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1.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 158: 149-155, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378351

RESUMO

Induced resistance is an effective measure for controlling plant diseases by utilizing the natural defense of the host and meets the strategic needs of pesticide application and safety for agricultural products worldwide. Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide (GLP), which is the main active molecule of G. lucidum, has been widely used in functional food and clinical medicine. However, there are few reports of the use of GLP for the prevention and control of plant diseases. The purpose of this study is to explore the effect of GLP and its mechanism of inducing plant resistance. In this study, we found that GLP spray and irrigation root treatments can promote growth in cotton. After soaking in GLP, theseedling height and cotton fusarium wilt resistance both increased to some extent, effects that were dose dependent. After treatment of cotton with GLP, the activities of peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in leaves increased significantly, whereas the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) decreased. In addition, QRT-PCR results showed significantly increased relative expression of genes related to the jasmonic acid pathway in cotton. Therefore, we speculate that GLP can induce plant resistance by stimulating the jasmonate pathway.


Assuntos
Fusarium/efeitos dos fármacos , Gossypium/microbiologia , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Reishi/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Gossypium/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Polissacarídeos/química , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
2.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(68): 10142-10145, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389424

RESUMO

Hydrogen sulfide, an endogenous signalling molecule, is central to several pathophysiological processes in mammalian systems. It scavenges reactive oxygen species and is known to ameliorate dopaminergic neuronal degeneration in neurotoxin-induced Parkinson's disease models. The rapid volatilization of H2S from spontaneously releasing sulfide salts being a challenge, we describe peptide conjugates which exhibit tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine mediated "slow and sustained" H2S release. These conjugates reduced hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress and significantly increased dopamine levels in transgenic C. elegans.


Assuntos
Dopamina/metabolismo , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Tionas/farmacologia , Tiofenos/farmacologia , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Anti-Inflamatórios/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Oxirredução , Peptídeos/síntese química , Peptídeos/química , Fosfinas/química , Pró-Fármacos/síntese química , Pró-Fármacos/química , Pró-Fármacos/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Tionas/síntese química , Tionas/química , Tiofenos/síntese química , Tiofenos/química , alfa-Sinucleína/genética
3.
Biomed Khim ; 65(3): 165-179, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31258141

RESUMO

Monocytes and macrophages play a key role in the development of inflammation: under the action of lipopolysaccharides (LPS), absorbed from the intestine, monocytes and macrophages form reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cytokines, this leads to the development of oxidative stress, inflammation and/or apoptosis in all types of tissues. In the cells LPS induce an "internal" TLR4-mediated MAP-kinase inflammatory signaling pathway and cytokines through the superfamily of tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) and the "death domain" (DD) initiate an "external" caspase apoptosis cascade or necrosis activation that causes necroptosis. Many of the proteins involved in intracellular signaling cascades (MYD88, ASK1, IKKa/b, NF-kB, AP-1) are redox-sensitive and their activity is regulated by antioxidants thioredoxin, glutaredoxin, nitroredoxin, and glutathione. Oxidation of these signaling proteins induced by ROS enhances the development of inflammation and apoptosis, and their reduction with antioxidants, on the contrary, stabilizes the signaling cascades speed, preventing the vicious circle of oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis that follows it. Antioxidant (AO) enzymes thioredoxin reductase (TRXR), glutaredoxin reductase (GLRXR), glutathione reductase (GR) are required for reduction of non-enzymatic antioxidants (thioredoxin, glutaredoxin, nitroredoxin, glutathione), and AO enzymes (SOD, catalase, GPX) are required for ROS deactivation. The key AO enzymes (TRXR and GPX) are selenium-dependent; therefore selenium deficiency leads to a decrease in the body's antioxidant defense, the development of oxidative stress, inflammation, and/or apoptosis in various cell types. Nrf2-Keap1 signaling pathway activated by selenium deficiency and/or oxidative stress is necessary to restore redox homeostasis in the cell. In addition, expression of some genes is changed with selenium deficiency. Consequently, growth and proliferation of cells, their movement, development, death, and survival, as well as the interaction between cells, the redox regulation of intracellular signaling cascades of inflammation and apoptosis, depend on the selenium status of the body. Prophylactic administration of selenium-containing preparations (natural and synthetic (organic and inorganic)) is able to normalize the activity of AO enzymes and the general status of the body. Organic selenium compounds have a high bioavailability and, depending on their concentration, can act both as selenium donors to prevent selenium deficiency and as antitumor drugs due to their toxicity and participation in the regulation of signaling pathways of apoptosis. Known selenorganic compounds diphenyldiselenide and ethaselen share similarity with the Russian organo selenium compound, diacetophenonylselenide (DAPS-25), which serves as a source of bioavailable selenium, exhibits a wide range of biological activity, including antioxidant activity, that governs cell redox balance, inflammation and apoptosis regulation.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Inflamação/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Compostos de Selênio/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Glutationa Redutase/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Selênio , Transdução de Sinais , Tiorredoxina Dissulfeto Redutase/metabolismo
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(31): 8609-8616, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31314514

RESUMO

Quercetin (QUE)-loaded nanoparticles (QCG-NPs) were fabricated by ionic gelation between chitosan (CS) and gum arabic (GA) at pH 3.5. At constant CS (0.5 mg/mL) and QUE (60 µM) concentrations, QCG-NPs (260-490 nm) were prepared uniformly with 0.8-2.2 mg/mL GA and exhibited high QUE encapsulation efficiency (94.8-98.0%) and sustained QUE release (4.42-8.89% after 8 h). Because of the electrostatic interaction between QCG-NPs and the mucin layer, in vitro mucin and cell adhesion of QUE were significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced in QCG-NPs (0.44-0.48 mg/mL and 31.7-78.5%), respectively, and the adhesiveness was significantly (p < 0.05) increased with an increase of GA. Because particle size and adhesion properties affect the surface area and retention time of QCG-NPs at the absorption site, cell permeation of QUE through simple diffusion by QCG-NPs exhibited the same tendency as the adhesion results. These data were verified in cellular antioxidant and in vivo ferric reducing abilities of plasma assays that evaluated the antioxidant activities of QUE absorbed into an intestinal cell model and rat blood, respectively. The results provide a better understanding of QCG-NP absorption and indicate that QCG-NPs with mucoadhesion properties can be an effective delivery system for improving QUE absorption.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Quitosana/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/química , Quercetina/química , Quercetina/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Células CACO-2 , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/instrumentação , Humanos , Tamanho da Partícula , Quercetina/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
5.
Zool Res ; 40(4): 305-316, 2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310064

RESUMO

Ambient temperature is an important factor influencing many physiological processes, including antioxidant defense and immunity. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that antioxidant defense and immunity are suppressed by high and low temperature treatment in Brandt's voles (Lasiopodomys brandtii). Thirty male voles were randomly assigned into different temperature groups (4, 23, and 32 °C, n=10 for each group), with the treatment course lasting for 27 d. Results showed that low temperature increased gross energy intake (GEI) and liver, heart, and kidney mass, but decreased body fat mass and dry carcass mass. With the decline in temperature, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration, which is indicative of reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, increased in the liver, decreased in the heart, and was unchanged in the kidney, testis, and small intestine. Lipid peroxidation indicated by malonaldehyde (MDA) content in the liver, heart, kidney, testis, and small intestine did not differ among groups, implying that high and low temperature did not cause oxidative damage. Similarly, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) in the five tissues did not respond to low or high temperature, except for elevation of CAT activity in the testis upon cold exposure. Bacteria killing capacity, which is indicative of innate immunity, was nearly suppressed in the 4 °C group in contrast to the 23 °C group, whereas spleen mass and white blood cells were unaffected by temperature treatment. The levels of testosterone, but not corticosterone, were influenced by temperature treatment, though neither were correlated with innate immunity, H2O2 and MDA levels, or SOD, CAT, and T-AOC activity in any detected tissues. Overall, these results showed that temperature had different influences on oxidative stress, antioxidant enzymes, and immunity, which depended on the tissues and parameters tested. Up-regulation or maintenance of antioxidant defense might be an important mechanism for voles to survive highly variable environmental temperatures.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Arvicolinae/imunologia , Arvicolinae/fisiologia , Imunidade Inata , Temperatura Ambiente , Animais , Biomarcadores , Composição Corporal , Catalase/metabolismo , Corticosterona/sangue , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Testosterona/sangue
6.
Gene ; 712: 143966, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279711

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute paracetamol (PCM) toxicity is a clinical problem; can result in a serious liver injury that finally may progress to acute liver failure. Curcumin (CUR) is a prevalent natural compound that can maintain prooxidant/antioxidant balance and thus can help in liver protection; also, Silymarin (SL) is a traditional antioxidant herb, used to treat liver disorders through scavenging free radicals. This study aimed to illustrate the histological, biochemical and molecular changes induced by acute PCM overdose on rats' liver to elucidate the effectiveness of CUR compared to SL in alleviating such changes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Wister Albino rats were divided into 6 groups each comprising 23 rats: control group, curcumin (CUR) treated group received (100 mg CUR/ kg), silymarin treated group received (100 mg SL/kg) for 7 successive days. Paracetamol (PCM) exposed group administered a single dose of PCM (200 mg/kg orally on 8th day). PCM + CUR group and PCM + SL group pretreated with CUR and SL respectively for 7 days then received single PCM dose (200 mg/kg) on the 8th day. Blood and liver tissues were collected for biochemical, histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses using anti-p53 antibody. In addition, real time polymerase chain reaction (RT- PCR) was used to measure Bax, bcl2 and Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR γ) mRNA expression levels. RESULTS: In the paracetamol overdose group, the liver architecture showed necrotic changes, hydropic degeneration, congestion and dilatation of central veins. This hepatocellular damage was confirmed by a significant increase of AST, ALT levels and by an apparent increase in the number of p53 stained cells. PCM toxicity showed significant elevation of total oxidant status (TOS), oxidant status index (OSI) and decreased total antioxidant capacity (TAC) compared to controls (p < 0.001). Gene expression analysis showed that PCM caused an elevation of bcl2 and a reduction of both Bax and PPARγ mRNA expression. The histological alternation in the liver architecture was markedly improved in (PCM + CUR) group compared to (PCM+ SL) group, with an obvious decrease in the number of P53 stained cells. CUR pretreatment inhibited the elevation of TOS and OSI as well as the reduction of TAC caused by PCM toxicity compared to (PCM + SL) group. CONCLUSION: Both SL and CUR pretreatment prevented the toxic effects of PCM, but CUR is more effective than SL in ameliorating acute PCM induced hepatotoxicity.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen/toxicidade , Curcumina/farmacologia , Falência Hepática Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Silimarina/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Apoptose , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Oxidantes/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
7.
Gene ; 712: 143945, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279712

RESUMO

Reactive oxygen species, generated in all the aerobic organisms, can cause oxidative stress. Excessive ROS may become a source of carcinogen due to DNA damage, lipid peroxidation, cell injury, and cell death. In order to prevent these adverse effects of ROS, antioxidant enzymes have evolved in aerobic organisms. Catalase is a major antioxidant enzyme that breaks down excessive H2O2 and inhibits apoptotic cell death. Here we molecularly characterized catalase from red-lip mullet. The cDNA sequence of LhCAT consists of an ORF of 1545 bp, which encodes a 527 amino acid peptide (~60 kDa). Based on bioinformatics analysis, LhCAT possesses a domain architecture characteristic of catalases, including a catalase proximal active site signature and a catalase proximal heme-ligand signature. It also has heme and NADPH binding sites homologous to previously described catalases. Pairwise alignment with its homologs revealed that LhCAT shares 95.1% identity with Oplegnathus fasciatus catalase and 97.4% similarity with Sparus aurata catalase. An uprooted phylogenetic tree demonstrated that LhCAT resides in a clade with catalases from other teleosts and exhibits a close relationship with Oplegnathus fasciatus catalase. Among twelve tissue types, we observed the highest LhCAT mRNA expression in the liver, followed by blood. Immune challenge by Lactococcus garvieae, or Poly I:C in the blood or spleen resulted in up-regulation at 24 h post injection. We also tested the antioxidant activity of recombinant LhCAT against hydrogen peroxide and found its optimal concentration to be 12.5 µg/mL. Collectively, these data suggested that LhCAT play an important role in antioxidant defense and immune response of red-lip mullet.


Assuntos
Catalase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Smegmamorpha , Adjuvantes Imunológicos , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Catalase/genética , DNA Complementar/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Heme/química , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Sistema Imunitário , Ligantes , Fígado/enzimologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Filogenia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima
8.
Br Poult Sci ; 60(3): 279-287, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146535

RESUMO

1. This study analysed whether in ovo injection of ascorbic acid before incubation and at high incubation temperature influenced blood characteristics and performance in broilers reared in different temperature conditions. 2. A total of 3,000 fertile eggs from broiler breeders (Cobb®) were randomly divided into three incubation treatments: no ascorbic acid injection and egg incubation at 37.5°C (control); no ascorbic acid injection and egg incubation at 39°C; in ovo ascorbic acid injection prior to incubation (6 µg AA/100 µl water) and egg incubation at 39°C. 3. Male chicks hatched from the three incubation treatments were submitted to three distinct rearing temperatures (control, cold and hot) from the third week of age onwards (540 chicks were divided into 6 treatments with 5 replicates per treatment). 4. Measurements at 42 d showed that, after egg incubation at 39°C, the haematocrit, haemoglobin values, ionised calcium and glucose concentrations were increased and base excess values were reduced. However, in ovo injection of ascorbic acid normalised all these parameters. 5. Partial CO2 and O2 pressure were higher with increased rearing temperature. Blood pH was lower when eggs were incubated at 39°C and injected with ascorbic acid. In ovo injection of ascorbic acid induced leucocytosis due to lymphocytosis and heterophilia, restored basophils rate and led to monocytopoenia. Leucocytosis was triggered by hot rearing temperature due to lymphocytosis, eosinophilia and heterophilia. 6. The results obtained in this study showed that in ovo injection of ascorbic acid before incubation may serve as a long-term stimulator and modulator of the broiler immune system, and that high incubation temperatures induce adaptations in the electrolytic balance, minimising or avoiding the occurrence of respiratory alkalosis under hot rearing temperature.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Galinhas/metabolismo , Temperatura Alta , Óvulo/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Ácido Ascórbico/administração & dosagem , Análise Química do Sangue , Galinhas/sangue , Testes Hematológicos , Injeções/veterinária , Masculino
9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(25): 7050-7059, 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31240932

RESUMO

This work aimed to investigate the effect of selenium (Se) and irrigation on the grain yield, on the forms of Se, phenols, and carotenes, and on some antioxidant activities of maize ( Zea mays L.) grains. To reach this goal, a 2 year experiment was undertaken. Maize was fertigated with sodium selenite at the rate of 200 g of Se ha-1 and grown under two water regimes. While the irrigation did not show a clear effect on the selected parameters, Se fertigation increased the contents of inorganic and organic Se forms, xanthophyll, and salicylic acid. Furthermore, while Se fertigation decreased the hydroxycinnamic acid content, generally higher antioxidant activities were found in Se-treated grains than in the control. These findings suggest that Se fertigation increases most of the nutraceutical values of maize grains, which therefore might improve human and livestock health and could increase the maize grain shelf life and its byproducts.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Biofortificação/métodos , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Selenito de Sódio/metabolismo , Água/análise , Zea mays/química , Irrigação Agrícola , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Alimentos Fortificados/análise , Sementes/química , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Selenito de Sódio/análise , Solo/química , Água/metabolismo , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/metabolismo
10.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 141: 353-369, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207496

RESUMO

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) - the byproducts of aerobic metabolism - influence numerous aspects of the plant life cycle and environmental response mechanisms. In plants, ROS act like a double-edged sword; they play multiple beneficial roles at low concentrations, whereas at high concentrations ROS and related redox-active compounds cause cellular damage through oxidative stress. To examine the dual role of ROS as harmful oxidants and/or crucial cellular signals, this review elaborates that (i) how plants sense and respond to ROS in various subcellular organelles and (ii) the dynamics of subsequent ROS-induced signaling processes. The recent understanding of crosstalk between various cellular compartments in mediating their redox state spatially and temporally is discussed. Emphasis on the beneficial effects of ROS in maintaining cellular energy homeostasis, regulating diverse cellular functions, and activating acclimation responses in plants exposed to abiotic and biotic stresses are described. The comprehensive view of cellular ROS dynamics covering the breadth and versatility of ROS will contribute to understanding the complexity of apparently contradictory ROS roles in plant physiological responses in less than optimum environments.


Assuntos
Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Estresse Fisiológico , Aclimatação , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Citosol/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Genes de Plantas , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Peroxissomos/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Populus/metabolismo
11.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 141: 415-422, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31229926

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the possible alleviating effect of chitosan on salt-induced growth retardation and oxidative stress and to elucidate whether this effect is linked to activation of mitochondrial respiration on the basis of alternative respiration in maize seedlings. Salt stress significantly reduced root length and plant height in comparison to the control, whereas foliar application of chitosan ameliorated the adverse effect of salinity to a certain degree. Moreover, chitosan resulted in plant growth promotion as compared to unstressed seedlings. The separate applications of chitosan and salt had a stimulatory effect on the activities of antioxidant enzymes; however, combined application of chitosan and salt were more effective than that of chitosan or salt alone. Similarly, mitochondrial total respiration rate (Vt) and alternative respiration capacity (Valt) were increased by separate applications of chitosan and salt; however, the combination of chitosan and salt gave the highest values for these parameters. The highest values of Valt/Vt was recorded at seedlings treated with salt plus chitosan. Similarly, cytochrome respiration capacity was also increased by chitosan in both stress-free and stressed conditions. In addition, AOX1, encoding alternative oxidase, was significantly upregulated by chitosan and/or salt. The maximum transcript level was recorded at seedlings treated with salt plus chitosan. Chitosan also significantly decreased superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide contents and lipid peroxidation level under normal and the stressed conditions. These results suggest that the mitigating effect of chitosan on salt stress is linked to activation of alternative respiration at biochemical and molecular level.


Assuntos
Quitosana/química , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Tolerância ao Sal , Plântula/genética , Zea mays/genética , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Citocromos/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Estresse Oxidativo , Oxirredutases/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , RNA/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Zea mays/enzimologia
12.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 141: 431-445, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238253

RESUMO

S-adenosylmethionine synthetase (SAMS) catalyzes methionine and ATP to generate S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM). In plants, accumulating SAMS genes have been characterized and the majority of them are reported to participate in development and stress response. In this study, two putative SAMS genes (CsSAMS1 and CsSAMS2) were identified in cucumber (Cucumis Sativus L.). They displayed 95% similarity and had a high identity with their homologous of Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum. The qRT-PCR test showed that CsSAMS1 was predominantly expressed in stem, male flower, and young fruit, whereas CsSAMS2 was preferentially accumulated in stem and female flower. And they displayed differential expression profiles under stimuli, including NaCl, ABA, SA, MeJA, drought and low temperature. To elucidate the function of cucumber SAMS, the full-length CDS of CsSAMS1 was cloned, and prokaryotic expression system and transgenic materials were constructed. Expressing CsSAMS1 in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) improved the growth of the engineered strain under salt stress. Overexpression of CsSAMS1 significantly increased MDA content, H2O2 content, and POD activity in transgenic lines under non-stress condition. Under salt stress, however, the MDA content of transgenic lines was lower than that of the wild type, the H2O2 content remained high, the polyamine and ACC synthesis in transgenic lines exhibited a CsSAMS1-expressed dependent way. Taken together, our results suggested that both CsSAMS1 and CsSAMS2 were involved in plant development and stress response, and a proper increase of expression level of CsSAMS1 in plants is benificial to improving salt tolerance.


Assuntos
Cucumis sativus/enzimologia , Cucumis sativus/fisiologia , Metionina Adenosiltransferase/metabolismo , Tolerância ao Sal , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Secas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Metionina Adenosiltransferase/genética , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Poliaminas/química , Sais , Estresse Mecânico , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Tabaco/metabolismo
13.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 141: 466-476, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31252252

RESUMO

The present study was aimed to investigate adaptation in physiology and biochemistry of Solanum lycopersicum seedlings under NaCl (NaCl0; 0.0 g NaCl kg-1 sand, NaCl1; 0.3 g NaCl/kg sand and NaCl2; 0.5 g NaCl/kg sand) stress, simultaneously supplemented with different (deprived; 0 mg/kg sand, LN; 105 mg/kg sand, MN; 210 mg/kg sand and HN; 270 mg/kg sand) levels of nitrogen (N). NaCl at both doses caused significant loss in growth, K+ content, K+/Na+ ratio, total chlorophyll and photosynthetic oxygen evolution. Further, N supplementation influences growth of test seedlings, that attained maximum growth in HN followed by MN, LN and deprived N conditions. N at HN level significantly declined Na+ accumulation in the cell and enhanced level of K+. NaCl treatment enhanced level of oxidative stress biomarkers: superoxide radical (O2•-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), MDA equivalents contents and electrolyte leakage in leaf as well as root despite enhanced activity of SOD, POD, CAT and GST, and enzymes participating in the ascorbate-glutathione cycle (AsA-GSH cycle) viz. APX, DHAR and GR. At the same time, higher contents of total AsA (AsA + DHA) and total GSH (GSH + GSSG), and maintained ratios of AsA/DHA and GSH/GSSG in HN fed seedlings were observed. Overall, the results suggest that HN supplementation was able in alleviating NaCl induced toxicity in test seedlings which was mainly due to the up-regulation of the AsA-GSH cycle, K+ and K+/Na+ ratio, which resulted into better growth performance of HN fed seedlings under NaCl stress while reverse was noticed for LN and deprive N conditions.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Salinidade , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Pigmentação , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Potássio/química , Plântula/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/química
14.
Environ Pollut ; 249: 1011-1018, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146307

RESUMO

Iron fertilizers are worthy to be studied due to alleviate the Fe deficiency. Different forms of iron oxide nanoparticles are selected to better understand possible particle applications as an Fe source for crop plants. In this study, we assessed the different effects of γ-Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 NPs on the physiology and fruit quality of muskmelon plants in a pot experiment for five weeks. Results showed that no increased iron content was found under NPs treatment in root, stem, leaf and fruit, except 400 mg/L Fe3O4 NPs had a higher iron content in muskmelon root. With the extension of NPs exposure, both γ-Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 NPs began to promote plant growth. In addition, γ-Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 NPs could increase chlorophyll content at a certain stage of exposure. Happily, 200 mg/L γ-Fe2O3 NPs and 100, 200 mg/L Fe3O4 NPs significantly increased fruit weight of muskmelon by 9.1%, 9.4% and 11.5%. It is noteworthy that both γ-Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 NPs caused positive effects on VC content, particularly 100 mg/L Fe3O4 NPs increased the VC content by 46.95%. To the best of our knowledge, little research has been done on the effect of nanoparticles on the whole physiological cycle and fruit quality of melon. The assessment of physiology and fruit quality of muskmelon plants in vitro upon γ-Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 NPs exposure could lay a foundation for NPs potential impact at every growth period of muskmelon plants.


Assuntos
Cucumis melo/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Férricos/farmacologia , Óxido Ferroso-Férrico/farmacologia , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Clorofila , Cucumis melo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cucumis melo/fisiologia , Compostos Férricos/química , Óxido Ferroso-Férrico/química , Fertilizantes , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/fisiologia
15.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 197: 111510, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31163288

RESUMO

Treatment of chronic lung infection becomes a great challenge due to the drug resistant bacteria. In this scenario, evolving a new drug based on lipid metal conjugation loaded with potential antibiotic provides better drug delivery. In this study, ciprofloxacin loaded selenium-lipid nanoparticle (CxLSENPs) is produced in a novel route and its antimicrobial properties were tested against clinically important Gram-negative P. aeruginosa. The synthesized CxLSENPs was characterized by biophysical techniques (UV, Fluorescence spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, FTIR, FESEM, HRTEM and Zeta potential). Raman spectra coupled with FTIR spectra confirmed the possible interaction of lipid components in the NPs. HRTEM analysis confirmed the spherical shape of NPs. CxLSENPs recorded greater antibacterial effects on P. aeruginosa. A drastic reduction in the count of P. aeruginosa was observed after treatment with CxLSENPs. In order to further confirm the antibacterial efficiency, the live/dead cell assay was carried out. Live/dead analysis helps us to investigate the viability of bacterial cells. The number of dead bacterial cells was significantly higher in CxLSENPs treated groups when compare to the control. Furthermore, CxLSENPs increased the antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, GPx, CAT and LPO) in mouse and protected the liver damage from bacterial infection. This study concludes that the developed CxLSENPs might be employed as strong antimicrobial and antioxidant agents for treating lung infection or interstitial lung diseases.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Ciprofloxacino/química , Portadores de Fármacos/síntese química , Lipídeos/química , Nanopartículas/química , Selênio/química , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/prevenção & controle , Catalase/metabolismo , Ciprofloxacino/farmacologia , Ciprofloxacino/uso terapêutico , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/microbiologia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolamento & purificação , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
16.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 197: 111538, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31247385

RESUMO

The effects of topically administered snake (Deinagkistrodon acutus) oil and its main fatty acid components on skin photodamage were explored. Epidermal thickness, mice body weight, antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase), inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6), skin histology, collagen content, and metalloproteinase-1 indicators were analyzed. The results show that topical application of both snake oil and its main fatty acids recovered ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation induced antioxidant enzymes depletion, prevented metalloproteinase-1. Snake oil and its main fatty acids suppressed dermal infiltration of inflammatory cells and reduced inflammatory cytokines levels. Notably, there was no significant difference in the antioxidant activity but a significant difference in the anti-inflammatory activity between fatty acids and snake oil under the same dose. Finally, snake oil and its main fatty acids inhibited UVB-induced histological damage such as epidermal thickening, collagen fiber and elastic fiber destruction. Our study demonstrated for the first time in KM mice that snake oil exhibited prominent photoprotection activity by protecting the activity of antioxidant enzymes and inhibiting inflammatory factors, as well as reducing the generation of MMP-1. What's more, the main fatty acids in snake oil play an important role in preventing photo-damage especially in protecting antioxidant enzyme activity.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/química , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Serpentes/metabolismo , Raios Ultravioleta , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Epiderme/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos/química , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Hidroxiprolina/análise , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 1 da Matriz/metabolismo , Camundongos , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/patologia , Pele/efeitos da radiação , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
17.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 132, 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31208410

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nigerian Cannabis sativa (hemp) causes male gonadotoxicity by inducing hyperprolactinemia, down-regulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis, and oxidative stress. Benin republic hemp has been preferred by illicit users in Nigeria but its effect on male fertility is not understood. This study determined and compared the compositions of Benin republic hemp ethanol extract (BHE) and Nigerian hemp. The effects of BHE on semen parameters, reproductive hormones, and anti-oxidant status, and the possibility of bromocriptine (prolactin inhibitor) to abolish hemp-induced toxicities in rats were also investigated. METHODS: Thirty-six male Wistar rats were blindly randomized into 6 oral treatment groups (n = 6 each). Groups I (control) and II received normal saline and bromocriptine (3 mg/kg) respectively. Groups III and IV received 2 mg/kg of BHE alone and in combination with bromocriptine respectively, while groups V and VI received 10 mg/kg BHE alone and in combination with bromocriptine respectively. Comparisons among the groups were done by one-way analysis of variance, followed by post-hoc Tukey multiple comparison test. Statistical significance was considered at p < 0.05. RESULTS: The BHE has no cannabichromene and tetrahydrocannabinol but a very small quantity of cannabinol and higher quantity of fatty acids when compared to Nigerian hemp. Both doses of BHE increased sperm count, morphology and viability but not motility. Co-administration of BHE with bromocriptine lowered sperm count but increased sperm morphology and viability. Bromocriptine and/or BHE caused reduction in the plasma prolactin level, increase in the plasma superoxide dismutase activity, but no significant change in the plasma gonadotropin releasing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone (except for the increase in rats that received bromocriptine+ 10 mg/kg BHE), luteinizing hormone, estradiol, malondialdehyde and glutathione peroxidase. The 10 mg/kg BHE or bromocriptine+BHE (both doses) increased total anti-oxidant capacity and catalase. CONCLUSIONS: The BHE improves semen parameters by reducing plasma prolactin and enhancing plasma anti-oxidant status. Its pro-fertility potential might be associated with its deficiency in the widely known gonadotoxic phytocannabinoids.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Canabinoides/análise , Cannabis/química , Dronabinol/análise , Fármacos para a Fertilidade Masculina/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Prolactina/metabolismo , Sêmen/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Canabinoides/farmacologia , Dronabinol/farmacologia , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos para a Fertilidade Masculina/análise , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Ratos , Sêmen/metabolismo
18.
Environ Pollut ; 251: 961-969, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234263

RESUMO

Phycoremediation technologies significantly contribute to solving serious problems induced by heavy metals accumulation in the aquatic systems. Here we studied the mechanisms underlying Al stress tolerance in two diazotrophic cyanobacterial species, to identify suitable species for Al phycoremediation. Al uptake as well as the physiological and biochemical responses of Anabaena laxa and Nostoc muscorum to 7 days Al exposure at two different concentrations i.e., mild (100 µM) and high dose (200 µM), were investigated. Our results revealed that A. laxa accumulated more Al, and it could acclimatize to long-term exposure of Al stress. Al induced a dose-dependent decrease in photosynthesis and its related parameters e.g., chlorophyll content (Chl a), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) and Ribulose‒1,5‒bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCo) activities. The affect was less pronounced in A. laxa than N. muscorum. Moreover, Al stress significantly increased cellular membrane damage as indicated by induced H2O2, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and NADPH oxidase activity. However, these increases were lower in A. laxa compared to N. muscorum. To mitigate the impact of Al stress, A. laxa induced its antioxidant defense system by increasing polyphenols, flavonoids, tocopherols and glutathione levels as well as peroxidase (POX), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) enzymes activities. On the other hand, the antioxidant increases in N. muscorum were only limited to ascorbate (ASC) cycle. Overall, high biosorption/uptake capacity and efficient antioxidant defense system of A. laxa recommend its feasibility in the treatment of Al contaminated waters/soils.


Assuntos
Alumínio/metabolismo , Anabaena/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Nostoc muscorum/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa Redutase/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidases/metabolismo , Fosfoenolpiruvato Carboxilase/metabolismo , Ribulose-Bifosfato Carboxilase/metabolismo
19.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 181: 224-230, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31195231

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd), as a kind of ubiquitous and highly toxic heavy metal pollutants, has been known to result in immunotoxicity in animals. As a multifunctional bioactivity disaccharide, trehalose (Tre) is characterized by antioxidative, antiapoptotic, and accelerating autophagy. In this study, Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were fed with cadmium chloride (CdCl2) and/or Tre to explore the molecular mechanisms of Tre-protected against spleen injury caused by Cd exposure. Firstly, the results showed that Tre partially recovered splenic pathological changes induced by Cd exposure. Secondly, Tre dramatically declined the level of methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) and elevated the level of total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) to weaken oxidative stress caused by Cd exposure in spleen tissue. Moreover, the results showed that Tre significantly suppressed Cd-induced the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and up-regulated the protein expression of nuclear Nrf2. Thirdly, Tre remarkably reduced the protein expression of sequestosome 1 (p62/SQSTM1) and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3II (LC-3II) to restore autophagy inhibition induced by Cd exposure. Finally, the results of TUNEL and the expression of apoptosis marker proteins showed that Tre significantly inhibited Cd-induced apoptosis in spleen tissue to exert its protective effects. In summary, the results indicated that Tre modulated Nrf2 signaling pathway, which interacted with apoptosis and autophagy to against Cd-induced spleen injury, providing potential therapeutic strategies for the prevention and treatment of Cd-related immune system diseases.


Assuntos
Cloreto de Cádmio/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/antagonistas & inibidores , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Trealose/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Baço/metabolismo , Baço/patologia
20.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 181: 345-352, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202935

RESUMO

Nanomaterials are being used increasingly in various areas such as electronic devices manufacture, medicine, mechanical devices production, and even food industry. Therefore, the evaluation of their toxicity is mandatory. Graphene oxide (GO) has been shown to have both positive as well as negative impact on different crop plants, depending on species, dose, and duration of exposure. The current study evaluated the impact of GO sheets at different concentrations (500, 1000 and 2000 mg/L) on physiological, biochemical and genetic levels to determine the possible toxic action. Wheat caryopses were treated with GO for 48 h and 7 days. The germination rate and roots elongation decreased in a dose-response manner, except the sample treated with GO at a concentration of 1000 mg/L. Mitotic index has ascendant trend; its increase may be due to the accumulation of prophases GO induced significant accumulation of the cells with aberrations, their presence suggests a clastogenic/aneugenic effect of these carbon nanomaterials. Regarding enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant system defence, the activity varied depending on the dose of GO. Thus, chlorophyll a pigments content decreased significantly at high dose (2000 mg/L), while the carotenoid pigments had lower content at 500 mg/L of GO, and no statistical difference encountered in case of chlorophyll b amount. The antioxidant enzyme activity (CAT, POD, and SOD) was higher at low dose of GO, indicating the presence of oxidative stress generated as a response to the GO treatment. Also, the free radical scavenging activity of the polyphenolic compounds was enhanced upon GO exposure. The GO accumulation has been identified by transmission electron microscopy only at plumules level, near the intercellular space.


Assuntos
Grafite/toxicidade , Nanoestruturas/toxicidade , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Clorofila A/metabolismo , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo , Óxidos/toxicidade , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/enzimologia , Plântula/metabolismo , Triticum/enzimologia , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/metabolismo
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