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1.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 128: 112320, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474871

RESUMO

This study aimed to fabricate cinnamon essential oil (CO)-laden 45S5 bioactive glass (BG)/soy protein (SP) scaffolds exhibiting antioxidant and antibacterial activity. In this regard, 45S5 BG-based scaffolds were produced by the foam replica method, and subsequently the scaffolds were coated with various concentrations of CO (2.5, 5 and 7 (v/v) %) incorporated SP solution. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed that the CO-laden SP effectively attached to the 45S5 BG scaffold struts. The presence of 45S5 BG, SP and CO was confirmed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Compressive strength results indicated that SP based coatings improved the scaffolds' mechanical properties compared to uncoated BG scaffolds. The loading efficiency and releasing behaviour of the different CO concentrations were tested by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The results showed that CO incorporated scaffolds have controlled releasing behaviour over seven days. Furthermore, the coating on the scaffold surfaces slightly retarded, but it did not inhibit, the in vitro bioactivity of the scaffolds. Moreover, the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of CO was studied. The free radical scavenging activity measured by DPPH was 5 ± 1, 41 ± 3, 44 ± 1 and 43 ± 1 % for BGSP, CO2.5, CO5 and CO7, respectively. The antioxidant activity was thus enhanced by incorporating CO. Agar diffusion and colony counting results indicated that the incorporation of CO increased the antibacterial activity of scaffolds against S. aureus and E. coli. In addition, cytotoxicity of the scaffolds was investigated using MG-63 osteoblast-like cells. The results showed that the BG-SP scaffold was non-toxic under the investigated conditions, whereas dose-dependent toxicity was observed in CO-laden scaffolds. Considered together, the developed phytotherapeutic agent laden 45S5 BG-based scaffolds are promising for bone tissue engineering exhibiting capability to combat bone infections and to protect against oxidative stress damage.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Óleos Voláteis , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cerâmica , Cinnamomum zeylanicum , Escherichia coli , Vidro , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Proteínas de Soja , Staphylococcus aureus , Engenharia Tecidual , Tecidos Suporte
2.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 128: 112338, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474889

RESUMO

The nucleation, growth and aggregation of calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals and the oxidative damage of renal tubular epithelial cells are the key factors to induce kidney stones. In this study, degraded Porphyra yezoensis polysaccharide (PYP0) with 14.14% sulfate group (-OSO3-) content was modified via the sulfur trioxide-pyridine method to obtain three kinds of sulfated P. yezoensis polysaccharides (PYPs), namely, PYPS1, PYPS2, and PYPS3, with -OSO3- group contents of 17.11%, 20.28%, and 27.14% respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, 1H NMR, and 13C NMR analyses showed that the -OSO3- groups replaced the hydroxyl groups at the C2, C4, and C6 positions on (1 â†’ 3)-linked ß-D-galactose, the basic structural skeleton unit of PYP0. The antioxidant activity of the PYPSs increased after sulfation, and their scavenging capacity for OH and DPPH free radicals was enhanced with the increase in their -OSO3- group content. Calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystal growth experiments showed that sulfated PYPs promoted the conversion of the thermodynamically stable and sharp CaOx monohydrate (COM) crystals into the thermodynamically unstable and round CaOx dihydrate crystals. With the increase in the -OSO3- group content of the polysaccharides, the concentration of soluble Ca2+ ions in the supernatant increased and the amount of CaOx precipitate decreased. PYPs were nontoxic to human kidney proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2) and could protect HK-2 from oxidative damage caused by nano-COM and reduce the level of reactive oxygen species in cells. PYPS3, which had the highest degree of sulfation, had the best protective capability. The results of this work showed that sulfation improved the biological activity of PYPs. This study could provide inspiration for the development of new drugs for the prevention and treatment of kidney stones.


Assuntos
Oxalato de Cálcio , Porphyra , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cristalização , Humanos , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Sulfatos
3.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(16): 4069-4082, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467716

RESUMO

Trigonella foenum-graecum is an annual plant of the genus Trigonella in the Leguminosae family. It is widely distributed in China and has a long history of application. According to phytochemistry research, the seeds, stem, and leaves of this herb contain not only a variety of bioactive ingredients, including alkaloids, saponins, polysaccharides, flavonoids, and phenols, but also abundant nutrients such as unsaturated fatty acids and amino acids and various trace elements. Pharmacological studies have shown that both the extract of T. foenum-graecum and its chemical constituents exhibit hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, antitumor, antioxidative, antimicro-bial, and hepatoprotective activities. This paper reviews the research progress on the chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of T. foenum-graecum, which may contribute to further development, application, and clinical research of this herb.


Assuntos
Trigonella , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sementes
4.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500838

RESUMO

Phenolic acids comprise a class of phytochemical compounds that can be extracted from various plant sources and are well known for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. A few of the most common naturally occurring phenolic acids (i.e., caffeic, carnosic, ferulic, gallic, p-coumaric, rosmarinic, vanillic) have been identified as ingredients of edible botanicals (thyme, oregano, rosemary, sage, mint, etc.). Over the last decade, clinical research has focused on a number of in vitro (in human cells) and in vivo (animal) studies aimed at exploring the health protective effects of phenolic acids against the most severe human diseases. In this review paper, the authors first report on the main structural features of phenolic acids, their most important natural sources and their extraction techniques. Subsequently, the main target of this analysis is to provide an overview of the most recent clinical studies on phenolic acids that investigate their health effects against a range of severe pathologic conditions (e.g., cancer, cardiovascular diseases, hepatotoxicity, neurotoxicity, and viral infections-including coronaviruses-based ones).


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cinamatos/farmacologia , Hidroxibenzoatos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Cinamatos/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Hidroxibenzoatos/uso terapêutico , Hepatopatias/diagnóstico , Hepatopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Virulence ; 12(1): 2214-2227, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34494942

RESUMO

An oral antiviral against SARS-CoV-2 that also attenuates inflammatory instigators of severe COVID-19 is not available to date. Herein, we show that the apoA-I mimetic peptide 4 F inhibits Spike mediated viral entry and has antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 in human lung epithelial Calu3 and Vero-E6 cells. In SARS-CoV-2 infected Calu3 cells, 4 F upregulated inducers of the interferon pathway such as MX-1 and Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and downregulated mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mito-ROS) and CD147, a host protein that mediates viral entry. 4 F also reduced associated cellular apoptosis and secretion of IL-6 in both SARS-CoV-2 infected Vero-E6 and Calu3 cells. Thus, 4 F attenuates in vitro SARS-CoV-2 replication, associated apoptosis in epithelial cells and secretion of IL-6, a major cytokine related to COVID-19 morbidity. Given established safety of 4 F in humans, clinical studies are warranted to establish 4 F as therapy for COVID-19.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Peptídeos/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Basigina/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais , Proteoglicanas de Heparan Sulfato/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação , Interferons/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Ligação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
J Med Food ; 24(9): 997-1009, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524027

RESUMO

Oxidative stress has been demonstrated to be associated with numerous aging-related diseases. Ethyl acetate fraction of Abelmoschus manihot (L.) Medic (EA) had been reported to possess strong radical-scavenging activity due to its rich content of flavonoids. This work aimed to determine the protective effects of EA against oxidative injuries in vivo and in vitro, as well as to explore the relevant mechanisms behind these effects. Pretreatment with EA significantly elevated cell viability of H2O2-induced HepG2 cells, reduced the reactive oxygen species level, decreased apoptotic cells, and inhibited activities of caspase 3/9. Meanwhile, EA pretreatment elevated the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), while reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) generation and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release dose-dependently. In addition, EA modulated key marker genes expression of antioxidation and apoptosis-related signaling pathways at the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels. In the animal studies, EA also significantly enhanced the antioxidant activity and reduced MDA generation in serum, liver, and brain of the D-galactose (D-gal)-induced mice. Furthermore, the histological analysis indicated that EA effectively alleviated liver and brain injury of mice induced by D-gal, dose-dependently. EA as a potential antioxidant agent promoted health and reduced the risk of aging-associated diseases.


Assuntos
Abelmoschus , Acetatos , Envelhecimento , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Flores , Galactose , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Malondialdeído , Camundongos , Estresse Oxidativo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
7.
Angiol Sosud Khir ; 27(3): 8-15, 2021.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34528583

RESUMO

AIM: This study was aimed at determining Bcl-2 and Bax proteins expression before and after reconstructive-repairing operations in patients with atherosclerosis obliterans of lower extremities and at assessing the effect of an antioxidant (vitamin E at a dose of 100 mg once daily for 1 month after surgery) on the dynamics of changes of Bcl-2 and Bax proteins in the postoperative period. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included a total of 60 patients with stage III-IV lower limb atherosclerosis obliterans. All patients underwent reconstructive-repairing operations on the arteries of the aortofemoral segment. After surgery the patients were divided into two groups. Group A included 30 patients who during 1 month received additionally to basic therapy vitamin E at a daily dose of 100 mg. Group B was composed of 30 patients receiving basic therapy alone according to the National guidelines of managing patients with peripheral artery disease. All patients before, on POD 1, and 1 month after surgery were subjected to venous blood test aimed at determining Bcl-2 and Bax apoptosis proteins expression by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: In patients of groups A and B, the baseline level of Bcl-2 protein (4.75 and 4.2 ng/ml, respectively) was comparable with that in apparently healthy volunteers (5.3 ng/ml). The baseline levels of Bax protein in patients of the operated groups (26.9 and 26.0 ng/ml, respectively) were increased compared with the values in healthy volunteers (16.5 ng/ml). On POD 1 there was increased expression of Bax protein in Group A and B patients to 39.4 and 30.2 ng/ml, respectively. One month after surgery, Group B patients demonstrated a decrease in the Bcl-2 values below the baseline level - 1.1 ng/ml (p=0.003), with the Bax level continuing to increase - 36 ng/ml (p=0.004). In turn, Group A patients after 1 month were found to have increased levels of the Bcl-2 protein - 5.75 ng/ml, with the Bax level returning to the baseline values - 27.4 ng/ml. CONCLUSION: In stage III and IV lower limb obliterating atherosclerosis, the level of the Bax proapoptoric protein was higher than that in healthy volunteers. On POD 1, there occurred increased expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax and activation of apoptosis markers. On the background of using vitamin E at a dose of 100 mg once daily for 1 month, there was a decrease in level of the Bax propapoptotic protein (p=0.003) and an increase in level of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein level (p=0.0007).


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Aterosclerose , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Apoptose , Artérias , Humanos , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(36): 10606-10616, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482683

RESUMO

We previously identified peptides derived from round scad as potential Nrf2 activators. However, the neuroprotection of these peptides is still unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effect of WCPFSRSF against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity, and the memory-improving effects of WCPFSRSF in mice were also explored. Results showed that WCPFSRSF ameliorated oxidative stress by improving the activities of antioxidant enzymes and promoting the Nrf2-mediated endogenous defense system. Moreover, there is an interaction between the up-regulation of Nrf2 and the down-regulation of NFκB induced by the peptide, which was related to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and could be abolished by the Akt inhibitor LY294002. Further analysis demonstrated that WCPFSRSF may act as a radical scavenger and Nrf2 activator. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects might be related to the Cys and Trp in WCPFSRSF. Moreover, WCPFSRSF could improve spatial memory impairment in sleep-deprived mice. Thus, this work provided evidence for WCPFSRSF as a potential candidate against neurotoxicity and memory deficits.


Assuntos
Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Camundongos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Neuroproteção , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Transdução de Sinais
9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4860, 2021 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34381026

RESUMO

Cancer metabolism is rewired to support cell survival in response to intrinsic and environmental stressors. Identification of strategies to target these adaptions is an area of active research. We previously described a cytosolic aspartate aminotransaminase (GOT1)-driven pathway in pancreatic cancer used to maintain redox balance. Here, we sought to identify metabolic dependencies following GOT1 inhibition to exploit this feature of pancreatic cancer and to provide additional insight into regulation of redox metabolism. Using pharmacological methods, we identify cysteine, glutathione, and lipid antioxidant function as metabolic vulnerabilities following GOT1 withdrawal. We demonstrate that targeting any of these pathways triggers ferroptosis, an oxidative, iron-dependent form of cell death, in GOT1 knockdown cells. Mechanistically, we reveal that GOT1 inhibition represses mitochondrial metabolism and promotes a catabolic state. Consequently, we find that this enhances labile iron availability through autophagy, which potentiates the activity of ferroptotic stimuli. Overall, our study identifies a biochemical connection between GOT1, iron regulation, and ferroptosis.


Assuntos
Aspartato Aminotransferase Citoplasmática/antagonistas & inibidores , Ferroptose , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Aspartato Aminotransferase Citoplasmática/genética , Aspartato Aminotransferase Citoplasmática/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cistina/metabolismo , Ferroptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa/biossíntese , Humanos , Ferro/metabolismo , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia
10.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361562

RESUMO

Fruit used in the common human diet in general, and kiwifruit and persimmon particularly, displays health properties in the prevention of heart disease. This study describes a combination of bioactivity, multivariate data analyses and fluorescence measurements for the differentiating of kiwifruit and persimmon, their quenching and antioxidant properties. The metabolic differences are shown, as well in the results of bioactivities and antioxidant capacities determined by ABTS, FRAP, CUPRAC and DPPH assays. To complement the bioactivity of these fruits, the quenching properties between extracted polyphenols and human serum proteins were determined by 3D-fluorescence spectroscopy studies. These properties of the extracted polyphenols in interaction with the main serum proteins in the human metabolism (human serum albumin (HSA), α-ß-globulin (α-ß G) and fibrinogen (Fgn)), showed that kiwifruit was more reactive than persimmon. There was a direct correlation between the quenching properties of the polyphenols of the investigated fruits with serum human proteins, their relative quantification and bioactivity. The results of metabolites and fluorescence quenching show that these fruits possess multiple properties that have a great potential to be used in industry with emphasis on the formulation of functional foods and in the pharmaceutical industry. Based on the quenching properties of human serum proteins with polyphenols and recent reports in vivo on human studies, we hypothesize that HSA, α-ß G and Fgn will be predictors of coronary artery disease (CAD).


Assuntos
Actinidia/química , Antioxidantes/química , Diospyros/química , Frutas/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Humanos , Polifenóis/farmacologia
11.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361848

RESUMO

The industrial processing of crude propolis generates residues. Essential oils (EOs) from propolis residues could be a potential source of natural bioactive compounds to replace antibiotics and synthetic antioxidants in pig production. In this study, we determined the antibacterial/antioxidant activity of EOs from crude organic propolis (EOP) and from propolis residues, moist residue (EOMR), and dried residue (EODR), and further elucidated their chemical composition. The EOs were extracted by hydrodistillation, and their volatile profile was tentatively identified by GC-MS. All EOs had an antibacterial effect on Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus plantarum as they caused disturbances on the growth kinetics of both bacteria. However, EODR had more selective antibacterial activity, as it caused a higher reduction in the maximal culture density (D) of E. coli (86.7%) than L. plantarum (46.9%). EODR exhibited mild antioxidant activity, whereas EOMR showed the highest antioxidant activity (ABTS = 0.90 µmol TE/mg, FRAP = 463.97 µmol Fe2+/mg) and phenolic content (58.41 mg GAE/g). Each EO had a different chemical composition, but α-pinene and ß-pinene were the major compounds detected in the samples. Interestingly, specific minor compounds were detected in a higher relative amount in EOMR and EODR as compared to EOP. Therefore, these minor compounds are most likely responsible for the biological properties of EODR and EOMR. Collectively, our findings suggest that the EOs from propolis residues could be resourcefully used as natural antibacterial/antioxidant additives in pig production.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Antioxidantes , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lactobacillus plantarum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óleos Voláteis , Própole/química , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445416

RESUMO

The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potentials of polyphenols contained in Gynura procumbens (GP) extract were systematically analyzed. Polyphenols in GP were analyzed for nine peaks using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) combined with mass spectrometry (MS), and quantitatively determined through each standard. A total of nine polyphenolic compounds were identified in the samples and their MS data were tabulated. To determine the potential of bioactive ingredients targeting DPPH and COX-2, we analyzed them by ultrafiltration combined with LC. The results identified the major compounds exhibiting binding affinity for DPPH and COX-2. Caffeic acid, kynurenic acid, and chlorogenic acid showed excellent binding affinity to DPPH and COX-2, suggesting that they can be considered as major active compounds. Additionally, the anti-inflammatory effect of GP was confirmed in vitro. This study will not only be used to provide basic data for the application of GP to the food and pharmaceutical industries, but will also provide information on effective screening methods for other medicinal plants.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Asteraceae/química , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Polifenóis/análise , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Compostos de Bifenilo/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Humanos , Ligantes , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Espectrometria de Massas , Camundongos , Picratos/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Células RAW 264.7
13.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371842

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible protective effects of a garlic hydroalcoholic extract on the burden of oxidative stress and inflammation occurring on mouse heart specimens exposed to E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which is a well-established inflammatory stimulus. Headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME/GC-MS) technique was applied to determine the volatile fraction of the garlic powder, and the HS-SPME conditions were optimized for each of the most representative classes of compounds. CIEL*a*b* colorimetric analyses were performed on the powder sample at the time of delivery, after four and after eight months of storage at room temperature in the dark, to evaluate the color changing. Freshly prepared hydroalcoholic extract was also evaluated in its color character. Furthermore, the hydroalcoholic extract was analyzed through GC-MS. The extract was found to be able to significantly inhibit LPS-induced prostaglandin (PG) E2 and 8-iso-PGF2α levels, as well as mRNA levels of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, interleukin (IL)-6, and nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB), in heart specimens. Concluding, our findings showed that the garlic hydroalcoholic extract exhibited cardioprotective effects on multiple inflammatory and oxidative stress pathways.


Assuntos
Cardiotônicos/farmacologia , Alho/química , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Camundongos , Microextração em Fase Sólida
14.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371951

RESUMO

Diabetic retinopathy, which was primarily regarded as a microvascular disease, is the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. With obesity at epidemic proportions, diabetes-related ocular problems are exponentially increasing in the developed world. Oxidative stress due to hyperglycemic states and its associated inflammation is one of the pathological mechanisms which leads to depletion of endogenous antioxidants in retina in a diabetic patient. This contributes to a cascade of events that finally leads to retinal neurodegeneration and irreversible vision loss. The xanthophylls lutein and zeaxanthin are known to promote retinal health, improve visual function in retinal diseases such as age-related macular degeneration that has oxidative damage central in its etiopathogenesis. Thus, it can be hypothesized that dietary supplements with xanthophylls that are potent antioxidants may regenerate the compromised antioxidant capacity as a consequence of the diabetic state, therefore ultimately promoting retinal health and visual improvement. We performed a comprehensive literature review of the National Library of Medicine and Web of Science databases, resulting in 341 publications meeting search criteria, of which, 18 were found eligible for inclusion in this review. Lutein and zeaxanthin demonstrated significant protection against capillary cell degeneration and hyperglycemia-induced changes in retinal vasculature. Observational studies indicate that depletion of xanthophyll carotenoids in the macula may represent a novel feature of DR, specifically in patients with type 2 or poorly managed type 1 diabetes. Meanwhile, early interventional trials with dietary carotenoid supplementation show promise in improving their levels in serum and macular pigments concomitant with benefits in visual performance. These findings provide a strong molecular basis and a line of evidence that suggests carotenoid vitamin therapy may offer enhanced neuroprotective effects with therapeutic potential to function as an adjunct nutraceutical strategy for management of diabetic retinopathy.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/uso terapêutico , Retinopatia Diabética/dietoterapia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Luteína/uso terapêutico , Zeaxantinas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Carotenoides/farmacologia , Humanos , Luteína/farmacologia , Pigmento Macular/análise , Zeaxantinas/farmacologia
15.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 76(3): 340-346, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34342789

RESUMO

Brassica vegetables are common in cuisines worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the antiglycation, methylglyoxal (MG)-trapping action and antioxidant activity of Brassica vegetable extract (BVE) from cabbage, cauliflower and Chinese cabbage. The results showed that cauliflower had the highest phenolic content with the strongest DPPH radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power and oxygen radical absorbance capacity. Seven phenolic acids and three flavonoids were identified by ESI-Q-TOF-MS analysis. The common phenolic compounds in all BVE were sinapic acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid. The BVE (0.5 mg/mL) showed significant inhibitory activity against glucose-induced fluorescent advanced glycation end products (AGEs) formation (34 - 67%) and preserved the amount of protein thiol group (30 - 35%). In addition, all extracts (0.125 - 4 mg/mL) also had the ability to trap MG, a reactive glycating agent. Total phenolic content of BVE exhibited a positive correlation with DPPH radical scavenging activity (r = 0.524) and % inhibition of AGE formation (r = 0.570) and % MG-trapping capacity (r = 0.786). These findings suggest that the BVE possesses antioxidant and antiglycating activity that may help to protect against protein glycation and oxidation mediated by glycation reaction.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Brassica , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Aldeído Pirúvico , Verduras
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361004

RESUMO

This article reviews evidence suggesting that a common mechanism of initiation leads to the development of many prevalent types of cancer. Endogenous estrogens, in the form of catechol estrogen-3,4-quinones, play a central role in this pathway of cancer initiation. The catechol estrogen-3,4-quinones react with specific purine bases in DNA to form depurinating estrogen-DNA adducts that generate apurinic sites. The apurinic sites can then lead to cancer-causing mutations. The process of cancer initiation has been demonstrated using results from test tube reactions, cultured mammalian cells, and human subjects. Increased amounts of estrogen-DNA adducts are found not only in people with several different types of cancer but also in women at high risk for breast cancer, indicating that the formation of adducts is on the pathway to cancer initiation. Two compounds, resveratrol, and N-acetylcysteine, are particularly good at preventing the formation of estrogen-DNA adducts in humans and are, thus, potential cancer-prevention compounds.


Assuntos
Acetilcisteína/farmacologia , Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Estradiol/farmacologia , Estrona/farmacologia , Quinonas/farmacologia , Resveratrol/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Carcinogênese/genética , Adutos de DNA , Estradiol/toxicidade , Estrogênios/farmacologia , Estrogênios/toxicidade , Estrona/toxicidade , Humanos , Quinonas/toxicidade
17.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 76(3): 363-370, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378171

RESUMO

Elicitation is a biotechnological approach to improve phenolic compounds content and antioxidant properties of ready-to-eat functional foods. This study aimed to evaluate the chemical elicitation effects using salicylic acid (SA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in optimized-germination conditions on seedling vigor, phenolic content, and their antioxidant capacities in vitro and serum and urine of Wistar obese rats. Optimized-germination conditions of 26.5 °C and 178 h produced a 64% of germination and a sprout length of 56 mm. Only, the elicitation with H2O2 (20 mM) enhanced the germination (75%) and H2O2 (10 and 20 mM) the sprout length (69 and 59 mm, respectively). In contrast, both elicitors enhanced phenolic contents, being more significant total phenolic compounds content for SA (1 and 2 mM), up to 65.5-73.5%. SA and H2O2 improved total flavonoids content (36.5-64.1%), ABTS (19.3-61.1%), and DPPH capacities (51-86%), depending on SA and H2O2 concentration, compared with non-elicited chia sprouts. The QUENCHER antioxidant capacities of elicited chia sprouts increased up to three times more than extracts capacities, principally Q-ABTS, which could be attributed to phenolic bounds to dietary fiber. Rats fed with a high-fat and fructose diet (HFFD) and supplemented with chia sprouts, especially 1-mM SA, improve the obesity-related oxidative stress through an increase of antioxidant capacities, using DPPH and ABTS test, on serum (70-118%) and urine samples (80-116%). These results suggest that chia sprouts elicited with 1-mM SA are a source of antioxidant compounds that can be used to decrease obesity related oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Ácido Salicílico/farmacologia , Sementes
18.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 76(3): 281-291, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34427882

RESUMO

Ginkgo biloba L. is an ancient plant relic, which is known as a "living fossil", and is widely cultivated in China. This plant with medical potential and health benefits has drawn the attention of researchers. Ginkgo seeds are rich in protein. Ginkgo seed proteins (GSPs) have good functional properties over many other seed proteins, which have the potential to be utilized as food ingredients. Moreover, GSP contains no restricted amino acids and is easy to be separated. Several GSP isolate with various bioactivities, such as antimicrobial and antioxidative activities, have been purified and evaluated for their bioactive potential. In this review, the separation methods and bioactivities of GSP were summarized, physicochemical characteristics and functional properties were comprehensively reviewed and compared with other seed proteins. Some food applications of GSP were also briefly introduced. Besides, some suggestions and prospects were discussed in this review.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Ginkgo biloba , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , China , Sementes
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445461

RESUMO

Tetrahexyldecyl Ascorbate (THDC) is an L-ascorbic acid precursor with improved stability and ability to penetrate the epidermis. The stability and transdermal penetration of THDC, however, may be compromised by the oxidant-rich environment of human skin. In this study, we show that THDC is a poor antioxidant that degrades rapidly when exposed to singlet oxygen. This degradation, however, was prevented by combination with acetyl zingerone (AZ) as a stabilizing antioxidant. As a standalone ingredient, THDC led to unexpected activation of type I interferon signaling, but this pro-inflammatory effect was blunted in the presence of AZ. Moreover, the combination of THDC and AZ increased expression of genes associated with phospholipid homeostasis and keratinocyte differentiation, along with repression of MMP1 and MMP7 expression, inhibition of MMP enzyme activity, and increased production of collagen proteins by dermal fibroblasts. Lastly, whereas THDC alone reduced viability of keratinocytes exposed to oxidative stress, this effect was completely abrogated by the addition of AZ to THDC. These results show that AZ is an effective antioxidant stabilizer of THDC and that combination of these products may improve ascorbic acid delivery. This provides a step towards reaching the full potential of ascorbate as an active ingredient in topical preparations.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Ácido Ascórbico , Colágeno/biossíntese , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Guaiacol/análogos & derivados , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Antioxidantes/farmacocinética , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Ácido Ascórbico/farmacocinética , Ácido Ascórbico/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Guaiacol/farmacocinética , Guaiacol/farmacologia , Humanos
20.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 54(10): e11203, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406208

RESUMO

Phytochemical studies of the species Pavonia glazioviana were performed. Quercetin, kaempferol, acacetin, and trimethoxylated flavonoid compounds (which present biological activity) were isolated. We aimed to evaluate the in silico, in vitro, and ex vivo toxicity of flavonoid 5,7-dihydroxy-3,8,4'-trimethoxy (Pg-1) obtained from P. glazioviana through chemical structure analyses, toxicity assessment, and predictive bioactive properties, using human samples in in vitro tests. In silico analysis suggested that Pg-1 presents a good absorption index for penetrating biological membranes (for oral bioavailability), while also suggesting potential antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic, antioxidant, antineoplastic, anti-inflammatory, anti-hemorrhagic, and apoptosis agonist bioactivities. Assessment of hemolytic and genotoxic effects revealed low hemolysis rates in red blood cells with no cellular toxicity in oral mucosa cells. The reduced cytotoxic activity suggested the safety of the concentrations used (500-1000 µg/mL), and demonstrated the varied interactions of Pg-1 with the analyzed cells. The data obtained in the present study suggested potential therapeutic application, and the non-toxic profile indicated viability for future studies.


Assuntos
Flavonoides , Extratos Vegetais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Apoptose , Simulação por Computador , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Humanos
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