Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 19.273
Filtrar
1.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1384417, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38726013

RESUMO

Nipah virus (NiV) poses a significant threat to human and livestock populations across South and Southeast Asia. Vaccines are required to reduce the risk and impact of spillover infection events. Pigs can act as an intermediate amplifying host for NiV and, separately, provide a preclinical model for evaluating human vaccine candidate immunogenicity. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the immunogenicity of an mRNA vectored NiV vaccine candidate in pigs. Pigs were immunized twice with 100 µg nucleoside-modified mRNA vaccine encoding soluble G glycoprotein from the Malaysia strain of NiV, formulated in lipid nanoparticles. Potent antigen-binding and virus neutralizing antibodies were detected in serum following the booster immunization. Antibody responses effectively neutralized both the Malaysia and Bangladesh strains of NiV but showed limited neutralization of the related (about 80% amino acid sequence identity for G) Hendra virus. Antibodies were also capable of neutralizing NiV glycoprotein mediated cell-cell fusion. NiV G-specific T cell cytokine responses were also measurable following the booster immunization with evidence for induction of both CD4 and CD8 T cell responses. These data support the further evaluation of mRNA vectored NiV G as a vaccine for both pigs and humans.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , Infecções por Henipavirus , Vírus Nipah , Vacinas Virais , Animais , Vírus Nipah/imunologia , Vírus Nipah/genética , Suínos , Infecções por Henipavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Henipavirus/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Doenças dos Suínos/imunologia , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/imunologia , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Imunização Secundária , Citocinas/imunologia , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia , Lipossomos , Nanopartículas
2.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 3924, 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724518

RESUMO

An effective HIV-1 vaccine must elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) against highly diverse Envelope glycoproteins (Env). Since Env with the longest hypervariable (HV) loops is more resistant to the cognate bnAbs than Env with shorter HV loops, we redesigned hypervariable loops for updated Env consensus sequences of subtypes B and C and CRF01_AE. Using modeling with AlphaFold2, we reduced the length of V1, V2, and V5 HV loops while maintaining the integrity of the Env structure and glycan shield, and modified the V4 HV loop. Spacers are designed to limit strain-specific targeting. All updated Env are infectious as pseudoviruses. Preliminary structural characterization suggests that the modified HV loops have a limited impact on Env's conformation. Binding assays show improved binding to modified subtype B and CRF01_AE Env but not to subtype C Env. Neutralization assays show increases in sensitivity to bnAbs, although not always consistently across clades. Strikingly, the HV loop modification renders the resistant CRF01_AE Env sensitive to 10-1074 despite the absence of a glycan at N332.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Anti-HIV , HIV-1 , Produtos do Gene env do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana , HIV-1/imunologia , Humanos , Produtos do Gene env do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/imunologia , Produtos do Gene env do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/química , Produtos do Gene env do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/metabolismo , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Vacinas contra a AIDS/imunologia , Testes de Neutralização , Células HEK293 , Sequência Consenso , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Ligação Proteica , Epitopos/imunologia
4.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 18(5): e13309, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38725111

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The newly emerged SARS-CoV-2 possesses shared antigenic epitopes with other human coronaviruses. We investigated if COVID-19 vaccination or SARS-CoV-2 infection may boost cross-reactive antibodies to other human coronaviruses. METHODS: Prevaccination and postvaccination sera from SARS-CoV-2 naïve healthy subjects who received three doses of the mRNA vaccine (BioNTech, BNT) or the inactivated vaccine (CoronaVac, CV) were used to monitor the level of cross-reactive antibodies raised against other human coronaviruses by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In comparison, convalescent sera from COVID-19 patients with or without prior vaccination history were also tested. Pseudoparticle neutralization assay was performed to detect neutralization antibody against MERS-CoV. RESULTS: Among SARS-CoV-2 infection-naïve subjects, BNT or CV significantly increased the anti-S2 antibodies against Betacoronaviruses (OC43 and MERS-CoV) but not Alphacoronaviruses (229E). The prevaccination antibody response to the common cold human coronaviruses did not negatively impact the postvaccination antibody response to SARS-CoV-2. Cross-reactive antibodies that binds to the S2 protein of MERS-CoV were similarly detected from the convalescent sera of COVID-19 patients with or without vaccination history. However, these anti-S2 antibodies do not possess neutralizing activity in MERS-CoV pseudoparticle neutralization tests. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that SARS-CoV-2 infection or vaccination may potentially modulate population immune landscape against previously exposed or novel human coronaviruses. The findings have implications for future sero-epidemiological studies on MERS-CoV.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Reações Cruzadas , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Reações Cruzadas/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Adulto , Masculino , Feminino , Vacinação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/imunologia , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/administração & dosagem , Testes de Neutralização , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/imunologia , Adulto Jovem , Vacinas de mRNA/imunologia
5.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 10772, 2024 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38730052

RESUMO

We aimed to determine SARS-CoV-2 antibody seropositivity among pregnant women and the transplacental transfer efficiency of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies relative to malaria antibodies among SARS-CoV-2 seropositive mother-cord pairs. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Accra, Ghana, from March to May 2022. Antigen- specific IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 (nucleoprotein and spike-receptor binding domain) and malarial antigens (circumsporozoite protein and merozoite surface protein 3) in maternal and cord plasma were measured by ELISA. Plasma from both vaccinated and unvaccinated pregnant women were tested for neutralizing antibodies using commercial kit. Of the unvaccinated pregnant women tested, 58.12% at antenatal clinics and 55.56% at the delivery wards were seropositive for both SARS-CoV-2 nucleoprotein and RBD antibodies. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in cord samples correlated with maternal antibody levels (N antigen rs = 0.7155, p < 0.001; RBD rs = 0.8693, p < 0.001). Transplacental transfer of SARS-CoV-2 nucleoprotein antibodies was comparable to circumsporozoite protein antibodies (p = 0.9999) but both were higher than transfer rates of merozoite surface protein 3 antibodies (p < 0.001). SARS-CoV-2 IgG seropositivity among pregnant women in Accra is high with a boost of SARS-CoV-2 RBD-specific IgG in vaccinated women. Transplacental transfer of anti-SARS-CoV-2 and malarial antibodies was efficient, supporting vaccination of mothers as a strategy to protect infants against SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais , COVID-19 , Imunoglobulina G , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Gana , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Troca Materno-Fetal/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Imunidade Materno-Adquirida , Adulto Jovem , Sangue Fetal/imunologia , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/imunologia , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue
6.
Virulence ; 15(1): 2351266, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38717195

RESUMO

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to millions of fatalities globally. Kidney transplant (KT) patients, given their comorbidities and under immunosuppressant drugs, are identified as a high-risk group. Though vaccination remains pivotal for pandemic control, some studies indicate that KT exhibits diminished immune reactions to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Therefore, evaluating the vaccine responses in KT, especially the humoral responses against emergent variants is crucial.Methods: We developed a multiplexed SARS-CoV-2 variant protein microarray, incorporating the extracellular domain (ECD) and the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the spike proteins from the variants. This was employed to investigate the collective humoral responses after administering two doses of mRNA-1273 and AZD1222 vaccines in KT under immunosuppressive drugs and in healthy controls.Results: After two doses of either mRNA-1273 or AZD1222, the KT generally showed lower surrogate neutralizing and total antibodies against spike ECD in multiple variants compared to healthy controls. Although two doses of mRNA-1273 induced 1.5-2 fold more surrogate neutralizing and total antibodies than AZD1222 in healthy controls, the KT subjects with two doses of mRNA-1273 generally exhibited higher surrogate neutralizing but similar total antibodies against spike ECD in multiple variants. There were moderate to high correlations between the surrogate neutralizing and total antibodies against spike ECDs.Conclusion: This study offers pivotal insights into the relative vulnerability of KT concerning humoral immunity and the evolving mutations of SARS-CoV-2. Such findings are useful for evaluating vaccine responses and recommending vaccine episodes for KT.


Assuntos
Vacina de mRNA-1273 contra 2019-nCoV , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Imunidade Humoral , Transplante de Rim , SARS-CoV-2 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/imunologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feminino , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Vacina de mRNA-1273 contra 2019-nCoV/administração & dosagem , Vacina de mRNA-1273 contra 2019-nCoV/imunologia , Adulto , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Vacinação , Idoso , Transplantados
7.
JCI Insight ; 9(10)2024 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38713511

RESUMO

While sclerostin-neutralizing antibodies (Scl-Abs) transiently stimulate bone formation by activating Wnt signaling in osteoblast lineage cells, they exert sustained inhibition of bone resorption, suggesting an alternate signaling pathway by which Scl-Abs control osteoclast activity. Since sclerostin can activate platelet-derived growth factor receptors (PDGFRs) in osteoblast lineage cells in vitro and PDGFR signaling in these cells induces bone resorption through M-CSF secretion, we hypothesized that the prolonged anticatabolic effect of Scl-Abs could result from PDGFR inhibition. We show here that inhibition of PDGFR signaling in osteoblast lineage cells is sufficient and necessary to mediate prolonged Scl-Ab effects on M-CSF secretion and osteoclast activity in mice. Indeed, sclerostin coactivates PDGFRs independently of Wnt/ß-catenin signaling inhibition, by forming a ternary complex with LRP6 and PDGFRs in preosteoblasts. In turn, Scl-Ab prevents sclerostin-mediated coactivation of PDGFR signaling and consequent M-CSF upregulation in preosteoblast cultures, thereby inhibiting osteoclast activity in preosteoblast/osteoclast coculture assays. These results provide a potential mechanism explaining the dissociation between anabolic and antiresorptive effects of long-term Scl-Ab.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal , Reabsorção Óssea , Osteoblastos , Osteoclastos , Receptores do Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Reabsorção Óssea/metabolismo , Osteoclastos/metabolismo , Receptores do Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/metabolismo , Receptores do Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/antagonistas & inibidores , Via de Sinalização Wnt/efeitos dos fármacos , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/farmacologia , Proteína-6 Relacionada a Receptor de Lipoproteína de Baixa Densidade/metabolismo , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Macrófagos/metabolismo , Linhagem da Célula , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular
8.
Med Microbiol Immunol ; 213(1): 6, 2024 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38722338

RESUMO

To date, there is no licensed vaccine for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Therefore, MERS-CoV is one of the diseases targeted by the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI) vaccine development programs and has been classified as a priority disease by the World Health Organization (WHO). An important measure of vaccine immunogenicity and antibody functionality is the detection of virus-neutralizing antibodies. We have developed and optimized a microneutralization assay (MNA) using authentic MERS-CoV and standardized automatic counting of virus foci. Compared to our standard virus neutralization assay, the MNA showed improved sensitivity when analyzing 30 human sera with good correlation of results (Spearman's correlation coefficient r = 0.8917, p value < 0.0001). It is important to use standardized materials, such as the WHO international standard (IS) for anti-MERS-CoV immunoglobulin G, to compare the results from clinical trials worldwide. Therefore, in addition to the neutralizing titers (NT50 = 1384, NT80 = 384), we determined the IC50 and IC80 of WHO IS in our MNA to be 0.67 IU/ml and 2.6 IU/ml, respectively. Overall, the established MNA is well suited to reliably quantify vaccine-induced neutralizing antibodies with high sensitivity.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio , Testes de Neutralização , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/imunologia , Humanos , Testes de Neutralização/métodos , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Animais , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
9.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1374486, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38745651

RESUMO

A universal recombinant adenovirus type-5 (Ad5) vaccine against COVID19 (Ad-US) was constructed, and immunogenicity and broad-spectrum of Ad5-US were evaluated with both intranasal and intramuscular immunization routes. The humoral immune response of Ad5-US in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were evaluated by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus based pseudovirus neutralization assay, and angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) -binding inhibition assay. The cellular immune response and Th1/Th2 biased immune response of Ad5-US were evaluated by the IFN-γ ELISpot assay, intracellular cytokine staining, and Meso Scale Discovery (MSD) profiling of Th1/Th2 cytokines. Intramuscular priming followed by an intranasal booster with Ad5-US elicited the broad-spectrum and high levels of IgG, IgA, pseudovirus neutralizing antibody (PNAb), and Th1-skewing of the T-cell response. Overall, the adenovirus type-5 vectored universal SARS-CoV-2 vaccine Ad5-US was successfully constructed, and Ad5-US was highly immunogenic and broad spectrum. Intramuscular priming followed by an intranasal booster with Ad5-US induced the high and broad spectrum systemic immune responses and local mucosal immune responses.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Vetores Genéticos , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Camundongos , Humanos , Feminino , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia , Vacinas Sintéticas/administração & dosagem , Adenoviridae/genética , Adenoviridae/imunologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Administração Intranasal , Injeções Intramusculares , Imunidade Humoral , Citocinas/metabolismo , Imunidade Celular
10.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 14: 1341332, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38746783

RESUMO

Introduction: The Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), the most geographically widespread tick-borne virus, is endemic in Africa, Eastern Europe and Asia, with infection resulting in mortality in up to 30% of cases. Currently, there are no approved vaccines or effective therapies available for CCHF. The CCHFV should only be manipulated in the BSL-4 laboratory, which has severely hampered basic seroprevalence studies. Methods: In the present study, two antibody detection methods in the forms of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a surrogate virus neutralization test (sPVNT) were developed using a recombinant glycoprotein (rGP) and a vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-based virus bearing the CCHFV recombinant glycoprotein (rVSV/CCHFV) in a biosafety level 2 (BSL-2) laboratory, respectively. Results: The rGP-based ELISA and rVSV/CCHFV-based sVNT were established by using the anti-CCHFV pre-GC mAb 11E7, known as a broadly cross-reactive, potently neutralizing antibody, and their applications as diagnostic antigens were validated for the specific detection of CCHFV IgG and neutralizing antibodies in experimental animals. In two tests, mAb clone 11E7 (diluted at 1:163840 or 512) still displayed positive binding and neutralization, and the presence of antibodies (IgG and neutralizing) against the rGP and rVSV/CCHFV was also determined in the sera from the experimental animals. Both mAb 11E7 and animal sera showed a high reactivity to both antigens, indicating that bacterially expressed rGP and rVSV/CCHFV have good immunoreactivity. Apart from establishing two serological testing methods, their results also demonstrated an imperfect correlation between IgG and neutralizing antibodies. Discussion: Within this limited number of samples, the rGP and rVSV/CCHFV could be safe and convenient tools with significant potential for research on specific antibodies and serological samples.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Vírus da Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia-Congo , Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia , Imunoglobulina G , Testes de Neutralização , Vírus da Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia-Congo/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Testes de Neutralização/métodos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia/diagnóstico , Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia/imunologia , Animais , Humanos , Glicoproteínas/imunologia , Testes Sorológicos/métodos , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Camundongos , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia
11.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2808: 209-224, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38743373

RESUMO

The plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are both widely used to assess immunity to infectious diseases such as measles, but they use two different measurement principles: ELISA measures the ability of antibodies to bind to virus components, while the PRNT detects the aptitude of antibodies to prevent the infection of a susceptible cell. As a result, detection of measles virus (MV) neutralizing antibodies is the gold standard for assessing immunity to measles. However, the assay is laborious and requires experience and excellent technical skills. In addition, the result is only available after several days. Therefore, the classical PRNT is not suitable for high-throughput testing. By using an immunocolorimetric assay (ICA) to detect MV-infected cells, the standard PRNT has been developed into a focus reduction neutralization test (FRNT). This assay is faster and has improved specificity. The FRNT described here is extremely useful when immunity to measles virus needs to be assessed in patients with a specific medical condition, such as immunocompromised individuals in whom presumed residual immunity needs to be assessed. The FRNT is not generally recommended for use with large numbers of specimens, such as in a seroprevalence study.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , Vírus do Sarampo , Sarampo , Testes de Neutralização , Testes de Neutralização/métodos , Vírus do Sarampo/imunologia , Sarampo/imunologia , Sarampo/diagnóstico , Sarampo/virologia , Humanos , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Chlorocebus aethiops , Animais , Células Vero , Ensaio de Placa Viral/métodos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(21): e2312755121, 2024 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38743628

RESUMO

Antigenic similarities between Zika virus (ZIKV) and other flaviviruses pose challenges to the development of virus-specific diagnostic tools and effective vaccines. Starting with a DNA-encoded one-bead-one-compound combinatorial library of 508,032 synthetic, non-natural oligomers, we selected and characterized small molecules that mimic ZIKV epitopes. High-throughput fluorescence-activated cell sorter-based bead screening was used to select molecules that bound IgG from ZIKV-immune but not from dengue-immune sera. Deep sequencing of the DNA from the "Zika-only" beads identified 40 candidate molecular structures. A lead candidate small molecule "CZV1-1" was selected that correctly identifies serum specimens from Zika-experienced patients with good sensitivity and specificity (85.3% and 98.4%, respectively). Binding competition studies of purified anti-CZV1-1 IgG against known ZIKV-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) showed that CZV1-1 mimics a nonlinear, neutralizing conformational epitope in the domain III of the ZIKV envelope. Purified anti-CZV1-1 IgG neutralized infection of ZIKV in cell cultures with potencies comparable to highly specific ZIKV-neutralizing mAbs. This study demonstrates an innovative approach for identification of synthetic non-natural molecular mimics of conformational virus epitopes. Such molecular mimics may have value in the development of accurate diagnostic assays for Zika, as well as for other viruses.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , Epitopos , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Zika virus/imunologia , Epitopos/imunologia , Humanos , Infecção por Zika virus/imunologia , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Mimetismo Molecular/imunologia
13.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 4056, 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38744813

RESUMO

The fusion peptide of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein is functionally important for membrane fusion during virus entry and is part of a broadly neutralizing epitope. However, sequence determinants at the fusion peptide and its adjacent regions for pathogenicity and antigenicity remain elusive. In this study, we perform a series of deep mutational scanning (DMS) experiments on an S2 region spanning the fusion peptide of authentic SARS-CoV-2 in different cell lines and in the presence of broadly neutralizing antibodies. We identify mutations at residue 813 of the spike protein that reduced TMPRSS2-mediated entry with decreased virulence. In addition, we show that an F823Y mutation, present in bat betacoronavirus HKU9 spike protein, confers resistance to broadly neutralizing antibodies. Our findings provide mechanistic insights into SARS-CoV-2 pathogenicity and also highlight a potential challenge in developing broadly protective S2-based coronavirus vaccines.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes , COVID-19 , Mutação , SARS-CoV-2 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus , Internalização do Vírus , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Serina Endopeptidases/imunologia , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Chlorocebus aethiops , Células HEK293 , Células Vero , Epitopos/imunologia , Epitopos/genética , Linhagem Celular , Camundongos
14.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 4081, 2024 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38744844

RESUMO

Combination of waning immunity and lower effectiveness against new SARS-CoV-2 variants of approved COVID-19 vaccines necessitates new vaccines. We evaluated two doses, 28 days apart, of ARCT-154, a self-amplifying mRNA COVID-19 vaccine, compared with saline placebo in an integrated phase 1/2/3a/3b controlled, observer-blind trial in Vietnamese adults (ClinicalTrial.gov identifier: NCT05012943). Primary safety and reactogenicity outcomes were unsolicited adverse events (AE) 28 days after each dose, solicited local and systemic AE 7 days after each dose, and serious AEs throughout the study. Primary immunogenicity outcome was the immune response as neutralizing antibodies 28 days after the second dose. Efficacy against COVID-19 was assessed as primary and secondary outcomes in phase 3b. ARCT-154 was well tolerated with generally mild-moderate transient AEs. Four weeks after the second dose 94.1% (95% CI: 92.1-95.8) of vaccinees seroconverted for neutralizing antibodies, with a geometric mean-fold rise from baseline of 14.5 (95% CI: 13.6-15.5). Of 640 cases of confirmed COVID-19 eligible for efficacy analysis most were due to the Delta (B.1.617.2) variant. Efficacy of ARCT-154 was 56.6% (95% CI: 48.7- 63.3) against any COVID-19, and 95.3% (80.5-98.9) against severe COVID-19. ARCT-154 vaccination is well tolerated, immunogenic and efficacious, particularly against severe COVID-19 disease.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/efeitos adversos , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/imunologia , Feminino , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Adulto , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Adulto Jovem , Eficácia de Vacinas , Vietnã , Adolescente , Vacinas de mRNA , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia , Vacinas Sintéticas/efeitos adversos , Vacinas Sintéticas/administração & dosagem
15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 72(19): 10753-10771, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38706131

RESUMO

Food-borne biotoxins from microbes, plants, or animals contaminate unclean, spoiled, and rotten foods, posing significant health risks. Neutralizing such toxins is vital for human health, especially after food poisoning. Nanobodies (Nbs), a type of single-domain antibodies derived from the genetic cloning of a variable domain of heavy chain antibodies (VHHs) in camels, offer unique advantages in toxin neutralization. Their small size, high stability, and precise binding enable effective neutralization. The use of Nbs in neutralizing food-borne biotoxins offers numerous benefits, and their genetic malleability allows tailored optimization for diverse toxins. As nanotechnology continues to evolve and improve, Nbs are poised to become increasingly efficient and safer tools for toxin neutralization, playing a pivotal role in safeguarding human health and environmental safety. This review not only highlights the efficacy of these agents in neutralizing toxins but also proposes innovative solutions to address their current challenges. It lays a solid foundation for their further development in this crucial field and propels their commercial application, thereby contributing significantly to advancements in this domain.


Assuntos
Anticorpos de Domínio Único , Animais , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/imunologia , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/química , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/genética , Humanos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Toxinas Biológicas/imunologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/imunologia , Camelus/imunologia
16.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 9(1): 129, 2024 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38740763

RESUMO

The safety and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines in the elderly, a high-risk group for severe COVID-19 infection, have not been fully understood. To clarify these issues, this prospective study followed up 157 elderly and 73 young participants for 16 months and compared the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of two doses of the inactivated vaccine BBIBP-CorV followed by a booster dose of the recombinant protein vaccine ZF2001. The results showed that this vaccination protocol was safe and tolerable in the elderly. After administering two doses of the BBIBP-CorV, the positivity rates and titers of neutralizing and anti-RBD antibodies in the elderly were significantly lower than those in the young individuals. After the ZF2001 booster dose, the antibody-positive rates in the elderly were comparable to those in the young; however, the antibody titers remained lower. Gender, age, and underlying diseases were independently associated with vaccine immunogenicity in elderly individuals. The pseudovirus neutralization assay showed that, compared with those after receiving two doses of BBIBP-CorV priming, some participants obtained immunological protection against BA.5 and BF.7 after receiving the ZF2001 booster. Breakthrough infection symptoms last longer in the infected elderly and pre-infection antibody titers were negatively associated with the severity of post-infection symptoms. The antibody levels in the elderly increased significantly after breakthrough infection but were still lower than those in the young. Our data suggest that multiple booster vaccinations at short intervals to maintain high antibody levels may be an effective strategy for protecting the elderly against COVID-19.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados , Humanos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/imunologia , Feminino , Masculino , Idoso , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/efeitos adversos , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/imunologia , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/efeitos adversos , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Adulto , Vacinação , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia , Vacinas Sintéticas/efeitos adversos , Vacinas Sintéticas/administração & dosagem , Imunogenicidade da Vacina/imunologia , Imunização Secundária
17.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 9(1): 131, 2024 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38740785

RESUMO

Almost all the neutralizing antibodies targeting the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of spike (S) protein show weakened or lost efficacy against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged or emerging variants, such as Omicron and its sub-variants. This suggests that highly conserved epitopes are crucial for the development of neutralizing antibodies. Here, we present one nanobody, N235, displaying broad neutralization against the SARS-CoV-2 prototype and multiple variants, including the newly emerged Omicron and its sub-variants. Cryo-electron microscopy demonstrates N235 binds a novel, conserved, cryptic epitope in the N-terminal domain (NTD) of the S protein, which interferes with the RBD in the neighboring S protein. The neutralization mechanism interpreted via flow cytometry and Western blot shows that N235 appears to induce the S1 subunit shedding from the trimeric S complex. Furthermore, a nano-IgM construct (MN235), engineered by fusing N235 with the human IgM Fc region, displays prevention via inducing S1 shedding and cross-linking virus particles. Compared to N235, MN235 exhibits varied enhancement in neutralization against pseudotyped and authentic viruses in vitro. The intranasal administration of MN235 in low doses can effectively prevent the infection of Omicron sub-variant BA.1 and XBB in vivo, suggesting that it can be developed as a promising prophylactic antibody to cope with the ongoing and future infection.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , COVID-19 , Epitopos , Imunoglobulina M , SARS-CoV-2 , Anticorpos de Domínio Único , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Humanos , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/imunologia , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/genética , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/química , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/farmacologia , Epitopos/imunologia , Epitopos/genética , Epitopos/química , Animais , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/química , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/química , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/genética , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Imunoglobulina M/genética , Camundongos , Domínios Proteicos , Microscopia Crioeletrônica
18.
Biol Res ; 57(1): 24, 2024 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38711133

RESUMO

Despite the record speed of developing vaccines and therapeutics against the SARS-CoV-2 virus, it is not a given that such success can be secured in future pandemics. In addition, COVID-19 vaccination and application of therapeutics remain low in developing countries. Rapid and low cost mass production of antiviral IgY antibodies could be an attractive alternative or complementary option for vaccine and therapeutic development. In this article, we rapidly produced SARS-CoV-2 antigens, immunized hens and purified IgY antibodies in 2 months after the SARS-CoV-2 gene sequence became public. We further demonstrated that the IgY antibodies competitively block RBD binding to ACE2, neutralize authentic SARS-CoV-2 virus and effectively protect hamsters from SARS-CoV-2 challenge by preventing weight loss and lung pathology, representing the first comprehensive study with IgY antibodies. The process of mass production can be easily implemented in most developing countries and hence could become a new vital option in our toolbox for combating viral pandemics. This study could stimulate further studies, optimization and potential applications of IgY antibodies as therapeutics and prophylactics for human and animals.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , COVID-19 , Galinhas , Gema de Ovo , Imunoglobulinas , SARS-CoV-2 , Animais , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/imunologia , Galinhas/imunologia , Cricetinae , Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Gema de Ovo/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Feminino , Mesocricetus , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia
19.
Cell Host Microbe ; 32(5): 632-634, 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38723601

RESUMO

Inducing HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) through vaccination poses exceptional challenges. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Wiehe and colleagues report the elicitation of affinity-matured bnAbs in knock-in mice through boosting immunogen vaccination, which selects for key improbable mutations.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra a AIDS , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Anti-HIV , Infecções por HIV , HIV-1 , Desenvolvimento de Vacinas , Vacinas contra a AIDS/imunologia , Vacinas contra a AIDS/genética , HIV-1/imunologia , HIV-1/genética , Animais , Camundongos , Anticorpos Anti-HIV/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Humanos , Técnicas de Introdução de Genes , Imunização Secundária , Vacinação
20.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1390022, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38698851

RESUMO

Purpose: Previous studies have demonstrated that the majority of patients with an inborn error of immunity (IEI) develop a spike (S)-specific IgG antibody and T-cell response after two doses of the mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccine, but little is known about the response to a booster vaccination. We studied the immune responses 8 weeks after booster vaccination with mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines in 171 IEI patients. Moreover, we evaluated the clinical outcomes in these patients one year after the start of the Dutch COVID-19 vaccination campaign. Methods: This study was embedded in a large prospective multicenter study investigating the immunogenicity of COVID-19 mRNA-based vaccines in IEI (VACOPID study). Blood samples were taken from 244 participants 8 weeks after booster vaccination. These participants included 171 IEI patients (X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA;N=11), combined immunodeficiency (CID;N=4), common variable immunodeficiency (CVID;N=45), isolated or undefined antibody deficiencies (N=108) and phagocyte defects (N=3)) and 73 controls. SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG titers, neutralizing antibodies, and T-cell responses were evaluated. One year after the start of the COVID-19 vaccination program, 334 study participants (239 IEI patients and 95 controls) completed a questionnaire to supplement their clinical data focusing on SARS-CoV-2 infections. Results: After booster vaccination, S-specific IgG titers increased in all COVID-19 naive IEI cohorts and controls, when compared to titers at 6 months after the priming regimen. The fold-increases did not differ between controls and IEI cohorts. SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell responses also increased equally in all cohorts after booster vaccination compared to 6 months after the priming regimen. Most SARS-CoV-2 infections during the study period occurred in the period when the Omicron variant had become dominant. The clinical course of these infections was mild, although IEI patients experienced more frequent fever and dyspnea compared to controls and their symptoms persisted longer. Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that mRNA-based booster vaccination induces robust recall of memory B-cell and T-cell responses in most IEI patients. One-year clinical follow-up demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 infections in IEI patients were mild. Given our results, we support booster campaigns with newer variant-specific COVID-19 booster vaccines to IEI patients with milder phenotypes.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Imunização Secundária , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Feminino , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vacina de mRNA-1273 contra 2019-nCoV/imunologia , Seguimentos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Adulto Jovem , Vacinação , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Adolescente
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...