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1.
J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol ; 38(3): 205-216, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679308

RESUMO

Artemisia vulgaris is a traditional Chinese herb believed to have a wide range of healing properties; it is traditionally used to treat numerous health ailments. The plant is commonly called mugwort or riverside wormwood. The plant is edible, and in addition to its medicinal properties, it is also used as a culinary herb in Asian cooking in the form of a vegetable or in soup. The plant has garnered the attention of researchers in the past few decades, and several research studies have investigated its biological effects, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, hypolipidemic, and antimicrobial properties. In this review, various studies on these biological effects are discussed along with the tests conducted, compounds involved, and proposed mechanisms of action. This review will be of interest to the researchers working in the field of herbal medicine, pharmacology, medical sciences, and immunology.


Assuntos
Artemisia/química , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Hipolipemiantes/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química
2.
Life Sci ; 236: 116933, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614146

RESUMO

AIMS: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) pathogenesis involves the interplay of multiple signalling pathways. Notch and Hedgehog (Hh) are two major developmental pathways that act in concert to regulate adult cell repair. CK2α -serine-threonine kinase-down-regulation enhanced apoptotic activity and was proven beneficial for HCC patients. Quercetin is a bioactive flavonoid and has been shown to protect against HCC through its antioxidant activity. This study was carried out to elucidate the antineoplastic effect of quercetin through regulating both Notch and Hh pathways, apoptosis, cell proliferation and CK2α activity. MAIN METHODS: Hepatocellular carcinoma was induced in male Sprague Dawley rats by thioacetamide. Quercetin was administered in both protective and curative doses. Parameters of liver function and oxidative stress were assessed. CK2α, Notch and Hh pathways were evaluated using RT-PCR and ELISA. Apoptosis was investigated by detecting caspase-3, caspase-8 and p53. Proliferative and cell cycle markers as cyclin D1 and Ki-67 were detected immunohistochemically. KEY FINDINGS: Quercetin inhibited CK2α and downregulated mRNA and protein expression of Notch1 and Gli2. Quercetin also suppressed caspase-3 expression but not caspase-8. Quercetin elevated p53 expression whereas proliferative and cell cycle markers cyclin D1 and Ki-67 were downregulated. Markers of hepatic cellular integrity such as AST, ALT, ALP, GGT, albumin and bilirubin were significantly ameliorated. This was confirmed by histological examination. Quercetin also alleviated oxidative stress as shown by SOD, GSH, MDA and NO levels. SIGNIFICANCE: We can conclude that in addition to its antioxidant power, quercetin blocked Notch, Hedgehog, regulated the apoptotic and proliferative pathways and inhibited CK2α in HCC.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Quercetina/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Caseína Quinase II/antagonistas & inibidores , Caseína Quinase II/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Hedgehog/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Hedgehog/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores Notch/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores Notch/metabolismo
3.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(17): 3672-3683, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602939

RESUMO

Sesquiterpenes are a class of terpenoids composed of three isoprene units( 15 carbons). Sesquiterpenoids possess a variety of different structures,including acyclic sesquiterpenes,monocyclic sesquiterpenoids,bicyclic sesquiterpenoids,tricyclic sesquiterpenoids,tetracyclic sesquiterpenoids and macrocyclic sesquiterpenoids. Among them,a large number of monocyclic sesquiterpenoids were isolated and display extensive bioactivities,such as cytotoxic,antioxidant,anti-inflammatory,antibacterial and other activities. In this review,we summarized the progress about the phytochemistry and biological activities of monocyclic sesquiterpenoids( a total of161 compounds) reported from 2014 to 2018( 5 years),including megastigmanes,monocyclofarnesol-type,bisabolane-type,germacrane-type,and other types of monocyclic sesquiterpenoids. Furthermore,several future research perspectives and development of sesquiterpenoids as potential therapeutic agents were discussed as well.


Assuntos
Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Estrutura Molecular
4.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(3): e20180994, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596391

RESUMO

Herbal medicines are efficient to reduce side effects in the fight against glioblastoma, which plays a critical role within brain cancer species. The recent studies designated for testing the effects of lichens that have shown numerous anticancer activities on glioblastoma so far. In the present study, different concentrations of water extract obtained from Usnea longissima Ach. were used in order to determine cytotoxic (via 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and lactate dehydrogenase tests), antioxidant (via total antioxidant capacity test), pro-oxidant (via total oxidant status test) and genotoxic (via 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine test) effects of them on human U87MG-glioblastoma cancer cell lines. Primary mixed glial-neuronal non-cancerous cells from Sprague-Dawley rats were also utilized to measure the effects of treatments on non-cancerous cells. Based on median inhibitory concentration values, the data belonged to non-cancerous cells (2486.71 mg/L) showed distinct towering compared to U87MG (80.93 mg/L) cells. The viability of non-cancerous and U87MG cells exposed to extract is decreased in a dose dependent manner. It was also showed that low concentrations of extract notably increased total antioxidant capacity on non-cancerous cells. In addition, various phenolic compounds in extract were detected through high-performance liquid chromatography. The recent results encourage that extract will be able to have therapeutic potential against glioblastoma.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Usnea/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
5.
Acta Cir Bras ; 34(7): e201900706, 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531540

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the protective roles of pyracantha fortune fruit extract (PFE) on acute renal toxicity induced by cadmium chloride (CdCl2) in rats. METHODS: Rats were pretreated with PFE and consecutively injected with CdCl2 (6.5 mg/kg) for 5 days. RESULTS: The concentration of Cd, kidney weight, malondialdehyde (MDA), and nitric oxide (NO) production were remarkably increased in CdCl2 group as well as the levels of plasma uric acid, urea, and creatinine (P < 0.001). However, the body weight and glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione peroxidase (GR) levels were markedly reduced by CdCl2 treatment (P < 0.001). Histological manifestations of renal tissue showed severely adverse changes. Moreover, CdCl2 treatment significantly decreased the B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) expression while increased the Bcl-2-Associated X Protein (Bax), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) expression (P < 0.001). Additionally, the expression of Nrf2/Keap 1 related proteins Keap-1 gained a significant increase (P < 0.001), whereas the Nrf2, HO-1, γ-GCS, GSH-Px and NQO1 expression decreased by CdCl2 treatment (P < 0.05). These rats were pretreated with PFE to improve the changes caused by CdCl2 treatment. CONCLUSION: PFE could protect the kidney against acute renal toxicity induced by CdCl2.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cloreto de Cádmio/toxicidade , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Pyracantha/química , Animais , Catalase/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Frutas/química , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
6.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(3): e20180140, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508662

RESUMO

Ackee (Blighia sapida K. D. Koenig) is an exotic fruit widely consumed in the Caribbean countries. While there is extensive research on the presence of hypoglycin A, other bioactive compounds have not been studied. We identified and quantified the changes in bioactive molecules (total phenol, ascorbic acid, hypoglycin A, squalene, D: A-Friedooleanan-7-ol, (7.alpha.), and oleic acid), antioxidant potential, and volatile compounds during two stages of ripe. A clear reduction in hypoglycin A, ascorbic acid, and total polyphenols during the maturation process were observed. On the contrary, oleic acid, squalene, and D: A-Friedooleanan-7-ol, (7.alpha.) contents increased about 12, 12, and 13 times, respectively with advancing maturity. These bioactive molecules were positively correlated with radical scavenging (DDPH and ABTS). Solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography coupled mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis revealed more than 50 compounds with 3-penten-2-one and hexanal as the major compounds in the fully ripe stage. The results suggested that ripe ackee arilli could serve as an appreciable source of natural bioactive micro-constituents.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Blighia/química , Frutas/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Hipoglicinas/química , Polifenóis/química , Esqualeno/química
7.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(3): e20181330, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508665

RESUMO

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is the result of the selective destruction of the pancreatic ß-cells by T cells of the immune system. Although spleen is a secondary lymphoid organ, it is also involved in the T1D pathogenesis. However, the alterations in a variety of cellular processes of this disease need to be further understood. We aimed to analyze the benefits of resveratrol, and its complexed form on diabetic complications in the spleen of rats. To this end, we investigated important enzymes of phosphoryl transfer network, and Na+, K+-ATPase activity. Wistar rats were divided into non-diabetic groups: Control, Ethanol, Resveratrol, Hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin, Resveratrol-hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin, and diabetic groups with the same treatments. Diabetes was induced by a single dose of 60 mg/kg of streptozocin intraperitoneally, and treatments by intragastric gavage once daily for 60 days. Hyperglycemia reduced creatine kinase activity, which was reversed by the administration of resveratrol. Na+, K+-ATPase activity was greatly affected, but it was reversed by resveratrol and resveratrol-hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin. This suggest an energetic imbalance in the spleen of diabetic rats, and in case this also occurs in the diabetic patients, it is possible that resveratrol supplementation could be beneficial to the better functioning of the spleen in diabetic patients.


Assuntos
2-Hidroxipropil-beta-Ciclodextrina/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Resveratrol/farmacologia , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/metabolismo , Baço/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Glicemia/análise , Peso Corporal , Creatina Quinase/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Hiperglicemia/metabolismo , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Estreptozocina
8.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(3): e20180462, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553365

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro antiproliferative and inhibition of oxidative DNA-damage activities of n-butanol (n-BuOH) extract of Centaurea sphaerocephala. The in vitro antioxidant activity of the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and the n-BuOH extracts of this plant were also assayed. To investigate the antioxidant potential, extracts were tested for their capacity to scavenge 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·) and to inhibit lipid peroxidation using the TBARs method. The contents of total phenolics and flavonoids were measured. Additionally, antiproliferative activity and DNA-damage inhibition of the n-BuOH extract was determined using XCELLigence RTCA instrument and photolyzing 46966 plasmid, respectively. The results exhibited that the scavenging abilities of the EtOAc extract were better than the n-BuOH extract with an IC50= 11.59 µg/mL and 16.67 µg/mL for both extracts, respectively. The phenolic and flavonoid contents were found higher in the n-BuOH and EtOAc extracts. Furthermore, our results showed that n-BuOH extract exhibited a remarkable inhibition of lipid peroxidation with an IC50 of 340.94±7.49 µg/mL and had an antiproliferative effect against Hela cells. Extracts of C. sphaerocephala showed antioxidant activity on scavenging DPPH·. In addition, the n-BuOH extract inhibited the lipid peroxidation and exhibited an antiproliferative effect against HeLa cells line (human cervix carcinoma).


Assuntos
1-Butanol/farmacologia , Acetatos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Centaurea/química , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , 1-Butanol/isolamento & purificação , Acetatos/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas
9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(41): 11288-11306, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557009

RESUMO

Delphinidin (Del) and its glycosides are water-soluble pigments, belonging to a subgroup of flavonoids. They are health-promoting candidates for pharmaceutical and nutraceutical uses, as indicated by exhibiting antioxidation, anti-inflammation, antimicroorganism, antidiabetes, antiobesity, cardiovascular protection, neuroprotection, and anticancer properties. Glycosylation modification of Del is associated with increased stability and reduced biological activity. Del and its glycosides can be the alternative inhibitors of CBRs, ERα/ß, EGFR, BCRP, and SGLT-1, and virtual docking indicates that the sugar moiety may not effectively interact with the active sites of the targets. Structure-based characteristics confer the multifunctional properties of Del and its glycosides. Because of their health-promoting effects, Del and its glycosides are promising and have been developed as potential pharmaceuticals. However, more investigation on the underlying mechanisms of Del and its glycosides in mediating cellular processes with high specificity are still needed. The research progression of Del and its glycosides over the last 10 years is comprehensively reviewed in this article.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/farmacologia , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Antocianinas/química , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Glicosídeos/química , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular
10.
Life Sci ; 235: 116797, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472146

RESUMO

Chrysin is a promising phytochemical that is categorized under the class of flavonoids based on its chemical structure. Naturally, it is widely present in propolis, honey, passion fruit, and even in mushrooms and other plant sources, whereas its synthetic counterparts are also being employed for pharmacological purposes. It has widely been employed in treatment of various degenerative disorders and provides cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory functions. Its antioxidant and disease preventing abilities are attributed to its structural diversity arising in ring-A and absence of oxygenation in B and C ring. In this review, the scientific studies are being reported emphasizing benefits and its allied health claims on chrysin in numerous metabolic malfunctions.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Humanos
11.
Life Sci ; 235: 116810, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472147

RESUMO

AIMS: Previous reports have demonstrated that melatonin exists in multiple extrapineal sites, and higher amounts of melatonin are present in human follicular fluid than in serum, which indicates that it might play key roles in human oocyte maturation and subsequent embryonic development. Melatonin has been shown to be a potent antioxidant and might be beneficial to human oocytes during in vitro maturation (IVM). However, the underlying mechanisms of melatonin action during IVM have not been thoroughly investigated. MAIN METHODS: Immunofluorescence staining, western blotting, and ELISA were applied to investigate whether melatoninergic components are expressed in the cultured human ovarian cumulus cells. TMRE staining and Fluo-4 AM staining were performed to detect the mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular Ca2+ levels of immature human oocytes respectively. KEY FINDINGS: First, cultured human ovary cumulus cells synthesized melatonin in vitro, and it expressed serotonin (the precursor of melatonin) and the two key enzymes, i.e. N-acetyltransferase (NAT) and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT). Additionally, the results suggest that melatonin maintains the mitochondrial membrane potential and decrease excessive Ca2+ levels in immature human oocytes during IVM. SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, we provide evidence that the melatoninergic components were expressed in cultured human ovarian cumulus cells, and melatonin might reduce oxidative stress of human oocytes by ameliorating mitochondrial function. In view of the significant clinical value that immature human oocytes have in assisted reproductive technology (ART), our findings highlight a potential treatment strategy of using melatonin to improve mitochondrial function and to enhance the quality of human oocytes during IVM.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cálcio/metabolismo , Melatonina/farmacologia , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Oócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Antioxidantes/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Técnicas de Maturação in Vitro de Oócitos , Melatonina/análise , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Oócitos/citologia , Oócitos/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo
12.
Adv Gerontol ; 32(3): 325-330, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512417

RESUMO

To analyze experimental data on the effect of various polyphenolic compounds on lifespan of mice, we approximated survival curves with the Gompertz model in its minimal form, which does not account for the heterogeneity of samples and the age-independent mortality. The plots of regressions of log0 (logarithm of the initial mortality) on  (the rate of aging) in series of control samples were used to assess the deviations of vectors directed from control to experimental data from the slopes of the control regressions. The analysis of published data suggests that resveratrol, polyphenol-containing grape skin extract, metformin, tocopherol, and the antioxidant SkQ1 do not produce changes beyond those possible upon comparing of different samples of a control population. The effect of the polyphenolic composition BP-C3 on female SHR mice is unique in being associated with a significant decrease in the rate of aging. The effect may be partly contributed to by the antioxidant properties of BP-C3. Its antioxidant capacity determined in vitro is comparable with that of established antioxidants, such as dihydroquercetin. Its effects in vivo include the ability to ameliorate reduction in the peroxide-decomposing activity of RBC lysates from male BALB/c mice treated with 5-fluorouracil.


Assuntos
Longevidade , Polifenóis , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Feminino , Longevidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Análise de Sobrevida
13.
Adv Gerontol ; 32(3): 338-346, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512419

RESUMO

The followings were estimated in the 3-5 and 15-17 months 129/Sv cuprizone- and melatonin-treated mice: the number of activated T-lymphocytes, macrophages, neural stem cells (determined by CD3+, Mac1+ and nestin+ markers), the structurally unchanged neurons, the malondialdehyde (MDA) content and the antioxidant enzyme activities in the brain; the blood thymus hormone thymulin level; and the behavioural indices. The mice were fed with cuprizone for 3 weeks. From the 8th day of the cuprizone treatment the mice were injected with melatonin (1 mg/kg, at 18:00 daily). As a result, the number of the CD3+-, Mac1+-, and nestin+-cells and the MDA content increased while the glutathione peroxidise (GP) activity decreased in the brain of young and aged mice under the influence of cuprizone. In mice of both age groups the proportion of unchanged neurons in the central nervous system, motor and emotional activity and muscle tone were decreased. Regardless of the age of the mice the injections of melatonin decrease the number of СD3+, Мас1+-cells, content of MDA, increase activity of GP and thymulin level. Decrease of the number of nestin+-cells coincides with the growth of the number of unchanged neurons. The effect of both neurotoxin and melatonin on immune factors, the structure and functional state of neurons was more pronounced in young mice. Thus, the positive effect of melatonin in young and aged mice with the cuprizone-induced demyelination was realized mainly through the pathogenetic factors of pathology.


Assuntos
Doenças Desmielinizantes , Melatonina , Neurônios , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cuprizona , Doenças Desmielinizantes/induzido quimicamente , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Melatonina/farmacologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Arch Virol ; 164(12): 2895-2908, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531742

RESUMO

Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-borne arbovirus that causes febrile illness and can lead to a potentially lethal disease. The mechanism of disease pathogenesis is not completely understood, and there are currently no vaccines or therapeutic drugs available to protect against all four serotypes of DENV. Although many reasons have been suggested for the development of the disease, dengue studies have shown that, during DENV infection, there is an imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants that disrupts homeostasis. An increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels triggers the sudden release of cytokines, which can lead to plasma leakage and other severe symptoms. In the present review, we give an overview of the oxidative stress response and its effect on the progression of dengue disease. We also discuss the role of oxidative-stress-associated molecules in disease prognostic and therapeutics.


Assuntos
Vírus da Dengue/patogenicidade , Dengue/diagnóstico , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Citocinas , Dengue/tratamento farmacológico , Dengue/imunologia , Dengue/metabolismo , Vírus da Dengue/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Dengue/imunologia , Homeostase , Humanos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Prognóstico , Sorogrupo , Virulência/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Chemosphere ; 235: 1066-1072, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561296

RESUMO

This study was conducted to explore the effects of priming of seven-year-old aged seeds with different concentrations of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on growth of broad bean (Vicia faba L.). Seeds were primed with different concentrations of AgNPs for 6 h before growing in the plastic trays. Different growth parameters like growth attributes, photosynthetic pigments, carbohydrates, antioxidant enzymes and chloroplast ultrastructure were estimated after 14 days of germination. Priming with AgNPs affected the root and shoot growth attributes as compared with control depending upon concentrations of AgNPs. In all treatments, photosynthetic pigments increased significantly above control levels, but total soluble sugars decreased in 10 and 50 ppm AgNPs and slightly increased in 100 ppm AgNPs as compared with control. Starch accumulation was apparent in all treated seedlings above that of control levels. Mesophyll cells of all treated seedlings were altered with electron dense particles than control. Priming with AgNPs affected the chloroplast structure which appeared in the form of less stacking of Greene, formation of protrusions and extensions, irregular shape of chloroplasts as compared with spindle shaped regular chloroplasts of control. In all treatments, total phenols were slightly affected as compared with control. The antioxidant enzyme activities in seedlings varied with the dose and type of antioxidants. Overall, AgNPs adversely affected the chloroplast ultrastructure, but increased growth of seedlings and starch accumulation. Further studies are required to explore the effects of AgNPs on the long-term on crop productivity of aged seeds.


Assuntos
Cloroplastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Plântula/ultraestrutura , Prata/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cloroplastos/ultraestrutura , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotossíntese , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Prata/farmacologia , Amido/metabolismo , Vicia faba/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vicia faba/ultraestrutura
16.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(80): 12036-12039, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531454

RESUMO

While commercially available suncare products are effective at absorbing ultraviolet (UV)-light, recent studies indicate systemic toxicities associated with many traditional chemical and physical UV-filters. We demonstrate the application of xanthommatin, a biochrome present in arthropods and cephalopods, as an alternative chemical UV-filter that is cytocompatible while maintaining its photostability and photoprotective properties.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Oxazinas/farmacologia , Pele/efeitos da radiação , Protetores Solares/farmacologia , Xantenos/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Dano ao DNA , Dimetilpolisiloxanos/química , Humanos , Camundongos , Células NIH 3T3 , Oxazinas/química , Estudo de Prova de Conceito , Pele/citologia , Protetores Solares/química , Raios Ultravioleta , Xantenos/química
17.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 158: 185-200, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378356

RESUMO

The present work describes the antimicrobial action of 25 monoterpenes (six hydrocarbons, five ketones, two aldehydes, six alcohols and six acetate analogues) against Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus. The antibacterial activity was evaluated by broth microdilution technique as a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the antifungal activity was performed by mycelia radial growth technique as the effective concentration causing 50% inhibition of the mycelial growth (EC50). The results showed that thymol and α-terpineol were the most potent against E. coli (MIC = 45 and 55 mg/L, respectively) and S. aureus (MIC = 135 and 225 mg/L, respectively). The results also showed that thymol displayed the maximum antifungal action against A. flavus with EC50 20 mg/L. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity was determined using N,N-dimethyl-1,4-phenylenediamine (DMPD) and the results showed that geraniol were the most potent compound (IC50 = 19 mg/L). Molecular docking studies indicated that the compounds displayed different binding interactions with the amino acid residues at the catalytic sites of N5-carboxyaminoimidazole synthetase and oxysterol binding protein Osh4 enzymes. Non-covalent interactions including van der Waals, hydrogen bonding as well as hydrophobic were observed between the compounds and the enzymes. A significant relationship was found between the docking score and the biological activity of the tested monoterpenes compared to the ceftriaxone and carbendazim as standard bactericide and fungicide, respectively. In silico ADMET properties were also performed and displayed potential for the development of promising antimicrobial agents. For these reasons, these compounds may be considered as potential ecofriendly alternatives in food preservation to delay or prevent the microbial infection and prolong the shelf life of food products.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Monoterpenos/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Cicloexenos/química , Cicloexenos/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrocarbonetos/química , Hidrocarbonetos/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Monoterpenos/química , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Anticancer Res ; 39(8): 4043-4053, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366486

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most aggressive subtype, predominant in African American women. In this study, the antioxidant/anticancer activity of muscadine grape extracts and the role of their phenolic and flavonoid contents in exerting these properties were investigated in TNBC cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Berry extracts from muscadine genotypes were investigated for total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), antioxidant capacity, and anticancer effects using breast cancer cell lines, representing Caucasians and African Americans. RESULTS: The antioxidant activity was associated with high TPC content. Extracts showed cytotoxicity up to 78.6% in Caucasians and 90.7% in African American cells, with an association with high antioxidant capacity. There was a strong correlation between TPC and anticancer/antioxidant activities. CONCLUSION: The anticancer and antioxidant effects of muscadine grapes are attributed to the TPC of extracts, which showed a stronger positive correlation with growth inhibition of African American breast cancer cells compared to Caucasians.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Vitis/química , Afro-Americanos/genética , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Feminino , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Frutas/química , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
19.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1155: 185-196, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468397

RESUMO

In the present study, we evaluated the antioxidant and anti-stress activities of taurine in electric foot-shock stress model rats. Taurine supplementation markedly increased the hepatic glutathione (GSH) levels, compared to the levels in the stress group. In addition, activities of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were improved in the taurine-treated group. Plasma cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) levels were significantly reduced in the taurine-supplemented group compared to those in the stress group. In contrast, the levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were markedly increased in the taurine or betaine-treated group compared to those in the stress group. It may be concluded that taurine produces beneficial effects in the form of antioxidant status and biochemical alterations in foot-shock-induced acute stress in rats.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico , Taurina/farmacologia , Animais , Catalase/metabolismo , Sulfato de Desidroepiandrosterona/sangue , Estimulação Elétrica , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Ácido Hidroxi-Indolacético/sangue , Fígado/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Serotonina/sangue
20.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1155: 463-470, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468423

RESUMO

We previously reported that taurine treatment inhibited arsenic (As)-induced apoptosis in the liver of mice. This study was designed to explore the effect of taurine on liver function and its underlying mechanism in As-exposed mice. Mice were randomly divided into 3 groups, ten mice in each group. Group 1, control group, only orally received drinking water alone. Group 2, As intoxication group, was exposed to 4 mg/L As2O3 via drinking water for 60 days. Group 3, taurine protection group, was treated with 4 mg/L As2O3 and 150 mg/kg both. Taurine administration significantly revered the increases of alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) activities in serum. The decrease of glutathione (GSH) was inhibited with taurine treatment in the liver of As-exposed mice. At the same time, taurine significantly inhihibited As-induced enhancement of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the liver. Here we show that taurine protective effect on liver function in As-exposed mice maybe involve lipid peroxidation.


Assuntos
Arsênico/toxicidade , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Oxidativo , Taurina/farmacologia , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Suplementos Nutricionais , Glutationa/análise , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Malondialdeído/análise , Camundongos , Distribuição Aleatória
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