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1.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 24(1): 103, 2024 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38308208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lamotrigine has become one of the most commonly prescribed antiseizure medications (ASM) in epileptic women during pregnancy and therefore requires regular updates regarding its safety. The aim of this study was to estimate the association between in utero exposure to lamotrigine monotherapy and the occurrence of neurodevelopmental outcomes. METHODS: All comparative studies assessing the occurrence of neurodevelopmental outcomes after epilepsy-indicated lamotrigine monotherapy exposure during pregnancy were searched. First, references were identified through a snowballing approach, then, through electronic databases (Medline and Embase) from 2015 to June 2022. One investigator evaluated study eligibility and extracted data and a second independent investigator reviewed the meta-analysis (MA). A systematic review and random-effects model approach were performed using a collaborative WEB-based meta-analysis platform (metaPreg.org) with a registered protocol (osf.io/u4gva). RESULTS: Overall, 18 studies were included. For outcomes reported by at least 4 studies, the pooled odds ratios and 95% confidence interval obtained with the number of exposed (N1) and unexposed children (N0) included were: neurodevelopmental disorders as a whole 0.84 [0.66;1.06] (N1 = 5,271; N0 = 22,230); language disorders or delay 1.16 [0.67;2.00] (N1 = 313; N0 = 506); diagnosis or risk of ASD 0.97 [0.61;1.53] (N1 = at least 5,262; N0 = 33,313); diagnosis or risk of ADHD 1.14 [0.75;1.72] (N1 = at least 113; N0 = 11,530) and psychomotor developmental disorders or delay 2.68 [1.29-5.56] (N1 = 163; N0 = 220). The MA of cognitive outcomes included less than 4 studies and retrieved a significant association for infants exposed to lamotrigine younger than 3 years old but not in the older age groups. CONCLUSION: Prenatal exposure to lamotrigine monotherapy is not found to be statistically associated with neurodevelopmental disorders as a whole, language disorders or delay, diagnosis or risk of ASD and diagnosis or risk of ADHD. However, the MA found an increased risk of psychomotor developmental disorders or delay and cognitive developmental delay in less than 3 years old children. Nevertheless, these findings were based exclusively on observational studies presenting biases and on a limited number of included children. More studies should assess neurodevelopmental outcomes in children prenatally exposed to lamotrigine.


Assuntos
Epilepsia , Transtornos da Linguagem , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Gravidez , Criança , Lactente , Feminino , Humanos , Idoso , Pré-Escolar , Lamotrigina/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Transtornos da Linguagem/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos da Linguagem/tratamento farmacológico
2.
Clin Lab ; 70(2)2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38345991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a severe inflammatory reaction syndrome caused by genetic or acquired immune dysregulation. The majority of adult HLH cases are caused by tumors, rheumatic immune disorders, and infections. However, drug-induced HLH is rarely reported. METHODS: We report a case of HLH in an adult caused by the administration of lamotrigine, to our knowledge, only nine other cases of lamotrigine-associated HLH have been reported in adult patients. RESULTS: After discontinuing lamotrigine and using steroid hormones for the HLH, the patient's condition has been brought under control. CONCLUSIONS: This case confirms that dexamethasone is also effective for drug-induced HLH. Usually, after discontinuing the relevant medications, there is no need for further maintenance treatment.


Assuntos
Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica , Doenças Reumáticas , Adulto , Humanos , Lamotrigina/efeitos adversos , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/induzido quimicamente , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/diagnóstico , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/tratamento farmacológico , Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Síndrome
3.
BMJ Case Rep ; 17(2)2024 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38350699

RESUMO

Valproate (VPA) is broad-spectrum antiepileptic drug. Several adverse reactions including hepatotoxicity, fetal risk and pancreatitis are well known and labelled as boxed warnings in the USA. One adverse reaction that is less well known but clinically significant for its severe morbidity is hyperammonemic encephalopathy. We present a case of woman with hyperammonemic encephalopathy following the initiation of VPA therapy; she had a favourable outcome with discontinuation of the drug and prompt treatment with lactulose and L-carnitine.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias , Hiperamonemia , Síndromes Neurotóxicas , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Ácido Valproico/efeitos adversos , Hiperamonemia/tratamento farmacológico , Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/tratamento farmacológico , Encefalopatias/induzido quimicamente , Encefalopatias/tratamento farmacológico
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(8): e36834, 2024 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38394513

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Rhabdomyolysis is a serious complication of status epilepticus (SE) caused by muscle cell damage and can lead to a life-threatening acute kidney injury (AKI). PATIENT CONCERNS: A 35-year-old man with a history of seizures treated with 3 different antiepileptic drugs (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, and levetiracetam) presented with SE. The patient received 5 doses of diazepam to control the SE in another hospital and was transferred to our emergency due to AKI. DIAGNOSES: Laboratory tests corresponded with rhabdomyolysis-induced AKI and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Thereafter, the decrease in renal excretion of both drugs (diazepam and carbamazepine) caused acute liver injury and neurotoxicity. The carbamazepine concentration was 16.39 mcg/mL, which considered in toxic level, despite using the usual dose. INTERVENTIONS: The patient was treated with hydration and sodium bicarbonate, however; severe AKI mandated a hemodialysis session. OUTCOMES: The diuresis started to increase, kidney and liver functions improved, and altered mental status reversed. LESSONS: This case alerts physicians to consider the synergistic drug side effects and interactions, especially when patients present with impaired liver or kidney functions. The reduction in metabolism or excretion of drugs can cause an increase in serum concentrations and induce toxicity, even when the drug intake at the usual dose.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Rabdomiólise , Estado Epiléptico , Masculino , Humanos , Adulto , Diazepam/uso terapêutico , Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Estado Epiléptico/induzido quimicamente , Estado Epiléptico/tratamento farmacológico , Estado Epiléptico/complicações , Carbamazepina/uso terapêutico , Rabdomiólise/complicações , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/complicações , Injúria Renal Aguda/etiologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/complicações
5.
Epilepsy Res ; 200: 107316, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38340680

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate rates of occurrence of pregnancies associated with a foetal malformation (FM pregnancy rates) following simultaneous intrauterine exposure to two antiseizure medications in 524 pregnancies in women with epilepsy from the Australian Pregnancy Register who were treated simultaneously with various combinations and dosages of two antiseizure medications (duotherapy). RESULTS: FM pregnancy rates tended to be higher in those exposed simultaneously to two antiseizure medications, each of which was a statistically significant teratogen (valproate, topiramate, or carbamazepine), than when there was exposure to only one such teratogen. When there was exposure to only one such teratogen together with clonazepam or levetiracetam, for neither of which there was statistically significant evidence of heightened teratogenicity, the FM pregnancy rates also tended to be higher, but less so. When lamotrigine was the other component of the duotherapy with an established teratogen, FM pregnancy rates tended to be lower than that for the teratogen used as monotherapy. CONCLUSION: Leaving aside issues in relation to seizure control, our data suggest that it would be best to avoid using established teratogenic antiseizure medications (carbamazepine, valproate and topiramate) in combination with each other due to the increased FM risks. When combining an established teratogenic medication with a less teratogenic one, i.e. lamotrigine, levetiracetam or clonazepam, lamotrigine appears to be the safer option.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Induzidas por Medicamentos , Epilepsia , Teratogênese , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Ácido Valproico/uso terapêutico , Levetiracetam/efeitos adversos , Topiramato/uso terapêutico , Lamotrigina/efeitos adversos , Teratógenos , Clonazepam/efeitos adversos , Anormalidades Induzidas por Medicamentos/etiologia , Anormalidades Induzidas por Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Austrália , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Carbamazepina/uso terapêutico
6.
J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol ; 34(1): 61-66, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38377523

RESUMO

Background: Oxcarbazepine is thought to be better-tolerated and less susceptible to drug-drug interactions than its predecessor, carbamazepine. Genetic testing for HLA-B*15:02 is recommended in specific populations to identify those at high risk of severe hypersensitivity reactions; however, other pharmacologic and pharmacogenetic factors that can impact drug disposition may be involved. Methods: We present a case of an 8-year-old boy treated with oxcarbazepine who developed drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) with Stevens-Johnsons syndrome overlap and was negative for HLA-B*15:02. We review the extant literature related to oxcarbazepine disposition, and potential pharmacogenetic variants in aldoketoreductase 1C (AKR1C)2-4 that may contribute to this risk. Results: Genetic variability in oxcarbazepine disposition pathways may contribute to tolerability and toxicity, including the development of hypersensitivity reactions. Conclusions: While preemptive genetic testing for HLA-B*15:02 in individuals of Asian ancestry is recommended to prevent severe hypersensitivity reactions to oxcarbazepine, oxcarbazepine concentrations and AKR1C variation may contribute to the risk of severe adverse reactions. We provide recommendations for future study to elucidate whether these individual factors are important for reducing the risk of severe adverse events.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes , Síndrome de Stevens-Johnson , Masculino , Criança , Adolescente , Humanos , Oxcarbazepina , Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Farmacogenética , Antígenos HLA-B/genética , Síndrome de Stevens-Johnson/genética
7.
Curr Treat Options Oncol ; 25(3): 389-403, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38353859

RESUMO

OPINION STATEMENT: Seizure activity is common in patients with primary and metastatic brain tumors, affecting more than 50% of cases over the course of their disease. Several mechanisms contribute to brain tumor-related epilepsy (BTRE), including a pro-inflammatory environment, excessive secretion of glutamate and an increase in neuronal excitatory tone, reduction of GABAergic inhibitory activity, and an increase in 2-hydroxygluturate production in isocitrate dehydrogenase mutant tumors. After a verified seizure in a brain tumor patient, the consensus is that BTRE has developed, and it is necessary to initiate an antiepileptic drug (AED). It is not recommended to initiate AED prophylaxis. Second- and third-generation AEDs are the preferred options for initiation, due to a lack of hepatic enzyme induction and reduced likelihood for drug-drug interactions, especially in regard to neoplastic treatment. The efficacy of appropriate AEDs for patients with BTRE is fairly equivalent, although some data suggests that levetiracetam may be slightly more active in suppressing seizures than other AEDs. The consensus among most Neuro-Oncology providers is to initiate levetiracetam monotherapy after a first seizure in a brain tumor patient, as long as the patient does not have any psychiatric co-morbidities. If levetiracetam is not tolerated well or is ineffective, other appropriate initial AED options for monotherapy or as an add-on anticonvulsant include lacosamide, valproic acid, briviracetam, lamotrigine, and perampanel.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Epilepsia , Humanos , Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Levetiracetam/uso terapêutico , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia/etiologia , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico
9.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 674, 2024 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38182639

RESUMO

Effects of valproate (VPA) dose and treatment discontinuation during the first trimester of pregnancy on the risks of spontaneous abortions (SAB) and major birth defects were analyzed. Pregnancies with first trimester VPA exposure (n = 484) prospectively recorded by the German Embryotox center in 1997-2016 were compared with a randomly selected, non-exposed cohort (n = 1446). The SAB risk was not significantly increased in the VPA cohort [HRadj 1.31 (95% CI 0.85-2.02)] but major birth defects were significantly more frequent [8.7% vs. 3.4%; ORadj 2.61 (95% CI 1.51-4.50)]. Risk was even higher in pregnancies with no VPA discontinuation in first trimester [ORadj 3.66 (95% CI 2.04-6.54)]. Significant ORs were found for nervous system defects in general [ORadj 5.69 (95% CI 1.73-18.78)], severe microcephaly [ORadj 6.65 (95% CI 1.17-37.68)], hypospadias [ORadj 19.49 (95% CI 1.80-211)] and urinary system defects [ORadj 6.51 (95% CI 1.48-28.67)]. VPA dose had a stronger effect than antiepileptic poly- versus monotherapy; for VPA dose ≥ 1500 mg/day the ORadj was 5.41 (95% CI 2.32-12.66)]. A daily dose increase of 100 mg was calculated to raise the risk for major birth defects by 15% [OR 1.15 (95% CI 1.08-1.23)]. Overall, maternal first trimester treatment regimen had a relevant impact on birth defect risk.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo , Ácido Valproico , Feminino , Gravidez , Masculino , Humanos , Ácido Valproico/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Protocolos Clínicos , Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Aborto Espontâneo/induzido quimicamente , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia
10.
Epilepsy Behav ; 151: 109605, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38184949

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cognitive and psychiatric adverse events in patients with epilepsy are important determinants of therapeutic outcomes and patient quality of life. We assessed the relationship between adjunctive cenobamate treatment and selected cognitive and psychiatric treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) in adults with uncontrolled focal epilepsy. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of pooled populations of patients with focal epilepsy from two phase 2, randomized, double-blind clinical trials; two open-label extensions (OLEs) of those trials; and a long-term, open-label, phase 3 safety study. Occurrence of cognitive and psychiatric TEAEs in patients treated with adjunctive cenobamate or placebo during double-blind treatment were evaluated. Exposure-adjusted incidence rates of the cognitive and psychiatric TEAEs, defined as the number of TEAEs per patient-year of treatment, during up to 7 years of long-term adjunctive cenobamate treatment, were determined in the pooled OLE and phase 3 patient populations. RESULTS: The pooled randomized trials resulted in a population of 442 patients treated with cenobamate (100 mg/day: n = 108; 200 mg/day: n = 223; 400 mg/day: n = 111) and 216 placebo-treated patients. The combined open-label studies resulted in pooled populations of cenobamate-treated patients ranging from n = 1690 during Year 1 to n = 103 during Year 7. Among cenobamate-treated (all doses) and placebo-treated patients during double-blind treatment, cognitive TEAEs were reported by ≤ 1.9 % (range, 0 %-1.9 %) and ≤ 0.5 % (range, 0 %-0.5 %), respectively, and psychiatric TEAEs by ≤ 3.6 % (range, 0 %-3.6 %) and ≤ 3.2 % (range, 0 %-3.2 %), respectively. During up to 7 years of open-label adjunctive cenobamate treatment, exposure-adjusted incidence rates of cognitive and psychiatric TEAEs were < 0.018 and < 0.038 events per patient-year, respectively. Discontinuation of adjunctive cenobamate due to cognitive or psychiatric TEAEs assessed in this study during double-blind or open-label treatment occurred in ≤ 0.3 % and ≤ 1.7 % of patients, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Cognitive and psychiatric TEAEs were reported by similar numbers of cenobamate- and placebo-treated patients during double-blind adjunctive cenobamate treatment (< 4 % of patients), and exposure-adjusted incidence rates of these TEAEs remained low during open-label cenobamate treatment for up to 7 years. Treatment discontinuations due to these TEAEs were rare. The results of this post-hoc analysis indicate that adjunctive cenobamate treatment exhibits a low incidence of cognitive or psychiatric TEAEs in patients with uncontrolled focal seizures.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes , Carbamatos , Clorofenóis , Epilepsias Parciais , Tetrazóis , Humanos , Adulto , Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Quimioterapia Combinada , Epilepsias Parciais/tratamento farmacológico , Método Duplo-Cego , Cognição
11.
Neurology ; 102(4): e209163, 2024 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38290092

RESUMO

Patients with brain tumors will experience seizures during their disease course. While providers can use antiseizure medications to control these events, patients with brain tumors can experience side effects, ranging from mild to severe, from these medications. Providers in subspecialties such as neurology, neuro-oncology, neurosurgery, radiation oncology, and medical oncology often work with patients with brain tumor to balance seizure control and the adverse toxicity of antiseizure medications. In this study, we sought to explore the problem of brain tumor-related seizures/epilepsy in the context of how and when to consider antiseizure medication discontinuation. Moreover, we thoroughly evaluate the literature on antiseizure medication discontinuation for adult and pediatric patients and highlight recommendations relevant to patients with both brain tumors and seizures.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Epilepsia , Adulto , Humanos , Criança , Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Convulsões/cirurgia , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/complicações , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos
12.
Epilepsy Behav ; 151: 109622, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38219606

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is reported that antiepileptic drugs have an effect on balance functions. The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare the effects of valproic acid and levetiracetam monotherapy on balance functions in patients with generalized epilepsy using objective test methods. METHODS: The study included 43 generalized epilepsy patients aged 18-60 years, including 20 patients receiving valproic acid monotherapy, 23 patients receiving levetiracetam monotherapy, and 25 healthy individuals as controls, in the Neurology Clinic of a university hospital in eastern Turkey. The demographic data form was filled out and the Video Head Impulse Test and Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials test were performed. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences were obtained between the groups in lateral, posterior, and anterior semicircular canal gains and RALP and LARP asymmetry values in the V-HIT test (p < 0.05). Statistically significant differences were obtained between the groups in P1, N1 latency and asymmetry values in the C-VEMP test and in N1, P1 latency, amplitude, and asymmetry values in the o-VEMP test (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Valproic acid and levetiracetam may affect the vestibulocular and vestibulocolic reflex pathways negatively. In this cohort, valproic acid had more pronounced adverse effects on balance functions as compared to levetiracetam.


Assuntos
Epilepsia Generalizada , Ácido Valproico , Humanos , Levetiracetam/uso terapêutico , Ácido Valproico/efeitos adversos , Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Epilepsia Generalizada/tratamento farmacológico , Projetos de Pesquisa
13.
Drug Metab Dispos ; 52(3): 210-217, 2024 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38195521

RESUMO

Valproic acid (VPA) is a first-line antiepileptic drug with broad efficacy. Due to significant individual differences in its metabolism, therapeutic drug monitoring is commonly used. However, the recommended therapeutic range (50-100 µg/mL) is inadequate for predicting clinical outcomes. Additionally, the relationship between VPA metabolites and clinical outcomes remains unclear. In this retrospective study, 485 Chinese Southern Han epilepsy patients receiving VPA monotherapy were analyzed after reaching steady-state levels. Plasma concentrations of VPA and its five main metabolites were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). We assessed the relevance of the recommended therapeutic VPA range for clinical outcomes and explored the association between VPA/metabolites levels and treatment efficacy/adverse effects. Vitro experiments were conducted to assess 4-ene-VPA hepatotoxicity. The therapeutic range of VPA exhibited no significant correlation with clinical outcomes, and plasma concentrations of VPA failed to serve as predictive indicators for treatment response/adverse effects. Treatment responders had higher 2-PGA concentrations (median, 26.39 ng/mL versus 13.68 ng/mL), with a threshold of 36.5 ng/mL for optimal epilepsy treatment. Patients with abnormal liver function had a higher 4-ene-VPA median concentration (6.41 µg/mL versus 4.83 µg/mL), and the ratio of 4-ene-VPA to VPA better predicted VPA-induced hepatotoxicity (area under the curve, 0.718) than 4-ene-VPA concentration. Vitro experiments revealed that 4-ene-VPA was more hepatotoxic than VPA in HepaRG and L02 cell lines. Total plasma VPA concentration does not serve as a predictor of clinical outcomes. 2-PGA concentrations may be associated with efficacy, whereas the ratio of 4-ene-VPA to VPA may be considered a better biomarker (threshold 10.03%) for VPA-induced hepatotoxicity. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: This was the first and largest observational cohort in China to explore the relationship between patients' parent and metabolites concentrations of VPA and clinical outcomes during the maintenance of VPA monotherapy in epileptic patients. This study provided feasible references of VPA for epilepsy clinical treatment with a larger sample of patients compared with previous studies for a more definitive conclusion based on real-world situations. We found two potential biomarkers in predicting efficacy and liver injury, respectively. This breakthrough has the potential to assist in the rational use of VPA.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Epilepsia , Humanos , Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Monitoramento de Medicamentos , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ácido Valproico/efeitos adversos
15.
Seizure ; 115: 94-99, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38237316

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess efficacy, safety, and tolerability of highly purified cannabidiol oil (CBD) as add-on therapy for the treatment of a series of patients with infantile epileptic spasms syndrome (IESS) who were resistant to antiseizure medications and ketogenic dietary therapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of the medical records of 28 infants with treatment-resistant IESS aged 6 to 21 months who received highly purified CBD between July 2021 and June 2023. Data were collected on neurological examinations, EEG, Video-EEG and polygraphic recordings, imaging studies, laboratory testing, and seizure frequency, type, and duration, and adverse effects. As the primary outcome, a reduction of frequency of epileptic spasms (ES) was assessed. ES freedom was considered after a minimal time of 1 month without ES. RESULTS: Sixteen male and 12 female patients, aged 6-21 months, who received CBD for treatment-resistant IESS were included. The etiology was structural in 10, Down syndrome in seven, genetic in nine, and unknown in two. Initial CBD dose was 2 mg/kg/day, which was uptitrated to a median dose of 25 mg/kg/day (range, 2-50). Prior to CBD initiation, patients had a median of 69 ES in clusters per day (range, 41-75) and of 10 focal seizures per week (range, 7-13). After a mean and median follow-up of 15 and 12.5 months (range, 6-26 months), seven patients were ES free and 12 had a >50 % ES reduction. Five of seven patients (71 %) with Down syndrome and 3/5 (60 %) with cerebral palsy responded well. Adverse effects were mild. EEG improvements correlated with ES reductions. CONCLUSION: In this study evaluating the use of CBD in children with IESS, 19/28 (67.8 %) had a more than 50 % ES reduction with good tolerability.


Assuntos
Canabidiol , Síndrome de Down , Epilepsia , Espasmos Infantis , Criança , Lactente , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Canabidiol/efeitos adversos , Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Síndrome de Down/induzido quimicamente , Síndrome de Down/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Espasmos Infantis/tratamento farmacológico , Espasmo/induzido quimicamente , Espasmo/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
CNS Drugs ; 38(2): 141-151, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38265735

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Most second and third generation antiseizure medications (ASMs) are associated with cognitive adverse events, which are a major concern for patients. However, the profile of cognitive adverse events differs between ASMs. This study investigated the effects of cenobamate on cognition in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) within the Spanish Expanded Access Program (EAP). METHODS: This was a retrospective, observational study. Inclusion criteria were age ≥ 18 years, DRE with focal seizures, and availability of cognition assessments and EAP authorization. Data were sourced from the clinical records of patients who took part in the Spanish cenobamate EAP. Primary endpoints included cognition (based on 20 neuropsychological outcomes, including verbal and visuospatial episodic memory, verbal fluency, executive function, working memory, attention, and speed of processing), seizure frequency, and concomitant antiseizure medication (ASM) usage at 6 months. RESULTS: The study included 20 patients; 10 patients (50%) had daily seizures, 7 (35%) had weekly seizures and 3 (15%) had monthly seizures. The median number of prior antiseizure medications (ASMs) and concomitant ASMs were 10 and 3, respectively. Mean cenobamate doses were 12.5 mg/day at baseline and 191.2 mg/day at 6 months. There was a statistically significant improvement in cognitive scores between baseline and 6 months for two measures of verbal episodic memory (p = 0.0056 and p = 0.0013) and one measure of visuospatial episodic memory (p = 0.011), and a significant worsening in cognitive score for attention (p = 0.030). At 6 months, 14 patients (70%) had a ≥ 50% reduction in seizure frequency, 3 patients (15%) had a ≥ 90% reduction, and 1 patient (5%) was seizure free. There were significant decreases in the mean number of concomitant ASMs (p = 0.0009), the sum of the ratios of prescribing daily dose/daily defined dose (total ratio of DDD) for concomitant ASMs (p < 0.0001), and concomitant ASM drug load (p = 0.038) between baseline and 6 months. Total ratio of DDD was significantly lower at 6 months for perampanel (p = 0.0016), benzodiazepines (p = 0.035), and sodium channel blockers (p = 0.0005) compared with baseline. Based on analysis of covariance, cognitive tests related to verbal or visuospatial episodic memory (e.g., RT of FCSRT, or ROCFT), executive functions (e.g., TMT-B), and processing speed (some 5-Digit Test subtests) appeared to be closely related to the reduction in pharmacological burden rather than the improvement in seizure control. CONCLUSIONS: Significant improvements in cognition, seizure frequency, and concomitant ASM usage were observed after the introduction of cenobamate in patients with DRE in a real-world setting. Covariance analysis supports the reduction in concomitant ASMs as the most important factor driving cognitive improvements with cenobamate. As this was an exploratory study with an uncontrolled, retrospective design and a low number of patients, further studies are required to confirm the findings.


Assuntos
Carbamatos , Clorofenóis , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos , Tetrazóis , Humanos , Adolescente , Estudos Retrospectivos , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Cognição , Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Epilepsy Res ; 200: 107285, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38183687

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To report the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of adjunctive eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) treatment in reducing focal to bilateral tonic-clonic seizures (FBTCS). METHODS: Data were pooled from 3 randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of adjunctive ESL in patients with focal seizures. Patients treated with 800 or 1200 mg/day ESL and who experienced ≥ 1 FBTCS during baseline were included. Efficacy was measured using FBTCS standardized seizure frequency (SSF), responder rates (≥50%, ≥75%, and 100%), and time to first FBTCS. Adverse events (AEs) were tabulated for each subgroup. RESULTS: Of the original 1447 patients, 438 patients in the safety population were included with ≥ 1 FBTCS at baseline (efficacy population, n = 429). Patients with ≥ 2 FBTCS (safety, n = 354; efficacy, n = 346) and ≥ 3 FBTCS (safety, n = 294; efficacy, n = 288) at baseline were also analyzed. The 1200 mg/day ESL group experienced lower least squares mean SSF vs placebo in patients with ≥ 1 baseline FBTCS (P = 0.0395) and ≥ 3 baseline FBTCS (P = 0.0091). The 50% responder rates improved for 1200 mg/day ESL vs placebo (≥1 FBTCS, P = 0.005; ≥2 FBTCS, P = 0.0063; ≥3 FBTCS, P = 0.0016). The 75% responder rates improved with 1200 mg/day ESL vs placebo (≥1 FBTCS, P = 0.0315; ≥2 FBTCS, P = 0.0215; ≥3 FBTCS, P = 0.0099), and with 800 mg/day ESL for ≥ 2 FBTCS at baseline (P = 0.0486). The 100% responder rate was higher in patients treated with 1200 mg/day ESL (not significant). Time to first FBTCS was longer with both 800 (P = 0.0008) and 1200 mg/day (P = 0.0020) ESL vs placebo for the ≥ 1 FBTCS subgroup, and with 1200 mg/day ESL for ≥ 2 FBTCS (P = 0.0060) and ≥ 3 FBTCS (P = 0.0152) subgroups. Overall, AEs occurred at similar rates across subgroups, and were lower than the original RCTs. CONCLUSION: Adjunctive ESL produced a robust response in patients with FBTCS, a seizure type associated with SUDEP and high injury rates. Adjunctive ESL was well tolerated in patients who experienced FBTCS.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes , Dibenzazepinas , Humanos , Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Método Duplo-Cego , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Dibenzazepinas/efeitos adversos
18.
Epilepsy Res ; 200: 107280, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38183688

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Plant-derived highly purified cannabidiol (CBD) reduced the frequency of seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) and Dravet syndrome (DS) and improved the overall condition of patients in placebo-controlled phase 3 clinical trials. Anecdotal reports also suggest a positive effect on nonseizure outcomes. In this study, we aimed to identify, through a caregiver survey which nonseizure outcomes were most likely to change in these patients. METHODS: The BEhavior, COgnition, and More with Epidiolex® (BECOME) was a 20-minute, cross-sectional, online survey that was developed with extensive input from caregivers, healthcare professionals, and epilepsy researchers, and was based on questions from validated measures and previously published caregiver reports. US-based caregivers (from Jazz Pharmaceuticals patient/caregiver database) of people with LGS or DS who were treated with CBD (Epidiolex®, 100 mg/mL oral solution) for ≥3 months were asked to compare the past month to the period before CBD initiation and rate their impression of changes using symmetrical Likert scales. RESULTS: A total of 498 caregivers (97% parents) of patients with LGS (80%) or DS (20%) completed the survey. Mean (range) age of patients was 16 (1-73) years, and 52% were male. Patients were taking a median CBD dose of 14 mg/kg/d and median 4 concomitant antiseizure medications. A large proportion of respondents reported improvements in ≥1 survey question for all nonseizure-related domains: alertness, cognition, and executive function (85%); emotional functioning (82%); language and communication (79% in nonverbal patients and 74% in verbal); activities of daily living (51%); sleep (51%); and physical functioning (46%). Respondents reported improvements in seizure-related domains, including overall seizure frequency (85%), overall seizure severity (76%), seizure-free days per week for ≥1 seizure type (67%), and seizure freedom during the past month (16%). The majority of respondents who reported reduction in seizure frequency also reported improvements in nonseizure outcomes domains (51-80%). However, improvements in nonseizure outcomes (18-56%) were also reported in patients who either had no change or worsening of seizure frequency. CONCLUSIONS: This survey characterized and quantified caregiver impression of changes in the seizure and nonseizure outcomes in patients taking add-on CBD treatment. Overall, 93% of caregivers reported planning to continue CBD treatment, primarily because of reduced seizure burden but also because of improvements in nonseizure-related outcomes. Despite the limitations that are associated with a retrospective survey-based study design, these results support further evaluation of the effect of CBD treatment on nonseizure outcomes among patients with LGS or DS.


Assuntos
Canabidiol , Epilepsias Mioclônicas , Síndrome de Lennox-Gastaut , Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Canabidiol/uso terapêutico , Canabidiol/efeitos adversos , Síndrome de Lennox-Gastaut/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Lennox-Gastaut/complicações , Cuidadores , Atividades Cotidianas , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/complicações , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente
19.
Epilepsy Res ; 200: 107307, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38286107

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perampanel (PER) is a newly developed amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA) receptor antagonist that has been globally approved for the treatment of both focal and generalized seizures. The efficacy and safety of PER have only been reported over short periods of treatment so far. This study aims to clarify the long-term efficacy and safety of PER as an add-on therapy. METHOD: This retrospective observational study investigated 176 epilepsy patients who received PER as add-on medical therapy in two Japanese epilepsy centers between June 2016 and July 2022. The adherence, seizure frequency, and plasma concentration of PER were evaluated at three time points: 6 months, 12 months, and 24 months or longer after the start of adjunctive PER treatment. RESULTS: 112 patients undergoing PER treatment were evaluated at 6 months, 86 were evaluated at 12 months, and 52 were evaluated at 24 months or longer. Overall, 42.9 % (48/112), 45.4 % (40/86), and 44.2 % (23/52) of the patients were seizure-free at 6, 12, and 24 months or longer, respectively. The rate of PER tolerance was 78.3 %, 69.9 %, and 54.7 % at 6, 12, and 24 months or longer, respectively. At the latest timepoint, the seizure-free group was taking a significantly lower dose of PER than the seizure-remnant group, and the number of anti-seizure medications (ASMs) was associated with seizure outcomes. In addition, the seizure-free rate was significantly higher in patients who received PER as a first add-on than in those who received it as a late add-on. No significant difference was found in the plasma concentration of PER between the seizure-free and seizure-remnant groups at 24 months or longer. Among the patients receiving PER at dose of 2 mg, however, the plasma concentrations were significantly higher in the seizure-free group than in the seizure-remnant group (282.7 ± 109.8 µg/ml vs 94.7 ± 54.9 µg/ml, p = 0.0024). CONCLUSION: This long-term retrospective observational study provides evidence of the efficacy and safety of PER over 2 years treatment period in Japan. Notably, patients who started on PER as the first add-on showed a better seizure outcome than those who received it as a late add-on over the long term. Measured plasma concentrations may provide valuable guidance for the management of patients. Higher plasma concentration at low dose PER may suggest the better seizure control.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes , Epilepsia , Nitrilas , Humanos , Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Quimioterapia Combinada , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia/induzido quimicamente , Piridonas/efeitos adversos , Aminoácidos , Antagonistas de Aminoácidos Excitatórios , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Convulsões/induzido quimicamente
20.
Epilepsy Behav ; 151: 109620, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38194770

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness and tolerability of fenfluramine (FFA) in routine clinical practice treating real-world populations with Dravet syndrome (DS) and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS). METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of patients with DS or LGS who initiated FFA treatment from 2018 to 2022 at a single center. Patient demographics, medical history, seizure characteristics, and treatment outcomes were collected from electronic medical records. Duration of FFA treatment, dosage regimens, seizure frequency, seizure severity, improvements in cognitive, social, and motor outcomes, and adverse events were extracted and analyzed. Effectiveness was assessed using ≥50 % sustained reduction in monthly seizure frequency vs baseline for ≥2 consecutive months at 12 months; seizure freedom was a secondary measure. RESULTS: Seizure frequency data was available for 56 of 68 patients included in the study. At 12 months, 50 patients (89.3 %) remained on FFA treatment; 58 % of these patients achieved a ≥50 % sustained response and 10 % experienced seizure freedom. Cognitive, motor, and social improvement were noted in 70.7 %, 36.2 %, and 27.6 % of patients, respectively. The total number of concomitant antiseizure medications was reduced by ≥1 in 29.4 % of patients. No differences were found between DS and LGS patients in these outcomes; age at start of FFA and age at the 12-month timepoint did not have an effect. At least one AE was experienced by 59.7% of patients; in 86.5% of the cases, AEs were plausibly related to treatment. While 70.3% of AEs were self-resolving and 81.8% of the remaining patients experienced mild AEs, 1 patient experienced a serious AE unrelated to FFA which resulted in the patient's death. There were no cases of pulmonary arterial hypertension or ventricular heart disease. SIGNIFICANCE: The effectiveness and tolerability of FFA treatment in patients with DS or LGS in this retrospective analysis of real-world data were consistent with those seen in randomized clinical trials.


Assuntos
Epilepsias Mioclônicas , Síndrome de Lennox-Gastaut , Humanos , Síndrome de Lennox-Gastaut/tratamento farmacológico , Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fenfluramina/uso terapêutico , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/tratamento farmacológico , Convulsões
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