregnancy testing. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were measured with the NARMS CMV5AGNF plate for Gram-negative bacteria and interpreted using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute standard breakpoints for humans. Results: Only 16% (242/1551) of all isolates from 97% (38/39) of herds were resistant to ≥ 1 antimicrobial. Generic E. coli isolates were most commonly resistant to sulfisoxazole (11%, 175/1551), followed by tetracycline (9.3%, 145/1551) and chloramphenicol (3.5%, 55/1551). Isolates from calves in the spring were more likely to be resistant to sulfisoxazole, tetracycline, and chloramphenicol than those from cows in the spring or calves in the fall. Multiclass-resistant isolates were identified in 5% (39/807) of calves. Only 2 isolates recovered from cows were resistant to antimicrobials of very high importance for human health. Conclusion and clinical relevance: Most generic E. coli isolates were pansusceptible. The observed resistance patterns were consistent with earlier studies of AMR from commensal E. coli in this region. Baseline AMR data for cow-calf herds are not currently collected as part of routine surveillance, but are essential to inform antimicrobial use policy and stewardship.


Résistance aux antimicrobiens chez E. coli générique isolé dans des troupeaux vache-veau de l'Ouest canadien. Objectif: Examiner la résistance aux antimicrobiens (RAM) chez Escherichia coli de la flore fécale commensale (E. coli) provenant de veaux et de vaches de boucherie en élevage extensif dans l'ouest du Canada et décrire les différences entre les vaches et les veaux au printemps et à l'automne. Animal: Bovins de boucherie, vache-veau. Procédure: Des tests de sensibilité aux antimicrobiens ont été effectués sur des isolats génériques d'E. coli collectés auprès de 388 veaux et 387 vaches de 39 troupeaux après le vêlage en 2021, de 419 veaux de 39 troupeaux à l'approche du sevrage et de 357 vaches de 36 troupeaux lors des tests de gestation. Les concentrations minimales inhibitrices ont été mesurées avec la plaque NARMS CMV5AGNF pour les bactéries à Gram négatif et interprétées à l'aide des seuils standard pour les humains du Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Résultats: Seulement 16 % (242/1 551) de tous les isolats provenant de 97 % (38/39) des troupeaux étaient résistants à ≥ 1 antimicrobien. Les isolats génériques d'E. coli étaient le plus souvent résistants au sulfisoxazole (11 %, 175/1 551), suivi de la tétracycline (9,3 %, 145/1 551) et du chloramphénicol (3,5 %, 55/1 551). Les isolats provenant des veaux au printemps étaient plus susceptibles d'être résistants au sulfisoxazole, à la tétracycline et au chloramphénicol que ceux provenant des vaches au printemps ou des veaux à l'automne. Des isolats résistants à plusieurs classes ont été identifiés chez 5 % (39/807) des veaux. Seuls deux isolats récupérés chez des vaches étaient résistants à des antimicrobiens de très haute importance pour la santé humaine. Conclusion et pertinence clinique: La plupart des isolats génériques d'E. coli étaient sensibles à l'ensemble des antimicrobiens. Les profils de résistance observés concordaient avec les études antérieures sur la RAM provenant d'E. coli commensal dans cette région. Les données de base sur la RAM pour les troupeaux vache-veau ne sont pas actuellement recueillies dans le cadre de la surveillance de routine, mais elles sont essentielles pour éclairer la politique et la gestion de l'utilisation des antimicrobiens.(Traduit par Dr Serge Messier).


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Doenças dos Bovinos , Infecções por Escherichia coli , Feminino , Humanos , Animais , Bovinos , Escherichia coli , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Escherichia coli/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Sulfisoxazol , Canadá/epidemiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Cloranfenicol , Tetraciclina
8.
J Mater Sci Mater Med ; 35(1): 12, 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38315254

RESUMO

The development of wound dressings from biomaterials has been the subject of research due to their unique structural and functional characteristics. Proteins from animal origin, such as collagen and chitosan, act as promising materials for applications in injuries and chronic wounds, functioning as a repairing agent. This study aims to evaluate in vitro effects of scaffolds with different formulations containing bioactive compounds such as collagen, chitosan, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and ε-poly-lysine (ε-PL). We manufactured a scaffold made of a collagen hydrogel bioconjugated with chitosan by crosslinking and addition of NAC and ε-PL. Cell viability was verified by resazurin and live/dead assays and the ultrastructure of biomaterials was evaluated by SEM. Antimicrobial sensitivity was assessed by antibiogram. The healing potential of the biomaterial was evaluated in vivo, in a model of healing of excisional wounds in mice. On the 7th day after the injury, the wounds and surrounding skin were processed for evaluation of biochemical and histological parameters associated with the inflammatory process. The results showed great cell viability and increase in porosity after crosslinking while antimicrobial action was observed in scaffolds containing NAC and ε-PL. Chitosan scaffolds bioconjugated with NAC/ε-PL showed improvement in tissue healing, with reduced lesion size and reduced inflammation. It is concluded that scaffolds crosslinked with chitosan-NAC-ε-PL have the desirable characteristics for tissue repair at low cost and could be considered promising biomaterials in the practice of regenerative medicine.


Assuntos
Acetilcisteína , Anti-Infecciosos , Quitosana , Animais , Camundongos , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Quitosana/química , Colágeno/química , Tecidos Suporte/química , Cicatrização , Polilisina/química
9.
EBioMedicine ; 100: 104992, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38306897

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Selective reporting is a promising tool for antimicrobial stewardship, but in wound cultures, its effects on the use of antimicrobials are unknown. Our HUS Diagnostic Center Bacteriology laboratory refined its selective reporting protocol for wound cultures during 2017-2018. In this study we aimed to show our protocol's impact on the frequency of antimicrobial escalation. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients in the wound-care ward of a primary-care hospital in Helsinki, Finland, from 2014 to 2016 (pre-intervention) and from 2019 to April 2021 (post-intervention). With the inclusion criterion being wound-culture collection, this provided us with 299 patients, of which 152 were in the pre-intervention group, and 147 were post-intervention. We collected the data from medical records and compared the pre-intervention- with the post-intervention group in terms of patient profiles, microbiology reports, antimicrobial treatment, and treatment outcomes. FINDINGS: In the pre-intervention group 40% of the patients were male and 60% female and in the post-intervention group 49% and 51% respectively. The frequency of AST reported had decreased from 63% in the pre-intervention group to 37% post-intervention (OR 0.35, p < 0.001). The post-intervention group demonstrated lower frequencies of antimicrobial treatment 7 d after wound culture collection, 82% pre-intervention vs 58% post-intervention (OR 0.31, p < 0.001), and antimicrobial escalation, 42% vs 20% (OR 0.35, p < 0.001) respectively. Length of hospital stay, and all-cause mortality were similar between the groups. INTERPRETATION: Selective reporting of wound cultures appears an effective and safe measure to reduce the use of antimicrobials. FUNDING: HUS Diagnostic Center.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Anti-Infecciosos , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Hospitais
10.
Molecules ; 29(3)2024 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38338393

RESUMO

Synthesis of the natural product prattinin A and some new derivatives has been achieved using abietic acid. The final products and a selection of intermediates were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against three human pathogenic bacteria: E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and S. aureus. The results showed that the antibacterial activity varies depending on the chemical structure of the compounds. Notably, compound 27 exhibited the most potent activity against E. coli and P. aeruginosa, with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 11.7 µg/mL, comparable to that of the standard antibiotic ciprofloxacin, and strong activity against S. aureus, with an MIC of 23.4 µg/mL. Furthermore, we assessed the stability of these derivative compounds as potential antimicrobial agents and determined their interactions with the crystal structure of the protein receptor mutant TEM-12 from E. coli (pdb:1ESU) using molecular docking via UCSF Chimera software 1.17.3. The results suggest that 27 has potential as a natural antibiotic agent.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Staphylococcus aureus , Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Abietanos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estrutura Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
11.
Molecules ; 29(3)2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38338422

RESUMO

The fusion of penetrating peptides (PPs), e.g., cell penetration peptides (CPPs) or antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), together with antimicrobial agents is an expanding research field. Specific AMPs, such as lactoferricin B (LfcinB), have demonstrated strong antibacterial, antifungal, and antiparasitic activity, as well as valuable anticancer activity, proving beneficial in the development of anticancer conjugates. The resulting conjugates offer potential dual functionality, acting as both an anticancer and an antimicrobial agent. This is especially necessary in cancer treatment, where microbial infections pose a critical risk. Leukemic cells frequently exhibit altered outer lipid membranes compared to healthy cells, making them more sensitive to compounds that interfere with their membrane. In this study, we revisited and reanalyzed our earlier research on LfcinB and its conjugates. Furthermore, we carried out new experiments with a specific focus on cell proliferation, changes in membrane asymmetric phosphatidylserine location, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, mitochondrial functions, and in vitro bacterial topoisomerase inhibition.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Anti-Infecciosos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Lactoferrina/farmacologia , Lactoferrina/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Peptídeos/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
12.
Molecules ; 29(3)2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38338423

RESUMO

Drug resistance represents one of the great plagues of our time worldwide. This largely limits the treatment of common infections and requires the development of new antibiotics or other alternative approaches. Noteworthy, the indiscriminate use of antibiotics is mostly responsible for the selection of mutations that confer drug resistance to microbes. In this regard, recently, ozone has been raising interest for its unique biological properties when dissolved in natural oils. Ozonated oils have been reported to act in a non-specific way on microorganisms hindering the acquisition of advantageous mutations that result in resistance. Here, we focused on the antimicrobial effect of two commercial olive (OOO) and sunflower seeds (OSO) oils. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and thermal analysis showed the change in the chemical composition of the oils after ozonation treatment. Different ozonated oil concentrations were then used to evaluate their antimicrobial profile against Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli by agar diffusion and broth dilution methods. Cytotoxicity was also evaluated in keratinocytes and epithelial cells. Overall, our results revealed that both OOO and OSO showed a potent microbicidal effect, especially against C. albicans (IC50 = OOO: 0.3 mg/mL and OSO: 0.2 mg/mL) and E. faecalis (IC50 = OOO: 0.4 mg/mL and OSO: 2.8 mg/mL) albeit exerting a certain effect also against S. aureus and E. coli. Moreover, both OOO and OSO do not yield any relevant cytotoxic effect at the active concentrations in both cell lines. This indicates that the ozonated oils studied are not toxic for mammalian cells despite exerting a potent antimicrobial effect on specific microorganisms. Therefore, OOO and OSO may be considered to integrate standard therapies in the treatment of common infections, likely overcoming drug resistance issues.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Helianthus , Óleos Voláteis , Olea , Animais , Staphylococcus aureus , Escherichia coli , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Óleos de Plantas/farmacologia , Óleos de Plantas/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Sementes , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mamíferos
14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 24(1): 235, 2024 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38383425

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the global increase in the older population, the proportion of those receiving care in long-term care facilities (LTCFs) has also been increasing. We assessed the epidemiology, antibiotic susceptibility, and colonization status of drug-resistant organisms in patients transferred from LTCFs. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients transferred from LTCFs between 2017 and 2022. The reasons for admission, antimicrobial susceptibility, and colonization rates of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) were recorded. We analyzed the susceptibility and colonization rates by year to identify trends. RESULTS: Of the 936 patients transferred from LTCFs, 54.3% were admitted to the intensive care unit and 12.5% died. The most common reason for admission was infection (n = 573, 61.2%), followed by gastrointestinal bleeding (n = 67, 7.2%) and cerebrovascular disorder (n = 65, 6.9%). A total of 452 Enterobacterales strains were isolated, and their susceptibility rates to ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime were 33.3% and 35.6%, respectively. A total of 54.9% were extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing strains, and 4.9% of them were carbapenem-resistant, both of which showed an increasing trend (P = 0.024 and P < 0.001, respectively). The prevalence rates of CRE, CRAB, and MRSA colonization were 9.2%, 7.1%, and 23.1%, respectively. CRE colonization showed a significant increase (P < 0.001), with carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales accounting for 75.9% of cases. CONCLUSIONS: Patients transferred from LTCFs are primarily affected by infections and exhibit high resistance rates. The increasing trend in CRE colonization rates each year highlights the need for the implementation of rigorous infection control measures for effective management.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Humanos , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Assistência de Longa Duração , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Carbapenêmicos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico
15.
ACS Appl Bio Mater ; 7(2): 1301-1310, 2024 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38305746

RESUMO

Medical dressings, as a cover for wounds, can replace damaged skin in the wound healing process to play a temporary barrier role, avoid or control wound infection, and provide a favorable environment for wound healing. Therefore, there is an urgent need for medical antimicrobial dressings for the treatment of chronic wounds. Although traditional polyurethane foam has been widely used in medical dressings, conventional polyurethane foams are primarily prepared using nonbiocompatible isocyanate-based compounds, which are potentially hazardous for both operators and applications in the medical field. Here, we propose nonisocyanate polyurethane foams naturally derived from lignin by enzymatic lignin alkylation, cyclic carbonation modification, and polymerization with diamine and the addition of a blowing agent. Silver nanoparticle solution was added during foaming to confer antimicrobial properties. This lignin-based nonisocyanate polyurethane/silver composite foam (named NIPU foam-silver) using a green synthesis method has good mechanical properties, which can be used to manufacture polyurethane/silver foams, and thermal and antimicrobial properties. Notably, NIPU foam-Ag showed more than 95% bactericidal efficacy against both Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus within 4 h. Evaluation of in vitro wounds in mice showed that this antimicrobial composite foam rapidly promotes wound healing and repairs damaged tissue. This suggests that this biobased biodegradable antimicrobial foam has significant scope for clinical applications in wound management.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Animais , Camundongos , Poliuretanos/farmacologia , Lignina/farmacologia , Prata/farmacologia , Prata/uso terapêutico , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Cicatrização
16.
ACS Appl Bio Mater ; 7(2): 787-790, 2024 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38324992

RESUMO

Living probiotic bacteria can be used as an alternative treatment to fight antibiotic-resistant, pathogenic bacteria. Electrospinning probiotics into nanofibers allows the probiotics to be conveniently applied like a wound dressing to protect open wounds while providing antimicrobial activity. In this letter, we encapsulated Lactococcus lactis into biocompatible, alginate-based nanofiber scaffolds. After cross-linking the scaffold to increase the chemical stability of the fibers, the encapsulated L. lactis cells maintained their ability to inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus. This living wound dressing was especially effective at inhibiting the growth of clinically relevant methicillin-resistant S. aureus.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Nanofibras , Probióticos , Alginatos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Bactérias , Bandagens , Probióticos/farmacologia , Probióticos/uso terapêutico
17.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 24(1): 94, 2024 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38365676

RESUMO

The primary aim of this investigation was to determine the anticancer and antimicrobial properties of essential oils (EOs) extracted from the leaves of Aloysia citriodora Palau, which were procured from four separate locations in Palestine, in addition to analyzing their chemical composition. These areas include Jericho, which has the distinction of being the lowest location on Earth, at 260 m below sea level. The EOs were acquired by hydrodistillation, and their chemical composition was examined utilizing gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of EOs was assessed against six bacterial strains and one fungal species using 96-well microtiter plates. The primary components found in these oils are geranial (26.32-37.22%), neral (18.38-29.00%), and α-curcumene (7.76-16.91%) in three regions. α-Curcumene (26.94%), spathulenol (13.69%), geranial (10.79%), caryophyllene oxide (8.66%), and neral (7.59%) were found to be the most common of the 32 chemical components in the EO from Jericho. The EOs exhibited bactericidal properties, particularly against Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and showed highly effective fungicidal activity. Nevertheless, the antifungal efficacy of the EO was found to surpass its antibacterial activity when administered at lower dosages. The EOs exhibited anticancer activities against melanoma cancer cells, as indicated by their IC50 values, which ranged from 4.65 to 7.96 µg/mL. A. citriodora EO possesses substantial antifungal and anticancer characteristics, rendering it appropriate for utilization in food-related contexts, hence potentially enhancing the sustainability of the food sector.


Assuntos
Monoterpenos Acíclicos , Anti-Infecciosos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Óleos Voláteis , Sesquiterpenos , Verbenaceae , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/química , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/química , Palau , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química
18.
Vet Res ; 55(1): 20, 2024 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38365712

RESUMO

In mammary glands, the formation of less-permeable tight junctions (TJs) and the production of antimicrobial compounds like lactoferrin and defensins are important for preventing mastitis. Resveratrol, a polyphenol contained in red grapes, is known to protect mammary epithelial cells (MECs) from oxidative stress; however, oral administration of resveratrol causes a decrease in certain biological processes through conjugation and metabolic conversion. In this study, we determined the beneficial effects of resveratrol on TJs and antimicrobial compounds in cultured goat MECs by adding it to the medium, and in lactating goat mammary glands by topical application for percutaneous absorption. TJ barrier function was evaluated by transepithelial resistance and expression or localization pattern of claudins for culture model in vitro and by somatic cell count, Na+, albumin, and IgG in milk for topical application in vivo. Concentrations of antimicrobial compounds and cytokines were measured using ELISA. Activation of STAT3 was evaluated by Western blotting. Resveratrol strengthened TJ barrier function by upregulating claudin-3 in cultured MECs and topical application to udders reduced somatic cell count, Na+, albumin, and IgG in milk. Resveratrol increased ß-defensin and S100A7 levels in cultured MECs and milk. In addition, resveratrol down-regulated cytokine production and STAT3 pathway. These findings suggest that the topical application of resveratrol to udders may be effective in preventing mastitis.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Doenças das Cabras , Mastite , Feminino , Animais , Junções Íntimas , Lactação/metabolismo , Resveratrol/farmacologia , Resveratrol/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Leite/metabolismo , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , Mastite/tratamento farmacológico , Mastite/prevenção & controle , Mastite/veterinária , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Cabras , Albuminas/metabolismo , Albuminas/farmacologia , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Doenças das Cabras/metabolismo
19.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 24(1): 93, 2024 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38365729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multidrug resistance (MDR) in the family Enterobacteriaceae is a perniciously increasing threat to global health security. The discovery of new antimicrobials having the reversing drug resistance potential may contribute to augment and revive the antibiotic arsenal in hand. This study aimed to explore the anti-Enterobacteriaceae capability of bioactive polyphenols from Punica granatum (P. granatum) and their co-action with antibiotics against clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae predominantly prevalent in South Asian countries. METHODS: The Kandhari P. granatum (Pakistani origin) extracts were tested for anti-Enterobacteriaceae activity by agar well diffusion assay against MDR Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, serovar Typhimurium and Escherichia coli. Predominant compounds of active extract were determined by mass spectrometry and screened for bioactivity by agar well diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay. The active punicalagin was further evaluated at sub-inhibitory concentrations (SICs) for coactivity with nine conventional antimicrobials using a disc diffusion assay followed by time-kill experiments that proceeded with SICs of punicalagin and antimicrobials. RESULTS: Among all P. granatum crude extracts, pomegranate peel methanol extract showed the largest inhibition zones of 25, 22 and 19 mm, and the MICs as 3.9, 7.8 and 7.8 mg/mL for S. typhi, S. typhimurium and E. coli, respectively. Punicalagin and ellagic acid were determined as predominant compounds by mass spectrometry. In plate assay, punicalagin (10 mg/mL) was active with hazy inhibition zones of 17, 14, and 13 mm against S. typhi, S. typhimurium and E. coli, respectively. However, in broth dilution assay punicalagin showed no MIC up to 10 mg/mL. The SICs 30 µg, 100 µg, and 500 µg of punicalagin combined with antimicrobials i.e., aminoglycoside, ß-lactam, and fluoroquinolone act in synergy against MDR strains with % increase in inhibition zone values varying from 3.4 ± 2.7% to 73.8 ± 8.4%. In time-kill curves, a significant decrease in cell density was observed with the SICs of antimicrobials/punicalagin (0.03-60 µg/mL/30, 100, 500 µg/mL of punicalagin) combinations. CONCLUSIONS: The P. granatum peel methanol extract exhibited antimicrobial activity against MDR Enterobacteriaceae pathogens. Punicalagin, the bacteriostatic flavonoid act as a concentration-dependent sensitizing agent for antimicrobials against Enterobacteriaceae. Our findings for the therapeutic punicalagin-antimicrobial combination prompt further evaluation of punicalagin as a potent activator for drugs, which otherwise remain less or inactive against MDR strains.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Taninos Hidrolisáveis , Punica granatum , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Polifenóis , Enterobacteriaceae , Escherichia coli , Ágar , Metanol , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos
20.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 40(3): 102, 2024 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38366174

RESUMO

Despite significant advancements in diagnostics and treatments over the years, the problem of antimicrobial drug resistance remains a pressing issue in public health. The reduced effectiveness of existing antimicrobial drugs has prompted efforts to seek alternative treatments for microbial pathogens or develop new drug candidates. Interestingly, nanomaterials are currently gaining global attention as a possible next-generation antibiotics. Nanotechnology holds significant importance, particularly when addressing infections caused by multi-drug-resistant organisms. Alternatively, these biomaterials can also be combined with antibiotics and other potent biomaterials, providing excellent synergistic effects. Over the past two decades, nanoparticles have gained significant attention among research communities. Despite the complexity of some of their synthesis strategies and chemistry, unrelenting efforts have been recorded in synthesizing potent and highly effective nanomaterials using different approaches. With the ongoing advancements in nanotechnology, integrating it into medical procedures presents novel approaches for improving the standard of patient healthcare. Although the field of nanotechnology offers promises, much remains to be learned to overcome the several inherent issues limiting their full translation to clinics. Here, we comprehensively discussed nanotechnology-based materials, focusing exclusively on metallic nanomaterials and highlighting the advances in their synthesis, chemistry, and mechanisms of action against bacterial pathogens. Importantly, we delve into the current challenges and prospects associated with the technology.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Nanoestruturas , Humanos , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/química , Nanoestruturas/uso terapêutico , Nanoestruturas/química , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química
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