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1.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 14: 1381776, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38628552

RESUMO

Introduction: For a majority of tularemia patients, serology is the basis for the diagnosis. The aim of this study was to perform an analysis of the samples analyzed at a Swedish reference laboratory for the presence of Francisella tularensis-specific antibody levels in sera from individuals with suspected tularemia. Annual and monthly variations of the total number of samples and proportions of positive samples were analyzed, as well as the influence of age and gender. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of the presence of F. tularensis-specific antibodies in serological samples from patients with suspected tularemia analyzed during the period 2010 - 2022 at the University Hospital of Umeå in Sweden, a national reference laboratory, by use of various statistical methods. In total, some 15,100 serum samples had been analyzed for the presence of IgG and IgM antibodies by ELISA during the 13-year period. Results: Overall, there were higher number of samples with IgG positive or borderline titers, 2,522 and 921, respectively, than with IgM positive or borderline titers, 1,802 and 409, respectively. Repeated samples were obtained from some 1,930 individuals and approximately a third of the cases, which were initially seronegative, had seroconverted when resampled. Peak number of monthly samples were recorded in August and September, > 3,000. Annual numbers varied greatly and peak numbers were observed in 2015 and 2019, 1,832 and 2,250, respectively, whereas some other years the numbers were 700 - 800. There was also much variation in the annual and monthly percentages of positive samples and they varied between less than 10% to greater than 20%. The highest percentages of positive samples were recorded in September and October. IgG and IgM titers declined with age and these differences were highly significant for IgG titers, with decreasing average titers for each 20-year interval. Discussion: Collectively, the data demonstrate the marked annual and seasonal variations in tularemia sampling occurring in Sweden. Also, the proportion of positive samples increased during months and years with peak number of samples. Another notable finding was that average antibody titers decreased with increased age.


Assuntos
Francisella tularensis , Tularemia , Humanos , Tularemia/diagnóstico , Tularemia/epidemiologia , Suécia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Imunoglobulina M , Imunoglobulina G
2.
Can J Vet Res ; 88(2): 38-44, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38595949

RESUMO

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is an important type of pathogenic bacteria that causes diarrhea in pigs. The objective of this study was to prepare a novel tetravalent vaccine to effectively prevent piglet diarrhea caused by E. coli. In order to realize the production of K88ac-K99-ST1-LTB tetravalent inactivated vaccine, the biological characteristics, stability, preservation conditions, and safety of the recombinant strain BL21(DE3) (pXKKSL4) were studied, and the vaccine efficacy and minimum immune dose were measured. The results indicated that the biological characteristics, target protein expression, and immunogenicity of the 1st to 10th generations of the strain were stable. Therefore, the basic seed generation was preliminarily set as the 1st to 10th generations. The results of the efficacy tests showed that the immune protection rate could reach 90% with 1 minimum lethal dose (MLD) virulent strain attack in mice. The immunogenicity was stable, and the minimum immune dose was 0.1 mL per mouse. Our research showed that the genetically engineered vaccine developed in this way could prevent piglet diarrhea caused by enterotoxigenic E. coli through adhesin and enterotoxin. In order to realize industrial production of the vaccine as soon as possible, we conducted immunological tests and production process research on the constructed K88ac-K99-ST1-LTB tetravalent inactivated vaccine. The results of this study provide scientific experimental data for the commercial production of vaccines and lay a solid foundation for their industrial production.


Escherichia coli entérotoxinogènes (ETEC) est un type important de bactéries pathogènes qui cause de la diarrhée chez les porcs. L'objectif de l'étude était de préparer un nouveau vaccin tétravalent pour prévenir efficacement la diarrhée causée par E. coli chez les porcelets. Afin de réaliser la production du vaccin tétravalent inactivé K88ac-K99-ST1-LTB, les caractéristiques biologiques, la stabilité, les conditions de conservation, et la sécurité de la souche recombinante (BL21(DE3)(pXKKSL4) ont été étudiées et l'efficacité du vaccin et la dose immunitaire minimum ont été mesurées. Les résultats indiquent que les caractéristiques biologiques, l'expression des protéines cibles, et l'immunogénicité de la 1ère à la 10e génération de la souche étaient stables. Ainsi, la génération germinale de base a été établie de manière préliminaire comme étant de la 1ère à la 10e générations. Les résultats des tests d'efficacité ont démontré que le taux de protection immunitaire pouvait atteindre 90 % avec une attaque au moyen de 1 dose léthale minimale (MLD) d'une souche virulente chez les souris. L'immunogénicité était stable et la dose immunitaire minimum était de 0,1 mL par souris. Nos travaux ont démontré que le vaccin génétiquement élaboré développé de cette façon pourrait prévenir la diarrhée chez les porcelets causée par des E. coli entérotoxigénique via les adhésines et les entérotoxines. Afin d'atteindre la production industrielle de ce vaccin aussitôt que possible, nous avons mené des tests immunologiques et de la recherche sur le processus de production du vaccin tétravalent inactivé K88ac-K99-ST1-LTB. Les résultats de la présente étude fournissent des données scientifiques expérimentales pour la production commerciale de vaccins et jettent une base solide pour leur production industrielle.(Traduit par Docteur Serge Messier).


Assuntos
Toxinas Bacterianas , Escherichia coli Enterotoxigênica , Infecções por Escherichia coli , Proteínas de Escherichia coli , Vacinas contra Escherichia coli , Doenças dos Roedores , Doenças dos Suínos , Animais , Suínos , Camundongos , Enterotoxinas , Vacinas Combinadas , Infecções por Escherichia coli/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Diarreia/veterinária , Diarreia/microbiologia , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia
3.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 14: 1343499, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38558850

RESUMO

Background: Observational studies have reported that Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is associated with a series of pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. However, the results have been inconsistent, and the causal effect is unknown. Methods: A two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) study was performed using summary-level statistics for anti-H. pylori IgG levels from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children Cohort. Outcome data for pregnancy (miscarriage, preeclampsia-eclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, placental abruption, premature rupture of membranes, postpartum hemorrhage) and neonates (birthweight, gestational age, and preterm birth) were sourced from genome-wide association meta-analysis as well as the FinnGen and Early Growth Genetics Consortium. Causal estimates were calculated by five methods including inverse variance weighted (IVW). The heterogeneity of instrumental variables was quantified by Cochran's Q test, while sensitivity analyses were performed via MR-Egger, MR-PRESSO, and leave-one-out tests. Results: IVW estimates suggested that genetically predicted anti-H. pylori IgG levels were significantly associated with increased risks of preeclampsia-eclampsia (odds ratio [OR] = 1.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.24, P = 0.026) and premature rupture of membranes (OR = 1.17, 95% CI 1.05-1.30, P = 0.004). Similar results were obtained for preeclampsia-eclampsia from the MR-Egger method (OR = 1.32, 95% CI 1.06-1.64, P = 0.027) and for premature rupture of membranes from the weighted median method (OR = 1.22, 95% CI 1.06-1.41, P = 0.006). No significant causal effects were found for other outcomes. There was no obvious heterogeneity and horizontal pleiotropy across the MR analysis. Conclusion: Our two-sample MR study demonstrated a causal relationship of H. pylori infection with preeclampsia-eclampsia and premature rupture of membranes. The findings confirm the epidemiological evidence on the adverse impact of H. pylori in pregnancy. Further studies are needed to elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms and assess the effectiveness of pre-pregnancy screening and preventive eradication.


Assuntos
Eclampsia , Infecções por Helicobacter , Helicobacter pylori , Pré-Eclâmpsia , Nascimento Prematuro , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Infecções por Helicobacter/complicações , Helicobacter pylori/genética , Imunoglobulina G , Estudos Longitudinais , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Placenta , Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/genética , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Metanálise como Assunto
4.
Curr Microbiol ; 81(5): 125, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38558085

RESUMO

More than half of the world's population is infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), which may lead to chronic gastritis, peptic ulcers, and stomach cancer. LeoA, a conserved antigen of H. pylori, aids in preventing this infection by triggering specific CD3+ T-cell responses. In this study, recombinant plasmids containing the LeoA gene of H. pylori are created and conjugated with chitosan nanoparticle (CSNP) to immunize BALB/c mice against the H. pylori infection. We used the online Vaxign tool to analyze the genomes of five distinct strains of H. pylori, and we chose the outer membrane as a prospective vaccine candidate. Afterward, the proteins' immunogenicity was evaluated. The DNA vaccine was constructed and then encapsulated in CSNPs. The effectiveness of the vaccine's immunoprotective effects was evaluated in BALB/c mice. Purified activated splenic CD3+ T cells are used to test the anticancer effects in vitro. Nanovaccines had apparent spherical forms, were small (mean size, 150-250 nm), and positively charged (41.3 ± 3.11 mV). A consistently delayed release pattern and an entrapment efficiency (73.35 ± 3.48%) could be established. Compared to the non-encapsulated DNA vaccine, vaccinated BALB/c mice produced higher amounts of LeoA-specific IgG in plasma and TNF-α in splenocyte lysate. Moreover, BALB/c mice inoculated with nanovaccine demonstrated considerable immunity (87.5%) against the H. pylori challenge and reduced stomach injury and bacterial burdens in the stomach. The immunological state in individuals with GC with chronic infection with H. pylori is mimicked by the H. pylori DNA nanovaccines by inducing a shift from Th1 to Th2 in the response. In vitro human GC cell development is inhibited by activated CD3+ T lymphocytes. According to our findings, the H. pylori vaccine-activated CD3+ has potential immunotherapeutic benefits.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Infecções por Helicobacter , Helicobacter pylori , Nanopartículas , Vacinas de DNA , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Helicobacter pylori/genética , Vacinas de DNA/genética , DNA , Vacinação , Infecções por Helicobacter/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Vacinas Bacterianas/genética , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Anticorpos Antibacterianos
5.
Helicobacter ; 29(1): e13049, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38558496

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori infection is primarily acquired in childhood and can lead to peptic ulcer diseases and gastric cancer. The prevalence of H. pylori infection varies widely in different countries. The aim of this study was to explore the change of pediatric H. pylori seroprevalence in the past two decades and to investigate the risk factors for pediatric H. pylori seropositivity in southern Taiwan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study enrolled children aged 7-12 years in Tainan City in 2018 and compared the result with our previous data in 1998, 2005, and 2010. Parents of the participants were invited to fill out questionnaires, including information of personal history, family history of peptic ulcer diseases, annual household income, and source of drinking water. Blood samples were analyzed for anti-H. pylori IgG by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: A total of 391, 629, 618, and 488 elementary school students in Tainan City were enrolled in 1998, 2005, 2010, and 2018, respectively. There was a significant decline in H. pylori seroprevalence from 9.2% in 1998, 7.8% in 2005, 6.2% in 2010 to 4.7% in 2018 (p < 0.001). Neither gender difference nor age difference was found in H. pylori seropositivity in each year of enrollment. Low household income was significantly associated with pediatric H. pylori seropositivity. CONCLUSIONS: The seroprevalence of H. pylori infection among elementary schoolchildren has remarkably declined in southern Taiwan in the past two decades. Low household income was a risk factor for pediatric H. pylori seropositivity.


Assuntos
Infecções por Helicobacter , Helicobacter pylori , Úlcera Péptica , Criança , Humanos , Infecções por Helicobacter/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Seguimentos , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Úlcera Péptica/epidemiologia
7.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 20(1): 2336358, 2024 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38567485

RESUMO

Like the other invasive encapsulated bacteria, Streptococcus pneumoniae is also covered with a polysaccharide structure. Infants and elderly are most vulnerable to the invasive and noninvasive diseases caused by S. pneumoniae. Although antibodies against polysaccharide capsule are efficient in eliminating S. pneumoniae, the T cell independent nature of the immune response against polysaccharide vaccines renders them weakly antigenic. The introduction of protein conjugated capsular polysaccharide vaccines helped overcome the weak immunogenicity of pneumococcal polysaccharides and decreased the incidence of pneumococcal diseases, especially in pediatric population. Conjugate vaccines elicit T cell dependent response which involve the interaction of specialized CD4+ T cells, called follicular helper T cells (Tfh) with germinal center B cells in secondary lymphoid organs. Despite their improved immunogenicity, conjugate vaccines still need to be administered three to four times in infants during the first 15 month of their life because they mount poor Tfh response. Recent studies revealed fundamental differences in the generation of Tfh cells between neonates and adults. As the portfolio of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines continues to increase, better understanding of the mechanisms of antibody development in different age groups will help in the development of pneumococcal vaccines tailored for different ages.


Assuntos
Infecções Pneumocócicas , Vacinas Pneumocócicas , Lactente , Adulto , Recém-Nascido , Criança , Humanos , Idoso , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Infecções Pneumocócicas/microbiologia , Vacinas Conjugadas , Anticorpos , Polissacarídeos , Anticorpos Antibacterianos
8.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 108(1): 281, 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570417

RESUMO

Streptococcus pneumoniae can cause diseases with high mortality and morbidity. The licensed vaccines are based on capsular polysaccharides and induce antibodies with low cross reactivity, leading to restricted coverage of serotypes. For surpassing this limitation, new pneumococcal vaccines are needed for induction of broader protection. One important candidate is the pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA), which can be classified in 6 clades and 3 families. We have reported an efficient process for production and purification of untagged recombinant PspA from clade 4 (PspA4Pro). We now aim to obtain a highly pure recombinant PspA from clade 1 (PspA1) to be included, together with PspA4Pro, in a vaccine formulation to broaden response against pneumococci. The vector pET28a-pspA1 was constructed and used to transform Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) strain. One clone with high production of PspA1 was selected and adapted to high-density fermentation (HDF) medium. After biomass production in 6 L HDF using a bioreactor, the purification was defined after testing 3 protocols. During the batch bioreactor cultivation, plasmid stability remained above 90% and acetate formation was not detected. The final protein purification process included treatment with a cationic detergent after lysis, anion exchange chromatography, cryoprecipitation, cation exchange chromatography, and multimodal chromatography. The final purification process showed PspA1 purity of 93% with low endotoxin content and an overall recovery above 20%. The novel established process can be easily scaled-up and proved to be efficient to obtain a highly pure untagged PspA1 for inclusion in vaccine formulations. KEY POINTS: • Purification strategy for recombinant PspA1 from Streptococcus pneumoniae • Downstream processing for untagged protein antigens, the case of PspA1 • Purification strategy for PspA variants relies on buried amino acids in their sequences.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Streptococcus pneumoniae/genética , Vacinas Pneumocócicas/metabolismo , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
9.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 24(1): 161, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38491418

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), according to a number of recent observational studies, is connected to atherosclerosis (AS). However, the link between H. pylori and AS is debatable. METHODS: In order to calculate the causal relationship between H. pylori and AS, we employed a two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis. The data for H. pylori were obtained from the IEU GWAS database ( https://gwas.mrcieu.ac.uk/datasets/ ) and the data for AS were obtained from the Finngen GWAS database ( https://r5.finngen.fi/ ). We selected single nucleotide polymorphisms with a threshold of 5 × 10-6 from earlier genome-wide association studies. MR was performed mainly using the inverse variance weighted (IVW) method. To ensure the reliability of the findings, We performed a leave-one-out sensitivity analysis to test for sensitivity. F-value was used to test weak instrument. RESULTS: A positive causal relationship between H. pylori OMP antibody levels and peripheral atherosclerosis was shown by our two-sample MR analysis (odds ratio (OR) = 1.33, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.14-1.54, P = 0.26E-03) using IVW. Additionally, there was a causative link between coronary atherosclerosis and H. pylori VacA antibody levels (IVW OR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.01-1.10, P = 0.016). All the F-values were above 10. CONCLUSIONS: This MR study discovered a causal link between H. pylori and AS. Different antibodies have different effects, so future researches are needed to figure out the exact mechanisms behind this link.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Helicobacter pylori , Humanos , Helicobacter pylori/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico , Aterosclerose/genética , Anticorpos Antibacterianos
10.
Carbohydr Polym ; 332: 121928, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38431400

RESUMO

Published work has shown that glycoconjugate vaccines, based on truncated detoxified lipopolysaccharides from Moraxella catarrhalis attached through their reducing end to a carrier protein, gave good protection for all three serotypes A, B, and C in mice immunisation experiments. The (from the non-reducing end) truncated LPS structures were obtained from bacterial glycosyl transferase knock-out mutants and contained the de-esterified Lipid A, two Kdo residues and five glucose moieties. This work describes the chemical synthesis of the same outer Moraxella LPS structures, spacer-equipped and further truncated from the reducing end, i.e., without the Lipid A part and containing four or five glucose moieties or four glucose moieties and one Kdo residue, and their subsequent conjugation to a carrier protein via a five­carbon bifunctional spacer to form glycoconjugates. Immunisation experiments both in mice and rabbits of these gave a good antibody response, being 2-7 times that of pre-immune sera. However, the sera produced only recognized the immunizing glycan immunogens and failed to bind to native LPS or whole bacterial cells. Comparative molecular modelling of three alternative antigens shows that an additional (2 â†’ 4)-linked Kdo residue, not present in the synthetic structures, has a significant impact on the shape and volume of the molecule, with implications for antigen binding and cross-reactivity.


Assuntos
Lipopolissacarídeos , Moraxella catarrhalis , Coelhos , Animais , Camundongos , Lipopolissacarídeos/química , Lipídeo A , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Glicoconjugados , Oligossacarídeos/química , Glucose , Proteínas de Transporte
11.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 56(3): 106, 2024 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38507146

RESUMO

Coxiella burnetii, or Q fever agent, has notable implications for human and livestock health. Infections in cattle primarily manifest through reproductive issues where infected animals shed the bacterium in birth fluids, placental tissues, and milk, serving as potential sources of transmission. Bovine herds become reservoirs, contributing to the environmental contamination of farming areas. Comprehensive studies on the prevalence, transmission routes, and associated risk factors among cattle contribute to the development of effective control strategies, ultimately safeguarding both livestock and public health.Here we determine the prevalence of Coxiella burnetii antibodies against in dairy cattle farms from Kabylia (northern Algeria) and identify the associated risk factors. Bulk tank milk samples from 184 farms were analyzed by indirect ELISA technique, 49 of them were tested positive which corresponds to a prevalence rate of 26.63% (95% CI 20.25-33.01%). Multivariate analysis by logistic regression showed that the risk factors associated with detection of anti-Coxiella burnetii antibodies are: cohabitation of cattle with small ruminants(OR = 3.74 95% CI [1.41-8.92]), exposure to prevailing winds (OR = 5.12 95% CI [2.11-13.45]), and the veterinarian visits frequency(OR = 5.67 95% CI [2.55-13.60]). These findings underscore the susceptibility of dairy cattle to Q fever in the Kabylia region, highlighting practices that pose risks. We recommend the implementation of hygienic measures and adherence to proper farming conditions to mitigate the transmission of Q fever and reduce the associated zoonotic risk.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Coxiella burnetii , Febre Q , Humanos , Bovinos , Animais , Feminino , Gravidez , Febre Q/epidemiologia , Febre Q/veterinária , Febre Q/microbiologia , Leite/microbiologia , Prevalência , Argélia/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Placenta , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Fatores de Risco , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários
12.
Int J Med Microbiol ; 314: 151616, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38461565

RESUMO

Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is the dominant pathogen in several infectious diseases. Currently the use of antibiotics is the main intervention to prevent NTHi infections, however with the emergence of drug resistant strains, it has compromised the treatment of respiratory infections with antibiotics. Therefore there is an urgent need to develop a safe and effective vaccine to prevent NTHi infections. We investigate the potential of C-HapS-P6 fusion protein as a vaccine for treating NTHi in murine models. PGEX-6P2/C-HapS-P6 fusion gene was constructed using overlap extension polymerase chain reaction. The recombined plasmid was transformed into Escherichia coli for protein expression. The mice were subjected to intraperitoneal immunization using purified antigens. Immunoglobulin (Ig) G in serum samples and IgA in nasal and lung lavage fluids were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cytokine release and proliferation capacity of splenic lymphocytes in response to antigens were measured in vitro. The protective effect of the C-HapS-P6 protein against NTHi infection was evaluated by NTHi count and histological examination. The data showed that the C-HapS-P6 fusion protein increased significantly the levels of serum IgG and nasal and lung IgA, and promoted the release of interleukin (IL)-2, interferon-ϒ, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-17 and the proliferation of splenic lymphocytes compared with C-HapS or P6 protein treatment alone. Moreover, C-HapS-P6 effectively reduced the NTHi colonization in the nasopharynx and lungs of mice. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that the C-HapS-P6 fusion protein vaccine can significantly enhance humoral and cell immune responses and effectively prevent against NTHi infection in the respiratory tract in murine models.


Assuntos
Infecções por Haemophilus , Vacinas , Camundongos , Animais , Haemophilus influenzae/genética , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa , Imunoglobulina G , Imunoglobulina A/análise , Antibacterianos , Infecções por Haemophilus/prevenção & controle , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38430603

RESUMO

Molecular size distribution (MSD) of polysaccharides serves as a key parameter that directly correlates to the immunogenicity of vaccine. MSD at meningococcal polysaccharide (A, C, Y and W) or conjugate bulk level is well established under detailed pharmacopeial and WHO guidelines. We report here, a newly developed method for determination of molecular size distribution of pentavalent Meningococcal conjugate vaccine comprising of A, C, Y, W and X (MenFive). Although serogroup specific molecular size could not be estimated here; lot to lot consistency monitoring, molecular aggregates distribution in final lot, are key takeaways of this method. Determination of MSD in pentavalent fill finished product was quite challenging. Various columns/detectors combination, buffers, physico-chemical conditions (temperature, 2-8 °C, 25 °C, 40 °C and 60 °C; flow rate, 0.3 mL to 0.8 mL), liquid/lyophilized formulations, were explored. Polymer-based packed columns were explored for estimation for MSD by aqueous size exclusion chromatography, using combinations of- Shodex OHPAK SB 807 HQ, Shodex OHPAK SB 806 HQ, G6000 PWXL, coupled with guard Shodex OHPAK SB-G-6B. MenFive showed heterogenous distribution of molecules ranging from 200 to 19000 kDa, indicating its complex nature. However, 1000-8000 kDa was dominant range, comprising of ≥ 50 % distribution of molecules, in both liquid as well as lyophilized formulations, with average molecular weight around 6000-6500 kDa. The molar mass distribution after slicing would provide an insight to the conformation of molecules through its presentation as HMW, LMW, aggregates and subsequently, the presence of dominant population of molecules of a particular molecular weight and its total contribution in the sample.


Assuntos
Vacinas Meningocócicas , Vacinas Meningocócicas/química , Vacinas Conjugadas/química , Polissacarídeos , Cromatografia em Gel , Peso Molecular , Anticorpos Antibacterianos
14.
Vaccine ; 42(11): 2781-2792, 2024 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38508928

RESUMO

Investigating the mechanisms by which W135 meningococcal conjugate (PSW135-TT) activates adaptive immune responses in mice can provide a comprehensive understanding of the immune mechanisms of bacterial polysaccharide conjugate vaccines. We compared B-cell and T-cell immune responses immunized with W135 meningococcal capsular polysaccharides (PSW135), tetanus toxoid (TT) and PSW135-TT in mice. The results showed that PSW135-TT could induce higher PSW135-specific and TT-specific IgG antibodies with a significant enhancement after two doses. All serum antibodies immunized with PSW135- TT had strong bactericidal activity, whereas none of the serum antibodies immunized with PSW135 had bactericidal activity. Besides, IgM and IgG antibodies immunized with PSW135-TT after two doses were positively correlated with the titer of bactericidal antibodies. We also found Th cells favored Th2 humoral immune responses in PSW135-TT, PSW135, and TT-immunized mice, especially peripheral blood lymphocytes. Furthermore, PSW135-TT and TT could effectively activate bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) and promote BMDCs to highly express major histocompatibility complex Ⅱ (MHCⅡ), CD86 and CD40 molecules in mice, whereas PSW135 couldn't. These data verified the typical characteristics of PSW135-TT and TT as T cell dependent antigen (TD-Ag) and PSW135 as T cell independent antigen (TI-Ag), which will be very helpful for further exploration of the immune mechanism of polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines and improvement of the quality of bacterial polysaccharide conjugate vaccines in future.


Assuntos
Infecções Meningocócicas , Vacinas Meningocócicas , Neisseria meningitidis Sorogrupo W-135 , Animais , Camundongos , Sorogrupo , Toxoide Tetânico , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos , Vacinas Conjugadas , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Imunidade Celular , Imunoglobulina G , Infecções Meningocócicas/prevenção & controle
15.
Vaccine ; 42(11): 2858-2866, 2024 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38519344

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite some progress in pneumococcal immunization, the global burden of pneumococcal infection remains high, and pneumococcal disease remains a public health concern. Studies in China and abroad have found that 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) vaccination can effectively prevent invasive pneumococcal disease. This phase Ⅰ clinical study assessed the safety and immunogenicity of a PPV23 vaccine candidate. METHODS: All subjects were randomly assigned to receive one dose intramuscular injection of experimental vaccine or control vaccine at a ratio of 1:1. The incidence of any adverse events was observed within 30 min, 0-7 days and 8-28 days post vaccination and the incidence of abnormal blood biochemical and blood routine indicators were tested on the 4th day post vaccination, the incidence of serious adverse events (SAEs) at 6 months post vaccination was recorded. Blood samples were collected prior to vaccination and on the 28th day post vaccination, and serum antibodies were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS: The most common adverse reaction was pain at the injection site, followed by erythema. There was no significant difference of the incidence of systemic adverse reactions between the two vaccine groups. The adverse reactions observed in the trial were all common vaccination-related reactions, and no serious adverse reactions were observed. Compared to pre-vaccination, the (geometric mean concentrations) GMCs of IgG (immunoglobulin G) specific antibody against each serotype were all increased in the experimental group and the control group, there were statistical differences in seroconversion rates of serotypes 4 and 20 between the two vaccine groups. CONCLUSION: This clinical study showed good safety of the PPV23 vaccine candidate produced by Ab&b Biotechnology Co., Ltd.JS had good safety after vaccination in people aged 2 years and older. At the same time, good immunogenicity was also demonstrated.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Infecções Pneumocócicas , Humanos , Vacinas Pneumocócicas , Infecções Pneumocócicas/prevenção & controle , Vacinação , Imunoglobulina G , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Vacinas Conjugadas
16.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 24(4): 196-200, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38441498

RESUMO

Objectives: Lyme borreliosis incidence is increasing in several areas; moreover, it has recently gained the public's attention. Apart from erythema migrans, Lyme disease diagnosis relies (among others) on serology test; however, the prevalence of positive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blot (WB) assay has been poorly studied in the general population. We aimed to approach the seroprevalence of infection by Borrelia species responsible for Lyme disease in the French Isere department using city laboratories data. Patients and Methods: We retrieved all serological tests for Borrelia species responsible for Lyme disease performed in the two main networks of city laboratories between 2015 and 2020. All patients with both ELISA and WB IgG were considered seropositive. Results: We analyzed 27,360 tests (ELISA/ELISA+WB). Mean age was 50.9 ± 20.3 years (ranges: 0-101), with 57.1% females. Overall, 11.7% had IgG detected by ELISA, and 4.7% had IgG detected by both ELISA and WB assay. Seropositive status was more frequent in males (7.0% vs. 2.9%, p < 0.001). Seropositivity rate increased with age after a first peak in childhood; men aged 61-70 years had the highest seropositivity rate (10.3%). In addition, seropositivity rate was higher in persons from a rural area. In multivariate analysis, older age, male gender and living in a rural area were independently associated with seropositivity. Seropositivity rate was stable on the 2017-2020 period. Conclusion: The seroprevalence of infection by Borrelia species responsible for Lyme disease is high in Isere; this probably reduces the predictive positive value for Lyme disease of ELISA and WB IgG, suggesting that this serological test should not be performed for nonspecific symptoms.


Assuntos
Borrelia burgdorferi , Borrelia , Doença de Lyme , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Doença de Lyme/diagnóstico , Doença de Lyme/epidemiologia , Doença de Lyme/veterinária , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Testes Sorológicos/veterinária , Imunoglobulina G
17.
Infect Immun ; 92(4): e0050323, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38451079

RESUMO

Non-neutralizing functions of antibodies, including phagocytosis, may play a role in Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection, but these functions have not been studied and assays are lacking. We utilized a flow-cytometry-based assay to determine whether serum samples from a well-characterized cohort of CT-infected and naïve control individuals enhanced phagocytosis via Fc-receptor-expressing THP-1 cells, and whether this activity correlated with antibody titers. Fc-receptor-mediated phagocytosis was detected only in CT+ donors. Phagocytosis generally did not correlate well with antibody titer. In addition, we found that complement from both CT+ and negative individuals enhanced phagocytosis of CT into primary neutrophils. These results suggest that anti-CT antibodies can have functions that are not reflected by titer. This method could be used to quantitively measure Fc-receptor-mediated function of anti-CT antibodies or complement activity and could reveal new immune correlates of protection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia , Receptores Fc , Humanos , Fagocitose , Neutrófilos , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Chlamydia trachomatis
18.
Infect Immun ; 92(4): e0008424, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38470113

RESUMO

Camelid-derived, single-domain antibodies (VHHs) have proven to be extremely powerful tools in defining the antigenic landscape of immunologically heterogeneous surface proteins. In this report, we generated a phage-displayed VHH library directed against the candidate Lyme disease vaccine antigen, outer surface protein A (OspA). Two alpacas were immunized with recombinant OspA serotype 1 from Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto strain B31, in combination with the canine vaccine RECOMBITEK Lyme containing lipidated OspA. The phage library was subjected to two rounds of affinity enrichment ("panning") against recombinant OspA, yielding 21 unique VHHs within two epitope bins, as determined through competition enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) with a panel of OspA-specific human monoclonal antibodies. Epitope refinement was conducted by hydrogen exchange-mass spectrometry. Six of the monovalent VHHs were expressed as human IgG1-Fc fusion proteins and shown to have functional properties associated with protective human monoclonal antibodies, including B. burgdorferi agglutination, outer membrane damage, and complement-dependent borreliacidal activity. The VHHs displayed unique reactivity profiles with the seven OspA serotypes associated with B. burgdorferi genospecies in the United States and Europe consistent with there being unique epitopes across OspA serotypes that should be considered when designing and evaluating multivalent Lyme disease vaccines.


Assuntos
Lipoproteínas , Doença de Lyme , Anticorpos de Domínio Único , Animais , Cães , Humanos , Vacinas contra Doença de Lyme , Epitopos , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Vacinas Bacterianas , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa , Doença de Lyme/prevenção & controle , Antígenos de Superfície , Anticorpos Monoclonais
19.
Transfusion ; 64(4): 751-754, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38491925

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a tick-borne bacterium and the cause of human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA). Here, we report a case of transfusion-transmitted (TT)-HGA involving a leukoreduced (LR) red blood cell (RBC) unit. CASE REPORT: A 64-year-old woman with gastric adenocarcinoma and multiple myeloma who received weekly blood transfusions developed persistent fevers, hypotension, and shortness of breath 1 week after receiving an RBC transfusion. Persistent fevers, new thrombocytopenia, and transaminitis suggested a tick-borne infection. RESULTS: The absence of blood parasites on thick and thin blood smears suggested that malaria and Babesia infection were not present, and the recipient tested negative for antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi. Blood testing by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Ehrlichia and Anaplasma species identified A. phagocytophilum. Treatment with doxycycline resolved the infection; however, the recipient expired due to complications of her known malignancies. The recipient lived in a nursing home and did not have pets or spend time outdoors. The donor was a female in her 70s from Maine who was diagnosed with HGA 3 weeks after donating blood and whose LR-RBCs from the donation were transfused to the recipient 9 days following collection. CONCLUSION: This is a confirmed case of TT-HGA. Although rare, TT-HGA has been reported with LR-RBCs and platelets. In endemic areas, testing for tick-borne associated infections should be considered when investigating post-transfusion complications.


Assuntos
Anaplasma phagocytophilum , Anaplasmose , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos , Humanos , Animais , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/diagnóstico , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Eritrócitos
20.
Infect Immun ; 92(4): e0001824, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38514468

RESUMO

Borrelia burgdorferi, the spirochetal agent of Lyme disease, utilizes a variety of strategies to evade and suppress the host immune response, which enables it to chronically persist in the host. The resulting immune response is characterized by unusually strong IgM production and a lack of long-term protective immunity. Previous studies in mice have shown that infection with B. burgdorferi also broadly suppresses host antibody responses against unrelated antigens. Here, we show that mice infected with B. burgdorferi and concomitantly immunized with recombinant severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein had an abrogated antibody response to the immunization. To further define how long this humoral immune suppression lasts, mice were immunized at 2, 4, and 6 weeks post-infection. Suppression of host antibody production against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein peaked at 2 weeks post-infection but continued for all timepoints measured. Antibody responses against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein were also assessed following antibiotic treatment to determine whether this immune suppression persists or resolves following clearance of B. burgdorferi. Host antibody production against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein returned to baseline following antibiotic treatment; however, anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM remained high, comparable to levels found in B. burgdorferi-infected but untreated mice. Thus, our data demonstrate restored IgG responses following antibiotic treatment but persistently elevated IgM levels, indicating lingering effects of B. burgdorferi infection on the immune system following treatment.


Assuntos
Borrelia burgdorferi , Doença de Lyme , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus , Camundongos , Humanos , Animais , Imunidade Humoral , Imunoglobulina M , Antibacterianos , Anticorpos Antibacterianos
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