Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 21.650
Filtrar
1.
Carbohydr Polym ; 250: 116800, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33049807

RESUMO

Chitosan, as a biodegradable and biocompatible polymer, is characterized by anti-microbial and anti-cancer properties. It lately has received a widespread interest for use as the pulmonary particulate backbone materials of drug carrier for the treatment of infectious disease and cancer. The success of chitosan as pulmonary particulate drug carrier is a critical interplay of their mucoadhesive, permeation enhancement and site/cell-specific attributes. In the case of nanocarriers, various microencapsulation and micro-nano blending systems have been devised to equip them with an appropriate aerodynamic character to enable efficient pulmonary aerosolization and inhalation. The late COVID-19 infection is met with acute respiratory distress syndrome and cancer. Chitosan and its derivatives are found useful in combating HCoV and cancer as a function of their molecular weight, substituent type and its degree of substitution. The interest in chitosan is expected to rise in the next decade from the perspectives of drug delivery in combination with its therapeutic performance.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/química , Antineoplásicos/química , Quitosana/análogos & derivados , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia
2.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 21(7): 733-740, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020355

RESUMO

AIM: Phytomedicine has been commonly practiced as a form of traditional medicine in various cultures for the treatment of oral diseases. Recently, it has gained importance as an alternative to conventional treatment. Several extracts of plants and fruits have been recently evaluated for their potential activity against microorganisms involved in the development of dental caries. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity and antiadherent effect of the crude organic extract (COE) and three partitions (aqueous, butanolic, and chloroformic) of Psidium guajava (guava) leaves on a cariogenic biofilm model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Guava leaves were obtained from the mountains of northern Peru, where they grow wild and free of pesticides. The antimicrobial activity of the COEs and partitions against Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus gordonii was determined by measuring the inhibition halos, while the effect on biofilm adhesion was determined by measuring the optical density using spectrophotometry. RESULTS: An antibacterial effect of the COE and chloroformic partition against S. gordonii (p < 0.05) was found, as was a significant effect on biofilm adherence, with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.78 mg/mL, which was maintained throughout the 7 days of evaluation. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the COEs and their chloroformic partition have antimicrobial and antibiotic effects against this strain of S. gordonii, making them of particular interest for evaluation as a promising alternative for the prevention of dental caries. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: By knowing the antimicrobial effect of Psidium guajava, this substance can be effectively used in products aimed to prevent dental caries and periodontal disease.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Cárie Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Psidium , Biofilmes , Humanos , Peru , Folhas de Planta
3.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008660, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866199

RESUMO

Aedes mosquitoes can transmit dengue and several other severe vector-borne viral diseases, thereby influencing millions of people worldwide. Insects primarily control and clear the viral infections via their innate immune systems. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (MAPKs) and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are both evolutionarily conserved components of the innate immune systems. In this study, we investigated the role of MAPKs in Aedes mosquitoes following DENV infection by using genetic and pharmacological approaches. We demonstrated that knockdown of ERK, but not of JNK or p38, significantly enhances the viral replication in Aedes mosquito cells. The Ras/ERK signaling is activated in both the cells and midguts of Aedes mosquitoes following DENV infection, and thus plays a role in restricting the viral infection, as both genetic and pharmacological activation of the Ras/ERK pathway significantly decreases the viral titers. In contrast, inhibition of the Ras/ERK pathway enhances DENV infection. In addition, we identified a signaling crosstalk between the Ras/ERK pathway and DENV-induced AMPs in which defensin C participates in restricting DENV infection in Aedes mosquitoes. Our results reveal that the Ras/ERK signaling pathway couples AMPs to mediate the resistance of Aedes mosquitoes to DENV infection, which provides a new insight into understanding the crosstalk between MAPKs and AMPs in the innate immunity of mosquito vectors during the viral infection.


Assuntos
Aedes/virologia , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/farmacologia , Vírus da Dengue/imunologia , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/farmacologia , Mosquitos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Sistema Digestório/virologia , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Imunidade Inata , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Carga Viral , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(9): 1188-1193, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913155

RESUMO

Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial effect of Erbium, chromium-doped yttrium, scandium, gallium, and garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser with and without NaOCl solution. A total of 81 extracted human mandibular premolar teeth were used. Materials and Methods: After root canal preparation and sterilization, the samples were inoculated with E. faecalis for 24 hours. The specimens were divided into 4 experimental groups. Group 1 (n = 25) was irradiated with 2 W laser, group 2 (n = 25) was irradiated with 0.75 W laser in combination with 2.5% NaOCl, group 3 (n = 25) was irrigated with 5% NaOCl and group 4 (n = 6) was not treated. Statistical analysis was performed by using Wilcoxon Signed Ranks, Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis H tests. Results: The combination of 0.75 W laser with 2.5% NaOCl regime was found to be just as effective at inhibiting the growth of E. faecalis and sterilization of all root canals as 5% NaOCl irrigation (P > 0.001). The 2 W laser had significant bactericidal effect in infected root canals however it did not eradicate all bacteria. The SEM observations were in accordance with the microbiologic findings. Conclusions: Within the limitations of this laboratory study, NaOCl irrigation improved the antimicrobial effect of Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation. When the toxic effects of high percentage of NaOCl was considered, the combination of low-powered laser and low concentration of NaOCl can be used as an effective disinfection method in root canal treatment.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Cavidade Pulpar/microbiologia , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Lasers de Estado Sólido/uso terapêutico , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia , Cromo , Érbio , Gálio , Humanos , Preparo de Canal Radicular , Tratamento do Canal Radicular/métodos , Escândio , Ítrio
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(37): e22031, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes is a common chronic metabolic disease. COVID-19 is a large-scale infectious disease that broke out in 2019, and 212 countries have now been infected with this infectious disease. Some studies have shown that COVID-19 combined with diabetes is an independent risk factor for death or other adverse outcomes. There is currently no specific and effective drug treatment. More and more people have realized that the low-cost CQ and its derivative HCQ have antiviral and anti-inflammatory capabilities and may play a huge role in the fight against COVID-19. At the same time, HCQ can be used as an oral hypoglycemic agent and has the effect of lowering blood glucose. However, there is no evidence-based medicine to confirm the effectiveness and safety of CQ and HCQ in the treatment of COVID-19 patients with diabetes. Therefore, we will conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to synthesize the existing clinical evidences. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Chinese literature comes from CNKI, Wanfang, VIP, CBM databases. English literature mainly searches Cochrane Library, PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE. We will retrieve each database from December 2019 to August 2020. At the same time, we will look for clinical trial registration and gray literature. This study only included clinical randomized controlled trials. The reviewers independently conduct literature selection, data analysis, quality analysis, and evaluation. The primary outcomes include Sputum virus nucleic acid negative time, lung imaging improvement time, mortality rate, mechanical ventilation rate, ICU hospitalization time, hospitalization time, clinical improvement, symptoms Improvement, fasting blood glucose, 2-hour postprandial blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, fasting insulin, adverse reactions, etc. Finally, we will conducted a meta-analysis through Review Manager Software version 5.3. RESULTS: The results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at a relevant conference. CONCLUSION: This study will explore the effectiveness and safety of CQ and HCQ in the treatment of COVID-19 patients with diabetes. It will provide evidence-based medical evidence for CQ and HCQ in the treatment of diabetes with COVID-19. REGISTRATION NUMBER: INPLASY202070109.


Assuntos
Cloroquina/farmacologia , Infecções por Coronavirus , Diabetes Mellitus , Hidroxicloroquina/farmacologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Metanálise como Assunto , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 14733, 2020 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895447

RESUMO

Nitazoxanide (NTZ) is effective against helminths and numerous microorganisms, including bacteria and viruses. In vivo, NTZ is metabolized into Tizoxanide (TIZ), which is the active circulating metabolite. With the emergence of SARS-Cov-2 as a Pandemic agent, NTZ became one of the molecules already approved for human use to engage clinical trials, due to results in vitro showing that NTZ was highly effective against the SARS-Cov-2, agent of COVID-19. There are currently several ongoing clinical trials mainly in the USA and Brazil involving NTZ due not only to the in vitro results, but also for its long-known safety. Here, we study the response of Vero cells to TIZ treatment and unveil possible mechanisms for its antimicrobial effect, using a label-free proteomic approach (LC/MS/MS) analysis to compare the proteomic profile between untreated- and TIZ-treated cells. Fifteen differentially expressed proteins were observed related to various biological processes, including translation, intracellular trafficking, RNA processing and modification, and signal transduction. The broad antimicrobial range of TIZ points towards its overall effect in lowering cell metabolism and RNA processing and modification. The decreased levels of FASN, HNRNPH and HNRNPK with the treatment appear to be important for antiviral activity.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Proteoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Tiazóis/farmacologia , Animais , Chlorocebus aethiops , Ácido Graxo Sintases/genética , Ácido Graxo Sintases/metabolismo , Proteoma/genética , Proteoma/metabolismo , Ribonucleoproteínas/genética , Ribonucleoproteínas/metabolismo , Células Vero
7.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(9): e1008800, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913361

RESUMO

Soil-dwelling animals are at risk of pathogen infection in soils. When choosing nesting sites, animals could reduce this risk by avoiding contact with pathogens, yet there is currently little evidence. We tested this hypothesis using Solenopsis invicta as a model system. Newly mated queens of S. invicta were found to nest preferentially in soil containing more actinobacteria of Streptomyces and Nocardiopsis and to be attracted to two volatiles produced by these bacteria, geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol. Actinobacteria-rich soil was favored by S. invicta and this soil contained fewer putative entomopathogenic fungi than adjacent areas. Queens in such soil benefited from a higher survival rate. In culture, isolated actinobacteria inhibited entomopathogenic fungi, suggested that their presence may reduce the risk of fungal infection. These results indicated a soil-dwelling ant may choose nest sites presenting relatively low pathogen risk by detecting the odors produced by bacteria with anti-fungal properties.


Assuntos
Actinobacteria/fisiologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Formigas/fisiologia , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Micoses/prevenção & controle , Comportamento de Nidação/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/farmacologia , Animais , Formigas/microbiologia , Micoses/microbiologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Simbiose
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3888, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753666

RESUMO

First proposed as antimicrobial agents, histones were later recognized for their role in condensing chromosomes. Histone antimicrobial activity has been reported in innate immune responses. However, how histones kill bacteria has remained elusive. The co-localization of histones with antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in immune cells suggests that histones may be part of a larger antimicrobial mechanism in vivo. Here we report that histone H2A enters E. coli and S. aureus through membrane pores formed by the AMPs LL-37 and magainin-2. H2A enhances AMP-induced pores, depolarizes the bacterial membrane potential, and impairs membrane recovery. Inside the cytoplasm, H2A reorganizes bacterial chromosomal DNA and inhibits global transcription. Whereas bacteria recover from the pore-forming effects of LL-37, the concomitant effects of H2A and LL-37 are irrecoverable. Their combination constitutes a positive feedback loop that exponentially amplifies their antimicrobial activities, causing antimicrobial synergy. More generally, treatment with H2A and the pore-forming antibiotic polymyxin B completely eradicates bacterial growth.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Estruturas Cromossômicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Histonas/metabolismo , Prótons , Animais , Estruturas Cromossômicas/metabolismo , Cromossomos Bacterianos/metabolismo , DNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Imunidade Inata , Mamíferos , Polimixina B/farmacologia , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/metabolismo
9.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 4779-4791, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753866

RESUMO

Background: Considering the timeline required for the development of novel antimicrobial drugs, increased attention should be given to repurposing old drugs and improving antimicrobial efficacy, particularly for chronic infections associated with biofilms. Methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) are common causes of biofilm-associated infections but produce different biofilm matrices. MSSA biofilm cells are typically embedded in an extracellular polysaccharide matrix, whereas MRSA biofilms comprise predominantly of surface proteins and extracellular DNA (eDNA). Nanoparticles (NPs) have the potential to enhance the delivery of antimicrobial agents into biofilms. However, the mechanisms which influence the interactions between NPs and the biofilm matrix are not yet fully understood. Methods: To investigate the influence of NPs surface chemistry on vancomycin (VAN) encapsulation and NP entrapment in MRSA and MSSA biofilms, mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) with different surface functionalization (bare-B, amine-D, carboxyl-C, aromatic-A) were synthesised using an adapted Stöber method. The antibacterial efficacy of VAN-loaded MSNs was assessed against MRSA and MSSA biofilms. Results: The two negatively charged MSNs (MSN-B and MSN-C) showed a higher VAN loading in comparison to the positively charged MSNs (MSN-D and MSN-A). Cellular binding with MSN suspensions (0.25 mg mL-1) correlated with the reduced viability of both MSSA and MRSA biofilm cells. This allowed the administration of low MSNs concentrations while maintaining a high local concentration of the antibiotic surrounding the bacterial cells. Conclusion: Our data suggest that by tailoring the surface functionalization of MSNs, enhanced bacterial cell targeting can be achieved, leading to a novel treatment strategy for biofilm infections.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Biofilmes , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/fisiologia , Nanopartículas/química , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/ultraestrutura , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Dióxido de Silício/química , Vancomicina/farmacologia
10.
BMC Microbiol ; 20(1): 265, 2020 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847510

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acetic acid has been used to clean and disinfect surfaces in the household for many decades. The antimicrobial efficacy of cleaning procedures can be considered particularly important for young, old, pregnant, immunocompromised people, but may also concern other groups, particularly with regards to the COVID-19 pandemics. This study aimed to show that acetic acid exhibit an antibacterial and antifungal activity when used for cleaning purposes and is able to destroy certain viruses. Furthermore, a disinfecting effect of laundry in a simulated washing cycle has been investigated. RESULTS: At a concentration of 10% and in presence of 1.5% citric acid, acetic acid showed a reduction of > 5-log steps according to the specifications of DIN EN 1040 and DIN EN 1275 for the following microorganisms: P. aeruginosa, E. coli, S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, K. pneumoniae, E. hirae and A. brasiliensis. For MRSA a logarithmic reduction of 3.19 was obtained. Tests on surfaces according to DIN EN 13697 showed a complete reduction (> 5-log steps) for P. aeruginosa, E. coli, S. aureus, E. hirae, A. brasiliensis and C. albicans at an acetic acid concentration of already 5%. Virucidal efficacy tests according to DIN EN 14476 and DIN EN 16777 showed a reduction of ≥4-log-steps against the Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) for acetic acid concentrations of 5% or higher. The results suggest that acetic acid does not have a disinfecting effect on microorganisms in a dosage that is commonly used for cleaning. However, this can be achieved by increasing the concentration of acetic acid used, especially when combined with citric acid. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show a disinfecting effect of acetic acid in a concentration of 10% and in presence of 1.5% citric acid against a variety of microorganisms. A virucidal effect against enveloped viruses could also be proven. Furthermore, the results showed a considerable antimicrobial effect of acetic acid when used in domestic laundry procedures.


Assuntos
Ácido Acético/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Cítrico/farmacologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Desinfecção/métodos , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Norovirus/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
PLoS Med ; 17(8): e1003203, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Artemisinin resistance is threatening malaria control. We aimed to develop and test a human model of artemisinin-resistant (ART-R) Plasmodium falciparum to evaluate the efficacy of drugs against ART-R malaria. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted 2 sequential phase 1, single-centre, open-label clinical trials at Q-Pharm, Brisbane, Australia, using the induced blood-stage malaria (IBSM) model, whereby healthy participants are intravenously inoculated with blood-stage parasites. In a pilot study, participants were inoculated (Day 0) with approximately 2,800 viable P. falciparum ART-R parasites. In a comparative study, participants were randomised to receive approximately 2,800 viable P. falciparum ART-R (Day 0) or artemisinin-sensitive (ART-S) parasites (Day 1). In both studies, participants were administered a single approximately 2 mg/kg oral dose of artesunate (AS; Day 9). Primary outcomes were safety, ART-R parasite infectivity, and parasite clearance. In the pilot study, 2 participants were enrolled between April 27, 2017, and September 12, 2017, and included in final analyses (males n = 2 [100%], mean age = 26 years [range, 23-28 years]). In the comparative study, 25 participants were enrolled between October 26, 2017, and October 18, 2018, of whom 22 were inoculated and included in final analyses (ART-R infected participants: males n = 7 [53.8%], median age = 22 years [range, 18-40 years]; ART-S infected participants: males n = 5 [55.6%], median age = 28 years [range, 22-35 years]). In both studies, all participants inoculated with ART-R parasites became parasitaemic. A total of 36 adverse events were reported in the pilot study and 277 in the comparative study. Common adverse events in both studies included headache, pyrexia, myalgia, nausea, and chills; none were serious. Seven participants experienced transient severe falls in white cell counts and/or elevations in liver transaminase levels which were considered related to malaria. Additionally, 2 participants developed ventricular extrasystoles that were attributed to unmasking of a predisposition to benign fever-induced tachyarrhythmia. In the comparative study, parasite clearance half-life after AS was significantly longer for ART-R infected participants (n = 13, 6.5 hours; 95% confidence interval [CI] 6.3-6.7 hours) compared with ART-S infected participants (n = 9, 3.2 hours; 95% CI 3.0-3.3 hours; p < 0.001). The main limitation of this study was that the ART-R and ART-S parasite strains did not share the same genetic background. CONCLUSIONS: We developed the first (to our knowledge) human model of ART-R malaria. The delayed clearance profile of ART-R parasites after AS aligns with field study observations. Although based on a relatively small sample size, results indicate that this model can be safely used to assess new drugs against ART-R P. falciparum. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The studies were registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12617000244303 (https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=372357) and ACTRN12617001394336 (https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=373637).


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Artemisininas/uso terapêutico , Malária Falciparum/sangue , Malária Falciparum/tratamento farmacológico , Plasmodium falciparum/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/efeitos adversos , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antimaláricos/efeitos adversos , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Artemisininas/efeitos adversos , Artemisininas/farmacologia , Artesunato/efeitos adversos , Artesunato/farmacologia , Artesunato/uso terapêutico , Austrália/epidemiologia , Feminino , Cefaleia/induzido quimicamente , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Masculino , Náusea/induzido quimicamente , Parasitos/metabolismo , Projetos Piloto , Adulto Jovem
12.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237567, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797097

RESUMO

Distinct morphological MgO nanoparticles (MgONPs) were synthesized using biomasses of Saussurea costus roots. The biomass of two varieties of Saussurea costus (Qustal hindi and Qustal bahri) were used in the green synthesis of MgONPs. The physical and chemical features of nanoparticles were confirmed by spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. The surface morphology of the obtained nanoparticles was detected at different magnifications by SEM and TEM microscopy and the size of nanoparticles were found to be 30 and 34 nm for Qustal hindi and Qustal bahri, respectively. The antimicrobial activity of the prepared MgONPs was screened against six pathogenic strains. The synthesized nanoparticles by Qustal bahri biomass exerted significant inhibition zones 15, 16, 18, 17, 14, and 10 mm against E. coli, P. aeruginosa, C. tropicalis and C. glabrata, S. aureus and B. subtilis as compared to those from Qustal hindi 12, 8 and 17 mm against B. subtilis, E. coli and C. tropicalis, respectively. MgONPs showed a potential cytotoxicity effect against MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines. Cellular investigations of MgONPs revealed that the prepared nanoparticles by Qustal bahri exhibited high cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cancer cell lines. IC50 values in MCF-7 cells were found to be 67.3% and 52.1% for MgONPs of Saussurea costus biomasses, respectively. Also, the photocatalytic activity of MgONPs of each Saussurea costus variety was comparatively studied. They exhibited an enhanced photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue after UV irradiation for 1 h as 92% and 59% for those prepared by Qustal bahri and Qustal hindi, respectively. Outcome of results revealed that the biosynthesized MgONPs showed promising biomedical potentials.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Óxido de Magnésio/farmacologia , Azul de Metileno/química , Saussurea/química , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Antineoplásicos/química , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomassa , Catálise , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Química Verde , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Óxido de Magnésio/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Processos Fotoquímicos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Raízes de Plantas/química
13.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008489, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853247

RESUMO

Piroplasmosis treatment has been based on the use of imidocarb dipropionate or diminazene aceturate (DA), however, their toxic effects. Therefore, the discovery of new drug molecules and targets is urgently needed. Cryptolepine (CRY) is a pharmacologically active plant alkaloid; it has significant potential as an antiprotozoal and antibacterial under different in vitro and in vivo conditions. The fluorescence assay was used for evaluating the inhibitory effect of CRY on four Babesia species and Theileria equi in vitro, and on the multiplication of B. microti in mice. The toxicity assay was evaluated on Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK), mouse embryonic fibroblast (NIH/3T3), and human foreskin fibroblast (HFF) cell lines. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of CRY on Babesia bovis, B. bigemina, B. divergens, B. caballi, and T. equi were 1740 ± 0.377, 1400 ± 0.6, 790 ± 0.32, 600 ± 0.53, and 730 ± 0.025 nM, respectively. The toxicity assay on MDBK, NIH/3T3, and HFF cell lines showed that CRY affected the viability of cells with a half-maximum effective concentration (EC50) of 86.67 ± 4.43, 95.29 ± 2.7, and higher than 100 µM, respectively. In mice experiments, CRY at a concentration of 5 mg/kg effectively inhibited the growth of B. microti, while CRY-atovaquone (AQ) and CRY-DA combinations showed higher chemotherapeutic effects than CRY alone. Our results showed that CRY has the potential to be an alternative remedy for treating piroplasmosis.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Babesia/efeitos dos fármacos , Babesiose/tratamento farmacológico , Alcaloides Indólicos/farmacologia , Quinolinas/farmacologia , Theileria/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Camundongos
14.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 205: 111159, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32829212

RESUMO

Cyanobacteria blooms are crucial environmental issues by threatening both aquatic ecosystem and human health. A biomass by-product with antimicrobial activity, pyroligneous acid (PA) was tested for its suitability for removal of the cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa (M. aeruginosa) in this work. Results show that the removal efficiency could reach up to 90% in the presence of 0.45% of PA and the inhibition to M. aeruginosa growth could extend to at least 40 days. The removal mechanism was studied. Both organic acids and phenols are functional content in M. aeruginosa removal and acetic acid is the most important one. Zeta potential analysis and morphology study show that the damage of cells dominates the flocculation and sedimentation of M. aeruginosa under low PA concentration (<0.7%), and increasing PA (≥0.7%) resulted in a trend of zeta potential to zero, thus removing any "shield" and triggering flocculation. Finally, study on the phenols residual after M. aeruginosa treatment shows that it could be close to 0 in 70 h. Therefore, this work proposes a possible method for world-wide treatment of cyanobacteria bloom and a new way for further utilization of PA.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Eutrofização/efeitos dos fármacos , Microcystis/efeitos dos fármacos , Terpenos/farmacologia , Biomassa , Ecossistema , Floculação , Humanos , Microcystis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Compostos Orgânicos
15.
Oncology (Williston Park) ; 34(7): 249, 2020 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32674206

RESUMO

Disease progression and treatment with hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin ere associated with increased all-cause 30-day mortality in patients with cancer compared with patients either in remission or with no evidence of disease, according to data presented during a 2020 American Society of Clinical Oncology Virtual Scientific Program press briefing.


Assuntos
Azitromicina/farmacologia , Infecções por Coronavirus , Hidroxicloroquina/farmacologia , Neoplasias , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Mortalidade , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco
16.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 4079-4090, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32606665

RESUMO

Purpose: The aim of this study is to develop efficient localized therapy of sertaconazole nitrate for the treatment of vaginal candidiasis. Methods: Sertaconazole nitrate-loaded cationic liposomes were prepared by thin-film hydration method and coated with different concentrations of pectin (0.05%, 0.1% and 0.2%) to develop mucoadhesive liposomes. The formulated mucoadhesive vesicles were characterized in terms of morphology, entrapment efficiency, particle size, zeta value, mucoadhesive properties and drug release. The selected formula was incorporated into a gel base and further characterized by an ex vivo permeation study in comparison with conventional sertaconazole gel. Also, the in vivo study was performed to assess the efficacy of sertaconazole mucoadhesive liposomal gel in treating rats with vaginal candidiasis. Results: The mucoadhesive liposomes were spherical. Coating liposomes with pectin results in increased entrapment efficiency and particle size compared with uncoated vesicles. On the contrary, zeta values were reduced upon coating liposomes with pectin indicating efficient coating of liposomes with pectin. Mucoadhesive liposomes showed a more prolonged and sustained drug release compared with uncoated liposomes. Ex vivo study results showed that mucoadhesive liposomal gel increased sertaconazole tissue retention and reduced drug tissue penetration. In the invivo study, the mucoadhesive liposomal gel showed a significant reduction in the microbial count with a subsequent reduction in inflammatory responses with the lowest histopathological change compared with conventional gel. Conclusion: The study confirmed the potentiality of employing mucoadhesive liposomes as a successful carrier for the vaginal delivery of antifungal drugs.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Candidíase Vulvovaginal/tratamento farmacológico , Imidazóis/uso terapêutico , Muco/química , Tiofenos/uso terapêutico , Adesividade , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Feminino , Géis , Humanos , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina M/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Lipossomos/ultraestrutura , Mucinas/metabolismo , Tamanho da Partícula , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Ovinos , Eletricidade Estática , Tiofenos/farmacologia , Vagina/patologia , beta-Glucanas/metabolismo
17.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 4351-4362, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32606682

RESUMO

Purpose: The present study synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using the aqueous extract of a traditional medicinal product consisting of an oleoresin (a combination of macromolecules of carbohydrates and proteins) exuded from the rhizome of the plant Ferula foetida (asafoetida gum) and evaluated its biological properties. Materials and Methods: The silver nanoparticles synthesized using asafoetida gum (As-AgNPs) were characterized using UV/Vis spectroscopy, fourier infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and EADX. The cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activity As-AgNPs were evaluated against MCF-7 cell lines and selected microbial pathogens, respectively. Results: The synthesized silver nanoparticles were crystalline in nature with a spherical shape. The average particle size was 5.6-8.6 nm. The cytotoxicity of the synthesized As-AgNPs was evaluated against MCF-7 cell lines, and the As-AgNPs were found to be effective in inhibiting the multiplication of cancer cells. The As-AgNPs exhibited significant antimicrobial activity towards E. coli, K. pneumoniae and C. albicans. The MIC of the synthesized As-AgNPs was 7.80 µg/mL for E. coli ATCC 25922, Salmonella sp. WS50- and S. typhi; 15.60 µg/mL for S. typhimurium and S. aureus WS10, and 31.20 µg/mL for K. pneumoniae and S. aureus ATCC 43300-MRSA. In addition, MIC values of 15.60 µg/mL for C. albicans ATCC8436 and 31.20 µg/mL for C. krusei ATCC6258 were obtained. Conclusion: As asafoetida is a good traditional medicine, its involvement in the synthesis of AgNPs led the silver nanoparticles to exhibit good cytotoxic and antimicrobial effects.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Ferula/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Gomas Vegetais/química , Prata/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Forma Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tamanho da Partícula , Extratos Vegetais/química , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Difração de Raios X
18.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(7): e1007980, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678849

RESUMO

Bacteria need to survive in a wide range of environments. Currently, there is an incomplete understanding of the genetic basis for mechanisms underpinning survival in stressful conditions, such as the presence of anti-microbials. Transposon directed insertion-site sequencing (TraDIS) is a powerful tool to identify genes and networks which are involved in survival and fitness under a given condition by simultaneously assaying the fitness of millions of mutants, thereby relating genotype to phenotype and contributing to an understanding of bacterial cell biology. A recent refinement of this approach allows the roles of essential genes in conditional stress survival to be inferred by altering their expression. These advancements combined with the rapidly falling costs of sequencing now allows comparisons between multiple experiments to identify commonalities in stress responses to different conditions. This capacity however poses a new challenge for analysis of multiple data sets in conjunction. To address this analysis need, we have developed 'AlbaTraDIS'; a software application for rapid large-scale comparative analysis of TraDIS experiments that predicts the impact of transposon insertions on nearby genes. AlbaTraDIS can identify genes which are up or down regulated, or inactivated, between multiple conditions, producing a filtered list of genes for further experimental validation as well as several accompanying data visualisations. We demonstrate the utility of our new approach by applying it to identify genes used by Escherichia coli to survive in a wide range of different concentrations of the biocide Triclosan. AlbaTraDIS identified all well characterised Triclosan resistance genes, including the primary target, fabI. A number of new loci were also implicated in Triclosan resistance and the predicted phenotypes for a selection of these were validated experimentally with results being consistent with predictions. AlbaTraDIS provides a simple and rapid method to analyse multiple transposon mutagenesis data sets allowing this technology to be used at large scale. To our knowledge this is the only tool currently available that can perform these tasks. AlbaTraDIS is written in Python 3 and is available under the open source licence GNU GPL 3 from https://github.com/quadram-institute-bioscience/albatradis.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis , Escherichia coli/genética , Mutagênese Insercional , Software , Algoritmos , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Biblioteca Gênica , Genes Essenciais , Genoma Bacteriano , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Mutação , Fenótipo , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Triclosan/farmacologia
19.
J Med Microbiol ; 69(8): 1089-1094, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692646

RESUMO

Introduction. The bla CTX-M-3 gene has rarely been reported in Morganella morganii strains and its genetic environment has not yet been investigated.Aim. To identify the bla CTX-M-3 gene in M. morganii isolated from swine and characterize its genetic environment.Methodology. A M. morganii isolate (named MM1L5) from a deceased swine was identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The bla genes were detected and then the genetic location and environment of bla CTX-M-3 were investigated by Southern blot and PCR mapping, respectively. The M. morganii bla CTX-M-3 gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli.Results. Isolate MM1L5 harboured the bla CTX-M-3 and bla TEM-1 genes. The bla CTX-M-3 gene, located on the chromosome, was co-carried with an IS26 and bla TEM-1 gene by a novel 6361 bp IS26-flanked composite transposon, designated Tn6741. This transposon consisted of a novel bla CTX-M-3-containing module, IS26-ΔISEcp1-bla CTX-M-3-Δorf477-IS26 (named Tn6710), and a bla TEM-1-containing module, IS26-Δorf477-bla TEM-1-tnpR-IS26, differing from previous reports. Phylogenetic analysis showed a significant variation based on the sequence of Tn6741, as compared to those of other related transposons. Interestingly, although the cloned bla CTX-M-3 gene could confer resistance to ceftiofur, cefquinome, ceftriaxone and cefotaxime, one amino acid substitution (Ile-142-Thr) resulted in a significant reduction of resistance to these antimicrobials.Conclusion. This is the first time that bla CTX-M-3 has been identified on a chromosome from a M. morganii isolate. Furthermore, the bla CTX-M-3 gene was located with an IS26 element and bla TEM-1 gene on a novel IS26-flanked composite transposon, Tn6741, suggesting that Tn6741 might act as a reservoir for the bla CTX-M-3 and bla TEM-1 genes and may become an important vehicle for their dissemination among M. morganii.


Assuntos
Elementos de DNA Transponíveis/genética , Morganella morganii/genética , beta-Lactamases/genética , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Sequência de Bases , Clonagem Molecular , Morganella morganii/classificação , Morganella morganii/efeitos dos fármacos , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Suínos
20.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0234964, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614844

RESUMO

In this study, a facile, ecological and economical green method is described for the fabrication of iron (Fe), copper (Cu) and silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) from the extract of Syzygium cumini leaves. The obtained metal NPs were categorized using UV/Vis, SEM, TEM, FTIR and EDX-ray spectroscopy techniques. The Fe-, Cu- and Ag-NPs were crystalline, spherical and size ranged from 40-52, 28-35 and 11-19 nm, respectively. The Ag-NPs showed excellent antimicrobial activities against methicillin- and vancomycin-resistance Staphylococcus aureus bacterial strains and Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus fungal species. Furthermore, the aflatoxins (AFs) production was also significantly inhibited when compared with the Fe- and Cu-NPs. In contrast, the adsorption results of NPs with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) were observed as following order Fe->Cu->Ag-NPs. The Langmuir isotherm model well described the equilibrium data by the sorption capacity of Fe-NPs (105.3 ng mg-1), Cu-NPs (88.5 ng mg-1) and Ag-NPs (81.7 ng mg-1). The adsorption was found feasible, endothermic and follow the pseudo-second order kinetic model as revealed by the thermodynamic and kinetic studies. The present findings suggests that the green synthesis of metal NPs is a simple, sustainable, non-toxic, economical and energy-effective as compared to the others conventional approaches. In addition, synthesized metal NPs might be a promising AFs adsorbent for the detoxification of AFB1 in human and animal food/feed.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina B1/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Infecciosos/metabolismo , Biotecnologia/métodos , Cobre , Química Verde/métodos , Ferro , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Prata , Desintoxicação por Sorção , Syzygium/metabolismo , Adsorção , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Aspergillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Aspergillus flavus/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Química Analítica , Cobre/administração & dosagem , Cobre/farmacologia , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Ferro/administração & dosagem , Ferro/farmacologia , Cinética , Nanopartículas Metálicas/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Oxirredução , Prata/administração & dosagem , Prata/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Termodinâmica , Vancomicina/farmacologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA