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2.
Neurourol Urodyn ; 43(4): 883-892, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38501377

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to reduce the incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI) in women undergoing outpatient cystoscopy and/or urodynamic studies (UDS) at our centre by identifying and then altering modifiable risk factors through an analysis of incidence variability among physicians. METHODS: This was a quality improvement study involving adult women undergoing outpatient cystoscopy and/or UDS at an academic tertiary urogynecology practice. Prophylactic practices for cystoscopy/UDS were surveyed and division and physician-specific UTI rates following cystoscopy/UDS were established. In consultation with key stakeholders, this delineated change concepts based on associations between prophylactic practices and UTI incidence, which were then implemented while monitoring counterbalance measures. RESULTS: Two "Plan-Do-Study-Act-Cycles" were conducted whereby 212 and 210 women were recruited, respectively. Change concepts developed and implemented were: (1) to perform routine urine cultures at the time of these outpatient procedures, and (2) to withhold routine prophylactic antibiotics for outpatient cystoscopy/UDS, except in patients with signs of cystitis. There was no change in the incidence of early presenting UTI (9.0% vs. 9.2%, p = 0.680), but there were significantly fewer antibiotic-related adverse events reported (8.5% vs. 1.5%, p = 0.001). There was no significant change in the total incidence of UTI rates between cycles (7.8% vs. 5.6%, p = 0.649). CONCLUSIONS: No specific strategies to decrease the incidence of UTI following outpatient cystoscopy/UDS were identified, however, risk factor-specific antibiotic prophylaxis, as opposed to universal antibiotic prophylaxis, did not increase UTI incidence.


Assuntos
Cistoscopia , Infecções Urinárias , Adulto , Humanos , Feminino , Cistoscopia/efeitos adversos , Urodinâmica , Melhoria de Qualidade , Infecções Urinárias/etiologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antibioticoprofilaxia/efeitos adversos
3.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 3: CD014959, 2024 03 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38483067

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is a global zoonotic and waterborne disease caused by pathogenic Leptospira species. Antibiotics are used as a strategy for prevention of leptospirosis, in particular in travellers and high-risk groups. However, the clinical benefits are unknown, especially when considering possible treatment-associated adverse effects. This review assesses the use of antibiotic prophylaxis in leptospirosis and is an update of a previously published review in the Cochrane Library (2009, Issue 3). OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the benefits and harms of antibiotic prophylaxis for human leptospirosis. SEARCH METHODS: We identified randomised clinical trials through electronic searches of the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS, Science Citation Index Expanded, and other resources. We searched online clinical trial registries to identify unpublished or ongoing trials. We checked reference lists of the retrieved studies for further trials. The last date of search was 17 April 2023. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included ⁠⁠randomised clinical trials of any trial design, assessing antibiotics for prevention of leptospirosis, and with no restrictions on age, sex, occupation, or comorbidity of trial participants. We looked for trials assessing antibiotics irrespective of route of administration, dosage, and schedule versus placebo or no intervention. We also included trials assessing antibiotics versus other antibiotics using these criteria, or the same antibiotic but with another dose or schedule. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We followed Cochrane methodology. The primary outcomes were all-cause mortality, laboratory-confirmed leptospirosis regardless of the presence of an identified clinical syndrome (inclusive of asymptomatic cases), clinical diagnosis of leptospirosis regardless of the presence of laboratory confirmation, clinical diagnosis of leptospirosis confirmed by laboratory diagnosis (exclusive of asymptomatic cases), and serious adverse events. The secondary outcomes were quality of life and the proportion of people with non-serious adverse events. We assessed the risk of bias of the included trials using the RoB 2 tool and the certainty of evidence using GRADE. We presented dichotomous outcomes as risk ratios (RR) and continuous outcomes as mean difference (MD), with their 95% confidence intervals (CI). We used a random-effects model for our main analyses and the fixed-effect model for sensitivity analyses. Our primary outcome analyses included trial data at the longest follow-up. MAIN RESULTS: We identified five randomised clinical trials comprising 2593 participants that compared antibiotics (doxycycline, azithromycin, or penicillin) with placebo, or one antibiotic compared with another. Four trials assessed doxycycline with different durations, one trial assessed azithromycin, and one trial assessed penicillin. One trial had three intervention groups: doxycycline, azithromycin, and placebo. Three trials assessed pre-exposure prophylaxis, one trial assessed postexposure prophylaxis, and one did not report this clearly. Four trials recruited residents in endemic areas, and one trial recruited soldiers who experienced limited time exposure. The participants' ages in the included trials were 10 to 80 years. Follow-up ranged from one to three months. Antibiotics versus placebo Doxycycline compared with placebo may result in little to no difference in all-cause mortality (RR 0.15, 95% CI 0.01 to 2.83; 1 trial, 782 participants; low-certainty evidence). Prophylactic antibiotics may have little to no effect on laboratory-confirmed leptospirosis, but the evidence is very uncertain (RR 0.56, 95% CI 0.25 to 1.26; 5 trials, 2593 participants; very low-certainty evidence). Antibiotics may result in little to no difference in the clinical diagnosis of leptospirosis regardless of laboratory confirmation (RR 0.76, 95% CI 0.53 to 1.08; 4 trials, 1653 participants; low-certainty evidence) and the clinical diagnosis of leptospirosis with laboratory confirmation (RR 0.57, 95% CI 0.26 to 1.26; 4 trials, 1653 participants; low-certainty evidence). Antibiotics compared with placebo may increase non-serious adverse events, but the evidence is very uncertain (RR 10.13, 95% CI 2.40 to 42.71; 3 trials, 1909 participants; very low-certainty evidence). One antibiotic versus another antibiotic One trial assessed doxycycline versus azithromycin but did not report mortality. Compared to azithromycin, doxycycline may have little to no effect on laboratory-confirmed leptospirosis regardless of the presence of an identified clinical syndrome (RR 1.49, 95% CI 0.51 to 4.32; 1 trial, 137 participants), on the clinical diagnosis of leptospirosis regardless of the presence of laboratory confirmation (RR 4.18, 95% CI 0.94 to 18.66; 1 trial, 137 participants), on the clinical diagnosis of leptospirosis confirmed by laboratory diagnosis (RR 4.18, 95% CI 0.94 to 18.66; 1 trial, 137 participants), and on non-serious adverse events (RR 1.12, 95% CI 0.36 to 3.48; 1 trial, 137 participants), but the evidence is very uncertain. The certainty of evidence for all the outcomes was very low. None of the five included trials reported serious adverse events or assessed quality of life. One study is awaiting classification. Funding Four of the five trials included statements disclosing their funding/supporting sources, and the remaining trial did not include this. Three of the four trials that disclosed their supporting sources received the supply of trial drugs directly from the same pharmaceutical company, and the remaining trial received financial support from a governmental source. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We do not know if antibiotics versus placebo or another antibiotic has little or have no effect on all-cause mortality or leptospirosis infection because the certainty of evidence is low or very low. We do not know if antibiotics versus placebo may increase the overall risk of non-serious adverse events because of very low-certainty evidence. We lack definitive rigorous data from randomised trials to support the use of antibiotics for the prophylaxis of leptospirosis infection. We lack trials reporting data on clinically relevant outcomes.


Assuntos
Antibioticoprofilaxia , Leptospirose , Humanos , Antibioticoprofilaxia/efeitos adversos , Doxiciclina/efeitos adversos , Azitromicina/efeitos adversos , Qualidade de Vida , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Penicilinas , Leptospirose/prevenção & controle
4.
J Clin Anesth ; 95: 111443, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38484506

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To characterize and assess the effects of a preoperative, nurse-driven penicillin allergy risk stratification tool on rates of perioperative cefazolin and second-line antibiotic use. DESIGN: Quasi-experimental quality improvement study of penicillin-allergic surgical patients undergoing procedures for which cefazolin is indicated. SETTING: Outpatient Perioperative Care Clinic (PCC) for preoperative surgical patients at a tertiary care center. PATIENTS: 670 and 1371 adult penicillin-allergic PCC attendants and non-attendants, respectively. INTERVENTION: A paper penicillin allergy risk stratification questionnaire was administered during the PCC visit. Nurses were educated on its use. MEASUREMENTS: Antibiotic (cefazolin, clindamycin, vancomycin) use rates in the 24 months before and 17 months after intervention implementation in November 2020 (November 2018 - April 2022) were assessed in penicillin-allergic PCC attendants with statistical process control charts. Multivariable logistic regression assessed antibiotic use rates pre- and post-intervention adjusting for age, sex, surgical specialty and penicillin allergy history severity. Similar analyses were done in penicillin-allergic PCC non-attendants. MAIN RESULTS: Of 670 penicillin-allergic PCC attendants, 451 (median [IQR] age, 66 (Sousa-Pinto et al., 2021 [14])) were analyzed pre-intervention and 219 (median [IQR] age, 66 (Mine et al., 1970 [13])) post-intervention. One month after implementation, process measures demonstrated an upward shift in cefazolin use for PCC attendants versus no shift or other special cause variation for PCC non-attendants. There were increased odds of cefazolin use (aOR 1.67, 95% CI [1.09-2.57], P = 0.019), decreased odds of clindamycin use (aOR 0.61, 95% CI [0.42-0.89], P = 0.010) and decreased odds of vancomycin use (aOR 0.56, 95% CI [0.35-0.88], P = 0.013) in PCC attendants post-intervention. This effect did not occur in PCC non-attendants. There was no increase in perioperative anaphylaxis post-intervention. CONCLUSIONS: A simple penicillin allergy risk stratification tool implemented in the preoperative setting was associated with increased use of cefazolin and decreased rates of second-line agents post implementation.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Cefazolina , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas , Penicilinas , Humanos , Cefazolina/efeitos adversos , Cefazolina/administração & dosagem , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/prevenção & controle , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/etiologia , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/epidemiologia , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/diagnóstico , Feminino , Masculino , Penicilinas/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco/métodos , Antibioticoprofilaxia/efeitos adversos , Antibioticoprofilaxia/métodos , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Melhoria de Qualidade , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos
5.
Langenbecks Arch Surg ; 409(1): 99, 2024 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38504007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Growing evidence demonstrates minimal impact of mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) on reducing postoperative complications following elective colectomy. This study investigated the necessity of MBP prior to elective colonic resection. METHOD: A systematic literature review was conducted across PubMed, Ovid, and the Cochrane Library to identify studies comparing the effects of MBP with no preparation before elective colectomy, up until May 26, 2023. Surgical-related outcomes were compiled and subsequently analyzed. The primary outcomes included the incidence of anastomosis leakage (AL) and surgical site infection (SSI), analyzed using Review Manager Software (v 5.3). RESULTS: The analysis included 14 studies, comprising seven RCTs with 5146 participants. Demographic information was consistent across groups. No significant differences were found between the groups in terms of AL ((P = 0.43, OR = 1.16, 95% CI (0.80, 1.68), I2 = 0%) or SSI (P = 0.47, OR = 1.20, 95% CI (0.73, 1.96), I2 = 0%), nor were there significant differences in other outcomes. Subgroup analysis on oral antibiotic use showed no significant changes in results. However, in cases of right colectomy, the group without preparation showed a significantly lower incidence of SSI (P = 0.01, OR = 0.52, 95% CI (0.31, 0.86), I2 = 1%). No significant differences were found in other subgroup analyses. CONCLUSION: The current evidence robustly indicates that MBP before elective colectomy does not confer significant benefits in reducing postoperative complications. Therefore, it is justified to forego MBP prior to elective colectomy, irrespective of tumor location.


Assuntos
Catárticos , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Humanos , Catárticos/uso terapêutico , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Colectomia/efeitos adversos , Fístula Anastomótica/epidemiologia , Fístula Anastomótica/prevenção & controle , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/métodos , Colo , Antibioticoprofilaxia/efeitos adversos
6.
Acta Paediatr ; 113(5): 892-911, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38351491

RESUMO

AIM: To determine the prevalence of group B Streptococcus (GBS) carriage among parturient women and neonates, and the relative risk of vertical transmission, the relative risk of early and late-onset GBS and the pooled incidence of early-late-onset GBS infection. METHODS: A systematic search of relevant cohort studies from three electronic databases to identify all relevant studies published up to 7 November 2022. The review was conducted in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Estimates were pooled using random-effects meta-analyses. RESULTS: A total of 54 articles with 355 787 matched pairs of parturient women and neonates from 30 countries were included in the analysis. The pooled prevalence of GBS colonisation was 17.1% among the pregnant women and 1.0% among neonates. The pooled prevalence of vertical transmission of GBS was 4.5% and the pooled relative risk of GBS colonisation of neonates born to mothers with GBS was 9.9. CONCLUSION: We support the implementation of targeted intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis for all women who are positive for GBS as well as women with risks factors for early onset GBS in their infants regardless of their GBS colonisation status.


Assuntos
Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Infecções Estreptocócicas , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Humanos , Feminino , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Parto , Antibioticoprofilaxia/efeitos adversos , Streptococcus agalactiae , Mães , Infecções Estreptocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/prevenção & controle
7.
BMC Cancer ; 24(1): 251, 2024 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38395787

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The occurrence of surgical site infection (SSI) after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) is still relatively high. The aim of this retrospective study is to evaluate the efficacy of piperacillin-tazobactam as perioperative prophylactic antibiotic on organ/space SSI for patients underwent PD. METHODS: Four hundred seven consecutive patients who underwent PD between January 2018 and December 2022 were enrolled and analyzed retrospectively. The univariate and multivariate analysis were used to identify independent risk factors of organ/space SSI. Postoperative complications were compared between the two groups according to the use of prophylactic antibiotics by a ratio of 1:1 propensity score-matched (PSM) analysis. RESULTS: Based on perioperative prophylactic antibiotic use, all 407 patients were divided into the ceftriaxone group (n = 192, 47.2%) and piperacillin-tazobactam group (n = 215, 52.8%). The rate of organ/space SSI was 31.2% with the choice of perioperative antibiotics (OR = 2.837, 95%CI = 1.802-4.465, P < 0.01) as one of independent risk factors. After PSM, there were similar baseline characteristics among the groups. Meanwhile, the piperacillin-tazobactam group had a significant lower rate of organ/space SSI compared to the ceftriaxone group both before and after PSM(P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The adoption of piperacillin-tazobactam as perioperative prophylaxis for patients underwent PD reduced organ/space SSI significantly.


Assuntos
Antibioticoprofilaxia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica , Humanos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/etiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos , Antibioticoprofilaxia/efeitos adversos , Ceftriaxona , Pancreaticoduodenectomia/efeitos adversos , Pontuação de Propensão , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Combinação Piperacilina e Tazobactam
8.
Anaesth Crit Care Pain Med ; 43(2): 101349, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38278354

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The first line of prevention of surgical site infection relies on the timely administration of antibiotic prophylaxis. First- and second-generation cephalosporins are the most recommended antibiotics in elective surgery. The incidence of cefazolin allergy has increased worldwide over the years. The sensitization mechanism of cefazolin is currently unknown, and data supporting cross-reactivity between penicillins and cephalosporins are lacking. Sensitization could occur through previous exposure either to cefazolin or to structurally related chemical agents. The objective of this study was to evaluate sensitization agents towards cefazolin. METHODS: The OpenBabel chemoinformatics toolbox was used to search for similarities between cefazolin and other molecules in an extensive drug database. Using the pholcodine-rocuronium similarity score as a threshold, we selected drugs with the most similar structure to that of cefazolin. Exposure to those drugs and cefazolin was assessed in a cohort of patients with skin test-proven cefazolin allergy at a specialized allergy centre via a self-administered anonymous questionnaire. RESULTS: Using the pholcodine-rocuronium similarity score as a threshold (score≥0.7), 42 molecules were found to be similar to cefazolin (all cephalosporins). Only 8 were marketed in France. None of the 14 cefazolin-allergic patients who answered the questionnaire (65% female, median age 56 years) reported exposure to any identified antibiotics. In contrast, 11 (78%) had at least one previous surgery requiring cefazolin before the index case. CONCLUSION: Direct previous cefazolin exposure was identified in 78% of cefazolin-allergic patients. Cefazolin started to take a central place in antibiotic prophylaxis after 2010, when cefamandole usage decreased drastically. Changes in antibiotic prophylaxis over the past 14 years in France could have been the turning point for the increased incidence of cefazolin allergy.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade a Drogas , Hipersensibilidade , Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Masculino , Cefazolina/efeitos adversos , Antibioticoprofilaxia/efeitos adversos , Rocurônio , Estudos Retrospectivos , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/epidemiologia , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/etiologia , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/prevenção & controle , Cefalosporinas/uso terapêutico , Hipersensibilidade/complicações , Hipersensibilidade/tratamento farmacológico
9.
J Clin Anesth ; 94: 111377, 2024 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38241788

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare the occurrence of cefazolin perioperative anaphylaxis (POA) in patients with and without a penicillin allergy label (PAL) to determine whether the prevalence of cefazolin POA differs based on the presence of a PAL. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: A large U.S. healthcare system in the Baltimore-D.C. region, July 2017 to July 2020. PATIENTS: 112,817 surgical encounters across inpatient and outpatient settings in various specialties, involving 90,089 patients. Of these, 4876 (4.3%) encounters had a PAL. INTERVENTIONS: Perioperative cefazolin administration within 4 h before surgery to 4 h after the procedure began. MEASUREMENTS: The primary outcome was cefazolin POA in patients with and without PALs. Potential POA cases were identified based on tryptase orders or diphenhydramine administrations within the initial cefazolin administration to 6 h postoperatively. Verification included two validation steps. The first checked for hypersensitivity reaction (HSR) documentation, and the second, led by Allergy specialists, identified POA and the probable culprit. The secondary outcome looked at cefazolin use trends in patients with a PAL, stratified by setting and specialty. MAIN RESULTS: Of 112,817 encounters, 1421 (1.3%) had possible cefazolin HSRs. Of these, 22 (1.5%) had POA, resulting in a 0.02% prevalence. Of these, 13 (59.1%) were linked to cefazolin and 9 (40.9%) attributed to other drugs. Only one cefazolin POA case had a PAL, indicating no significant difference in cefazolin POA prevalence between patients with and without PALs (p = 0.437). Perioperative cefazolin use in patients with PALs steadily increased from 2.6% to 6.0% between 2017 and 2020, specifically in academic settings. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of cefazolin POA does not exhibit significant differences between patients with and without PALs, and notably, the incidence remains remarkably low. Based on these findings, it is advisable to view cefazolin as an acceptable choice for prophylaxis in patients carrying a PAL.


Assuntos
Anafilaxia , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas , Humanos , Cefazolina/efeitos adversos , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Estudos Transversais , Anafilaxia/induzido quimicamente , Anafilaxia/epidemiologia , Anafilaxia/prevenção & controle , Penicilinas/efeitos adversos , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/epidemiologia , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/etiologia , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Antibioticoprofilaxia/efeitos adversos
10.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 1784, 2024 01 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38245620

RESUMO

To investigate the risk factors for new renal scarring (NRS) in children with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) receiving continuous antibiotic prophylaxis (CAP). This was a single-center cohort study. The clinical data of 140 children with grade I-V VUR receiving CAP were analyzed. In this study, exposure variables were sex, younger age at the initial diagnosis of UTI ≤ 12 months, the occurrence of breakthrough urinary tract infection (BT-UTI), high-grade VUR, bilateral VUR, etiology, presence of renal scarring at the initial diagnosis and ultrasound abnormalities. The outcome was NRS. A total of 140 children were included in the risk factor analysis of NRS, 73 of whom experienced NRS, an incidence rate of 52.14%. Multivariate Cox regression suggested that the presence of renal function impairment after the initial diagnosis of UTI (OR 3.411, 95% CI 1.5751-6.646) and the occurrence of BT-UTI while receiving CAP (OR 1.995, 95% CI 1.089-2.958) were independent risk factors for NRS. Multivariate Cox regression showed that high-grade VUR had no significant effects on NRS (OR 0.940, 95% CI 0.462-1.912, P = 0.864). No significant difference was identified in multivariate Cox regression analysis in the IV-V group (vs I-III group) (OR 0.960, 95% CI 0.565-1.633, P = 0.960). Renal function impairment after the initial diagnosis of UTI and the occurrence of BT-UTI while receiving CAP were independent risk factors for NRS. Neither univariate analysis nor multivariate analysis found a correlation between VUR grade and NRS.


Assuntos
Infecções Urinárias , Refluxo Vesicoureteral , Criança , Humanos , Lactente , Refluxo Vesicoureteral/complicações , Antibioticoprofilaxia/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Cicatriz/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Urinárias/etiologia , Infecções Urinárias/prevenção & controle , Infecções Urinárias/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
PLoS One ; 19(1): e0286165, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38271389

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Caesarean section (CS) is considered to be a life-saving operative intervention for women and new-borns in certain antepartum and intrapartum conditions. Caesarean delivery may be accompanied by several complications including surgical site infections (SSI). However, there is a significant lack of uniformity in the administration of antibiotics for preventing surgical site infections (SSI) following caesarean deliveries. The present study was conducted to determine the incidence of post CS SSI following the adoption of single-dose antibiotic prophylaxis as recommended by WHO at a tertiary care teaching hospital in Medchal, India. Also, to identify the risk factors of SSI and reported the bacteriological profiles and the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the culture positive isolates. MAIN OBJECTIVES: To estimate the incidence of surgical site infections (SSI's) according to CDC criteria following WHO-recommended single-dose antibiotic prophylaxis for caesarean section at a tertiary care teaching hospital in Medchal, India. METHODS: A prospective hospital-based study was conducted between June 2017 and December 2019, in which women who underwent caesarean delivery were followed up for 30 days post-delivery. Clinical details were collected using a structured questionnaire, and participants were followed up weekly after discharge to document any signs and symptoms of SSI. Symptomatic patients were requested to come to the hospital for further investigation and treatment. Standard microbiological tests were conducted to detect microorganisms and their antibiotic sensitivity. RESULTS: The study included 2,015 participants with a mean age of 24.1 years. The majority were multigravida (n = 1,274, 63.2%) and underwent emergency caesarean delivery (n = 1,232, 61.1%). Ninety two participants (4.6%, 95% CI: 3.7% to 5.6%) developed surgical site infections, with 91 (98.9%) having superficial and 1 (1.1%) having a deep infection. Among those who developed an SSI, 84 (91.3%) did so during their hospital stay, while 8 (8.7%) developed an SSI at home. The adjusted relative risk (a RR) for developing an SSI was 2.5 (95% CI: 1.4 to 4.6; power 99.9%) among obese women and 2.3 (95% CI: 1.1 to 4.7; power 100%) among women aged 25 years or younger. Microbial growth in culture was observed from 55 (75.8%) out of total 66 samples. The most common organisms identified were Staphylococcus aureus (n = 7(12.3%)23, 46.0%), Klebsiella sp. (n = 13, 26.0%), and Escherichia coli (n = 12, 24.0%). CONCLUSION: The rate of SSI following caesarean deliveries subjected to single dose antibiotic prophylaxis was low. Young women and obese women were at high risk of developing SSI.


Assuntos
Antibioticoprofilaxia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/microbiologia , Antibioticoprofilaxia/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Atenção Terciária à Saúde , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Obesidade/etiologia , Hospitais de Ensino
12.
Int Orthop ; 48(1): 37-47, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38078940

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Low-velocity gunshot fractures (LVGFs) are a common type of gunshot-induced trauma with the potential for complications such as infection and osteomyelitis. The effectiveness of antibiotic therapy in LVGFs remains uncertain, leading to ongoing debate about the appropriate treatment. In this review, we evaluate recent updates on the current understanding of antibiotic therapy in LVGFs, how previous studies have investigated the use of antibiotics in LVGFs, and the current state of institutional policies and protocols for treating LVGFs with antibiotics. METHODS: We conducted a review of PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases to identify studies that investigated the use of antibiotics in LVGFs after the last review in 2013. Due to the lack of quantitative clinical trial studies, we employed a narrative synthesis approach to analyze and present the findings from the included primary studies. We categorized the outcomes based on the anatomical location of the LVGFs. RESULTS: After evaluating 67 publications with the necessary qualifications out of 578 abstracts, 17 articles were included. The sample size of the studies ranged from 22 to 252 patients. The antibiotics used in the studies varied, and the follow-up period ranged from three months to ten years. The included studies investigated the use of antibiotics in treating LVGFs at various anatomic locations, including the humerus, forearm, hand and wrist, hip, femur, tibia, and foot and ankle. CONCLUSION: Our study provides updated evidence for the use of antibiotics in LVGFs and highlights the need for further research to establish evidence-based guidelines. We also highlight the lack of institutional policies for treating LVGFs and the heterogeneity in treatments among institutions with established protocols. A single-dose antibiotic approach could be cost-effective for patients with non-operatively treated LVGFs. We suggest that a national or international registry for gunshot injuries, antibiotics, and infections could serve as a valuable resource for collecting and analyzing data related to these important healthcare issues.


Assuntos
Fraturas Ósseas , Osteomielite , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo , Humanos , Antibioticoprofilaxia/efeitos adversos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Fraturas Ósseas/complicações , Tíbia , Osteomielite/tratamento farmacológico , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/complicações
13.
Surg Infect (Larchmt) ; 25(1): 39-45, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38079252

RESUMO

Background: Because of the established path of bacterial entry and contamination-associated mechanisms, grade 3 open orthopedic fractures represent a substantial infection risk. The Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma (EAST) guidelines recommended covering Staphylococcus aureus and adding aminoglycoside gram-negative coverage. Local institutional guidelines rely on ceftriaxone for gram negative coverage and add methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus coverage with vancomycin. Patients and Methods: The electronic health records of adults admitted for a grade 3 open fracture between January 1, 2016, and October 31, 2021, were retrospectively reviewed. Patients who received cefazolin and gentamicin (CZ+GM) or ceftriaxone and vancomycin (CRO+VA) as prophylaxis were included. We recorded the rate of a composite treatment failure outcome of receipt of antibiotic agents, infection-related hospitalization, or subsequent debridement for injury-site skin and soft tissue infection or osteomyelitis. The presence of acute kidney injury (AKI) was also evaluated. Results: There were 65 patients included in the CZ+GM group and 53 patients in the CRO+VA group. Patients in the CZ+GM group were younger (mean 42.6 compared with 50.6 years; p = 0.02). Otherwise, there were no significant differences between groups' demographics, mechanism and site of injury, timeline of care, or surgical interventions. More patients in the CZ+GM arm met the composite treatment failure outcome, but it was not statistically significant (45% vs. 32%; p = 0.2). There were similar rates of treatment failure at 30 days (21% vs. 26%; p = 0.5) and for only osteomyelitis (8% vs. 9%; p = 1). Conclusions: The trend in numerically lower treatment failure rates in the CRO+VA group across outcomes provides sufficient evidence to continue the current local recommendations. Given our sample size, type 2 error may have occurred, and studies with greater power should analyze this question.


Assuntos
Fraturas Expostas , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Osteomielite , Adulto , Humanos , Cefazolina/uso terapêutico , Vancomicina/uso terapêutico , Ceftriaxona/uso terapêutico , Antibioticoprofilaxia/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Gentamicinas/uso terapêutico , Fraturas Expostas/complicações , Fraturas Expostas/cirurgia , Fraturas Expostas/tratamento farmacológico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Osteomielite/tratamento farmacológico , Osteomielite/prevenção & controle , Osteomielite/etiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle
14.
Int J Dent Hyg ; 22(2): 294-305, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36951198

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To date, there is a lack of data regarding the acceptance of the guidelines for infective endocarditis (IE) prevention among dentists in Italy, and similarly, there are no data on the understanding and compliance of those among dental hygienists (DH). Thus, we tried to assess the ability of DH to recognize and manage categories of patients at high risk of EI, to identify which dental procedures are at increased risk and to assess the level of knowledge of doses and how antibiotic prophylaxis should be administered in specific cases. METHODS: An anonymous questionnaire was prepared and made accessible online by sharing a Google Forms® link; general personal data and educational background information were collected to obtain a profile of the participants. RESULTS: A total of 362 DH answered to our web-based survey, showing a prevalent female percentage (86.7%) and the most represented age group of 30-39 years old (43.1%). Regarding the gender differences, there were not overall statistically significant differences; similarly, we did not find any differences regarding the overall number of wrong questions if considering the different ages of the participant and the year of graduation. Graduates in Northern Italy have mistaken fewer questions than graduates in other geographical areas. CONCLUSION: To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest survey about the knowledge of IE for DH ever performed. Because the overprescription of antibiotics contributes to the development of drug resistance, antibiotic stewardship should be at the forefront of patient care. Our data reflect the need for placing a greater emphasis on IE prophylaxis education in training and during continuing professional development events for DH.


Assuntos
Endocardite Bacteriana , Endocardite , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Higienistas Dentários , Endocardite/complicações , Endocardite/tratamento farmacológico , Endocardite/prevenção & controle , Endocardite Bacteriana/prevenção & controle , Endocardite Bacteriana/tratamento farmacológico , Endocardite Bacteriana/etiologia , Antibioticoprofilaxia/efeitos adversos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico
15.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 119(1): 183-190, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37713527

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The incidence of postendoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) infections is reported to be up to 18% in patients with biliary obstruction. Antibiotic prophylaxis may reduce the risk of infectious complications after ERCP; however, the clinical value of prophylactic antibiotics in ERCP remains controversial. METHODS: We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial to investigate whether the use of prophylactic antibiotics would reduce infectious complications after ERCP in patients with biliary obstruction. We randomly assigned patients in a 1:1 ratio to receive either a single dose of 1 g intravenous cefoxitin or normal saline as a placebo 30 minutes before undergoing ERCP. The primary outcome was the incidence of infectious complications after ERCP. RESULTS: We enrolled 378 patients, and 189 patients were assigned to each group. The risk of infectious complications after ERCP was 2.8% (5 of 176 patients) in the antibiotic prophylaxis group and 9.8% (17 of 173 patients) in the placebo group (risk ratio, 0.29; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.11-0.74, P = 0.0073). The incidence rates of bacteremia were 2.3% (4 of 176 patients) and 6.4% (11 of 173 patients), respectively (risk ratio, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.12-1.04; P = 0.0599). The incidence rate of cholangitis was 1.7% (3 of 176 patients) in the antibiotic prophylaxis group and 6.4% (11 of 173 patients) in the placebo group (risk ratio, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.08-0.87; P = 0.0267). DISCUSSION: Antibiotic prophylaxis before ERCP in patients with biliary obstruction resulted in a significantly lower risk of infectious complications, especially cholangitis, than placebo ( ClinicalTrials.gov trial number NCT02958059).


Assuntos
Colangite , Colestase , Humanos , Colangiopancreatografia Retrógrada Endoscópica/efeitos adversos , Antibioticoprofilaxia/efeitos adversos , Colestase/prevenção & controle , Colestase/complicações , Colangite/epidemiologia , Colangite/etiologia , Colangite/prevenção & controle , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico
16.
Pharmacotherapy ; 44(2): 197-206, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37986168

RESUMO

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) commonly affect many patient populations. Recurrent UTIs (rUTIs) can be particularly problematic and lead to potential hospitalizations, multiple antibiotic courses, and have a potential negative impact on quality of life. To prevent UTIs, antibiotics are frequently used for prophylaxis; however, antibiotic prophylaxis has notable untoward consequences including but not limited to potential adverse effects and development of antibiotic resistance. Methenamine, an antiseptic agent initially available in 1967, has re-emerged as a potential option for UTI prophylaxis in various populations, including older adults and renal transplant recipients. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and safety of methenamine for UTI prophylaxis. A systematic review following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidance was performed. A PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane library search was conducted to identify relevant English-language studies evaluating methenamine for UTI prophylaxis including randomized controlled trials, case-control studies, and meta-analyses through June 2023. Articles were excluded if the studies did not primarily describe or evaluate methenamine for UTI prophylaxis, were commentaries/viewpoints articles, point prevalence studies, review articles, studies that evaluated methenamine used with another agent, and any duplicate publications from searched databases. A total of 11 articles were identified for inclusion. This systematic review suggests methenamine generally appears to be an effective and well-tolerated antibiotic-sparing option for UTI prophylaxis. Furthermore, the pharmacology, dosage and formulation, warnings, precautions, and safety considerations of methenamine that provide potential clinical considerations regarding its use for UTI prophylaxis are described. Further studies are needed to evaluate the clinical utility of methenamine for UTI prophylaxis.


Assuntos
Metenamina , Infecções Urinárias , Humanos , Idoso , Metenamina/uso terapêutico , Qualidade de Vida , Infecções Urinárias/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Urinárias/prevenção & controle , Infecções Urinárias/etiologia , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Antibioticoprofilaxia/efeitos adversos
17.
Surg Infect (Larchmt) ; 24(9): 830-834, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38015647

RESUMO

Background: Deep incisional and organ/space surgical site infections (SSIs) after colorectal surgery are associated with adverse outcomes. Multiple antibiotic regimens are recommended for peri-operative prophylaxis, with no particular regimen preferred over another. We compared the prophylaxis regimens used in patients with and without SSIs, and the impact of regimens on the flora involved in SSIs. Patients and Methods: Information was extracted from the National Healthcare Safety Network databank of patients undergoing colorectal surgery from 2015 to 2022 in a large public healthcare system in New York City. Patients with SSIs were identified, and controlling for nine variables, propensity score matching was used to create a matched control group without SSIs. Prophylactic regimens were compared between the matched groups with and without SSIs. Also, for the patients with SSIs, the impact of the prophylactic regimen on the subsequent pathogens involved the infection was examined. Results: A total of 275 patients with SSIs were compared to a matched cohort without SSIs. The prophylactic regimens were extremely similar between the SSI and control groups. Among the patients who developed SSIs, more patients who received cefoxitin had emergence of select cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacterales and Bacteroides spp. when compared with those who received ß-lactam-ß-lactamase inhibitors. Conclusions: The distribution of surgical prophylaxis regimens was remarkably similar between patients developing serious SSIs and a closely matched cohort that did not develop an SSI. However, given the downstream effects of more resistant and anaerobic flora should an infection develop, use of cefoxitin should be re-evaluated as a prophylactic agent.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Colorretal , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica , Humanos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/etiologia , Cefoxitina , Cirurgia Colorretal/efeitos adversos , Antibioticoprofilaxia/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bactérias
18.
N Engl J Med ; 389(16): 1488-1498, 2023 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37851875

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The addition of vancomycin to beta-lactam prophylaxis in arthroplasty may reduce surgical-site infections; however, the efficacy and safety are unclear. METHODS: In this multicenter, double-blind, superiority, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned adult patients without known methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization who were undergoing arthroplasty to receive 1.5 g of vancomycin or normal saline placebo, in addition to cefazolin prophylaxis. The primary outcome was surgical-site infection within 90 days after surgery. RESULTS: A total of 4239 patients underwent randomization. Among 4113 patients in the modified intention-to-treat population (2233 undergoing knee arthroplasty, 1850 undergoing hip arthroplasty, and 30 undergoing shoulder arthroplasty), surgical-site infections occurred in 91 of 2044 patients (4.5%) in the vancomycin group and in 72 of 2069 patients (3.5%) in the placebo group (relative risk, 1.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.94 to 1.73; P = 0.11). Among patients undergoing knee arthroplasty, surgical-site infections occurred in 63 of 1109 patients (5.7%) in the vancomyin group and in 42 of 1124 patients (3.7%) in the placebo group (relative risk, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.04 to 2.23). Among patients undergoing hip arthroplasty, surgical-site infections occurred in 28 of 920 patients (3.0%) in the vancomyin group and in 29 of 930 patients (3.1%) in the placebo group (relative risk, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.59 to 1.63). Adverse events occurred in 35 of 2010 patients (1.7%) in the vancomycin group and in 35 of 2030 patients (1.7%) in the placebo group, including hypersensitivity reactions in 24 of 2010 patients (1.2%) and 11 of 2030 patients (0.5%), respectively (relative risk, 2.20; 95% CI, 1.08 to 4.49), and acute kidney injury in 42 of 2010 patients (2.1%) and 74 of 2030 patients (3.6%), respectively (relative risk, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.39 to 0.83). CONCLUSIONS: The addition of vancomycin to cefazolin prophylaxis was not superior to placebo for the prevention of surgical-site infections in arthroplasty among patients without known MRSA colonization. (Funded by the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council; Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry number, ACTRN12618000642280.).


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Artroplastia de Substituição , Cefazolina , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica , Vancomicina , Adulto , Humanos , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antibioticoprofilaxia/efeitos adversos , Antibioticoprofilaxia/métodos , Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Artroplastia do Joelho/métodos , Austrália , Cefazolina/efeitos adversos , Cefazolina/uso terapêutico , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/prevenção & controle , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/etiologia , Vancomicina/efeitos adversos , Vancomicina/uso terapêutico , Método Duplo-Cego , Artroplastia de Substituição/efeitos adversos , Artroplastia de Substituição/métodos , Artroplastia de Substituição/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
Bratisl Lek Listy ; 124(10): 727-732, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37789786

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The use of antibiotic prophylaxis in invasive procedures is generally accepted and highly recommended. The question is the need to apply antibiotic prophylaxis even in the case of mini-invasive procedures in the post-transplantation period. The aim of the study was to dermine the occurrence of infectious complications during mini-invasive procedures (pig-tail extraction, protocol biopsy) withou the use of antibiotic (ATB) prophylaxis. The secondary aim was to identify risk factors for a positive urine culture finding at the time of mini-invasive procedures. MATERIAL: This is a prospective monocentric study in which pacients after kidney transplantation at Transplantation centrum in Martin were included (n = 68). We investigated the incidence of positive urine findings at the time of pig-tail extraction (6 weeks after transplantation) and at the time of protocol biopsy (3 months after transplantation) with comparison within the group with and without ATB prophylaxis. RESULTS: Patients in group without ATB prophylaxis had a significantly higher tacrolimus value at the time of pig-tail extraction (p = 0.0274) and a significantly higher dose of mycophenolic acid at the time of protocol biopsy (p = 0.0429). We did not confirm significant difference in occcurence of positive urine findings at the time of pig-tail extraction or at the time of protocol biopsy. We completed a univariate logistic regression in order to identify a potential risk predictor for positive urine findings at the time of pig-tail extraction and protocol biopsy. None of the monitored parameters, including ATB prophylaxis, was confirmed as risk or protective factor. CONCLUSION: The use of antibiotic prophylaxis during mini-invasive procedures (pig-tail extraction, protocol biopsy) in the posttransplantation period had no effect on positive culture findings at our department. Based on our analysis, we therefore do not use antibiotic prophylaxis in the case of these procedures at our centre (Tab. 3, Fig. 6, Ref. 23).


Assuntos
Transplante de Rim , Infecções Urinárias , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Infecções Urinárias/etiologia , Infecções Urinárias/prevenção & controle , Antibioticoprofilaxia/efeitos adversos , Antibioticoprofilaxia/métodos , Biópsia/efeitos adversos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico
20.
Eur J Med Res ; 28(1): 396, 2023 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37794524

RESUMO

AIMS: To evaluate the effect of antibiotic prophylaxis(AP) in the prognosis of Post-neurosurgical meningitis(PNM) patients. METHODS: A cohort analysis was performed using the clinical database in Beijing Tiantan Hospital and Capital Medical University. Data were collected on patients with the diagnosis of PNM (n = 3931) during 2012.01 to 2022.04. The microbial distribution, types of AP, and 42 and 90 days survival analysis of AP patients were evaluated using probable statistical methods. Independent risk factors for mortality were established by constructing a logistic regression analysis. RESULT: A total of 1,190 patients were included in this study, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Staphylococcus aureus occupied the highest proportion. Of them, 929 cases received AP, cefuroxime and ceftriaxone are the most frequent used antibiotics. In addition, We found that PNM patients without AP significantly increased the 42 days and 90 days all-cause mortality rates. The use of different levels of AP did not improve patient outcomes, and ICU admission and assisted mechanical ventilation (AMV) were identified as independent mortality risk factors for PNM patient received AP. CONCLUSIONS: AP plays an important role in the prognosis of PNM patients and has a significant function in improving prognosis. The prevention of PNM with antibiotics prior to neurosurgery should be emphasized in clinical practice, and appropriate selection of antibiotics is necessary to prevent the occurrence of infection and inhibit the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.


Assuntos
Antibioticoprofilaxia , Meningite , Humanos , Antibioticoprofilaxia/efeitos adversos , Antibioticoprofilaxia/métodos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Meningite/induzido quimicamente , Meningite/tratamento farmacológico , Ceftriaxona/uso terapêutico , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
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