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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253696, 2024. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355862

RESUMO

Abstract Transplanting time and genotype contribute to improving crop yield and quality of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.). A field experiment was conducted to investigate the impact of foliar applied of triacontanol (TRIA) and eggplant genotypes 25919, Nirala, 28389 and Pak-10927,transplanted on 1 March,15 March, and 1 April on exposure to high air temperature conditions. The experiment was performed according to Randomized Complete Block Design and the data was analyzed by using Tuckey,s test . The TRIA was applied at 10µM at flowering stage; distilled water was used as the control. Rate of photosynthesis and transpiration, stomatal conductance, water use efficiency, and effects on antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase) were evaluated. The 10µM TRIA increased photosynthesis rate and water use efficiency and yield was improved in all genotypes transplanted at the different dates. Foliar application of 10µM TRIA increased antioxidative enzyme activities (SOD, POD & CAT) and improved physiological as well as biochemical attributes of eggplant genotypes exposed to high heat conditions. Highest activity of dismutase enzyme 5.41mg/1g FW was recorded in Nirala genotype in second transplantation. Whereas, lowest was noted in PAK-10927 (2.30mg/g FW). Maximum fruit yield was found in accession 25919 (1.725kg per plant) at 1st transplantation with Triacontanol, whereas accession PAK-10927 gave the lowest yield (0.285 kg per plant) at control treatment on 3rd transplantation. Genotype, transplanting date and application of TRIA improved growth, yield and quality attributes under of heat stress in eggplant.


Resumo O tempo de transplante e o genótipo contribuem para melhorar a produtividade e a qualidade da cultura da berinjela (Solanum melongena L.). Um experimento de campo foi conduzido para investigar o impacto da aplicação foliar de triacontanol (TRIA) e genótipos de berinjela 25919, Nirala, 28389 e Pak-10927, transplantados em 1 de março, 15 de março e 1 de abril de exposição a condições de alta temperatura do ar. O experimento foi realizado de acordo com o Randomized Complete Block Design e os dados foram analisados pelo teste de Tuckey. O TRIA foi aplicado a 10 µM na fase de floração; água destilada foi utilizada como controle. Taxa de fotossíntese e transpiração, condutância estomática, eficiência do uso da água e efeitos sobre as enzimas antioxidantes (superóxido dismutase, catalase e peroxidase) foram avaliados. O TRIA 10 µM aumentou a taxa de fotossíntese e a eficiência do uso da água e o rendimento foi melhorado em todos os genótipos transplantados nas diferentes datas. A aplicação foliar de TRIA 10µM aumentou as atividades das enzimas antioxidantes (SOD, POD e CAT) e melhorou os atributos fisiológicos e bioquímicos de genótipos de berinjela expostos a condições de alto calor. A atividade mais elevada da enzima dismutase 5,41mg / 1g FW foi registrada no genótipo Nirala no segundo transplante. Considerando que o mais baixo foi observado em PAK-10927 (2,30 mg / g FW). A produtividade máxima de frutos foi encontrada no acesso 25919 (1,725 ​​kg por planta) no 1º transplante com Triacontanol, enquanto o acesso PAK-10927 deu a menor produção (0,285 kg por planta) no tratamento de controle no 3º transplante. Genótipo, data de transplante e aplicação de TRIA, melhoramento do crescimento, rendimento e atributos de qualidade sob estresse térmico em berinjela.


Assuntos
Solanum melongena/genética , Solanum melongena/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Álcoois Graxos , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia
2.
Food Chem ; 399: 133946, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35998491

RESUMO

Genotype, growth stages, and moisture regimes affect polyphenols as beneficial compounds in rapeseed with edible and medicinal properties. The aims of this study were to assess the effects of tissue, genotype background and moisture on growth, pigment composition, phenolic acids, flavonoids, antioxidant, and antiglycation activities in rapeseed. Treatments included two moisture regimes (10% field capacity as drought-treated and 30% field capacity as control), tissue (leaf, flower and seed), and 12 rapeseed genotypes. The range of loss in growth traits under drought compared with control was between 23% and 47%. Drought reduced number of leaves, leaf area, fresh and dry weights by 23%, 31%, 37%, and 36%, respectively whilst increased chlorophylls, carotenoids, total pigment, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and antioxidant activities. Analysis for antiglycation properties in two genotypes (G01 and G08) which accumulated higher phenolic compounds showed that higher antiglycation property was associated with higher epicatechin, and caffeic, and syringic acids. Flower extracts showed higher phenolics than leaf and seed suggesting flowering stage is a preferred timing to harvest a higher polyphenols from rapeseed. Overall, our results demonstrated role of specific polyphenols in antiglycation activities and the importance of growth stage and genotype in attaining higher polyphenols and antioxidants that affect edible and medicinal values of rapeseed under water limited conditions.


Assuntos
Brassica napus , Brassica rapa , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Brassica napus/genética , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis/farmacologia
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247190, 2023. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345532

RESUMO

Abstract The present study was aimed to evaluate the antioxidant potential and inhibitory effect ofCannabis sativa and Morus nigra against lipid peroxidation in goat brain and liver homogenates. The formation of free radicals, highly reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) is a normal metabolic process for cellular signaling and countering the antigens. However, they may cause serious damage if they produced at amplified tolls. In addition, metabolic disorders also serve as sources of these reactive species. Although the issue can be addressed through supplements and other phytochemicals. In this study, two plant species were evaluated for their biological potential by employing a spectrum of antioxidant assays. The antioxidant activity was performed by lipid peroxidation assay. The water extract prepared from leaves of Cannabis sativa and Morus nigra showed significant (P<0.05) inhibition as compared to control i.e., 522.6±0.06 and 659.97±0.03 µg/mL against iron-induced lipid peroxidation in goat brain homogenate while the inhibitions were 273.54±0.04 and 309.18±0.05 µg/mL against nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation of the brain. The iron and nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation was also significantly inhibited by leaf extracts of Cannabis sativa and Morus nigra in liver homogenates such as 230.63±0.52 and 326.91±0.01 µg/mL (iron-induced) while 300.47±0.07 and 300.47±0.07 µg/mL (nitroprusside induced), respectively. The extracts of Cannabis sativa extract showed promising activity (96.04±0.060%) against DPPH radicals while Morus nigra showed a moderate activity (34.11±0.120%). The results suggest that different accessions ofCannabis sativa and Morus nigra are a potential source of antioxidants and have a therapeutic effect against disease induced by oxidative stress and hence can be used for novel drug discovery and development.


Resumo O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o potencial antioxidante e o efeito inibitório de Cannabis sativa e Morus nigra contra a peroxidação lipídica em homogenatos de cérebro e fígado de cabras. A formação de radicais livres, espécies altamente reativas de oxigênio (ROS) e espécies reativas de nitrogênio (RNS), é um processo metabólico normal para sinalização celular e combate aos antígenos. No entanto, eles podem causar sérios danos se forem produzidos em portagens ampliadas. Além disso, distúrbios metabólicos também servem como fontes dessas espécies reativas, embora o problema possa ser resolvido por meio de suplementos e outros fitoquímicos. Neste estudo, duas espécies de plantas foram avaliadas quanto ao seu potencial biológico, empregando um espectro de ensaios antioxidantes. A atividade antioxidante foi realizada por ensaio de peroxidação lipídica. O extrato de água preparado a partir de folhas de Cannabis sativa e Morus nigra mostrou inibição significativa (P < 0,05) em comparação com o controle, ou seja, 522,6 ± 0,06 e 659,97 ± 0,03 µg / mL contra peroxidação lipídica induzida por ferro em homogenato de cérebro de cabra, enquanto as inibições foram 273,54 ± 0,04 e 309,18 ± 0,05 µg / mL contra a peroxidação lipídica do cérebro induzida por nitroprussiato. A peroxidação lipídica induzida por ferro e nitroprussiato também foi significativamente inibida por extratos de folhas de Cannabis sativa e Morus nigra em homogenatos de fígado, como 230,63 ± 0,52 e 326,91 ± 0,01 µg / mL (induzida por ferro), enquanto 300,47 ± 0,07 e 300,47 ± 0,07 µg / mL (induzida por nitroprussiato), respectivamente. Os extratos do extrato de Cannabis sativa apresentaram atividade promissora (96,04 ± 0,060%) contra os radicais DPPH enquanto Morus nigra apresentou atividade moderada (34,11 ± 0,120%). Os resultados sugerem que diferentes acessos de Cannabis sativa e Morus nigra são uma fonte potencial de antioxidantes e têm efeito terapêutico contra doenças induzidas por estresse oxidativo e, portanto, podem ser usados ​​para a descoberta e desenvolvimento de novos medicamentos.


Assuntos
Animais , Cannabis , Morus , Encéfalo , Cabras , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Fígado , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e236649, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339379

RESUMO

Abstract Croton argyrophylloides Muell. Arg., from the Euphorbiaceae family, popularly known as marmeleiro prateado or sacatinga, is a plant from the Caatinga biome commonly found in Brazil's northeastern region. The present study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the species. The phytochemical study was performed through qualitative analysis of chemical constituents and quantitative determination of the total phenol content through the Folin-Ciocalteu test. The qualitative and quantitative antioxidant tests were performed using the DPPH method (2.2 diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazil) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by microdilution in 96-well plates. The ethanolic extract of the leaves of C. argyrophylloides manifested antioxidant action in the quantitative DPPH test with a significant bioactivity of 84.70 AAO% in 500 µg/mL, with an EC50 of 236.79. The content of total phenolic compounds was 946.06 mg of gallic acid equivalents/g of sample, and total flavonoids was 58.11 mg of quercetin equivalents/g of sample, the result obtained for FRAP was 15294.44 µM Trolox/g of sample and ABTS was 718 μM Trolox of sample. The prospecting of the chemical constituents of the leaves of C. argyrophylloides revealed the presence of the main compounds that manifests the antioxidant activity and it was proven by the DPPH method that there is antioxidant activity in the analyzed sample, in addition to demonstrating a significant content of phenolic compounds and total flavonoid content in the species, which corroborates the antioxidant activity of the plant sample. The leaf extracts presented growth inhibition halos of 10 and 12 mm upon Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923.


Resumo Croton argyrophylloides Muell. Arg., pertencente à família Euphorbiaceae, conhecida popularmente como marmeleiro prateado e sacatinga, é um vegetal do bioma caatinga comumente encontrado no Nordeste do Brasil. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a atividade antioxidante da espécie. O estudo fitoquímico foi realizado por meio de análise qualitativa dos constituintes químicos e determinação quantitativa do teor de fenóis totais pelo teste de Folin-Ciocalteu. Os testes antioxidantes qualitativos e quantitativos foram realizados pelo método do DPPH (2,2 difenil-1- picril-hidrazila) e redução do ferro (FRAP). A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) foi determinada por microdiluição em placas de 96 poços. O extrato etanólico das folhas de C. argyrophylloides apresentou ação antioxidante no teste DPPH quantitativo com uma significativa bioatividade de 84.70 AAO% em 500 µg/mL, apresentando um CE50 de 236.79. O teor de compostos fenólicos totais, foi de 946,06 mg equivalentes de ácido gálico/g de amostra, e de flavonoides totais de 58,11 mg equivalentes de quercetina/g da amostra, o valor encontrado para FRAP foi de 15294,44 µM Trolox/g da amostra e de ABTS foi 718 μM Trolox da amostra. A prospecção dos constituintes químicos das folhas de C. argyrophylloides revelou a presença dos principais compostos que caracterizam a atividade antioxidante e foi possível comprovar pelo método de DPPH que há atividade antioxidante na amostra analisada, além de demonstrar um resultado significativo de teor de compostos fenólicos e teor de flavonoides totais na espécie e o que corrobora com a atividade antioxidante da amostra vegetal. Os extratos das folhas apresentaram halos de inibição de crescimento de 10 e 12mm frente a Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923.


Assuntos
Euphorbiaceae , Croton , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246312, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339357

RESUMO

Abstract The antioxidant, photoprotective and antinociceptive Marcetia macrophylla active extract was investigated as an active ingredient in a sunscreen cream formulation. Thus, the M. macrophylla extract showed IC50 of 3.43 mg/ml of the antioxidant (DPPH∙ scavenging test) and Sun Protection Factor of 20.25 (SPF/UV-B, at 250 µg/ml) and UV-A of 78.09% (photobleaching trans-resveratrol test). The antinociceptive activity was superior to all standards tested using the in vivo acetic acid-induced writhing test (99.14% at the dose of 200 mg/kg) and the high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector and mass spectroscopy multi-stage (HPLC-DAD-MS/MS) enabled the structural characterization of the quercetin-3-O-hexoside, quercetin-3-O-pentoside and quercetin-3-O-desoxihexoside. The pharmaceutical formulation containing the Marcetia macrophylla crude active extract was prepared and the physicochemical tests (organoleptic characteristics, pH analysis and centrifugation), the in vitro UVB (sun protection factor, SPF) and UVA (β-carotene) using the spectroscopic method were investigated. The formulation showed satisfactory results concerning the physicochemical parameters evaluated and active against the UV test. Thus, M. macrophylla showed biological activities with potential use in pharmaceutical preparations.


Resumo O extrato bruto de Marcetia macrophylla mostrou atividade antioxidante, fotoprotetora e antinociceptiva, sendo em seguida investigado como ingrediente ativo em uma formulação fotoprotetora. Assim, o extrato de M. macrophylla apresentou atividade antioxidante com IC50 de 3,43 mg/mL (teste de sequestro do DPPH∙) e Fator de Proteção Solar de 20,25 (FPS/UV-B, 250 µg/mL) e UV-A de 78,09% (teste de fotobranqueamento do trans-resveratrol). A atividade antinociceptiva usando o teste in vivo de contorções abdominais induzidas por ácido acético foi superior a todos os padrões testados (99,14% na dose de 200 mg/Kg). A análise por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência acoplada a detector de fotodiodos e espectroscopia de massas multi-estágio (CLAE-DAD-EM/EM) possibilitou a caracterização dos flavonoides quercetina-3-O-hexosídeo, quercetina-3-O-pentosídeo e quercetina-3-O-desoxihexosídeo. A formulação farmacêutica contendo o extrato ativo bruto de Marcetia macrophylla foi preparada e os testes físico-químicos (características organolépticas, análise de pH e centrifugação), o UVB in vitro (fator de proteção solar, FPS) e UVA (β-caroteno) foram investigados. A formulação apresentou resultados satisfatórios frente aos parâmetros físico-químicos avaliados e ativos contra UV. Assim, M. macrophylla apresentou atividades biológicas com potencial uso em preparações fitofarmacêuticas.


Assuntos
Protetores Solares/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Analgésicos/farmacologia
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244675, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339348

RESUMO

Abstract Several species of thymus have therapeutic properties, so they are used in traditional medicine. In this work was carried out to synthesize Thymus vulgalis silver nanoparticles (TSNPS) and evaluate antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of TSNPS and T. vulgalis essential oil extract (TEOE). The essential oils analyzed by GC-MS and were characterized. Major compounds of phenol, 2 methyl 5 (1 methylethyle) (CAS), thymol and 1,2 Benzene dicarboxylic acid, 3 nitro (CAS) (48.75%, 32.42% and 8.12%, respectively) were detected. Results demonstrated that the TSNPS gave a highest DPPH radical scavenging activity, it was obtained 97.2 at 1000 ug/ml. TSNPS, Thymus + Hexane (T+H), Thymus + Ethanol (T+E) gave the greatest antimicrobial activity than amoxicillin (AM) and ciprofloxacin (CIP). In conclusion: The essential oil of thymus (Vulgaris) and thymus (Vulgaris) silver nanoparticles can be a good source of natural preservatives as an antioxidant and antimicrobial agents for increasing the shelf life of foodstuffs.


Resumo Diversas espécies de timo possuem propriedades terapêuticas, por isso são utilizadas na medicina tradicional. Neste trabalho foi realizado para sintetizar nanopartículas de prata Thymus vulgalis (TSNPS) e avaliar as atividades antioxidante e antimicrobiana de TSNPS e extrato de óleo essencial de T. vulgalis (TEOE). Os óleos essenciais analisados por GC-MS e foram caracterizados. Os principais compostos de fenol, 2 metil 5 (1 metiletilo) (CAS), timol e ácido 1,2 Benzenodicarboxílico, 3 nitro (CAS) (48,75%, 32,42% e 8,12%, respectivamente) foram detectados. Os resultados demonstraram que o TSNPS deu uma maior atividade de eliminação do radical DPPH , foi obtido 97,2 a 1000 ug / ml. TSNPS, Timo + Hexano (T + H), Timo + Etanol (T + E) deu a maior atividade antimicrobiana do que amoxicilina (AM) e ciprofloxacina (CIP). Em conclusão: O óleo essencial de nanopartículas de prata do timo (Vulgaris) e do timo (Vulgaris) pode ser uma boa fonte de conservantes naturais como agentes antioxidantes e antimicrobianos para aumentar a vida útil de alimentos.


Assuntos
Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Thymus (Planta) , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Prata , Antioxidantes/farmacologia
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248083, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278546

RESUMO

Abstract Species of the genus Cordia have shown biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant, antiviral, and antifungal activities. The species Cordia glabrata (MART) A.DC. Has no information concerning its phytochemical profile and possible biological activities. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate this profile in ethanolic extracts of young, adult and senescent leaves, as well as their antioxidant, photoprotective, antimicrobial, and virucidal potentials. Phytochemical analysis was performed by TLC (thin-layer chromatography) and showed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, and terpenes. The evaluation by UPLC-MS/MS (Ultra performance liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometer) evidenced the presence of caffeic (3.89 mgL-1), p-cumaric (6.13 mgL-1), and ferulic (0.58 mgL-1) acids, whilst, in GC/MS (Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) analysis there was a greater amount of palmitic (51.17%), stearic (20.34%), linoleic (9.62%), and miristic (8.16%) fatty acids. The DPPH (2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS+ (2′-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) radicals were used to verify the potential antioxidant activity, observing a better activity for the leaf extract in the adult phenological stage: 54.63 ± 1.06 µgmL-1 (DPPH) and 44.21 ± 1.69 mM (ABTS). The potential photoprotective activity of the extracts was determined by spectrophotometry and the in vitro values of SPF (Sun Protection Factor) in young and adult leaves (5.47 and 5.41, respectively) showed values close to the minimum SPF of 6.0 required by ANVISA (Brazilian Health Regulatory Agency). It was not observed an antimicrobial activity for Staphylococcus aureus with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 2000 μgmL-1, however the anti-herpetic assay against the Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) showed a potent virucidal activity at the tested concentrations with CV50 value <0.195 μgmL-1 and a Selectivity Index (SI = CC50 / CV50) greater than 448. The results obtained in this study suggest that extracts of leaves of C. glabrata in their adult phenological stage have potential antioxidant, photoprotective and virucidal activity, considering in vitro test results.


Resumo Espécies do gênero Cordia apresentam atividades biológicas, como anti-inflamatória, analgésica, antioxidante, antiviral e antifúngica. Para a espécie Cordia glabrata (MART) A.DC., ainda não existem informações sobre seu perfil fitoquímico e possíveis atividades biológicas, deste modo, o presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar este perfil em extratos etanólicos de folhas jovens, adultas e senescentes, bem como o potencial antioxidante, fotoprotetor, antimicrobiano e virucida. A análise fitoquímica foi realizada por CCD (Cromatografia em Camada Delgada), mostrando a presença de flavonóides, taninos e terpenos. Na avaliação por CLAE EM/EM (Cromatografia Líquida de Ultra Eficiência acoplada a Espectrometria de Massas) foi evidenciado a presença dos ácidos caféico (3,89 mgL-1), p-cumárico (6,13 mgL-1) e ferúlico (0,58 mgL-1), paralelamente, na CG/EM (Cromatografia Gasosa acoplada a Espectrometria de Massas) verificou-se maior quantidade dos ácidos graxos palmítico (51,17%), esteárico (20,34%), linoléico (9,62%) e mirístico (8,16%). Os radicais DPPH (2,2-Difenil-1-picrilhidrazil) e ABTS+ (2′-Azino-bis (ácido 3-etilbenzotiazolina-6-sulfônico)) foram utilizados para verificar o potencial antioxidante, observando-se uma atividade superior para o extrato da folha em sua fase fenológica adulta: 54,63 ± 1,06 µgmL-1 (DPPH) e 44,21 ± 1,69 mM (ABTS+). A potencial atividade fotoprotetora dos extratos foi determinada espectrofotometricamente e os valores in vitro de FPS (Fator de Proteção Solar) em folhas jovens e adultas (5,47 e 5,41 respectivamente) apresentaram valores próximos ao FPS mínimo de 6,0 exigido pela ANVISA (Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária). Não foi observada atividade antimicrobiana para Staphylococcus aureus sendo a concentração inibitória mínima de 2000 μgmL-1, no entanto o ensaio anti-herpético contra o vírus Herpes simplex tipo 2 (HSV-2) mostrou uma potente atividade virucida nas concentrações testadas com um valor de CV50 <0,195 μgmL-1 e um Índice de Seletividade (IS = CC50 / CV50) maior que 448. Os resultados obtidos neste estudo sugerem que extratos de folhas de C. glabrata em seu estágio fenológico adulto apresentam potencial antioxidante, fotoprotetora e virucida, considerando os resultados de testes in vitro.


Assuntos
Cordia , Anti-Infecciosos , Antivirais/farmacologia , Brasil , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida , Folhas de Planta , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Antioxidantes/farmacologia
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245753, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278536

RESUMO

Abstract The species Eugenia involucrata DC. is a plant native to Brazil and is traditionally used for intestinal problems, however, little research has documented about its biological potential and phytochemical profile. Thus, the objective of this study was to carry out preliminary phytochemical prospecting, antimicrobial and antioxidant potential of E. involucrata extracts. Using the E. involucrata leaves, aqueous and organic extracts were obtained using the following solvents (ethanol, methanol, hexane, acetone, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate). The phytochemical prospecting detected the presence of saponins, steroids, flavonoids and tannins in the extracts. Ethanolic and methanolic extracts presented antimicrobial activity for most of the bacterial strains tested, as well as for yeast Candida albicans, with concentrations between 3.12 and 50 mg/mL. The ethanolic and metanolic extract presented high free radical sequestration potential (>90%). The methanol extract showed an IC50 value statistically equal to that found for the commercial antioxidant BHT (p <0.05). The crude extracts obtained with ethanol and methanol were the most promising. These results suggest that methanolic, ethanolic and aqueous extracts are a promising source of natural bioactive.


Resumo A espécie Eugenia involucrata DC. é uma planta nativa do Brasil e tradicionalmente utilizada para problemas intestinais, porém, poucas pesquisas documentam sobre seu potencial biológico e perfil fitoquímico. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar uma prospecção fitoquímica preliminar, o potencial antimicrobiano e antioxidante dos extratos de E. involucrata. A partir das folhas de E. involucrata, foram obtidos extratos aquosos e orgânicos com os seguintes solventes (etanol, metanol, hexano, acetona, diclorometano e acetato de etila). A prospecção fitoquímica detectou a presença de saponinas, esteroides, flavonóides e taninos nos extratos. Os extratos etanólico e metanólico apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana para a maioria das cepas bacterianas testadas, assim como para a levedura Candida albicans, com concentrações entre 3,12 e 50 mg/mL. Os extratos etanólico e metanólico apresentaram alto potencial de sequestro de radicais livres (> 90%). O extrato metanólico apresentou IC50 estatisticamente igual ao encontrado para o antioxidante comercial BHT (p <0,05). Os extratos brutos obtidos com etanol e metanol foram os mais promissores. Esses resultados sugerem que os extratos metanólico, etanólico e aquoso são uma fonte promissora de bioativos naturais.


Assuntos
Eugenia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Brasil , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Antioxidantes/farmacologia
9.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2022: 8918966, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35340209

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive deterioration of motor function and loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Although PD is more common in people over 60 years old, people with young-onset PD tend to increase recently. Up to now, there is no cure for PD; therapies mainly focus on reducing symptoms and improving patient quality of life. Thus, the requirement of exploring new medications is needed. There is a strong relationship between oxidative stress and PD. Therefore, antioxidant compounds have been considered as a novel therapy for PD. In this study, we indicated a new potential candidate for PD treatment, rumdul fruit (Sphaerocoryne affinis-a member of the Annonaceae family), due to evaluating its activities on the fly model of Parkinson. Our experimental results showed that rumdul fruit water extract (RFWE) has a strong antioxidant capacity with IC50 value in DPPH assay which was 85.62 ± 1.05 µg/mL. The use of RFWE at concentrations of 3, 6, and 12 mg/mL could strongly ameliorate the locomotor disabilities and dopaminergic neuron degeneration. Although the RFWE at high concentrations like 12 mg/mL and 18 mg/mL could induce some side effects on fly development and viability, our data strongly demonstrated that RFWE effectively rescued PD phenotypes on the fly model. Although component in the plant extract, as well as the molecular mechanism helping to recover the phenotype, has not been elucidated yet, the research contributed strong scientific evidence for further research on applying rumdul as a novel natural source for PD treatment.


Assuntos
Annonaceae , Doença de Parkinson , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos , Humanos , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Qualidade de Vida
10.
Amino Acids ; 54(1): 33-46, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34993628

RESUMO

Sodium chlorate (NaClO3) is a common non-selective herbicide that is also used in paper and pulp mills and is produced as a by-product during drinking water disinfection by chlorine dioxide. Here, we report the effect of dietary antioxidant taurine on NaClO3-induced cytotoxicity in human red blood cells (RBC). RBC were treated with 5 mM NaClO3, either alone or in presence of 1, 2.5 and 5.0 mM taurine. Incubation of RBC with NaClO3 alone caused hemolysis, increased oxidation of lipids and proteins, methemogobin level and decreased total sulfhydryl and glutathione content. It lowered the activities of antioxidant enzymes thioredoxin reductase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase and glutathione reductase, while Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase activity was increased. The antioxidant capacity of RBC was impaired. This strongly suggests that NaClO3 causes the induction of oxidative stress condition in RBC. The specific activities of lactate dehydrogenase, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and plasma membrane bound enzymes, were also greatly altered. However, prior treatment of RBC with taurine conferred significant protection against NaClO3-induced oxidative damage and also improved the antioxidant defence system of cells. These results were supported by electron microscopy images of RBC. Treatment with NaClO3 alone converted the normal biconcave discoidal RBC to acanthocytes and echinocytes but this transformation was greatly prevented in the presence of taurine. Thus, taurine mitigates the cytotoxicity of NaClO3 in human RBC and can function as an effective chemoprotectant.


Assuntos
Cloratos , Taurina , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cloratos/metabolismo , Cloratos/farmacologia , Eritrócitos , Glutationa/metabolismo , Humanos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Estresse Oxidativo , Taurina/metabolismo , Taurina/farmacologia
11.
J Mol Neurosci ; 72(3): 653-676, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34697770

RESUMO

Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and prion disease affect any part of the brain. The complete mechanism of ND is unknown, but there are some molecular mechanism and chemical process. Natural compounds have better compatibility with the human body along with lesser side effects. Moreover, several studies showed that various natural compounds have significant neuroprotective, potent antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties, which are effective for treating the different type of ND. In ND, natural compounds act by various mechanisms such as preventing the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), eliminating destructed biomolecules before their accumulation affects cell metabolism, and improving the disease conditions. But due to the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) layer and unfavorable pharmacokinetic properties of natural compounds, their delivery into the brain is limited. To minimize this problem and enhance drug delivery into the brain with an effective therapeutic dose, there is a need to develop a practical novel approach. The various studies showed that nanoformulations and microneedles (MN) containing natural compounds such as quercetin, curcumin, resveratrol, chrysin, piperine, ferulic acid, huperzine A, berberine, baicalein, hesperetin, and retinoic acid effectively improved many ND. In this review, the effect of such natural drug-loaded nanoformulation and MN patches on ND management is discussed, along with their merits and demerits. This review aims to introduce different novel approaches for enhancing natural drug delivery into the brain to manage various neurodegenerative diseases.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos , Curcumina , Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Curcumina/uso terapêutico , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/metabolismo
12.
Amino Acids ; 54(2): 181-192, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738177

RESUMO

The use of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors, antioxidants or multitarget compounds are among the main strategies against Alzheimer's disease (AD). Between AChE inhibitors, those targeting the peripheral anionic site (PAS) are of special interest. Here, we describe the rational design and synthesis of peptide analogs of a natural PAS-targeting sequence that we recently discovered, aiming at increasing its activity against AChE. We also tested their radical scavenging and metal chelating properties. Our design strategy was based on the position-specific, computer-aided insertion of aromatic residues. The analog named as W3 showed a 30-fold higher inhibitory activity than the original sequence and an improved antioxidant activity. W3 is the most potent modified natural peptide against Electrophorus electricus AChE ever reported with an IC50 of 10.42 µM (± 1.02). In addition, it showed a radical scavenging activity of 47.00% ± 3.11 at 50 µM and 93.47% ± 1.53 at 400 µM. Since peptides are receiving increasing interest as drugs, we propose the W3 analog as an attractive sequence for the development of new peptide-based multitarget drugs for AD. Besides, this work sheds light on the importance of the aromatic residues in the modulation of AChE activity and their effect on the radical scavenging activity of a peptide.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Inibidores da Colinesterase , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Anuros/metabolismo , Inibidores da Colinesterase/química , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
13.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2022: 1821780, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35320978

RESUMO

Vitiligo is a common acquired depigmenting disease characterized by the loss of functional melanocytes and epidermal melanin. Vitiligo has a long treatment cycle and slow results, which is one of the most difficult challenges for skin diseases. Oxidative stress plays an important role as an initiating and driving factor in the pathogenesis of vitiligo. Antioxidant therapy has recently become a research hotspot in vitiligo treatment. A series of antioxidants has been discovered and applied to the treatment of vitiligo, which has returned satisfactory results. This article briefly reviews the relationship between oxidative stress and vitiligo. We also describe the progress of targeted antioxidant therapy in vitiligo, with the aim of providing a reference for new drug development and treatment options for this condition.


Assuntos
Vitiligo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Epiderme , Humanos , Melanócitos/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Vitiligo/tratamento farmacológico , Vitiligo/patologia
14.
J Bras Nefrol ; 44(1): 9-18, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289007

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Aminoglycoside-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) is a pathology closely linked to oxidative and inflammatory reactions. Taking into account the previous reported antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of D-005, a lipid extract obtained from Cuban palm Acrocomia crispa (Arecaceae) fruits, this work aimed to evaluate the effects of D-005 on kanamycin-induced AKI. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into 7 groups: negative control (vehicle, Tween 65/H2O) and six groups treated with kanamycin to induce AKI: positive control (vehicle), D-005 (25, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) and grape seed extract (GSE, 200 mg/kg). D-005, vehicle, and GSE oral treatments were administered once daily for seven days, 1 h before kanamycin (500 mg/kg, i.p.). Serum uric acid and urea concentrations, renal histopathology, and oxidative markers (malondialdehyde (MDA), sulfhydryl (SH) groups, and catalase (CAT) activity) were assessed. RESULTS: D-005 significantly reduced uric acid and urea levels, starting from D-005 100 mg/kg. Histopathologically, D-005, at all the tested doses, protected renal parenchyma structures (glomeruli, proximal tubules, and interstitium). These findings were accompanied by a significant reduction of MDA and SH group concentrations as well as restoration of CAT activity. The highest percentages of inhibition were obtained with the dose of 400 mg/kg. GSE, the reference substance, also prevented kanamycin-induced biochemical and histopathological changes, as well as reduced MDA and SH groups and restored CAT activity. CONCLUSION: The administration of repeated oral doses of D-005 significantly protected against kanamycin-induced AKI, which could be associated with the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of this extract.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda , Arecaceae , Injúria Renal Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Injúria Renal Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Injúria Renal Aguda/prevenção & controle , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Frutas , Humanos , Rim/patologia , Lipídeos/farmacologia , Masculino , Malondialdeído , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Ácido Úrico
15.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2022: 4212331, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36062191

RESUMO

Herein, the molecular pathogenic pathways implicated in renal injury triggered by amikacin (AK), together with the alleviating actions of ß-caryophyllene (BCP), were investigated. Adult male Wistar rats (n = 32) were disseminated to the four following groups (n = 8/group): normal group, positive control animals (PC) that received AK intraperitoneal injections for 14 days (500 mg/kg/day), and rats that received AK simultaneously with small (200 mg/kg/day) and high doses (400 mg/kg/day) of BCP. The PC renal tissues revealed abnormal histology alongside increased apoptosis and significantly elevated serum creatinine and urea with marked proteinuria and oliguria relative to the normal rats. Moreover, renal tissues from the PC animals also showed substantial upregulations in NF-κB/TGF-ß/KIM-1, whilst Nrf2/AMPK/AKT/PCNA declined, at the gene and protein levels in comparison to the normal rats. Additionally, the levels of markers of oxidative stress (MDA/H2O2/protein adducts) and inflammation (TNF-α/IL-1ß/IL-6/IL-18/TLR/HSP25) were substantially higher in the PC renal specimens, whereas the antioxidants (GSH/GPx/SOD1/CAT) and interleukin-10 decreased, relative to the NC group. Both BCP protocols improved the biochemical markers of renal functions, alleviated renal histopathology and apoptosis, and decreased NF-κB/TGF-ß/KIM-1 alongside the concentrations of oxidative stress and proinflammatory markers, whilst promoting Nrf2/AMPK/AKT/IL-10/PCNA and the targeted antioxidants. However, the improving effects in the high-dose regimen were markedly stronger than those observed in animals treated with low dose of BCP. In conclusion, the present report is the first to connect NF-κB/TGF-ß/KIM-1 proinflammatory and Nrf2/AMPK/AKT antioxidative stress pathways with the pathogenesis of AK-induced nephrotoxicity. Additionally, the current report is the first to disclose alleviating activities for BCP against AK-triggered nephrotoxicity by modulating multiple antioxidative stress with anti-inflammatory molecular pathways.


Assuntos
Rim , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2 , NF-kappa B , Sesquiterpenos Policíclicos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Amicacina/toxicidade , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Fator de Transcrição de Proteínas de Ligação GA/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Sesquiterpenos Policíclicos/farmacologia , Antígeno Nuclear de Célula em Proliferação/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta
16.
Med Oncol ; 39(12): 199, 2022 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36071308

RESUMO

Radiotherapy is one of the main treatments for localized primary cancer in patients. Cardiotoxicity and lung injury are two of the main side effects of oxidative stress following radiotherapy in patients with thoracic region cancer. Gliclazide (GLZ) as an antihyperglycemic drug has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic activities. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of GLZ in cardiotoxicity and lung injury induced by irradiation (IR). In this experimental study, 64 mice were divided into eight groups: control, GLZ (5, 10, and 25 mg/kg), IR (6 Gy), and IR + GLZ (in three doses). GLZ was administrated for 8 consecutive successive days and mice were exposed with IR on the 9th day of study. On the 10th day of study, tissue biochemical assay and at 14th day of study, histopathological assay were performed to evaluate for cardiotoxicity and lung injury. The findings revealed that IR induces atypical features in heart and lung histostructure, and oxidative stress (an increase of MDA, PC levels, and decrease of GSH content) in these tissues. GLZ administration preserved heart and lung damages and improves oxidative stress markers in mice. Data have authenticated that GLZ could protect heart and lung histostructure against oxidative stress-induced injury through inhibiting oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Gliclazida , Lesão Pulmonar , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cardiotoxicidade , Gliclazida/farmacologia , Lesão Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Lesão Pulmonar/etiologia , Lesão Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Camundongos , Estresse Oxidativo
17.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0273719, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36054089

RESUMO

Melatonin has been proved to have positive effects on cellular damage and metabolic regulation. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of melatonin supplementation during an intensive training period on physical performance decline, oxidative stress and cellular damage state. The investigation was conducted on 20 soccer players who participated in an exhaustive six-day training schedule associated with daily 5 mg oral melatonin or placebo ingestion. Resting blood samples and physical performance were measured before and after the training period. The mixed 2-way ANOVA (group x training camp) showed that compared to placebo, melatonin intake prevented an increase in advanced oxidation protein products (p>0.05) and increased the antioxidant enzyme activity (i.e., superoxide dismutase; p<0.001). In addition, melatonin prevented an increase of biomarkers of renal function (e.g., creatinine; p>0.05) and biomarkers of muscle (e.g., creatine kinase; p>0.05) and liver (e.g., gamma-glutamyltransferase; p>0.05) damage. Furthermore, melatonin alleviated the deterioration in physical performance (countermovement jump, five-jump test and 20-m sprint; p>0.05). In conclusion, the obtained data showed increased oxidative stress and renal, muscle and liver damage in professional soccer players during an exhaustive training schedule. Melatonin intake during the training period exerts beneficial effects on physical performance and protects tissues against the deleterious effects of reactive oxygen species and cellular damage.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Melatonina , Futebol , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Biomarcadores , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Melatonina/farmacologia , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Futebol/fisiologia
18.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274013, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36054136

RESUMO

Paeonia lactiflflora Pall. has a long edible and medicinal history because of the very high content of biologically active compounds. However, little information is available about the metabolic basis of pharmacological values of P. lactiflora flowers. In this study, we investigated metabolites in the different parts of P. lactiflora flowers, including petal, stamen petaloid tissue and stamen, by widely targeted metabolomics approach. A total of 1102 metabolites were identified, among which 313 and 410 metabolites showed differential accumulation in comparison groups of petal vs. stamen petaloid tissue and stamen vs. stamen petaloid tissue. Differential accumulated metabolites analysis and KEGG pathway analysis showed that the flavonoids were the most critical differential metabolites. Furthermore, difference accumulation of flavonoids, phenolic acids, tannins and alkaloids might lead to the differences in antioxidant activities and tyrosinase inhibition effects. Indeed, stamen petaloid tissue displayed better antioxidant and anti-melanin production activities than petal and stamen through experimental verification. These results not only expand our understanding of metabolites in P. lactiflora flowers, but also reveal that the stamen petaloid tissues of P. lactiflora hold the great potential as promising ingredients for pharmaceuticals, functional foods and skincare products.


Assuntos
Paeonia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Flavonoides , Flores , Metabolômica
19.
J Environ Manage ; 320: 115878, 2022 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36056491

RESUMO

The non-essential element cadmium (Cd) is one of the most problematic priority soil pollutants due to multitude of pollution sources, mobility in the environment and high toxicity to all living organisms. This strongly limits also the number and occurrence of species - Cd hyperaccumulators to be used for soil phytoremediation. However, efficient Cd hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L. appeared to commonly occur worldwide as a representative of Solanum nigrum complex of a great taxonomic diversity. This led to the idea that the search among different ecotypes of Solanum nigrum L. may result in the identifying the most efficient Cd hyperaccumulator without applying to soil any additional measures such as chemical ligands. In this first pioneering comparative study, three randomly selected ecotypes of S. nigrum L. ssp. nigrum from Shenyang (SY) and Hanzhong (HZ) in China, and Kyoto (KY) in Japan were used in pot experiments at soil treatments from 0 to 50 mg Cd kg-1. The Cd accumulation capacity appeared to represent KY > HZ > SY range, KY ecotype accumulating up to 73%, and HZ ecotype up to 67% bigger total Cd load than SY ecotype. At Cd content in soil up to 10 mg kg-1, no significant effect on the all ecotype biomass, photosynthetic activities, contents of first line defense antioxidant enzymes (CAT, SOD, GPX), and scavenging antioxidants ASA, GSH, was observed. At Cd in soil>10 mg kg-1all these parameters showed decreasing, and cell damage indicator MDA increasing trend, however total accumulated Cd load further increased up to 30 mg kg Cd in soil in all ecotypes in the same KY > HZ > SY sequence. The study proved the great potential of enhancing Cd accumulation capacity of S. nigrum species by selecting the most efficient ecotypes among commonly occurring representatives of S. nigrum complex worldwide. Moreover, these first comparative experiments convinced that the cosmopolitan character and great variety of species/subspecies belonging to Solanum nigrum complex all over the world opens the new area for successful soil phytoremediation with the use of the most appropriate eco/genotypes of S. nigtum as a tool for the best Cd-contaminated soil management practice.


Assuntos
Poluentes do Solo , Solanum nigrum , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cádmio/química , Ecótipo , Raízes de Plantas/química , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise
20.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 5623555, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36060128

RESUMO

Objective: Pirarubicin (THP) is one of anthracycline anticancer drugs. It is widely used in the treatment of various cancers, but its hepatotoxicity cannot be ignored. Schisandrin B (SchB) is a traditional liver-protecting drug, which has the ability to promote mitochondrial function and upregulate cellular antioxidant defense mechanism. However, whether it can resist THP-induced hepatotoxicity has not been reported. The purpose of this study was to observe and explore the effect of SchB on THP-induced hepatotoxicity and its potential mechanism by adding SchB to the diet of rats with THP-induced hepatotoxicity. Methods: The rat model of THP-induced hepatotoxicity was established and partly treated with SchB diet. The changes of serum liver function indexes ALT and AST were observed. The histomorphological changes of liver were observed by HE staining. The biomarker levels of oxidative stress in rat serum and liver were measured to observe oxidative stress state. The expressions of ferroptosis-related protein GPX4 and oxidative stress-related protein were detected by Western blot. Primary hepatocytes were prepared and cocultured with THP, SchB, and Fer-1 to detect the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and verify the above signal pathways. Results: THP rats showed a series of THP-induced hepatotoxicity changes, such as liver function damage, oxidative stress, and ferroptosis. SchB diet effectively alleviated these adverse reactions. Further studies showed that SchB had strong antioxidant and antiferroptosis abilities in THP-induced hepatotoxicity. Conclusion: SchB has obvious protective effect on THP-induced hepatotoxicity. The mechanism may be closely related to inhibiting oxidative stress and ferroptosis in the liver.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Ferroptose , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Ciclo-Octanos , Dieta , Doxorrubicina/análogos & derivados , Lignanas , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Estresse Oxidativo , Compostos Policíclicos , Ratos
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