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1.
BMJ Case Rep ; 16(1)2023 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36604107

RESUMO

We present the case of a young female landscaper who presented to an Australian tertiary hospital with persistent fevers and new pancytopenia. Extensive initial workup for her presenting illness did not identify a cause; however, a detailed history of her occupation revealed she worked heavily with soil on farms that had domestic livestock in addition to rodents. Hence, further serological testing for leptospirosis was performed, revealing a diagnosis of infection with Leptospira interrogans serovar Hardjo. Treatment covering leptospirosis was commenced, and she improved clinically, and her cell counts returned to normal. Pancytopenia is a rare manifestation of leptospirosis and has only been reported in a handful of case studies. We highlight that leptospirosis should be considered as a differential diagnosis in those with fever, and new pancytopaenia, particularly in patients with relevant risk factors for exposure.


Assuntos
Leptospira interrogans , Leptospira , Leptospirose , Pancitopenia , Feminino , Humanos , Pancitopenia/etiologia , Austrália , Leptospirose/complicações , Leptospirose/diagnóstico , Leptospirose/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores de Risco , Anticorpos Antibacterianos
2.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 152, 2023 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36690955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) which include the ABO and Lewis antigen systems have been known for determining predisposition to infections. For instance, blood group O individuals have a higher risk of severe illness due to V. cholerae compared to those with non-blood group O antigens. We set out to determine the influence that these HBGAs have on oral cholera vaccine immunogenicity and seroconversion in individuals residing within a cholera endemic area in Zambia. METHODOLOGY: We conducted a longitudinal study nested under a clinical trial in which samples from a cohort of 223 adults who were vaccinated with two doses of Shanchol™ and followed up over 4 years were used. We measured serum vibriocidal geometric mean titers (GMTs) at Baseline, Day 28, Months 6, 12, 24, 30, 36 and 48 in response to the vaccine. Saliva obtained at 1 year post vaccination was tested for HBGA phenotypes and secretor status using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS: Of the 133/223 participants included in the final analysis, the majority were above 34 years old (58%) and of these, 90% were males. Seroconversion rates to V. cholerae O1 Inaba with non-O (23%) and O (30%) blood types were comparable. The same pattern was observed against O1 Ogawa serotype between non-O (25%) and O (35%). This trend continued over the four-year follow-up period. Similarly, no significant differences were observed in seroconversion rates between the non-secretors (26%) and secretors (36%) against V. cholerae O1 Inaba. The same was observed for O1 Ogawa in non-secretors (22%) and the secretors (36%). CONCLUSION: Our results do not support the idea that ABO blood grouping influence vaccine uptake and responses against cholera.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Cólera , Cólera , Vibrio cholerae O1 , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Cólera/epidemiologia , Sistema ABO de Grupos Sanguíneos , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Estudos Longitudinais , Zâmbia , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Administração Oral
3.
Mikrobiyol Bul ; 57(1): 141-155, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36636853

RESUMO

Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease caused by Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum. This historical disease has diverse clinical manifestations making laboratory testing crucial for optimal patient management. Direct detection of T.pallidum by dark-field microscopy is possible when lesions are present. Culture of the bacteria is complex and not performed routinely. There is no well-validated commercially available polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test. Serological tests are currently the most common diagnostic methods adapted in clinical laboratories. They provide a presumptive diagnosis and used for screening, diagnosis, and follow-up of the treatment. They are divided into two groups, named as nontreponemal and treponemal tests and performed by the application of the traditional algorithm, the reverse sequence algorithm or European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) algorithm. The traditional algorithm starts with a nontreponemal test and a reactive result is confirmed with a treponemal test. In the reverse sequence algorithm, a treponemal test is used for screening and a reactive result is confirmed by a quantitative nontreponemal test. When the nontreponemal test is negative, a second different treponemal test preferably T.pallidum particle agglutination test (TPPA) is used. The ECDC algorithm recommends screening by a treponemal test such as T.pallidum enzym immunoassay (TP-EIA), T.pallidum chemiluminescence immunoassay (CIA) and if reactive, a reflex confirmatory treponemal test is performed. The treponemal tests become reactive a few weeks after infection and remain reactive even after successful treatment. The nontreponemal tests are used to assess disease activity and response to therapy. Serological tests have many limitations such as false-positivity, falsenegativity in various stages of the disease and also challenging difficulties when evaluating response to therapy. In recent years, rapid syphilis tests which are mostly treponemal-specific tests have been developed for high-prevalence populations in resource limited settings. There has been requirement for the utility of standart PCR and IgM testing in the diagnosis of congenital syphilis and neurosyphilis cases. In this review article, it was aimed to present the diagnostic tests, the algorithms, the correct indications for testing and interpretation of the test results to the likely corresponding clinical stage of the disease with in the perspective of recent advances.


Assuntos
Sífilis , Humanos , Sífilis/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento , Treponema pallidum , Sorodiagnóstico da Sífilis/métodos , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Algoritmos , Anticorpos Antibacterianos
4.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0279626, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36607972

RESUMO

The experimental challenge with attenuated enterotoxigenic E. coli strain E1392/75-2A prevents diarrhea upon a secondary challenge with the same bacteria. A dose-response pilot study was performed to investigate which immunological factors are associated with this protection. Healthy subjects were inoculated with increasing E. coli doses of 1E6-1E10 CFU, and three weeks later, all participants were rechallenged with the highest dose (1E10 CFU). Gastrointestinal discomfort symptoms were recorded, and stool and blood samples were analyzed. After the primary challenge, stool frequency, diarrhea symptom scores, and E. coli-specific serum IgG (IgG-CFA/II) titer increased in a dose-dependent manner. Fecal calprotectin and serum IgG-CFA/II response after primary challenge were delayed in the lower dose groups. Even though stool frequency after the secondary challenge was inversely related to the primary inoculation dose, all E. coli doses protected against clinical symptoms upon rechallenge. Ex vivo stimulation of PBMCs with E. coli just before the second challenge resulted in increased numbers of IL-6+/TNF-α+ monocytes and mDCs than before the primary challenge, without dose-dependency. These data demonstrate that primary E. coli infection with as few as 1E6 CFU protects against a high-dose secondary challenge with a homologous attenuated strain. Increased serum IgG-CFA/II levels and E. coli-induced mDC and monocyte responses after primary challenge suggest that protection against secondary E. coli challenges is associated with adaptive as well as innate immune responses.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli Enterotoxigênica , Infecções por Escherichia coli , Humanos , Monócitos , Projetos Piloto , Diarreia/microbiologia , Imunoglobulina G , Anticorpos Antibacterianos
5.
J Transl Med ; 21(1): 13, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36627666

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pathogenicity of pneumococcus with high morbidity, mortality, and multi-drug resistance patterns has been increasing. The limited coverage of the licensed polysaccharide-based vaccines and the replacement of the non-vaccine serotypes are the main reasons for producing a successful serotype-independent vaccine. Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) is an extremely important virulence factor and an interesting candidate for conserved protein-based pneumococcal vaccine classified into two prominent families containing five clades. PspA family-elicited immunity is clade-dependent, and the level of the PspA cross-reactivity is restricted to the same family. METHODS: To cover and overcome the clade-dependent immunity of the PspAs in this study, we designed and tested a PspA1-5c+p vaccine candidate composed of the highest immunodominant coverage of B- and T-cell epitope truncated domain of each clade focusing on two cross-reactive B and C regions of the PspAs. The antigenicity, toxicity, physicochemical properties, 3D structure prediction, stability and flexibility of the designed protein using molecular dynamic (MD) simulation, molecular docking of the construct withHLADRB1*(01:01) and human lactoferrin N-lop, and immune simulation were assessed using immunoinformatics tools. In the experimental section, after intraperitoneal immunization of the mice with Alum adjuvanted recombinant PspA1-5c+p, we evaluated the immune response, cross-reactivity, and functionality of the Anti-PspA1-5c+p antibody using ELISA, Opsonophagocytic killing activity, and serum bactericidal assay. RESULTS: For the first time, this work suggested a novel PspA-based vaccine candidate using immunoinformatics tools. The designed PspA1-5c+p protein is predicted to be highly antigenic, non-toxic, soluble, stable with low flexibility in MD simulation, and able to stimulate both humoral and cellular immune responses. The designed protein also could interact strongly with HLADRB1*(01:01) and human lactoferrin N-lop in the docking study. Our immunoinformatics predictions were validated using experimental data. Results showed that the anti-PspA1-5c+p IgG not only had a high titer with strong and same cross-reactivity coverage against all pneumococcal serotypes used but also had high and effective bioactivity for pneumococcal clearance using complement system and phagocytic cells. CONCLUSION: Our findings elucidated the potential application of the PspA1-5c+p vaccine candidate as a serotype-independent pneumococcal vaccine with a strong cross-reactivity feature. Further in-vitro and in-vivo investigations against other PspA clades should be performed to confirm the full protection of the PspA1-5c+p vaccine candidate.


Assuntos
Infecções Pneumocócicas , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Sorogrupo , Infecções Pneumocócicas/prevenção & controle , Epitopos , Lactoferrina , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Proteínas de Bactérias , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Vacinas Pneumocócicas , Anticorpos , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674080

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the correlation between the presence of hairy tongue and H. pylori infection in patients referring to their blood test based on the serum levels of anti-H pylori IgG antibodies. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of Oral Medicine, University of Damascus Dental School, between February 2021 and January 2022. The sample size of 40 patients (23 males, 17 females), whose ages ranged from 20-79 years with a mean age of 41.5 ± 12 years, was calculated using the G*power 3.1.3, with a statistical power of 80% and a significance level of 0.05. The hairy tongue index was assessed by a visual method based on observing the dorsum tongue appearance. Then, a blood test was performed to detect the presence of H. pylori by Immulite 2000 XPi. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software 22.0, Chi-square. RESULTS: The prevalence of hairy tongue was higher among males (75%) as compared to females (25%) and was found to be statistically significant (p = 0.026). The hairy tongue lesions were found to be least in the 20-39 age group and most prevalent in the 40-59 age group, without statistically significant correlation. H. pylori infection was detected positive in 70% and negative in 30% of hairy tongue patients, compared to the control group, where the rates were 15% and 85%, respectively, with a statistically significant correlation between infection with H. pylori and hairy tongue (p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Our results strongly suggest that the hairy tongue might be considered an indicator of H. pylori infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Helicobacter , Helicobacter pylori , Língua Pilosa , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Infecções por Helicobacter/epidemiologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais , Projetos Piloto , Síria/epidemiologia , Anticorpos Antibacterianos
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246385, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339384

RESUMO

Abstract Coronary heart disease (CHD) has been associated with significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although remain controversial, several studies have demonstrated the association of M. pneumoniae infections with atherosclerosis. We evaluated the possible association of mycoplasma infections in patients diagnosed with atherosclerosis by ELISA and PCR methods. Atherosclerotic tissue samples and blood samples were collected for the detection of mycoplasma antibodies (IgA) by ELISA from the 97 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). M. pneumoniae specific IgA, IgG and IgM were measured by using the Anti-M. pneumoniae IgA/IgG/IgM ELISA. Detection of M. pneumoniae targeting the P1 adhesion gene was performed by PCR Acute infection of M. pneumoniae was diagnosed in 43.3% (42) of patients by PCR. The M. pneumoniae specific antibodies were detected in 36.1% (35) of patients. Twenty-five (25.8%) cases had IgG antibodies, 15 (15.5%) cases had IgM antibodies, 3 (3.1%) cases had IgA antibodies, 10 (10.3%) cases had both IgM + IgG antibodies and 1 (1%) case of each had IgM + IgA and IgG + IgA antibodies. None of the cases was positive for all three antibodies. A Pearson correlation coefficient analysis revealed an excellent correlation between the PCR and the serological results (r=0.921, p<0.001). A majority (17, 40.5%) of the M. pneumoniae positive patients are within the 41-50 years of age group, followed by 10 (23.8%) patients in the age group of 61-70 years and 2 (4.8%) patients were >70 years of age. Our study reported an unusually higher prevalence of M. pneumoniae by serological tests (36.1%) and PCR (43.3%). Although the hypothesis of the association of M. pneumoniae and CAD is yet to be proven, the unusually high prevalence of M. pneumoniae in CAD patients indicates an association, if not, in the development of atherosclerosis.


Resumo A doença coronariana (DCC) tem sido associada a significativa morbidade e mortalidade em todo o mundo. Embora ainda sejam controversos, vários estudos têm demonstrado a associação de infecções por M. pneumoniae com aterosclerose. Avaliamos a possível associação de infecções por micoplasma em pacientes com diagnóstico de aterosclerose pelos métodos ELISA e PCR. Amostras de tecido aterosclerótico e amostras de sangue foram coletadas para a detecção de anticorpos contra micoplasma (IgA) por ELISA de 97 pacientes com doença arterial coronariana (DAC). IgA, IgG e IgM específicos para M. pneumoniae foram medidos usando o Anti-M. pneumoniae IgA / IgG / IgM ELISA. A detecção de M. pneumoniae visando o gene de adesão P1 foi realizada por PCR. A infecção aguda por M. pneumoniae foi diagnosticada em 43,3% (42) dos pacientes pela PCR. Os anticorpos específicos para M. pneumoniae foram detectados em 36,1% (35) dos pacientes. Vinte e cinco (25,8%) casos tinham anticorpos IgG, 15 (15,5%) casos tinham anticorpos IgM, 3 (3,1%) casos tinham anticorpos IgA, 10 (10,3%) casos tinham anticorpos IgM + IgG e 1 (1%) caso de cada um tinha anticorpos IgM + IgA e IgG + IgA. Nenhum dos casos foi positivo para os três anticorpos. A análise do coeficiente de correlação de Pearson revelou uma excelente correlação entre o PCR e os resultados sorológicos (r = 0,921, p < 0,001). A maioria (17, 40,5%) dos pacientes positivos para M. pneumoniae está na faixa etária de 41-50 anos, seguida por 10 (23,8%) pacientes na faixa etária de 61-70 anos e 2 (4,8%) pacientes tinham > 70 anos de idade. Nosso estudo relatou uma prevalência incomumente maior de M. pneumoniae por testes sorológicos (36,1%) e PCR (43,3%). Embora a hipótese da associação de M. pneumoniae e DAC ainda não tenha sido comprovada, a prevalência incomumente alta de M. pneumoniae em pacientes com DAC indica uma associação, se não, no desenvolvimento de aterosclerose.


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/diagnóstico , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Imunoglobulina M , Prevalência , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Mycoplasma pneumoniae
8.
Vet Microbiol ; 276: 109607, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36481482

RESUMO

Route of vaccine delivery can greatly impact the immunogenicity, efficacy and safety of the vaccine. Four groups of piglets were immunised transdermally (t.d.), intradermally (i.d.) or intramuscularly (i.m.) with the same doses of antigen in combination with a water-in-oil-in-water emulsion adjuvant Montanide™ ISA 201 VG or with a microemulsion adjuvant Montanide™ IMS 1313 VG N ST (Seppic, France). The last group was left without vaccination as a control group. All animals were subsequently exposed to the infection induced by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App). The immune response was evaluated with respect to the intensity of systemic and mucosal antibody formation, their isotype characterisation and rate of cell-mediated immunity. These findings were compared with the intensity of adverse local reactions and level of protection in experimental challenge. Monitoring of the local reaction at the injection site after each administration showed that microemulsion adjuvant IMS 1313 was less reactogenic than the water-in-oil-in-water emulsion ISA 201. In terms of efficacy, both dermal administrations were less immunogenic than the i.m route. The i.m. injection induced higher anti-App9 IgG and IgM titres. Nevertheless, IgG1 and IgG2 isotypes analysis revealed a close immunological profile between i.m. and i.d. routes. The concentration of IFN-γ from peripheral blood after in vitro restimulation with the specific antigen was only increased in the i.m. group at the day of challenge (D35) and two weeks after (D49). Interestingly, the smallest gross pulmonary lesions were observed in the i.d. vaccinated group (3.4%) compared to the control group (39.4%) and to groups with other routes of administration. Taken together, these results suggest that i.d. administration of vaccines is a promising approach. Even the i.d. vaccine was more reactogenic and slightly less immunogenic than the i.m. vaccine, its protection effectiveness seemed to be superior.


Assuntos
Infecções por Actinobacillus , Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae , Doenças dos Suínos , Suínos , Animais , Administração Cutânea , Emulsões , Imunização/veterinária , Imunização/métodos , Vacinação/métodos , Vacinação/veterinária , Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Imunoglobulina G , Imunidade , Infecções por Actinobacillus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Actinobacillus/veterinária , Vacinas Bacterianas , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle
9.
Vet Microbiol ; 276: 109630, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36525718

RESUMO

Glässer's disease is one of the main diseases affecting young piglets, particularly during the nursery phase, that can significantly impact pork production. Vaccination of sows has the potential to prevent Glaesserella parasuis infection during the first weeks of life that is to a substantial degree due to the transfer of maternal derived antibodies (MDA) in colostrum. In this study we compare the antibody response to two vaccines administered to pregnant sows. A subunit vaccine containing the mutant transferrin-binding protein, TbpBY167A, and an autogenous vaccine formulated with the LM96/20 strain of G. parasuis (SV4) administered on days 65 and 86 of the gestational period were safe and induced high titers of antibodies in sows. The IgG peak was reached on day 100 of gestation, and the translocation of IgG to the mammary gland was confirmed in colostrum at the time of delivery. Piglets born from vaccinated sows maintained positive IgG titers against TbpBY167A or G. parasuis SV4 for the duration of the experiment (35 days of life). Piglets born from sows vaccinated with the TbpBY167A-based vaccine had a significantly (p = 0.001) lower load of G. parasuis in the respiratory tract compared to those born from sows vaccinated with the autogenous vaccine. Finally, we demonstrate that the LM96/20 (SV4) strain is highly virulent and a primary agent of Glässer's disease.


Assuntos
Autovacinas , Infecções por Haemophilus , Haemophilus parasuis , Doenças dos Suínos , Gravidez , Animais , Suínos , Feminino , Vacinação/veterinária , Infecções por Haemophilus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Haemophilus/veterinária , Vacinas Bacterianas , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Imunoglobulina G
10.
Vaccine ; 41(3): 657-665, 2023 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36522265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal disease (PD) remains a major health concern globally. In children, pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) provide protection against PD from most vaccine serotypes, but non-vaccine serotypes contribute to residual disease. V114 is a 15-valent PCV containing all 13 serotypes in Prevnar 13™ (PCV13) and public health important serotypes 22F and 33F. This phase 3 study evaluated safety and immunogenicity of mixed PCV13/V114 regimens using a 3 + 1 dosing schedule when changing from PCV13 to V114 at doses 2, 3, or 4. METHODS: 900 healthy infants were randomized equally to 5 intervention groups. PCVs were administered in a 3-dose infant series at 2, 4, and 6 months of age followed by a toddler dose at 12-15 months along with concomitant routine vaccines. Safety was evaluated as the proportion of participants with adverse events (AEs). Immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses to the 15 serotypes in V114 were measured at 30 days post-dose 3 and 30 days post-dose 4 (PD4). RESULTS: Frequencies of injection-site and systemic AEs were generally comparable across all intervention groups. At 30 days PD4 (primary endpoint), IgG geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) for the 13 shared serotypes were generally comparable between mixed V114/PCV13 and 4-dose regimens of PCV13 or V114. In mixed regimens at 30 days PD4, a toddler dose of V114 was sufficient to achieve IgG GMCs comparable to a 4-dose regimen of V114 for serotype 22F, while at least one infant dose was needed in addition to the toddler dose to achieve IgG GMCs comparable to a 4-dose regimen of V114 for serotype 33F. CONCLUSIONS: V114 was well tolerated with a generally comparable safety profile to PCV13. For 13 shared serotypes, both mixed regimens and the V114 4-dose regimen induced generally comparable antibody responses to 4-dose regimen with PCV13. Study results support interchangeability of V114 with PCV13 in infants. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03620162; EudraCT: 2018-001151-12.


Assuntos
Infecções Pneumocócicas , Vacinas Pneumocócicas , Humanos , Lactente , Vacina Pneumocócica Conjugada Heptavalente , Vacinas Conjugadas , Método Duplo-Cego , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Imunoglobulina G
11.
Vaccine ; 41(3): 795-804, 2023 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36528443

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vaccination during pregnancy with tetanus, diphtheria, acellular pertussis (aP) (Tdap) antigens is important for early protection of newborn infants against pertussis, particularly for preterm infants. This study evaluated the effect of Tdap vaccination during pregnancy on the immunogenicity of a diphtheria (D), tetanus (T), aP, inactivated poliovirus (IPV), hepatitis B (HB), and Haemophilus influenzae type b (PRP âˆ¼ T) vaccine in term and preterm populations. METHODS: A prospective, observational study (NCT02511327) recruited women and their infants based on delivery (term or preterm) and vaccination status (vaccinated with a Tdap vaccine [Boostrix™, GlaxoSmithKline] during pregnancy or not vaccinated in the last 5 years). All infants received licensed DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP âˆ¼ T (Hexyon™, Sanofi) (8, 12, 16 week primary series and booster at 13 months of age [preterm infants] or 15 months of age [term infants]). Immunogenicity was evaluated using validated assays. Data were pooled into term (N = 127) and preterm infants (N = 105), and infants of women who received a Tdap vaccine during pregnancy (N = 199) or not (N = 33). RESULTS: Before primary vaccination, antibody levels were higher for term than preterm infants for anti-D, anti-polio 1, 2, 3, anti-PT, anti-FHA, and anti-PRP, and similar for anti-HBs and anti-T. At this time, infants of Tdap-vaccinated women had higher anti-D, anti-T, anti-PT, anti-FHA, and anti-PRP antibody levels than infants of Tdap-unvaccinated women; anti-HBs and anti-polio antibody levels were similar in both groups. Post-primary, pre-booster, and post-booster, there were only small differences in seroprotection rates (anti-D, anti-T, anti-polio 1, 2, 3, anti-HBs, anti-PRP) and seroconversion rates (anti-PT, anti-FHA), except for anti-HBs ≥ 10 mIU/mL and anti-PRP ≥ 0.15 µg/mL post-primary vaccination (higher for term [98.31 % and 90.91 %, respectively] versus preterm infants [89.80 % and 79.41 %, respectively]). CONCLUSIONS: These data support the use of DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP âˆ¼ T vaccine for primary and booster vaccination in term and preterm born infants and in infants born to Tdap-vaccinated or Tdap-unvaccinated women.


Assuntos
Difteria , Vacinas Anti-Haemophilus , Poliomielite , Tétano , Coqueluche , Lactente , Gravidez , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Feminino , Tétano/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Combinadas , Difteria/prevenção & controle , Coqueluche/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Hepatite B , Estudos Prospectivos , Vacina Antipólio de Vírus Inativado , Imunização Secundária , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Vacinação , Corynebacterium , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B , Vacina contra Difteria, Tétano e Coqueluche
12.
J Immunol Methods ; 512: 113408, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36565812

RESUMO

Serosurveillance and seroprevalence studies should be carried out to monitor vaccine-preventable diseases. Multiplex immunoassay (MIA) systems are useful tools for this purpose, allowing the simultaneous quantitative detection of antibodies in one small serum sample, which presents an advantage over conventional methods, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Therefore, we developed a multiplex immunoassay for the measurement of antibodies against seven vaccine-preventable infections (measles, rubella, mumps, tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis and Haemophilus influenza type b (Hib) infection). In our multiplex system, heterologous inhibition generally did not exceed 10%, while homologous inhibition varied between 90 and 98%. The intra- and inter-assay variability was ≤11%. The results of in-house MIA showed satisfactory correlation with commercial ELISAs, with Spearman correlation coefficients from 0.90 to 0.98. At the cut-off values defined for our MIA the serostatus can be determined with high sensitivity (89-100%) and specificity (92-98%). Thus, the developed in-house MIA represents a feasible alternative to conventional ELISAs and could be used for large-scale serosurveillance/seroprevalence studies of vaccine-preventable diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças Preveníveis por Vacina , Humanos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Imunoglobulina G , Imunoensaio/métodos , Anticorpos Antivirais
13.
Vaccine ; 41(4): 903-913, 2023 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36566163

RESUMO

Despite the widespread effectiveness of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines on the overall incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease, the global epidemiological landscape continues to be transformed by residual disease from non-vaccine serotypes, thus highlighting the need for vaccines with expanded disease coverage. To address these needs, we have developed V116,an investigational 21-valent non-adjuvanted pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV),containingpneumococcal polysaccharides (PnPs) 3, 6A, 7F, 8, 9N, 10A, 11A,12F, 15A, 16F, 17F, 19A, 20, 22F, 23A, 23B, 24F, 31, 33F, 35B, anda de-O-acetylated 15B(deOAc15B) individually conjugated to the nontoxic diphtheria toxoid CRM197 carrier protein. Preclinical studies evaluated the immunogenicity of V116 inadult monkeys, rabbits, and mice. Following one dose, V116 was found to be immunogenic in preclinical animal species and induced functional antibodies for all serotypes included in the vaccine, in addition to cross-reactive functional antibodies to serotypes 6C and 15B. In these preclinical animal studies, the increased valency of V116 did not result in serotype-specific antibody suppression when compared to lower valent vaccines V114 or PCV13. In addition, when compared with naïve controls, splenocytes from V116 to immunized animals demonstrated significant induction of CRM197-specific T cells in both IFN-γ and IL-4 ELISPOT assays, as well as Th1 and Th2 cytokine induction through in vitro stimulation assays, thus suggesting the ability of V116 to engage T cell dependent immune response pathways to aid in development of memory B cells. V116 also demonstrated significant protection in mice from intratracheal challenge with serotype 24F, a novel serotype not contained in any currently licensed vaccine.


Assuntos
Infecções Pneumocócicas , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Coelhos , Camundongos , Animais , Vacinas Pneumocócicas , Vacinas Conjugadas , Macaca mulatta , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Infecções Pneumocócicas/prevenção & controle , Sorogrupo , Modelos Animais de Doenças
14.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 424, 2022 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36471338

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Salmonella as an important food-borne zoonotic bacterial pathogen, infection in ducks is a recessive infection, however, it can also cause high mortality and threat to food safety. Preventing and controlling the infection and transmission of Salmonella in ducks critically require rapid and sensitive detection method. Full-length Salmonella-specific protein PagN was induced and expressed in E.coil BL21 and was purified as an antigen to establish an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (iELSA) detection kit. RESULTS: The recombinant PagN protein has a molecular weight of 43 kDa containing a His-tag, was recognized by an anti-Salmonella positive serum by Western blot assay. The optimal concentration of PagN as a coating antigen in the iELISA was 1 µg/mL, and the optimal dilution of enzyme-labeled secondary antibody was 1:4000 (0.025 µg/mL). The cutoff OD450 value was established at 0.268. The iELISA kit showed high selectivity since no cross-reaction with E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus was observed. iELISA method and Dot-blot test were performed on 100 clinical sera samples collected from duck farms, and the actual coincidence rate was 89% (89/100). 613 duck serum samples from 3 different farms were tested using established method and commercial ELISA kit. The concordance between the two methods was 94.1%. CONCLUSION: Anti-PagN based iELISA can serve as a useful tool for diagnosis of Salmonella infection.


Assuntos
Patos , Escherichia coli , Animais , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Proteínas Recombinantes , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Anticorpos Antivirais
15.
Eur J Med Res ; 27(1): 268, 2022 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36461021

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is an emerging neglected zoonotic disease that presents with nonspecific signs/symptoms and it can be mistaken for other diseases. Owing to limited diagnostic capacity and unawareness, the data on human leptospirosis particularly in neonates are scarce in many sub-Saharan countries. It has been underreported hindering preventive and control measures in place. The study aimed at determining prevalence of leptospirosis as a cause of febrile illness in neonates using IgM ELISA and a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study that included 103 neonatal sepsis cases whose parents/legal guardians gave informed consent. The data on demographic and clinical characteristics were collected using structured data collection form. EDTA whole blood sample was collected from the neonates by trained study nurses. From the samples, IgM ELISA was done using automated analyzers, DNA extracted and qPCR was performed using primers for LipL32, specific for the pathogenic leptospires. RESULTS: The prevalence of anti-leptospiral IgM among the neonates as determined by ELISA was 4.3%, where all of them presented with lethargy and poor feeding. No pathogenic Leptospira species DNA was amplified by qPCR. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence of leptospirosis was demonstrated in neonatal sepsis cases in this study. The findings suggest considerations of leptospirosis in the differential diagnosis of neonates with sepsis. More data are needed on the real epidemiology, clinical features, and burden of leptospirosis in neonates. There is need to include intermediate pathogenic species of Leptospira in the diagnostic qPCR assays.


Assuntos
Leptospira , Leptospirose , Sepse Neonatal , Sepse , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Leptospira/genética , Sepse Neonatal/diagnóstico , Sepse Neonatal/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Transversais , Uganda/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/diagnóstico , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Imunoglobulina M , DNA , Sepse/diagnóstico , Sepse/epidemiologia
16.
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi ; 61(12): 1330-1335, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36456513

RESUMO

Objective: Reflux esophagitis (RE) may be negatively correlated with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, but the conclusion and relevant mechanism is still controversial. This study proposed to explore the correlation between RE and H. pylori infection based on natural population. Methods: From July 2013 to December 2014, 3 940 residents aged 40-69 years were recruited in Linqu County of Shandong Province and Hua County of Henan Province by the whole sampling method. All the subjects underwent gastroscopy, and gastric mucosa biopsy specimens were collected for pathological diagnosis and Warthin-Starry (WS) staining to identify H. pylori infection. Venous blood samples of some subjects were collected for H. pylori immunoglobulin G (H. pylori-IgG) detection. Also, demographic and sociological data were collected. Chi-square test and logistic regression were used to analyze the correlation between RE and H. pylori infection. Results: A total of 359 cases of RE were detected. Excluding RE and other upper gastrointestinal organic diseases, 3 382 cases were considered as controls. Chi-square test showed that WS staining positive rate in RE group was significantly lower than that in control group (P=0.023), but there was no significant difference in the positive rate of H. pylori-IgG between the two groups (P=0.281). There were significant differences between RE group and control group in gender composition, age, body mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol consumption, education level and mucosal active inflammation. Multivariate regression analysis showed that RE was negatively correlated with gastric mucosa active inflammation [OR=0.754 (95%CI 0.600-0.949), P=0.016], and positively correlated with male [OR=4.231 (95%CI 3.263-5.486), P<0.001], age ≥60 years, BMI≥24 kg/m2 [OR=1.540 (95%CI 1.220-1.945), P<0.001]. Compared to those aged 40-49 years and 50-59 years, the odds ratio (OR) of RE in these aged ≥60 years were 1.566 (95%CI 1.144-2.143, P=0.005) and 1.405 (95%CI 1.093-1.805, P=0.008). Conclusion: RE is more closely related to H. pylori present infection. Multivariate analysis showed that RE is negatively correlated with active inflammation of gastric mucosa caused by H. pylori infection, and positively correlated with male, overweight and aged ≥60 years.


Assuntos
Esofagite Péptica , Gastrite , Infecções por Helicobacter , Helicobacter pylori , Masculino , Humanos , Esofagite Péptica/epidemiologia , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Imunoglobulina G , Inflamação
17.
Int J Mycobacteriol ; 11(4): 378-383, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36510921

RESUMO

Background: We previously reported the development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of the immunoglobulin G (IgG) response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis virulence factor - culture filtrate protein 32 (CFP32). The assay achieved high performance in comparing healthy Bacillus Calmette-Guerin-vaccinated controls with active tuberculosis (TB) patients from the Tunisian population. Herein, we aimed to assess the anti-CFP32 IgG response in suspected or confirmed active pulmonary TB individuals in different endemic settings. Methods: Serum samples were obtained from 224 donors from African and Latin American countries with variable levels of TB endemicity and different ethnical origins. Receiver operating characteristic curve was used to evaluate the performance of the serological assay. Results: The area under the curve was 0.70. The use of a cutoff level of 0.65 gave 67% and 68% sensitivity and specificity, respectively, regardless of ethnicity and endemicity. Except for the suspected Latin American group, overall multiple comparisons of medians pointed out the stability of the anti-CFP32 IgG response across the different endemic settings. Therefore, endemicity and ethnicity seem not to affect anti-CFP32 IgG response, mainly for detecting confirmed active TB individuals. Conclusions: These findings suggest that the inclusion of CFP32 epitopes in multi-antigen TB assay could attenuate serological differences related to heterogeneous endemicity and ethnicity. For this purpose, we further identified B-cell epitopes belonging to CFP32 by an in silico analysis.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose Pulmonar , Tuberculose , Humanos , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Formação de Anticorpos , Testes Sorológicos , Antígenos de Bactérias , Tuberculose/microbiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Imunoglobulina G , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Anticorpos Antibacterianos
18.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1020580, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36578495

RESUMO

Defense against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is dependent on antibodies and complement, which mediate both serum bactericidal activity (SBA) and opsonophagocytosis. Here we evaluated the influence of capsule-specific antibodies and complement inhibitors targeting the central component C3, the alternative pathway (AP; fB, fD), the lectin pathway (LP; MASP-2) and the terminal pathway (C5) on both effector functions. Findings may be relevant for the treatment of certain diseases caused by dysregulation of the complement system, where inhibitors of complement factors C3 or C5 are used. Inhibitors against other complement components are being evaluated as potential alternative treatment options that may carry a reduced risk of infection by encapsulated bacteria. Serum and reconstituted blood of healthy adults were tested for bactericidal activity before and after vaccination with the Hib capsule-conjugate vaccine ActHIB. Most sera had bactericidal activity prior to vaccination, but vaccination significantly enhanced SBA titers. Independently of the vaccination status, both C3 and C5 inhibition abrogated SBA, whereas inhibition of the LP had no effect. AP inhibition had a major inhibitory effect on SBA of pre- vaccination serum, but vaccination mitigated this inhibition for all disease isolates tested. Despite this, SBA-mediated killing of some Hib isolates remained retarded. Even for the most serum-resistant isolate, SBA was the dominating defense mechanism in reconstituted whole blood, as addition of blood cells to the serum did not enhance bacterial killing. Limited Fc receptor-mediated opsonophagocytosis was unmasked when bacterial killing by the membrane attack complex was blocked. In the presence of C3 or C5 inhibitors, addition of post-vaccination, but not of pre-vaccination serum to the blood cells triggered opsonophagocytosis, leading to suppression of bacterial multiplication. Taken together, our data indicate that for host defense against Hib, killing by SBA is more efficient than by blood cell opsonophagocytosis. However, additional defense mechanisms, such as bacterial clearance by spleen and liver, may play an important role in preventing Hib-mediated sepsis, in particular for Hib isolates with increased serum-resistance. Results indicate potentially improved safety profile of AP inhibitors over C3 and C5 inhibitors as alternative therapeutic agents in patients with increased susceptibility to Hib infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Haemophilus , Haemophilus influenzae tipo b , Adulto , Humanos , Opsonização , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento
19.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 7801, 2022 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36528711

RESUMO

Enzymatic cleavage of IgG antibodies is a common strategy used by pathogenic bacteria to ablate immune effector function. The Streptococcus pyogenes bacterium secretes the protease IdeS and the glycosidase EndoS, which specifically catalyse cleavage and deglycosylation of human IgG, respectively. IdeS has received clinical approval for kidney transplantation in hypersensitised individuals, while EndoS has found application in engineering antibody glycosylation. We present crystal structures of both enzymes in complex with their IgG1 Fc substrate, which was achieved using Fc engineering to disfavour preferential Fc crystallisation. The IdeS protease displays extensive Fc recognition and encases the antibody hinge. Conversely, the glycan hydrolase domain in EndoS traps the Fc glycan in a "flipped-out" conformation, while additional recognition of the Fc peptide is driven by the so-called carbohydrate binding module. In this work, we reveal the molecular basis of antibody recognition by bacterial enzymes, providing a template for the development of next-generation enzymes.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias , Glicosídeo Hidrolases , Humanos , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina G , Peptídeo Hidrolases , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Streptococcus pyogenes/metabolismo
20.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1054617, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36530663

RESUMO

Introduction: The dramatic decrease in the number of reported cases of pertussis during COVID-19 pandemic has been underestimated. The objective was to compare the estimated incidence rate of pertussis in populations pre- and post-COVID-19 pandemic by analyzing the anti-pertussis toxin (anti-PT) IgG and anti-filamentous hemagglutininant (anti-FHA) IgG antibodies in healthy Chinese population from 2018 to 2021. Methods: All serum samples (N = 1,000) were collected from healthy population (aged ≥ 15 years) who attended an annual monitoring project of antibody levels in Jiangsu province in 2018-2021 were measured by ELISA. Results: The positive rates of anti-PT IgG and anti-FHA IgG antibodies were 11.4% (114/1,000) and 20.2% (202/1,000) (≥40 IU/ml), the GMC were 17.25 (95% CI: 15.49-19.03) IU/mL and 24.94 (95% CI: 22.73-27.16) IU/mL in the study population, respectively. The percentage of participants with anti-PT IgG antibodies higher than 40 IU/mL was 5.20% (11/212) in 2018, 5.5% (19/348) in 2019, 21.2% (46/217) in 2020 and 17.0% (38/223) in 2021, respectively. The non-detectable rate (<5 IU/mL) of anti-PT IgG antibodies was 16.9, 17.7, 28.1, and 37.3% in 2018, 2019, 2020, and 2021, respectively. We assumed that the infection occurred within 58.6 days, and based on the overall proportion (2.9%) of individuals with anti-PT IgG antibody ≥100 IU/ml, the incidence rate (/100) was estimated by the formula to be 18.08 (95% CI: 12.40-26.11). In addition, the estimated incidence of Post-COVID-19 was higher than that of Pre-COVID-19 (36.33/100 vs. 12.84/100), and the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Our results suggest a high rate of under-reporting of pertussis in Jiangsu Province both pre- and post-COVID-19 pandemic, and there are a large number of adults of childbearing age who are susceptible to pertussis. It seems imperative that vaccination of adolescents and adults should be considered for inclusion in vaccination programs.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Coqueluche , Adulto , Adolescente , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Pandemias , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Imunoglobulina G , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Coqueluche/epidemiologia , Toxina Pertussis , China/epidemiologia
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