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1.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 65(4): 19, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38587440

RESUMO

Purpose: Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss provides the basis for diagnosis and stage determination of many optic neuropathies, and quantification of RGC survival is a critical outcome measure in models of optic neuropathy. This study examines the accuracy of manual RGC counting using two selective markers, Brn3a and RBPMS. Methods: Retinal flat mounts from 1- to 18-month-old C57BL/6 mice, and from mice after microbead (MB)-induced intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation, are immunostained with Brn3a and/or RBPMS antibodies. Four individuals masked to the experimental conditions manually counted labeled RGCs in three copies of five images, and inter- and intra-person reliability was evaluated by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results: A larger population (approximately 10% higher) of RGCs are labeled with RBPMS than Brn3a antibody up to 6 months of age, but differences decrease to approximately 1% at older ages. Both RGC-labeled populations significantly decrease with age. MB-induced IOP elevation is associated with a significant decrease of both Brn3a- and RBPMS-positive RGCs. Notably, RGC labeling with Brn3a provides more consistent cell counts than RBPMS in interpersonal (ICC = 0.87 to 0.11, respectively) and intra-personal reliability (ICC = 0.97 to 0.66, respectively). Conclusions: Brn3a and RBPMS markers are independently capable of detecting significant decreases of RGC number with age and in response to IOP elevation despite RPBMS detecting a larger number of RGCs up to 6 months of age. Brn3a labeling is less prone to manual cell counting variability than RBPMS labeling. Overall, either marker can be used as a single marker to detect significant changes in RGC survival, each offering distinct advantages.


Assuntos
Doenças do Nervo Óptico , Células Ganglionares da Retina , Animais , Camundongos , Envelhecimento , Anticorpos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA
2.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 3021, 2024 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589401

RESUMO

Preterm birth is currently the leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Genetic, immunological and infectious causes are suspected. Preterm infants have a higher risk of severe bacterial neonatal infections, most of which are caused by Escherichia coli an in particular E. coli K1strains. Women with history of preterm delivery have a high risk of recurrence and therefore constitute a target population for the development of vaccine against E. coli neonatal infections. Here, we characterize the immunological, microbiological and protective properties of a live attenuated vaccine candidate in adult female mice and their pups against after a challenge by K1 and non-K1 strains of E. coli. Our results show that the E. coli K1 E11 ∆aroA vaccine induces strong immunity, driven by polyclonal bactericidal antibodies. In our model of meningitis, mothers immunized prior to mating transfer maternal antibodies to pups, which protect newborn mice against various K1 and non-K1 strains of E. coli. Given the very high mortality rate and the neurological sequalae associated with neonatal E. coli K1 meningitis, our results constitute preclinical proof of concept for the development of a live attenuated vaccine against severe E. coli infections in women at risk of preterm delivery.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli , Doenças do Recém-Nascido , Meningite , Nascimento Prematuro , Lactente , Adulto , Recém-Nascido , Feminino , Animais , Camundongos , Humanos , Escherichia coli/genética , Vacinas Atenuadas , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Infecções por Escherichia coli/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/etiologia , Anticorpos , Meningite/etiologia
3.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8337, 2024 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594459

RESUMO

Accessible SARS-CoV-2-specific immunoassays may inform clinical management in people with HIV, particularly in case of persisting immunodysfunction. We prospectively studied their application in vaccine recipients with HIV, purposely including participants with a history of advanced HIV infection. Participants received one (n = 250), two (n = 249) or three (n = 42) doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine. Adverse events were documented through questionnaires. Sample collection occurred pre-vaccination and a median of 4 weeks post-second dose and 14 weeks post-third dose. Anti-spike and anti-nucleocapsid antibodies were measured with the Roche Elecsys chemiluminescence immunoassays. Neutralising activity was evaluated using the GenScript cPass surrogate virus neutralisation test, following validation against a Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test. T-cell reactivity was assessed with the Roche SARS-CoV-2 IFNγ release assay. Primary vaccination (2 doses) was well tolerated and elicited measurable anti-spike antibodies in 202/206 (98.0%) participants. Anti-spike titres varied widely, influenced by previous SARS-CoV-2 exposure, ethnicity, intravenous drug use, CD4 counts and HIV viremia as independent predictors. A third vaccine dose significantly boosted anti-spike and neutralising responses, reducing variability. Anti-spike titres > 15 U/mL correlated with neutralising activity in 136/144 paired samples (94.4%). Three participants with detectable anti-S antibodies did not develop cPass neutralising responses post-third dose, yet displayed SARS-CoV-2 specific IFNγ responses. SARS-CoV-2 vaccination is well-tolerated and immunogenic in adults with HIV, with responses improving post-third dose. Anti-spike antibodies serve as a reliable indicator of neutralising activity. Discordances between anti-spike and neutralising responses were accompanied by detectable IFN-γ responses, underlining the complexity of the immune response in this population.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecções por HIV , Aranhas , Adulto , Animais , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacina BNT162 , Vacinas contra COVID-19/efeitos adversos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Imunoensaio , Anticorpos , Vacinação , Anticorpos Antivirais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes
4.
J Transl Med ; 22(1): 338, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594692

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: SIRPB1 expression is upregulated in various tumor types, including gliomas, and is known to contribute to tumor progression; nevertheless, its function in the immune milieu of gliomas is still mainly unknown. METHODS: This study, we analyzed 1152 normal samples from the GTEx database and 670 glioma samples from the TCGA database to investigate the relationship between the expression of SIRPB1 and clinicopathological features. Moreover, SIRPB1 gene knockout THP-1 cell lines were constructed using CRISPR/Cas9 and were induced into a co-culture of macrophages and glioma cells in vitro to learn more about the role of SIRPB1 in the glioma immune milieu. Lastly, we established a prognostic model to predict the effect of SIRPB1 on prognosis. RESULTS: Significantly higher levels of SIRPB1 expression were found in gliomas, which had an adverse effect on the immune milieu and correlated poorly with patient survival. SIRPB1 activation with certain antibodies results in SYK phosphorylation and the subsequent activation of calcium, MAPK, and NF-κB signaling pathways. This phenomenon is primarily observed in myeloid-derived cells as opposed to glioma cells. In vitro co-culture demonstrated that macrophages with SIRPB1 knockout showed decreased IL1RA, CCL2, and IL-8, which were recovered upon ectopic expression of SIRPB1 but reduced again following treatment with SYK inhibitor GS9973. Critically, a lower overall survival rate was linked to increased SIRPB1 expression. Making use of SIRPB1 expression along with additional clinicopathological variables, we established a nomogram that showed a high degree of prediction accuracy. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates that glioma cells can be activated by macrophages via SIRPB1, subsequently reprogramming the TME, suggesting that SIRPB1 could serve as a promising therapeutic target for gliomas.


Assuntos
Anticorpos , Glioma , Humanos , Cálcio , Técnicas de Cocultura , Biologia Computacional , Glioma/genética , Microambiente Tumoral , Quinase Syk/genética
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(15): e2317222121, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38557175

RESUMO

Antigenic drift of SARS-CoV-2 is typically defined by mutations in the N-terminal domain and receptor binding domain of spike protein. In contrast, whether antigenic drift occurs in the S2 domain remains largely elusive. Here, we perform a deep mutational scanning experiment to identify S2 mutations that affect binding of SARS-CoV-2 spike to three S2 apex public antibodies. Our results indicate that spatially diverse mutations, including D950N and Q954H, which are observed in Delta and Omicron variants, respectively, weaken the binding of spike to these antibodies. Although S2 apex antibodies are known to be nonneutralizing, we show that they confer protection in vivo through Fc-mediated effector functions. Overall, this study indicates that the S2 domain of SARS-CoV-2 spike can undergo antigenic drift, which represents a potential challenge for the development of more universal coronavirus vaccines.


Assuntos
Deriva e Deslocamento Antigênicos , COVID-19 , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Anticorpos , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Anticorpos Antivirais
6.
Molecules ; 29(7)2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38611741

RESUMO

We reported a highly efficient electrochemical immunosensor utilizing chitosan-graphene nanosheets (CS-GNs) nanocomposites for the detection of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in corn samples. The CS-GNs nanocomposites, serving as a modifying layer, provide a significant specific surface area and biocompatibility, thereby enhancing both the electron transfer rate and the efficiency of antibody immobilization. The electrochemical characterization was conducted utilizing both differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Moreover, the antibody concentration, pH, antibody immobilization time, and immunoreaction time, were optimized. The results showed that the current change (ΔI) before and after the immunoreaction demonstrated a strong linear relationship (R2=0.990) with the AFB1 concentration, as well as good specificity and stability. The linear range extended from 0.05 to 25 ng/mL, with a detection limit of 0.021 ng/mL (S/N=3). The immunosensor exhibited a recovery rate ranging from 97.3% to 101.4% in corn samples, showing a promising performance using an efficient method, and indicating a remarkable prospect for the detection of fungal toxins in grains.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Quitosana , Grafite , Zea mays , Aflatoxina B1 , Imunoensaio , Anticorpos
7.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0300513, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38598469

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Numerous observational studies have investigated on the correlation of whole, semi-skimmed, and skimmed milk with coronary artery disease (CAD) and myocardial infarction (MI) risk; However, no consensus has been reached and evidence on any causal links between these exposures and outcomes remains unclear. This study aimed to conduct univariate and multivariate Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses, using publicly released genome-wide association study summary statistics (GWAS) from the IEU GWAS database, to ascertain the causal association of milk with various fat content with CAD and MI risk. METHODS: For the exposure data, 29, 15, and 30 single-nucleotide polymorphisms for whole milk, semi-skimmed milk, and skimmed milk, respectively, obtained from 360,806 Europeans, were used as instrumental variables. CAD and MI comprised 141,217 and 395,795 samples, respectively. We used inverse variance weighted (IVW), weighted median, MR-Egger regression, and MR Pleiotropy Residual Sum and Outlier analyses to determine whether pleiotropy and heterogeneity could skew the MR results. Sensitivity tests were conducted to verify the robustness of the results. RESULTS: After adjusting for false discovery rates (FDR), we discovered proof that skimmed milk intake is a genetically predicted risk factor for CAD (odds ratio [OR] = 5.302; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.261-12.432; P < 0.001; FDR-corrected P < 0.001) and MI (OR = 2.287; 95% CI 1.218-4.300; P = 0.010; FDR-corrected P = 0.009). Most sensitivity assessments yielded valid results. Multivariable MR for CAD and MI produced results consistent with those obtained using the IVW method. There was no causal relationship between whole or semi-skimmed milk, and CAD or MI. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that the consumption of skimmed milk may increase the risk of CAD and MI. This evidence may help inform dietary recommendations for preventing cardiovascular disease. Further studies are required to elucidate the underlying mechanisms.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Grupos Sanguíneos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Infarto do Miocárdio , Humanos , Animais , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Leite , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/genética , Anticorpos
8.
Cell Death Dis ; 15(4): 265, 2024 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38615022

RESUMO

Antigen-specific T cell receptor-engineered T cell (TCR-T) based immunotherapy has proven to be an effective method to combat cancer. In recent years, cross-talk between the innate and adaptive immune systems may be requisite to optimize sustained antigen-specific immunity, and the stimulator of interferon genes (STING) is a promising therapeutic target for cancer immunotherapy. The level of expression or presentation of antigen in tumor cells affects the recognition and killing of tumor cells by TCR-T. This study aimed at investigating the potential of innate immune stimulation of T cells and engineered T cells to enhance immunotherapy for low-expression antigen cancer cells. We systematically investigated the function and mechanism of cross-talk between STING agonist diABZI and adaptive immune systems. We established NY-ESO-1 full knockout Mel526 cells for this research and found that diABZI activated STING media and TCR signaling pathways. In addition, the results of flow cytometry showed that antigens presentation from cancer cells induced by STING agonist diABZI also improved the affinity of TCR-T cells function against tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. Our findings revealed that diABZI enhanced the immunotherapy efficacy of TCR-T by activating STING media and TCR signaling pathways, improving interferon-γ expression, and increasing antigens presentation of tumor cells. This indicates that STING agonist could be used as a strategy to promote TCR-T cancer immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Linfócitos T , Apresentação de Antígeno , Anticorpos , Citometria de Fluxo , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T , Neoplasias/terapia
9.
CNS Neurosci Ther ; 30(4): e14712, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38615364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The specific non-motor symptoms associated with α-synucleinopathies, including orthostatic hypotension (OH), cognitive impairment, and emotional abnormalities, have been a subject of ongoing controversy over the mechanisms underlying the development of a vicious cycle among them. The distinct structural alterations in white matter (WM) in patients with α-synucleinopathies experiencing OH, alongside their association with other non-motor symptoms, remain unexplored. This study employs axial diffusivity and density imaging (NODDI) to investigate WM damage specific to α-synucleinopathies with concurrent OH, delivering fresh evidence to supplement our understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms and pathological rationales behind the occurrence of a spectrum of non-motor functional impairments in α-synucleinopathies. METHODS: This study recruited 49 individuals diagnosed with α-synucleinopathies, stratified into an α-OH group (n = 24) and an α-NOH group (without OH, n = 25). Additionally, 17 healthy controls were included for supine and standing blood pressure data collection, as well as neuropsychological assessments. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was utilized for the calculation of NODDI parameters, and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) were employed to explore differential clusters. The fibers covered by these clusters were defined as regions of interest (ROI) for the extraction of NODDI parameter values and the analysis of their correlation with neuropsychological scores. RESULTS: The TBSS analysis unveiled specific cerebral regions exhibiting disparities within the α-OH group as compared to both the α-NOH group and the healthy controls. These differences were evident in clusters that indicated a decrease in the acquisition of the neurite density index (NDI), a reduction in the orientation dispersion index (ODI), and an increase in the isotropic volume fraction (FISO) (p < 0.05). The extracted values from these ROIs demonstrated significant correlations with clinically assessed differences in supine and standing blood pressure, overall cognitive scores, and anxiety-depression ratings (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Patients with α-synucleinopathies experiencing OH exhibit distinctive patterns of microstructural damage in the WM as revealed by the NODDI model, and there is a correlation with the onset and progression of non-motor functional impairments.


Assuntos
Hipotensão Ortostática , Sinucleinopatias , Substância Branca , Humanos , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipotensão Ortostática/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo , Depressão , Anticorpos
10.
Elife ; 132024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38619110

RESUMO

A productive HIV-1 infection in humans is often established by transmission and propagation of a single transmitted/founder (T/F) virus, which then evolves into a complex mixture of variants during the lifetime of infection. An effective HIV-1 vaccine should elicit broad immune responses in order to block the entry of diverse T/F viruses. Currently, no such vaccine exists. An in-depth study of escape variants emerging under host immune pressure during very early stages of infection might provide insights into such a HIV-1 vaccine design. Here, in a rare longitudinal study involving HIV-1 infected individuals just days after infection in the absence of antiretroviral therapy, we discovered a remarkable genetic shift that resulted in near complete disappearance of the original T/F virus and appearance of a variant with H173Y mutation in the variable V2 domain of the HIV-1 envelope protein. This coincided with the disappearance of the first wave of strictly H173-specific antibodies and emergence of a second wave of Y173-specific antibodies with increased breadth. Structural analyses indicated conformational dynamism of the envelope protein which likely allowed selection of escape variants with a conformational switch in the V2 domain from an α-helix (H173) to a ß-strand (Y173) and induction of broadly reactive antibody responses. This differential breadth due to a single mutational change was also recapitulated in a mouse model. Rationally designed combinatorial libraries containing 54 conformational variants of V2 domain around position 173 further demonstrated increased breadth of antibody responses elicited to diverse HIV-1 envelope proteins. These results offer new insights into designing broadly effective HIV-1 vaccines.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra a AIDS , Dermatite , HIV-1 , Animais , Camundongos , Humanos , HIV-1/genética , Formação de Anticorpos , Estudos Longitudinais , Vacinas contra a AIDS/genética , Anticorpos , Antígenos Virais
11.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 14: 1282183, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38567021

RESUMO

Obligate intracellular bacteria have remained those for which effective vaccines are unavailable, mostly because protection does not solely rely on an antibody response. Effective antibody-based vaccines, however, have been developed against extracellular bacteria pathogens or toxins. Additionally, obligate intracellular bacteria have evolved many mechanisms to subvert the immune response, making vaccine development complex. Much of what we know about protective immunity for these pathogens has been determined using infection-resolved cases and animal models that mimic disease. These studies have laid the groundwork for antigen discovery, which, combined with recent advances in vaccinology, should allow for the development of safe and efficacious vaccines. Successful vaccines against obligate intracellular bacteria should elicit potent T cell memory responses, in addition to humoral responses. Furthermore, they ought to be designed to specifically induce strong cytotoxic CD8+ T cell responses for protective immunity. This review will describe what we know about the potentially protective immune responses to this group of bacteria. Additionally, we will argue that the novel delivery platforms used during the Sars-CoV-2 pandemic should be excellent candidates to produce protective immunity once antigens are discovered. We will then look more specifically into the vaccine development for Rickettsiaceae, Coxiella burnetti, and Anaplasmataceae from infancy until today. We have not included Chlamydia trachomatis in this review because of the many vaccine related reviews that have been written in recent years.


Assuntos
Vacinas Bacterianas , Chlamydia trachomatis , Animais , Anticorpos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Formação de Anticorpos
12.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 18: 1083-1101, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38585254

RESUMO

The clinical use of agalsidase alfa as enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) for Fabry disease (FD) has spread since 2001, and a large body of evidence of its effectiveness has been collected. This review presents the clinical and laboratory results achieved with agalsidase alfa, which has been published in the literature. Agalsidase alfa infusion slows down or stops the progression of renal damage, expressed by reduction or stabilization of the annual decline of the glomerular filtration rate; yearly decrease of glomerular filtration rate (slope) sometimes is reduced until its stabilization. ERT prevents or reduces the occurrence of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or slows the increase over time if it is already present. Moreover, regarding neurological manifestations, ERT improves neuropathic pain and quality of life, and recent data indicated that it may also prevent the burden of cerebrovascular disease. In addition to ERT's clinical benefits, crucial topics like the most appropriate time to start therapy and the role of anti-drug antibodies (ADA) are analyzed. Treatment with agalsidase alfa in patients with FD substantially improves their outcomes and enhances their quality of life in patients with FD.


Assuntos
Doença de Fabry , Isoenzimas , Humanos , Doença de Fabry/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia de Reposição de Enzimas/métodos , Qualidade de Vida , Resultado do Tratamento , alfa-Galactosidase/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico
13.
Sci Transl Med ; 16(741): eadj9052, 2024 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38569016

RESUMO

Microglia help limit the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) by constraining amyloid-ß (Aß) pathology, effected through a balance of activating and inhibitory intracellular signals delivered by distinct cell surface receptors. Human leukocyte Ig-like receptor B4 (LILRB4) is an inhibitory receptor of the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily that is expressed on myeloid cells and recognizes apolipoprotein E (ApoE) among other ligands. Here, we find that LILRB4 is highly expressed in the microglia of patients with AD. Using mice that accumulate Aß and carry a transgene encompassing a portion of the LILR region that includes LILRB4, we corroborated abundant LILRB4 expression in microglia wrapping around Aß plaques. Systemic treatment of these mice with an anti-human LILRB4 monoclonal antibody (mAb) reduced Aß load, mitigated some Aß-related behavioral abnormalities, enhanced microglia activity, and attenuated expression of interferon-induced genes. In vitro binding experiments established that human LILRB4 binds both human and mouse ApoE and that anti-human LILRB4 mAb blocks such interaction. In silico modeling, biochemical, and mutagenesis analyses identified a loop between the two extracellular Ig domains of LILRB4 required for interaction with mouse ApoE and further indicated that anti-LILRB4 mAb may block LILRB4-mApoE by directly binding this loop. Thus, targeting LILRB4 may be a potential therapeutic avenue for AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Microglia , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Microglia/metabolismo , Anticorpos/metabolismo , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Amiloide/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Apolipoproteínas E , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Camundongos Transgênicos , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Receptores Imunológicos/metabolismo
14.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0292566, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38564600

RESUMO

Post vaccine immunity following COVID-19 mRNA vaccination may be driven by extrinsic, or controllable and intrinsic, or inherent health factors. Thus, we investigated the effects of extrinsic and intrinsic on the peak antibody response following COVID-19 primary vaccination and on the trajectory of peak antibody magnitude and durability over time. Participants in a longitudinal cohort attended visits every 3 months for up to 2 years following enrollment. At baseline, participants provided information on their demographics, recreational behaviors, and comorbid health conditions which guided our model selection process. Blood samples were collected for serum processing and spike antibody testing at each visit. Cross-sectional and longitudinal models (linear-mixed effects models) were generated to assess the relationship between selected intrinsic and extrinsic health factors on peak antibody following vaccination and to determine the influence of these predictors on antibody over time. Following cross-sectional analysis, we observed higher peak antibody titers after primary vaccination in females, those who reported recreational drug use, younger age, and prior COVID-19 history. Following booster vaccination, females and Hispanics had higher peak titers after the 3rd and 4th doses, respectively. Longitudinal models demonstrated that Moderna mRNA-1273 recipients, females, and those previously vaccinated had increased peak titers over time. Moreover, drug users and half-dose Moderna mRNA-1273 recipients had higher peak antibody titers over time following the first booster, while no predictive factors significantly affected post-second booster antibody responses. Overall, both intrinsic and extrinsic health factors play a significant role in shaping humoral immunogenicity after initial vaccination and the first booster. The absence of predictive factors for second booster immunogenicity suggests a more robust and consistent immune response after the second booster vaccine administration.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Feminino , Humanos , Formação de Anticorpos , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacina de mRNA-1273 contra 2019-nCoV , Estudos Transversais , Anticorpos , Vacinação , Anticorpos Antivirais
15.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0299600, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38564628

RESUMO

Serum electrophoresis (SPEP) is a method used to analyze the distribution of the most important proteins in the blood. The major clinical question is the presence of monoclonal fraction(s) of antibodies (M-protein/paraprotein), which is essential for the diagnosis and follow-up of hematological diseases, such as multiple myeloma. Recent studies have shown that machine learning can be used to assess protein electrophoresis by, for example, examining protein glycan patterns to follow up tumor surgery. In this study we compared 26 different decision tree algorithms to identify the presence of M-proteins in human serum by using numerical data from serum protein capillary electrophoresis. For the automated detection and clustering of data, we used an anonymized data set consisting of 67,073 samples. We found five methods with superior ability to detect M-proteins: Extra Trees (ET), Random Forest (RF), Histogram Grading Boosting Regressor (HGBR), Light Gradient Boosting Method (LGBM), and Extreme Gradient Boosting (XGB). Additionally, we implemented a game theoretic approach to disclose which features in the data set that were indicative of the resulting M-protein diagnosis. The results verified the gamma globulin fraction and part of the beta globulin fraction as the most important features of the electrophoresis analysis, thereby further strengthening the reliability of our approach. Finally, we tested the algorithms for classifying the M-protein isotypes, where ET and XGB showed the best performance out of the five algorithms tested. Our results show that serum capillary electrophoresis combined with decision tree algorithms have great potential in the application of rapid and accurate identification of M-proteins. Moreover, these methods would be applicable for a variety of blood analyses, such as hemoglobinopathies, indicating a wide-range diagnostic use. However, for M-protein isotype classification, combining machine learning solutions for numerical data from capillary electrophoresis with gel electrophoresis image data would be most advantageous.


Assuntos
Anticorpos , Mieloma Múltiplo , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Mieloma Múltiplo/diagnóstico , Eletroforese Capilar , Algoritmos , Isotipos de Imunoglobulinas , Aprendizado de Máquina
16.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 25(1): 257, 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38566087

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A few patients with inflammatory myopathy showed anti-mitochondrial antibody (AMA) positivity. This study aimed to report the clinical and pathological findings with vacuoles in 3 cases of such patients. METHODS: Three cases with myositis from the Myositis Clinical Database of Peking University First Hospital were identified with AMA positivity. Their clinical records were retrospectively reviewed and the data was extracted. All the 3 cases underwent muscle biopsy. RESULTS: Three middle-aged patients presented with chronic-onset weakness of proximal limbs, marked elevation of creatine kinase, and AMA-positivity. Two of the 3 cases meet the criteria of primary biliary cholangitis. All the 3 cases presented with cardiac involvement and proteinuria. Two cases developed type 2 respiratory failure. MRI of the thigh muscle showed multiple patches of edema bilaterally in both cases, mostly in the adductor magnus. Pathological findings include degeneration of muscle fibers, diffused MHC-I positivity, and complement deposits on cell membranes. Vacuoles without rims of different sizes were discovered under the membrane of the muscle fibers. A few RBFs were discovered in case 1, while a diffused proliferation of endomysium and perimysium was shown in case 2. CONCLUSIONS: AMA-positive inflammatory myopathy is a disease that could affect multiple systems. Apart from inflammatory changes, the pathological findings of muscle can also present vacuoles.


Assuntos
Doenças Musculares , Miosite , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Humanos , Vacúolos/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Miosite/complicações , Miosite/diagnóstico por imagem , Miosite/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Musculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Musculares/patologia , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Anticorpos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Autoanticorpos
17.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 20(1): 2336358, 2024 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38567485

RESUMO

Like the other invasive encapsulated bacteria, Streptococcus pneumoniae is also covered with a polysaccharide structure. Infants and elderly are most vulnerable to the invasive and noninvasive diseases caused by S. pneumoniae. Although antibodies against polysaccharide capsule are efficient in eliminating S. pneumoniae, the T cell independent nature of the immune response against polysaccharide vaccines renders them weakly antigenic. The introduction of protein conjugated capsular polysaccharide vaccines helped overcome the weak immunogenicity of pneumococcal polysaccharides and decreased the incidence of pneumococcal diseases, especially in pediatric population. Conjugate vaccines elicit T cell dependent response which involve the interaction of specialized CD4+ T cells, called follicular helper T cells (Tfh) with germinal center B cells in secondary lymphoid organs. Despite their improved immunogenicity, conjugate vaccines still need to be administered three to four times in infants during the first 15 month of their life because they mount poor Tfh response. Recent studies revealed fundamental differences in the generation of Tfh cells between neonates and adults. As the portfolio of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines continues to increase, better understanding of the mechanisms of antibody development in different age groups will help in the development of pneumococcal vaccines tailored for different ages.


Assuntos
Infecções Pneumocócicas , Vacinas Pneumocócicas , Lactente , Adulto , Recém-Nascido , Criança , Humanos , Idoso , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Infecções Pneumocócicas/microbiologia , Vacinas Conjugadas , Anticorpos , Polissacarídeos , Anticorpos Antibacterianos
18.
Mikrochim Acta ; 191(5): 238, 2024 04 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570401

RESUMO

Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is a powerful method for detecting breast cancer-specific biomarkers due to its extraordinary enhancement effects obtained by localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in metallic nanostructures at hotspots. In this research, gold nanostars (AuNSs) were used as SERS probes to detect a cancer biomarker at very low concentrations. To this end, we combined molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) as a detection layer with SERS for the detection of the biomarker CA 15-3 in point-of-care (PoC) analysis. This required two main steps: (i) the deposition of MIPs on a gold electrode, followed by a second step (ii) antibody binding with AuNSs containing a suitable Raman reporter to enhance Raman signaling (SERS). The MPan sensor was prepared by electropolymerization of the monomer aniline in the presence of CA 15-3. The template molecule was then extracted from the polymer using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). In parallel, a control material was prepared in the absence of the protein (NPan). Surface modification for the control was performed using electrochemical techniques such as cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The performance of the sensor was evaluated using the SERS technique, in which the MPan sensor is first incubated with the protein and then exposed to the SERS probe. Under optimized conditions, the device showed a linear response to CA 15-3 concentrations from 0.016 to 248.51 U mL-1 in a PBS buffer at pH 7.4 in 1000-fold diluted serum. Overall, this approach demonstrates the potential of SERS as an optical reader and opens a new avenue for biosensing applications.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Impressão Molecular , Neoplasias , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Impressão Molecular/métodos , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Anticorpos , Ouro/química
19.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1285278, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38562934

RESUMO

Background: Characterizing the antibody epitope profiles of messenger RNA (mRNA)-based vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 can aid in elucidating the mechanisms underlying the antibody-mediated immune responses elicited by these vaccines. Methods: This study investigated the distinct antibody epitopes toward the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein targeted after a two-dose primary series of mRNA-1273 followed by a booster dose of mRNA-1273 or a variant-updated vaccine among serum samples from clinical trial adult participants. Results: Multiple S-specific epitopes were targeted after primary vaccination; while signal decreased over time, a booster dose after >6 months largely revived waning antibody signals. Epitope identity also changed after booster vaccination in some subjects, with four new S-specific epitopes detected with stronger signals after boosting than with primary vaccination. Notably, the strength of antibody responses after booster vaccination differed by the exact vaccine formulation, with variant-updated mRNA-1273.211 and mRNA-1273.617.2 booster formulations inducing significantly stronger S-specific signals than a mRNA-1273 booster. Conclusion: Overall, these results identify key S-specific epitopes targeted by antibodies induced by mRNA-1273 primary and variant-updated booster vaccination.


Assuntos
Vacina de mRNA-1273 contra 2019-nCoV , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Adulto , Humanos , Anticorpos , Vacinação , Epitopos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinas de mRNA
20.
Stat Appl Genet Mol Biol ; 23(1)2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38563699

RESUMO

Simulation frameworks are useful to stress-test predictive models when data is scarce, or to assert model sensitivity to specific data distributions. Such frameworks often need to recapitulate several layers of data complexity, including emergent properties that arise implicitly from the interaction between simulation components. Antibody-antigen binding is a complex mechanism by which an antibody sequence wraps itself around an antigen with high affinity. In this study, we use a synthetic simulation framework for antibody-antigen folding and binding on a 3D lattice that include full details on the spatial conformation of both molecules. We investigate how emergent properties arise in this framework, in particular the physical proximity of amino acids, their presence on the binding interface, or the binding status of a sequence, and relate that to the individual and pairwise contributions of amino acids in statistical models for binding prediction. We show that weights learnt from a simple logistic regression model align with some but not all features of amino acids involved in the binding, and that predictive sequence binding patterns can be enriched. In particular, main effects correlated with the capacity of a sequence to bind any antigen, while statistical interactions were related to sequence specificity.


Assuntos
Anticorpos , Antifibrinolíticos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Vacinas Sintéticas , Aminoácidos
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